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1

Transformation of Escherichia coli by a specific DNA restriction fragment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific transformation of a rifampicin sensitive strain of Escherichia coli to rifampicin resistance has been performed by a single, defined DNA restriction fragment carrying the genetic information for the ß subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase. In this transformation the transforming genetic character has been substituted for the corresponding recipient gene locus by recombination. The value of the described transformation

Silvia M. Schweitzer; Hans Matzura

1977-01-01

2

DNA Restriction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragment at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents DNA restriction through a series of illustrations of processes involved.

2011-11-25

3

Identification of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in DNA from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

DNAs from 34 mycobactin-dependent isolates of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and 1 isolate of M. paratuberculosis 18 were digested with four restriction endonucleases. Southern hybridization experiments were performed with a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide DNA probe derived from the sequence of IS900, an insertion sequence present in 15 to 20 copies per M. paratuberculosis chromosome. The probe hybridized with DNA from each of the mycobactin-dependent isolates, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms were detected among the isolates with each restriction endonuclease used. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis may permit identification of various strains of M. paratuberculosis, which has not been possible with other techniques. PMID:1979332

Whipple, D; Kapke, P; Vary, C

1990-11-01

4

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

5

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, K.K.

2000-04-04

6

Hypervariable Bkm DNA Loci in a Moth, Ephestia kuehniella : Does Transposition Cause Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism?  

PubMed Central

Bkm sequences, originally isolated from snake satellite DNA, are a component of eukaryote genomes with a preferential location on sex chromosomes. In the Ephestia genome, owing to the presence of only a few Bkm-positive BamHI restriction fragments and to extensive restriction fragment length polymorphisms between and within inbred strains, a genetic crossbreeding analysis was feasible. No sex linkage of Bkm was detected. Instead—depending on the strain—two or three autosomal Bkm DNA loci were identified. All three loci were located on different chromosomes. Fragment length and transmission of fragments was stable in some crosses. In others, changes in fragment length or loss of the Bkm component were observed, probably depending on the source strain of the fragment. The anomalous genetic behaviour is best accounted for by the assumption that Bkm sequences are included in mobile genetic elements. PMID:17246372

Traut, W.

1987-01-01

7

Nondetectability of restriction fragments and independence of DNA fragment sizes within and between loci in RFLP typing of DNA  

SciTech Connect

The authors provide experimental evidence showing that, during the restriction-enzyme digestion of DNA samples, some of the HaeIII-digested DNA fragments are small enough to prevent their reliable sizing on a Southern gel. As a result of such nondetectability of DNA fragments, individuals who show a single-band DNA profile at a VNTR locus may not necessarily be true homozygotes. In a population database, when the presence of such nondetectable alleles is ignored, they show that a pseudodependence of alleles within as well as across loci may occur. Using a known statistical method, under the hypothesis of independence of alleles within loci, they derive an efficient estimate of null allele frequency, which may be subsequently used for testing allelic independence within and across loci. The estimates of null allele frequencies, thus derived, are shown to agree with direct experimental data on the frequencies of HaeIII-null alleles. Incorporation of null alleles into the analysis of the forensic VNTR database suggests that the assumptions of allelic independence within and between loci are appropriate. In contrast, a failure to incorporate the occurrence of null alleles would provide a wrong inference regarding the independence of alleles within and between loci. 47 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Chakraborty, R.; Zhong, Y.; Jin, L. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Budowle, B. (FBI Academy, Quantico, VA (United States))

1994-08-01

8

DNA restriction-fragment variation in the gene family encoding high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction enzyme digests of DNA from nullisomic-tetrasomic and intervarietal chromosome substitution lines of wheat were probed with a high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin cDNA. Three restriction endonucleases were used to investigate restriction-fragment differences among five wheat varieties. The results suggest that the hybridizing fragments contain single gene copies and permit the identification of the subunit encoded by each gene. Restriction-fragment

N. P. Harberd; D. Bartels; R. D. Thompson

1986-01-01

9

Oak chloroplast-DNA polymorphisms detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)  

E-print Network

de fragment de restriction (RFLP) INTRODUCTION Climatic variations as well as human activ- ities (eg pressures. Therefore, we need better insight into the genetics and ecology of populations in or- der sequences of plants. cpDNA polymorphisms could provide infor- mation on evolutionary distances among oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Species relationships in the Hordeum murinum aggregate viewed from chloroplast DNA restriction fragment patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three annual widespread species of Hordeum were investigated by the fragment pattern method on their chloroplast (cp) DNA. The species were H. glaucum, H. leporinum and H. murinum; H. vulgare was surveyed for comparison. Twelve restriction enzymes were used, nine recognizing 6 bp, one 5 bp and two 4 bp, thus, randomly surveyed, a total of 2,113 bp or 1.6%

B. R. Baum; L. G. Bailey

1989-01-01

11

Species relationships in the Hordeum murinum aggregate viewed from chloroplast DNA restriction fragment patterns.  

PubMed

Three annual widespread species of Hordeum were investigated by the fragment pattern method on their chloroplast (cp) DNA. The species were H. glaucum, H. leporinum and H. murinum; H. vulgare was surveyed for comparison. Twelve restriction enzymes were used, nine recognizing 6 bp, one 5 bp and two 4 bp, thus, randomly surveyed, a total of 2,113 bp or 1.6% of the cp genome. Differences in patterns were found in three enzymes, HindIII, CfoI and MspI. CfoI characterizes H. glaucum from the other two species. HindIII and MspI revealed polymorphisms within species. These results confirm previous numerical taxonomic relationships among these three closely related species. Furthermore, cpDNA polymorphism in Hordeum is discussed in view of earlier reports on cpDNA polymorphism in H. vulgare. The taxonomic implications of cpDNA polymorphism are discussed after reviewing several articles using the fragment pattern method on cpDNA. The importance of using material from several populations representative of a species is stressed. PMID:24227234

Baum, B R; Bailey, L G

1989-09-01

12

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing

2000-01-01

13

Phylogenetic relationships of turfgrasses as revealed by restriction fragment analysis of chloroplast DNA.  

PubMed

Chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) were analyzed in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among turfgrasses. Physical maps of cpDNAs from Agrostis stolonifera and Zoysia japonica, which are representative species of cool (C3 type) and warm (C4 type) season turfgrasses, respectively, were constructed with four restriction enzymes, i.e., PstI, SalI, SacI, and XhoI. The genome structures of these cpDNAs were found to be similar to each other in terms of genome size and gene orders, showing thereby a similarity to other grass cpDNAs. CpDNAs of 5 species of cool season turfgrasses and 6 species of warm season turfgrasses as well as four species of cereals, distributed among 14 genera of Gramineae, were digested with PstI, XhoI, and BamHI, and their restriction fragment patterns were compared. Their genome sizes were estimated to be 135-140 kbp. Each species showed characteristic RFLP patterns. On the basis of the frequency of commonly shared fragments, a dendrogram showing the phylogenetic relationships among their cpDNAs was constructed. This dendrogram shows that turfgrasses can be divided into three major groups; these correspond to the subfamilies. Cool and warm season turfgrasses are clearly distinguishable from each other, and the latter can be further classified into two subgroups that correspond to Eragrostoideae and Panicoideae. Our classification of turfgrasses and cereals by RFLP analysis of cpDNA agreed in principal with their conventional taxonomy, except for the location of Festuca and Lolium. PMID:24190204

Yaneshita, M; Ohmura, T; Sasakuma, T; Ogihara, Y

1993-10-01

14

Restriction fragment primed phi X174 single-stranded DNA as template for DNA polymerase alpha and beta. Detection and partial purification of a polymerase alpha stimulating factor.  

PubMed

Template-primers constructed of phiX174 single-stranded viral DNA hybridized to a restriction fragment of phiX174 RF DNA can be used for extensive polymerization by DNA polymerase alpha. Polymerization is dependent upon a restriction fragment containing a 3'OH. The products of the reaction have been identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. Polymerization of 150--400 nucleotides can be obtained in 1h depending upon the restriction fragment used as primer. Synthesis may be limited by barriers in the primary or secondary structure of the template. A factor which stimulates the rate of alpha polymerase activity on these templates was partially purified. This factor does not stimulate alpha polymerase on activated DNA. The stimulating factor sediments at 5.5 S in glycerol gradients containing 0.4M potassium phosphate and has an apparent molecular weight of 70 000 on Sephadex G-100. PMID:6250616

Burke, J F; Plummer, J; Huberman, A J; Evans, M J

1980-09-19

15

Apparent lack of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in chromosome specific arrays of gamma satellite DNA  

SciTech Connect

The centromeric regions of human chromosomes are known to be composed primarily of repeated satellite DNA sequences which are tandemly organized into large arrays. A new class of centromeric satellite DNA, designated as human gamma satellite DNA, was originally identified in the centromeric region of human chromosome 8 (gamma 8) and found to be characterized by monomeric units of 220 bp. More recently, a cosmid clone was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization to the centromeric region of the human X chromosome and was found to lack alpha satellite DNA. A 1205 bp EcoRI subclone (2D12/E2) of this X-centromere specific cosmid clone revealed approximately 5 monomers of 220 bp which had approximately 62% DNA sequence similarly to the gamma 8 monomers. Genomic DNA from ten unrelated individuals (6 males & 4 females) were digested in agarose plugs with Sstl, separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and probed with {sup 32}P-labeled 2D12/E2. A high molecular weight fragment of {approximately}34 kb was detected in all individuals. A similar experiment using Hpal revealed high molecular weight fragments of {approximately} 54 kb and {approximately}70 kb in all individuals. When the Southern blots were stripped and reprobed with the 704 bp, gamma-8 satellite DNA probe (50E1), Sstl fragments of {approximately} 34 kb were seen in all individuals tested. This apparent lack of polymorphisms in chromosome specific arrays of gamma satellite DNA among unrelated individuals is contrasting to the high frequency of polymorphisms seen in arrays of alpha satellite DNA. This may indicate a physical or functional constraint against sequence variation in gamma satellite DNA arrays.

Lin, C.C.; Lee, C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)]|[Univ. of Alberta Hospitals, Edmonton (Canada)

1994-09-01

16

Characterization of Escherichia hermannii by ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Ribosomal DNA polymorphism was used to characterize strains of Escherichia hermannii and to differentiate them from E. coli. DNA from 11 E. hermannii strains previously separated into three zymotypes by enzyme electrophoretic polymorphism was digested with HindIII and EcoRI restriction enzymes and analyzed by Southern blotting. The 10 ribotypes obtained with EcoRI fell into 3 groups which correlated with the corresponding zymotypes, and the 5 ribotypes obtained with HindIII were clearly distinct from those of E. coli strains. PMID:7910695

Picard-Pasquier, N; Picard, B; Krishnamoorthy, R; Goullet, P

1993-01-01

17

Large-restriction-fragment analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii genomic DNA and its application in molecular typing.  

PubMed Central

Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) polymorphisms in Mycobacterium kansasii isolates from 84 patients with bronchopulmonary infections in Japan between the 1960s and 1995 were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with VspI were most suitable for PFGE separation of 16 to 21 fragments of between 40 and 550 kbp. All 84 isolates and the type strain M. kansasii ATCC 12478 were successfully typed by LRF analysis with VspI digestion. Twenty-one distinctive LRF types were identified, and the LRF patterns tested over time were reproducible and stable. A computer-assisted dendrogram of the percent similarity demonstrated that isolates of 18 LRF types had relatively close genetic relatedness, while isolates of the remaining 3 types showed divergence. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene in the isolates showing divergent genetic relatedness revealed a sequence identical to that of a previously reported subspecies of M. kansasii. In the Chugoku district of Japan, 11 cases of M. kansasii infection which occurred in workers in a coastal industrial zone between 1982 and 1993 were caused by one particular strain tentatively named LRF type M. When both detailed demographic data for the patients and ecologic data for the M. kansasii isolates are obtained, LRF typing may be of potential use for investigating the source and transmission of M. kansasii infection. PMID:9041396

Iinuma, Y; Ichiyama, S; Hasegawa, Y; Shimokata, K; Kawahara, S; Matsushima, T

1997-01-01

18

Identification of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strains based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA.  

PubMed

The 16S rDNA sequences from ten strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were amplified by PCR. The products were compared by performing restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with restriction endonucleases Alu I, Hap II, Hha I, and Hae III. The RFLP patterns revealed that T. ferrooxidans could be distinguished from other iron- or sulphur-oxidizing bacteria such as T. thiooxidans NB1-3, T. caldus GO-1, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and the marine iron-oxidizing bacterium strain KU2-11. The RFLP patterns obtained with Alu I, Hap II, and Hae III were the same for nine strains of T. ferrooxidans except for strain ATCC 13661. The RFLP patterns for strains NASF-1 and ATCC 13661 with Hha I were distinct from those for other T. ferrooxidans strains. The 16S rDNA sequence of T. ferrooxidans NASF-1 possessed an additional restriction site for Hha I. These results show that iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from natural environments were rapidly identified as T. ferrooxidans by the method combining RFLP analysis with physiological analysis. PMID:11414499

Kamimura, K; Wakai, S; Sugio, T

2001-01-01

19

Flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus rickettsiae) characterized by a specific DNA fragment produced by restriction endonuclease digestion.  

PubMed Central

The DNA from flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii was characterized by using a specific DNA fragment produced by digestion with the enzyme BamHI. The DNA fragment was cloned into a plasmid vector and used to readily distinguish between available human- and flying squirrel-associated R. prowazekii DNAs derived from crude cytoplasmic extracts. Images PMID:3009528

Regnery, R L; Fu, Z Y; Spruill, C L

1986-01-01

20

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Regions Is Useful for Differentiating Strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes  

PubMed Central

Twenty isolates of Tricophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 47 isolates of T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, identified by morphological characteristics, were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Sixty isolates (14 of 20 T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates and 46 of 47 T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates) shared an identical ITS RFLP profile and were further investigated by using a probe targeted to the rDNA nontranscribed spacer (NTS) region. Polymorphisms were observed in the NTS regions of both T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates. Twenty-three individual RFLP patterns (DNA types P-1 to P-12 and A-1 to A-11) were recognized and divided into two groups depending on the presence (P) or absence (A) of a 2.5-kb band, which correlated to a large extent with the morphological variety. Eleven of 14 T. metagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates were A types, and all of the 46 T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates were P types. A majority of strains (23 of 60 [38.3%]) were characterized by one RFLP pattern (pattern P-1), and eight types (P-1 to P-6, P-8, and P-9) accounted for 75% (45 of 60) of all strains, including all of the T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates. The remaining 15 types were represented by one only isolate and included all of the T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates. We conclude that RFLP analysis of the rDNA NTS region is a valuable technique for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes strains. Furthermore, by use of this method, there appears to be a greater degree of diversity among T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates than among T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates. PMID:14532186

Mochizuki, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Barton, Richard C.; Moore, Mary K.; Jackson, Colin J.; Kelly, Steven L.; Evans, E. Glyn V.

2003-01-01

21

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES DNA Fragmentation  

E-print Network

cycles of MagNA and DNA, a 4- 5min incubation period for DNA precipitation on the beads is performed1 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES DNA Fragmentation Human solution hybrid selection For the 189 human DNA samples for the hybrid selection (application 1), between 200 and 4,800 ng genomic DNA (final volume 200ul

Reich, David

22

Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Based on PCR Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and DNA Sequence Analysis of the Coagulase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A typing procedure for Staphylococcus aureus was developed based on improved PCR amplification of the coagulase gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product. All coagulase- positive staphylococci produced a single PCR amplification product of either 875, 660, 603, or 547 bp. Those strains of epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus 16 (EMRSA-16) studied all gave a product of

JOHN V. HOOKEY; JUDITH F. RICHARDSON; BARRY D. COOKSON

1998-01-01

23

A Laboratory Introduction to DNA Restriction Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop will serve as an introduction to laboratory exercises in molecular biology. DNA from lambda virus will be digested with various restriction enzymes, and the resulting fragments separated using agarose gel electrophoresis. The separation patterns will be visualized, photographed and used to illustrate the relationship between DNA fragment size and electrophoretic mobility.

David A. Micklos (DNA Learning Center of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;); Greg A. Freyer (Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons;)

2008-04-11

24

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Linkage Map for Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage map for the nuclear genome of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The map, containing 90 randomly distributed molecular markers, is physically very dense; >50% of the genome is within 1.9 centimorgans, or ≈ 270 kilobase pairs, of the mapped DNA fragments. The map was based on the meiotic segregation of markers

Caren Chang; John L. Bowman; Arthur W. Dejohn; Eric S. Lander; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1988-01-01

25

Restriction Enzymes and DNA Fingerprinting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of restriction enzymes and their applications in DNA analysis has proven to be essential for biologists and chemists. This lesson focuses on restriction enzymes and their applications to DNA analysis and DNA fingerprinting. Use this lesson and its associated activity in conjunction with biology lessons on DNA analysis and DNA replication.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

26

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genetic improvement: methodologies, mapping and costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a new class of genetic polymorphism, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), has been uncovered by the use of restriction endonucleases which cleave DNA molecules at specific sites and cloned DNA probes which detect specific homologous DNA fragments. RFLPs promise to be exceedingly numerous and are expected to have genetic characteristics — lack of dominance, multiple allelic forms and absence

J. S. Beckmann; M. Soller

1983-01-01

27

An epidemiologically valuable typing method for Neisseria meningitidis by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing method was developed for Neisseria meningitidis. A cloned EcoRI fragment from a Neisseria meningitidis Group B serotype 15P1.16 sulphonamide-resistant strain was used to probe Southern blots of total chromosomal DNA restriction fragments (enzyme AvaI). A group of 75 apparently unrelated organisms gave rise to 26 different restriction fragment length patterns and two

A. J. Fox; D. M. Jones; S. J. Gray; D. A. Caugant; N. A. SAUNDERSt

1991-01-01

28

Restriction fragment length polymorphism diversity in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight soybean accessions from the genus Glycine, subgenus Soja, were surveyed with 17 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers to assess the level of molecular diversity and to evaluate the usefulness of previously identified RFLP markers. In general, only low levels of molecular diversity were observed: 2 of the 17 markers exhibited three alleles per locus, whereas all others

P. Keim; R. C. Shoemaker; R. G. Palmer

1989-01-01

29

Chemiluminescent substrates for detection of restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Five new enzyme-triggered dioxetane substrates were evaluated for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of HaeIII- restricted DNA. Of these, one substrate designated CDP-Star provided unsurpassed sensitivity within one working day without the presence of an enhancer. Far greater sensitivity was obtained from chemiluminescent detection of DNA on MSI neutral membranes than the sensitivity obtained from six day film exposures of 32P labelled insert probes on PALL B membranes, including the detection of most low molecular weight alleles. For nylon membranes better suited for alkaline phosphatase-triggered chemiluminescent detection of DNA, high salt/neutral pH southern transfer conditions were better than alkaline southern transfer conditions. PMID:8921749

Price, D C

1996-01-01

30

Linkage arrangement of restriction fragment length polymorphism loci in Brassica oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed genetic linkage map of Brassica oleracea was constructed based on the segregation of 258 restriction fragment length polymorphism loci in a broccoli × cabbage F2 population. The genetic markers defined nine linkage groups, covering 820 recombination units. A majority of the informative genomic DNA probes hybridized to more than two restriction fragments in the F2 population. “Duplicate” sequences

M. K. Slocum; S. S. Figdore; W. C. Kennard; J. Y. Suzuki; T. C. Osborn

1990-01-01

31

Construction of genetic linkage maps in maize and tomato using restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic linkage maps were constructed for both maize and tomato, utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) as the source of genetic markers. In order to detect these RFLPs, unique DNA sequence clones were prepared from either maize or tomato tissue and hybridized to Southern blots containing restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA from different homozygous lines. A subsequent comparison of the RFLP

T. Helentjaris; M. Slocum; S. Wright; A. Schaefer; J. Nienhuis

1986-01-01

32

Assessment of the degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism in Brassica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of creating a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) linkage map in Brassica species was assessed by screening EcoRI-, HindIII-, or EcoRV-digested total genomic DNA from several accessions of B. campestris, B. oleracea, and B. napus using random genomic DNA clones from three Brassica libraries as hybridization probes. Differences in restriction fragment hybridization patterns occurred at frequencies of 95%

S. S. Figdore; W. C. Kennard; K. M. Song; M. K. Slocum; T. C. Osborn

1988-01-01

33

DNA Fragmentation in Microorganisms Assessed In Situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal DNA fragmentation may be a direct or indirect outcome of cell death. Unlike DNA fragmen- tation in higher eukaryotic cells, DNA fragmentation in microorganisms is rarely studied. We report an adaptation of a diffusion-based assay, developed as a kit, which allows for simple and rapid discrimination of bacteria with fragmented DNA. Intact cells were embedded in an agarose microgel

JoseLuis Fernandez; M. Cartelle; L. Muriel; R. Santiso; M. Tamayo; V. Goyanes; J. Gosalvez; G. Bou

2008-01-01

34

Sizing of single fluorescently stained DNA fragments by scanning microscopy  

PubMed Central

We describe an approach to determine DNA fragment sizes based on the fluorescence detection of single adsorbed fragments on specifically coated glass cover slips. The brightness of single fragments stained with the DNA bisintercalation dye TOTO-1 is determined by scanning the surface with a confocal microscope. The brightness of adsorbed fragments is found to be proportional to the fragment length. The method needs only minute amount of DNA, beyond inexpensive and easily available surface coatings, like poly-l-lysine, 3-aminoproyltriethoxysilane and polyornithine, are utilizable. We performed DNA-sizing of fragment lengths between 2 and 14 kb. Further, we resolved the size distribution before and after an enzymatic restriction digest. At this a separation of buffers or enzymes was unnecessary. DNA sizes were determined within an uncertainty of 7–14%. The proposed method is straightforward and can be applied to standardized microtiter plates. PMID:14602931

Laib, Stephan; Rankl, Michael; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Seeger, Stefan

2003-01-01

35

Detection of single lambda DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The authors have demonstrated flow cytometric detection and sizing of single pieces of fluorescently stained lambda DNA (48.5 kb) and individual Kpn I restriction fragments of lambda DNA at 17.05 kb and 29.95 kb. DNA fragments were stained stoichiometrically with an intercalating dye such that the fluorescence from each fragment was directly proportional to fragment length. Laser powers range from 10 to 100 mW and transit times through the focused laser beam were several milliseconds. Measurements were made using time-resolved single photon counting of the detected fluorescence emission from individual stained DNA fragments. Samples were analyzed at rates of about 50 fragments per second. The measured fluorescence intensities are linearly correlated with DNA fragment length over the range measured. Detection sensitivity and resolution needed for analysis of small pieces of DNA are discussed and a comparison of single photon counting measurements of DNA fragments to measurements using more conventional flow cytometers is made. Applications of this methodology to DNA sizing and DNA fingerprinting are discussed.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Keller, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

36

Restriction site and genetic map of Cucurbita pepo chloroplast DNA.  

PubMed

A detailed restriction map of squash chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was constructed with five restriction endonucleases, SalI, PvuII, BglI, SacII, and PstI. The cleavage sites were mapped by sequential digestion of cpDNA using low-gelling temperature agarose. The restriction map shows that squash cpDNA is an approximately 153 kilobase (kb) circle with a large inverted repeat sequence of 23.3 kb, separated by a large (83.7 kb) and a small (22.7 kb) single copy region. Genes for a number of chloroplast polypeptides were localized on the map by hybridizing the cpDNA restriction fragments to heterologous gene-specific probes from tobacco, pea, tomato, maize, and spinach chloroplasts. The gene locations and organization of squash cpDNA are highly conserved and similar to chloroplast genomes of tomato, pepper, and Ginkgo. PMID:2249258

Lim, H; Gounaris, I; Hardison, R C; Boyer, C D

1990-10-01

37

Correlation of DNA fragment sizes within loci in the presence of non-detectable alleles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present most forensic databases of DNA profiling of individuals consist of DNA fragment sizes measured from Southern blot restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Statistical studies of these databases have revealed that, when fragment sizes are measured from RFLP analysis, some of the single-band patterns of individuals may actually be due to heterozygosity of alleles in which fragment size

Ranajit Chakraborty; Zhaojue Li

1995-01-01

38

Population genetics of the yellow fever mosquito in Trinidad: comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of DNA markers provides powerful tools for population genetic analyses. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers result from a poly- merase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting technique that can detect multiple restriction fragments in a single polyacrylamide gel, and thus are potentially useful for population genetic studies. Because AFLP markers have to be analysed as dominant loci in

G. Yan; J. Romero-Severson; M. Walton; D. D. CHADEEand; D. W. Severson

1999-01-01

39

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with substance P gene  

SciTech Connect

Substance P (SP) is an important neuropepetide detected in a variety of locations in the central nervous system. Variations in SP content or SP receptors in psychiatric disorders have been described. Using SP clones as probes the authors have found three restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the SP gene. The RFLPs are generated by digestion of genomic DNA with the MspI, and RsaI and NcoI restriction endonucleases. The MspI RFLP is detected by two genomic clones mapping to the 5' end of the gene while the RsaI and NcoI rFLPs are both detected by two genomic clones on the 3' end and also by a full-length cDNA clone of the gene. All three RFLPs are characterized by two alleles. For the MspI RFLP the frequency of both alleles is similar, for the Rsa I and NcoI RFLP one of the alleles is significantly more abundant than the other. These RFLPs are now being used to determine whether any of the alleles correlate with either schizophrenia or affective disorder.

de Miguel, C.; Bonner, T.; Detera-Wadleigh, S.

1987-05-01

40

Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for subspecies identification of mycobacteria in the Mycobacterium avium complex and for isolation of DNA probes.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterial strains from the Mycobacterium avium complex were compared with each other and with Mycobacterium phlei isolates by restriction endonuclease digestion of chromosomal DNA with SspI and analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Characteristic profiles were observed for known typed strains, and five groups were identified. Primary bovine isolates identified as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by classical methods were shown to fall into both the M. paratuberculosis- and M. avium-like groups. M. paratuberculosis 18 was in the latter category. Two Mycobacterium intracellulare strains of different Schaefer serotypes had different digestion profiles. In addition, this system was exploited for the preparation of DNA probes by the isolation, digestion, and subcloning of DNA fragments separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Probe JC12 hybridized only to M. avium complex strains, but not to M. phlei, showing characteristic hybridization profiles for each of the groups previously identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The approach taken in the study lends itself to the comparative analysis of members of the M. avium complex and to the isolation and characterization of DNA probes with specificity for these mycobacteria. Images PMID:1352787

Coffin, J W; Condon, C; Compston, C A; Potter, K N; Lamontagne, L R; Shafiq, J; Kunimoto, D Y

1992-01-01

41

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 9: Biotechnology: Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based investigation, students will learn how to use restriction enzymes and gelelectrophoresis to create genetic profiles. They will use restriction endonucleases and gel electrophoresis to analyze DNA sequences by creating genetic âÂÂfingerprintsâ andl apply mathematical routines to determine the approximate sizes of DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-23

42

Radiation of human mitochondria DNA types analyzed by restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction endonuclease fragment patterns were analyzed using total blood cell DNA isolated from 200 individuals representing five different populations. Thirty-two fragment patterns (morphs) were observed with the enzymes Hpa I, Bam HI, Hae II, Msp I and Ava II yielding thirty-five different combinations of fragment patterns (mt DNA types). The major ethnic groups exhibit quantitative

M. J. Johnson; D. C. Wallace; S. D. Ferris; M. C. Rattazzi; L. L. Cavalli-Sforza

1983-01-01

43

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

44

Assembling DNA fragments with parallel algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more research centers embark on sequencing new genomes, the problem of DNA fragment assembly for shotgun sequencing is growing in importance and complexity. Accurate and fast assembly is a crucial part of any sequencing project and since the DNA fragment assembly problem is NP-hard, exact solutions are very difficult to obtain. Various heuristics, including genetic algorithms, were designed for

Enrique Alba; Gabriel Luque; Sami Khuri

2005-01-01

45

Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

1993-02-01

46

Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

1993-01-01

47

Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products amplified from mapped loci of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) genomic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty mapped Indica rice genomic (RG) clones were partially sequenced from each end. From such sequence data, pairs of oligonucleotides were synthesized to act as primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the corresponding loci in crude total DNA preparations. The PCR products from DNA of Indica varieties were of the sizes expected from the sizes of the corresponding

M. N. V. Williams; N. Pande; S. Nair; M. Mohan; J. Bennett

1991-01-01

48

The Molecular Basis of Genetic Diversity among Cytoplasms of TRITICUM and AEGILOPS Species. II. on the Origin of Polyploid Wheat Cytoplasms as Suggested by Chloroplast DNA Restriction Fragment Patterns  

PubMed Central

In attempts to identify the phylogenetic donors of cytoplasm to Emmer-Dinkel and Timopheevi groups of wheat (Triticum), and the Aegilops kotschyi-Ae. variabilis complex, the restriction fragment patterns of chloroplast DNAs of representative species were compared with those of their putative diploid ancestors. The following seven restriction enzymes were used; BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, KpnI, PstI, SmaI and XhoI. The restriction fragment patterns of an Emmer and a Dinkel (common) wheat were identical with those of Ae. longissima , and different from those of Ae. aucheri, Ae. bicornis, Ae. searsii, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. speltoides, and T. urartu by 4 to 12 fragments. The restriction fragment patterns of a Timopheevi wheat were identical with those of Ae. aucheri, and different from those of all other diploids by four to nine fragments. The restriction fragment patterns of Ae. variabilis were identical to those of Ae. bicornis and Ae. searsii , and different from those of all other species. Thus, we have concluded that Ae. longissima, Ae. aucheri and Ae. bicornis (or Ae. searsii) were the cytoplasm donors to the Emmer-Dinkel and the Timopheevi groups, and the Ae. kotschyi-Ae. variabilis complex, respectively. A diphyletic origin of Emmer and Timopheevi groups is supported by the present results. PMID:17246126

Tsunewaki, Koichiro; Ogihara, Yasunari

1983-01-01

49

GENOMICS 8,351-366 (1990) Optimizing Restriction Fragment Fingerprinting Methods  

E-print Network

GENOMICS 8,351-366 (1990) Optimizing Restriction Fragment Fingerprinting Methods for Ordering Large fingerprinting. Such ordering projects involve a large investment of effort involving many repetitious large genomic regions such as chromosomes. Such libraries are made by frag- menting the DNA and cloning

Waterman, Michael S.

50

Effects of DNA Extraction Procedures on Bacteroides Profiles in Fecal Samples From Various Animals Determined by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

A major assumption in microbial source tracking is that some fecal bacteria are specific to a host animal, and thus provide unique microbial fingerprints that can be used to differentiate hosts. However, the DNA information obtained from a particular sample may be biased dependi...

51

Sex in Escherichia coli does not disrupt the clonal structure of the population: evidence from random amplified polymorphic DNA and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the Escherichia coli population by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) has established its clonal organization, but there is increasing evidence that horizontal DNA transfer occurs in E. coli. We have assessed the genetic structure of the species E. coli and determined the extent to which recombination can affect the clonal structure of bacteria. A panel of 72 E. coli

Patricia Desjardins; Bertrand Picard; Bernhard Kaltenbiick; Jacques Elion; Erick Denamurl

1995-01-01

52

Restriction fragment polymorphisms as probes for plant diversity and their development as tools for applied plant breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize and tomato cDNA clones have been hybridized in Southern blotting experiments to plant genomic DNA prepared from different lines to detect restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFPs). In maize we have found that a high degree of genetic variability is present, even among domestic inbred lines. Most randomly chosen maize cDNA clones can be used to detect elements of this variability.

Tim Helentjaris; Gretchen King; Mary Slocum; Chris Siedenstrang; Sharon Wegman

1985-01-01

53

Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of nuclear DNAs have been used to explore the origin and evolution of the six cultivated Brassica species. Extensive RFLP variation was found at the species, subspecies and variety levels. Based on RFLP data from Brassica and related genera, a detailed phylogenetic tree was generated using the PAUP microcomputer program, which permits a quantitative analysis

K. M. Song; T. C. Osborn; P. H. Williams

1988-01-01

54

DNA POLYMORPHISM DETECTABLE BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on DNA polymorphisms detected by restriction endonucleases are rapidly accumulating. With the aim of analyzing these data, several different measures of nucleon (DNA segment) diversity within and between popula- tions are proposed, and statistical methods for estimating these quantities are developed. These statistical methods are applicable to both nuclear and non- nuclear DNAs. When evolutionary change of nucleons occurs

MASATOSHI NE; FUMIO TAJIMA

1981-01-01

55

Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of transferring fragments of DNA from agarose gels to cellulose nitrate filters. The fragments can then be hybridized to radioactive RNA and hybrids detected by radioautography or fluorography. The method is illustrated by analyses of restriction fragments complementary to ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Xenopus laevis, and from several mammals.

E. M. Southern

1975-01-01

56

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

57

The use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in paternity analysis.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the utility of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for paternity analysis. While, on the average, 99% of falsely accused males can be excluded with the standard battery of blood group antigens, red cell enzymes, serum proteins, and HLA antigens, there are still mother-child pairs for whom the exclusion probability is not high. It has been suggested that additional resolution would be available with RFLPs. We have examined the strategic aspects of using RFLPs for paternity analysis, comparing the efficacy and cost of a multimarker haplotypic set with those of a comparable set of unlinked RFLPs, using published frequencies for the beta-globin complex, the serum albumin region, and the growth hormone region. There are four major findings. (1) Greater resolution is obtained with a carefully chosen set of tightly linked RFLPs producing chromosomal haplotypes than with a comparable set (same allele frequencies) of unlinked markers, but only if it is possible to establish linkage phase unambiguously. (2) Assay of linked sets is cheaper than is the assay of unlinked markers, but the cost advantage is optimized with sets of no more than two or three linked markers. (3) Also, with more than two or three tightly linked markers, the haplotypic frequencies are too poorly estimated to provide a reliable measure of the probability of paternity for unexcluded males, given the sample sizes likely to be available in the near future. (4) Optimal resolution, minimal cost, and acceptable accuracy are obtained with several independent sets of no more than two or three tightly linked RFLP markers each. With current technology, RFLP analysis is more expensive for the same level of genetic resolution than is the standard battery, but gradual replacement of the latter can be anticipated as economies of scale reduce the cost of the DNA technology. PMID:3014872

Smouse, P E; Chakraborty, R

1986-01-01

58

REPK: an analytical web server to select restriction endonucleases for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widespread technique for rapidly fingerprinting microbial communities. Users of T-RFLP frequently overlook the resolving power of well-chosen restriction endonucleases and often fail to report how they chose their enzymes. REPK (Restriction Endonuclease Picker) assists in the rational choice of restriction endonucleases for T-RFLP by finding sets of four restriction endonucleases that together uniquely differentiate user-designated sequence groups. With REPK, users can provide their own sequences (of any gene, not just 16S rRNA), specify the taxonomic rank of interest and choose from a number of filtering options to further narrow down the enzyme selection. Bug tracking is provided, and the source code is open and accessible under the GNU Public License v.2, at http://code.google.com/p/repk. The web server is available without access restrictions at http://rocaplab.ocean.washington.edu/tools/repk. PMID:17631616

Collins, Roy Eric; Rocap, Gabrielle

2007-07-01

59

Unit cloning and amplification as novel and universal strategies for complex vector construction and small DNA fragment preparation.  

PubMed

With a novel and universal strategy for the cloning of multiple DNA fragments, a complex synthetic vector (pVEC100), harboring the target DNA fragments in conventional 100-bp DNA ladder, was constructed for efficient and large-scale production of 100-bp DNA marker through bacteria fermentation, plasmid extraction and restrictive digestion. Since the restrictive digestion of complex vectors yields insufficient small DNA fragments, an innovative PCR model was developed as an alternative. The PCR model comprised a specially designed template vector and a unit amplification model for producing groups of small DNA fragments. The unit amplification model improved the efficiency of the PCR protocol and made it more economical and easier for small DNA fragment amplification. The approach presented in this paper--a unit cloning model for constructing complex synthetic vectors combined with the modular design of unit amplification by PCR--is a powerful method for preparing small DNA fragments of DNA molecular weight standards. PMID:20690148

Ye, Chunjiang; Gu, Jingsong; Chen, Sunxiao; Deng, Anmei; Li, Yue Zhong; Li, Dianxiang

2010-09-01

60

A linkage map of Brassica rapa (syn. campestris) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed linkage map ofB. rapa (syn.campestris) was constructed based on segregation of 280 restriction fragment length polymorphism loci, detected by using 188 genomic DNA clones as probes on DNAs from a F2 population of Chinese cabbage ‘MichihilF’בSpring broccoli.’ These genetic markers covered 1,850 centiMorgans (cM) and defined ten linkage groups, which equals the haploid chromosome number of this

K. M. Song; J. Y. Suzuki; M. K. Slocum; P. M. Williams; T. C. Osborn

1991-01-01

61

Isolation of probes detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms from X chromosome-specific libraries: potential use for diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated 23 human X chromosome-specific DNA fragments from ? libraries, prepared from flow-sorted X chromosomes. To increase diagnostic potential for X-linked genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the fragments were tested for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) with six restriction enzymes. All fragments were regionally mapped to segments of the X chromosome with a panel of somatic

M. H. Hofker; M. C. Wapenaar; Nicole Goor; E. Bakker; G.-J. B. Ommen; P. L. Pearson

1985-01-01

62

Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis associated with an immunoglobulin gamma 3 restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to the immunoglobulin G (Gm) markers as well as HLA-DR genes. We have used a genomic Ig gamma 1 probe which detects polymorphisms in the gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3 and pseudogamma genes to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with MS. A negative association was found between a 5.9-kilobase (kb) Bst EII gamma 3 fragment and MS. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of this fragment in 84 of 140 (60.0%) controls, but in only 17 of 59 (28.8%) MS patients. The frequency of the fragment in 47 myasthenia gravis and 16 Graves' disease patients was similar to that in controls, 60.0 and 62.5%, respectively. Images PMID:2878940

Gaiser, C N; Johnson, M J; de Lange, G; Rassenti, L; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Steinman, L

1987-01-01

63

RESTseq - Efficient Benchtop Population Genomics with RESTriction Fragment SEQuencing  

PubMed Central

We present RESTseq, an improved approach for a cost efficient, highly flexible and repeatable enrichment of DNA fragments from digested genomic DNA using Next Generation Sequencing platforms including small scale Personal Genome sequencers. Easy adjustments make it suitable for a wide range of studies requiring SNP detection or SNP genotyping from fine-scale linkage mapping to population genomics and population genetics also in non-model organisms. We demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparing two honeybee and several stingless bee samples. PMID:23691128

Stolle, Eckart; Moritz, Robin F. A.

2013-01-01

64

RESTseq--efficient benchtop population genomics with RESTriction Fragment SEQuencing.  

PubMed

We present RESTseq, an improved approach for a cost efficient, highly flexible and repeatable enrichment of DNA fragments from digested genomic DNA using Next Generation Sequencing platforms including small scale Personal Genome sequencers. Easy adjustments make it suitable for a wide range of studies requiring SNP detection or SNP genotyping from fine-scale linkage mapping to population genomics and population genetics also in non-model organisms. We demonstrate the validity of our approach by comparing two honeybee and several stingless bee samples. PMID:23691128

Stolle, Eckart; Moritz, Robin F A

2013-01-01

65

Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA  

E-print Network

environments (1). DNA degradation is initi- ated at cell death by coreleased cellular nucleases and continued-strand overhangs of the DNA fragments (2). Consequently, most free DNA fragmentsBacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA Søren Overballe-Petersena,1

Nielsen, Rasmus

66

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism authentication of raw meats from game birds.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos). PCR amplification was performed using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 720 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Restriction site analysis based on sequence data from this DNA fragment permitted the selection of AluI and BfaI endonucleases for species identification. The restriction profiles obtained when amplicons were digested with the chosen enzymes allowed the unequivocal identification of all game bird species analyzed. However, the use of the PCR-RFLP technique described is limited to raw meat authentication. It is not suitable for cooked products because thermal treatment strongly accelerates DNA degradation leading to difficulties in amplifying the 720 bp fragment. PMID:19202803

Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Fajardo, Violeta; Martín, Irene; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

2008-01-01

67

Structural insight into the specificity of the B3 DNA-binding domains provided by the co-crystal structure of the C-terminal fragment of BfiI restriction enzyme.  

PubMed

The B3 DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of plant transcription factors (TF) and DBDs of EcoRII and BfiI restriction endonucleases (EcoRII-N and BfiI-C) share a common structural fold, classified as the DNA-binding pseudobarrel. The B3 DBDs in the plant TFs recognize a diverse set of target sequences. The only available co-crystal structure of the B3-like DBD is that of EcoRII-N (recognition sequence 5'-CCTGG-3'). In order to understand the structural and molecular mechanisms of specificity of B3 DBDs, we have solved the crystal structure of BfiI-C (recognition sequence 5'-ACTGGG-3') complexed with 12-bp cognate oligoduplex. Structural comparison of BfiI-C-DNA and EcoRII-N-DNA complexes reveals a conserved DNA-binding mode and a conserved pattern of interactions with the phosphodiester backbone. The determinants of the target specificity are located in the loops that emanate from the conserved structural core. The BfiI-C-DNA structure presented here expands a range of templates for modeling of the DNA-bound complexes of the B3 family of plant TFs. PMID:24423868

Golovenko, Dmitrij; Manakova, Elena; Zakrys, Linas; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Gražulis, Saulius; Siksnys, Virginijus

2014-04-01

68

Formation of Pseudo-Terminal Restriction Fragments, a PCR-Related Bias Affecting Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Microbial Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in molecular microbial ecology. In this study, we show that besides expected terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs), additional secondary T-RFs occur in T-RFLP analysis of amplicons from cloned 16S rRNA genes at high frequency. A total of 50% of 109 bacterial and 78% of 68 archaeal clones from the guts of cetoniid beetle larvae, using MspI and AluI as restriction enzymes, respectively, were affected by the presence of these additional T-RFs. These peaks were called “pseudo-T-RFs” since they can be detected as terminal fluorescently labeled fragments in T-RFLP analysis but do not represent the primary terminal restriction site as indicated by sequence data analysis. Pseudo-T-RFs were also identified in T-RFLP profiles of pure culture and environmental DNA extracts. Digestion of amplicons with the single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease prior to T-RFLP analysis completely eliminated pseudo-T-RFs. This clearly indicates that single-stranded amplicons are the reason for the formation of pseudo-T-RFs, most probably because single-stranded restriction sites cannot be cleaved by restriction enzymes. The strong dependence of pseudo-T-RF formation on the number of cycles used in PCR indicates that (partly) single-stranded amplicons can be formed during amplification of 16S rRNA genes. In a model, we explain how transiently formed secondary structures of single-stranded amplicons may render single-stranded amplicons accessible to restriction enzymes. The occurrence of pseudo-T-RFs has consequences for the interpretation of T-RFLP profiles from environmental samples, since pseudo-T-RFs may lead to an overestimation of microbial diversity. Therefore, it is advisable to establish 16S rRNA gene sequence clone libraries in parallel with T-RFLP analysis from the same sample and to check clones for their in vitro digestion T-RF pattern to facilitate the detection of pseudo-T-RFs. PMID:12732521

Egert, Markus; Friedrich, Michael W.

2003-01-01

69

Restriction Endonuclease Analysis of Marek's Disease Virus DNA and Homology between Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The restriction endonuclease patterns of viral DNA obtained from serotypes 1 and 2 strains of Marek's disease virus have been compared and homology between the strains examined by hybridization. The results have shown that HPRS 16 (serotype 1) DNA has a structure similar to its attenuated variant HPRS 16\\/att except for a few fragments that are present only in

L. J. N. Ross; B. Milne; P. M. Biggs

1983-01-01

70

Cloning of Herpes Simplex Type 1 DNA Fragments in a Bacteriophage Lambda Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA isolated from defective and nondefective virions of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) (strain Patton) was digested with restriction endonucleases, and the resulting DNA fragments were inserted in the EK2 coliphage vector lambda gtWES\\\\cdot lambda B. The recombinant DNA was encapsidated in vitro under P4 maximum containment conditions. These lambda -HSV1 hybrids were purified and amplified, and the DNA was

L. W. Enquist; M. J. Madden; P. Schiop-Stansly; G. F. Vande Woude

1979-01-01

71

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for obtaining DNA fingerprints using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a selected sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is directly proportional to the fragment length. Additional dyes can be bound to the DNA piece and DNA fragments to provide information additional to length information. Oligonucleotide specific dyes and/or hybridization probes can be bound to the DNA fragments to provide information on oligonucleotide distribution or probe hybridization to DNA fragments of different sizes.

Jett, J.H.; Hammond, M.L.; Keller, R.A.; Marrone, B.L.; Martin, J.C.

1992-12-31

72

MULTIPLE ENZYME RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS FOR HIGH RESOLUTION DISTINCTION OF PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) 16S RRNA GENES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pseudomonas specific 16S rDNA PCR amplification and multiple enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (MERFLP) analysis using a single digestion mixture of Alu I, Hinf I, Rsa I, and Tru 9I distinguished 150 published sequences and reference strains of authentic Pseudomonas...

73

Identification of Infectious Agents in Onychomycoses by PCR-Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

A fast and reliable assay for the identification of dermatophyte fungi and nondermatophyte fungi (NDF) in onychomycosis is essential, since NDF are especially difficult to cure using standard treatment. Diagnosis is usually based on both direct microscopic examination of nail scrapings and macroscopic and microscopic identification of the infectious fungus in culture assays. In the last decade, PCR assays have been developed for the direct detection of fungi in nail samples. In this study, we describe a PCR-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) assay to directly and routinely identify the infecting fungi in nails. Fungal DNA was easily extracted using a commercial kit after dissolving nail fragments in an Na2S solution. Trichophyton spp., as well as 12 NDF, could be unambiguously identified by the specific restriction fragment size of 5?-end-labeled amplified 28S DNA. This assay enables the distinction of different fungal infectious agents and their identification in mixed infections. Infectious agents could be identified in 74% (162/219) of cases in which the culture results were negative. The PCR-TRFLP assay described here is simple and reliable. Furthermore, it has the possibility to be automated and thus routinely applied to the rapid diagnosis of a large number of clinical specimens in dermatology laboratories. PMID:22170903

Verrier, Julie; Pronina, Marina; Peter, Corinne; Bontems, Olympia; Fratti, Marina; Salamin, Karine; Schürch, Stéphanie; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Harshman, Keith

2012-01-01

74

Optimizing restriction fragment fingerprinting methods for ordering large genomic libraries  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a statistical analysis of the problem of ordering large genomic cloned libraries through overlap detection based on restriction fingerprinting. Such ordering projects involve a large investment of effort involving many repetitious experiments. Their primary purpose here is to provide methods of maximizing the efficiency of such efforts. To this end, they adopt a statistical approach that uses the likelihood ratio as a statistic to detect overlap. The main advantages of this approach are that (1) it allows the relatively straightforward incorporation of the observed statistical properties of the data; (2) it permits the efficiency of a particular experimental method for detecting overlap to be quantitatively defined so that alternative experimental designs may be compared and optimized; and (3) it yields a direct estimate of the probability that any two library members overlap. This estimate is a critical tool for the accurate, automatic assembly of overlapping sets of fragments into islands called contigs.' These contigs must subsequently be connected by other methods to provide an ordered set of overlapping fragments covering the entire genome.

Branscomb, E.; Slezak, T.; Pae, R.; Carrano, A.V. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Galas, D.; Waterman, M. (Univ. of South California, Los Angeles (United States))

1990-01-01

75

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments  

DOEpatents

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments. The present invention includes the optical selection and collection of large (>.mu.g) quantities of clonable, chromosome-specific DNA from a sample of chromosomes. Chromosome selection is based on selective, irreversible photoinactivation of unwanted chromosomal DNA. Although more general procedures may be envisioned, the invention is demonstrated by processing chromosomes in a conventional flow cytometry apparatus, but where no droplets are generated. All chromosomes in the sample are first stained with at least one fluorescent analytic dye and bonded to a photochemically active species which can render chromosomal DNA unclonable if activated. After passing through analyzing light beam(s), unwanted chromosomes are irradiated using light which is absorbed by the photochemically active species, thereby causing photoinactivation. As desired chromosomes pass this photoinactivation point, the inactivating light source is deflected by an optical modulator; hence, desired chromosomes are not photoinactivated and remain clonable. The selection and photoinactivation processes take place on a microsecond timescale. By eliminating droplet formation, chromosome selection rates 50 times greater than those possible with conventional chromosome sorters may be obtained. Thus, usable quantities of clonable DNA from any source thereof may be collected.

Roslaniec, Mary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Cram, L. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

76

Large-scale production of palindrome DNA fragments  

SciTech Connect

Our structural studies of nucleosomes necessitated the production of over 100 mg of a 146-bp perfect palindrome DNA for use in the reconstitution of perfectly symmetrical nucleosome core particles for detailed X-ray crystallographic analysis. The propagation of palindromic DNA sequences by bacterial culture is hindered by the instability of these sequences during bacterial replication and recombination. While the loss of some palindrome sequences can be elminated by the use of sbcB or sbcC mutants of Escherichia coli, not all palindrome-containing plasmids are faithfully maintained by these strains. The production of large quantities of palindrome DNA can therefore be extremely difficult. After trying several approaches, we were able to develop a reliable procedure for production of large quantities of palindrome DNA that involves production of plasmid containing multiple copies of the repeating unit of the palindrome which are isolated by restriction digestion and ligated in vitro to form the palindrome DNA. The procedure has resulted in the production of over 20 mg of a 146-bp DNA fragment in 2 weeks.

Palmer, E.L.; Gewiess, A.; Harp, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); and others

1995-10-10

77

Restriction site and genetic map of Cucurbita pepo chloroplast DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed restriction map of squash chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was constructed with five restriction endonuclease, SalI, PvuII, BglI, SacII, and PstI. The cleavage sites were mapped by sequential digestion of cpDNA using low-gelling temperature agarose. The restriction map shows that squash cpDNA is an approximately 153 kilobase (kb) circle with a large inverted repeat sequence of 23.3 kb, separated by

H. Lim; I. Gounaris; R. C. Hardison; C. D. Boyer

1990-01-01

78

A new method for straightening DNA molecules for optical restriction mapping.  

PubMed

We have developed an improved method of straightening DNA molecules for use in optical restriction mapping. The DNA was straightened on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated glass slides using surface tension generated by a moving meniscus. In our method the meniscus motion was controlled mechanically, which provides advantages of speed and uniformity of the straightened molecules. Variation in the affinity of the silanized surfaces for DNA was compensated by precoating the slide with single-stranded non-target blocking DNA. A small amount of MgCl2 added to the DNA suspension increased the DNA-surface affinity and was necessary for efficient restriction enzyme digestion of the straightened surface-bound DNA. By adjusting the amounts of blocking DNA and MgCl2, we prepared slides that contained many straight parallel DNA molecules. Straightened lambda phage DNA (48 kb) bound to a slide surface was digested by EcoRI restriction endonuclease, and the resulting restriction fragments were imaged by fluorescence microscopy using a CCD camera. The observed fragment lengths showed excellent agreement with their predicted lengths. PMID:9023119

Yokota, H; Johnson, F; Lu, H; Robinson, R M; Belu, A M; Garrison, M D; Ratner, B D; Trask, B J; Miller, D L

1997-03-01

79

Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

Tiquia, Sonia M.

80

Isolation of RNA and DNA fragments using diatomaceous earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of simple and phenol-free silica-based protocols for isolating and cleaning RNA or DNA fragments from different sources were developed. Cytoplasmic RNA isolated from hybridoma cells by this method was used in RT-PCR. DNA fragments obtained using this protocol were suitable for further subcloning, gene transformation and DNA sequencing. © Rapid Science Ltd. 1998

Kai Koo; Peggy M. Foegeding; Harold E. Swaisgood

1998-01-01

81

Identification of Dermatophytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Metalloproteinase-1  

PubMed Central

Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms in the metalloproteinase-1 gene (MEP1). Methods From each fungal strain, we isolated genomic DNA and performed PCR to amplify the region coding for metalloproteinase-1. Primers for the metalloproteinase-1 gene were designed based on the sequence in NCBI GenBank. Subsequently, we purified the amplified PCR product and performed RFLP analysis. After restriction enzyme digestion, BsrDI (NEB, England), the samples were subjected to electrophoresis. Four different patterns of DNA fragments were observed among 6 fungal species. Results The DNA fragments for T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans showed similar patterns on electrophoresis and were not distinguishable, whereas T. rubrum, M. canis, and M. gypseum showed different patterns. Conclusion To our knowledge, it is the first study to introduce the analysis of the nucleotide sequence of metalloproteinase-1 enzyme to study differentiation in dermatophytes. Based on our results, more accurate differentiation and subtyping of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale might be possible. This might contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dermatophyte. PMID:24966633

Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

2014-01-01

82

Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to investigate strain variation within Neisseria meningitidis  

SciTech Connect

Similarity within bacterial populations is difficult to assess due to the limited number of characters available for evaluation and the heterogeneity of bacterial species. Currently, the preferred method used to evaluate the structure of bacterial populations is multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. However, this method is extremely cumbersome and only offers an indirect measure of genetic similarities. The development of a more direct and less cumbersome method for this purpose is warranted. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was evaluated as a tool for use in the study of bacterial population structures and in the epidemiology and surveillance of infectious disease. A collection of Neisseria meningitidis was available for use in the investigation of this technique. Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and septicemia as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. Each isolate in the collection was defined in terms of serogroup specificity, clinical history, geographic source, and date of isolation. Forty-six strains were chosen for this study. The DNA from each strain was restricted with Pst1 and EcoR1 and electrophoresed on agarose gels. The DNA was transferred to nylon filters and hybridized with P{sup 32} labeled DNA probes. Two randomly generated probes and a gene-specific probe were used to estimate the genetic similarities between and among the strains in the study population. A total of 28 different restriction fragment migration types were detected by the probes used. Data obtained from the RFLP analysis was analyzed by cluster analysis and multivariate statistical methods. A total of 7 clones groups were detected. Two of these appear to be major clones that comprise 35% of the population.

Williams, S.D.

1989-01-01

83

Use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms to Investigate Strain Variation Within Neisseria Meningitidis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similarity within bacterial populations is difficult to assess due to the limited number of characters available for evaluation and the heterogeneity of bacterial species. Currently, the preferred method used to evaluate the structure of bacterial populations is multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. However, this method is extremely cumbersome and only offers an indirect measure of genetic similarities. The development of a more direct and less cumbersome method for this purpose is warranted. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was evaluated as a tool for use in the study of bacterial population structures and in the epidemiology and surveillance of infectious disease. A collection of Neisseria meningitidis was available for use in the investigation of this technique. Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and septicemia as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. Each isolate in the collection was defined in terms of serogroup specificity, clinical history, geographic source, and date of isolation. Forty -six strains were chosen for this study. The DNA from each strain was restricted with Pst1 and EcoR1 and electrophoresed on agarose gels. The DNA was transferred to nylon filters and hybridized with P ^{32} labeled DNA probes. Two randomly generated probes and a gene-specific probe were used to estimate the genetic similarities between and among the strains in the study population. A total of 28 different restriction fragment migration types were detected by the probes used. Data obtained from the RFLP analysis was analysed by cluster analysis and multivariate statistical methods. A total of 7 clones groups were detected. Two of these appear to be major clones that comprise 35% of the population. This analysis demonstrates the lack of structure within Neisseria meningitidis due primarily to a heterogenous population and the lack of geographic segregation. The potential utility of this technique as a tool in epidemiologic surveillance is addressed. Further work is needed in the evaluation of RFLP analysis in the taxonomy bacteria.

Williams, Shelley Diane

84

Simultaneous splicing of multiple DNA fragments in one PCR reaction  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid and simultaneous splicing of multiple DNA fragments is frequently required in many recombinant DNA projects. However, former overlap extension PCRs, the most common methods for splicing DNA fragments, are not really simultaneous fusing of multiple DNA fragments. Results We performed an optimized method which allowed simultaneous splicing of multiple DNA fragments in one PCR reaction. Shorter outermost primers were prior mixed with other PCR components at the same time. A sequential thermo cycling program was adopted for overlap extension reaction and amplification of spliced DNA. Annealing temperature was relatively higher in the overlap extension reaction stage than in the fused DNA amplification. Finally we successfully harvested target PCR products deriving from fusion of two to seven DNA fragments after 5–10 cycles for overlap extension reaction and then 30 cycles for fused DNA amplification. Conclusions Our method provides more rapid, economical and handy approach to accurately splice multiple DNA fragments. We believe that our simultaneous splicing overlap extension PCR can be used to fuse more than seven DNA fragments as long as the DNA polymerase can match. PMID:24015676

2013-01-01

85

Differentiation of rice tungro bacilliform virus strains by restriction analysis and DNA hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) is one of the two viruses that cause tungro disease. Four RTBV strains maintained in the greenhouse for 4 years, G1, G2, Ic, and L, were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the native viral DNA. Although strains G1 and Ic had identical restriction patterns when cleaved with Pst1, BamHI, EcoRI, and

P. Q. Cabauatan; M. Arboleda; Ossmat Azzam

1998-01-01

86

Genetic identification of cloned fragments of bacteriophage T4 DNA and complementation by some clones containing early T4 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophage T4 DNA containing cytosine has been obtained from cells infected with phage mutant in genes 42, 56,denA anddenB. This DNA can be cut by a number of restriction endonucleases. Fragments obtained by digestion of this DNA withEcoRI have been cloned using the vector plasmid pCR1.

Tom Mattson; Griet Van Houwe; Antoinette Bolle; Gerald Selzer; Richard Epstein

1977-01-01

87

Allopatric Origin of Sympatric Populations of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) as Revealed by Mitochondrial-DNA Restriction Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.-In the paper, restriction-fragment length polymorphisms in mitochondria1 DNA (mtDNA) were studied to test the hypothesis that sympatric populations of lake whitefish in the Allegash basin have recently diverged through sympatric speciation. Thirteen restriction enzymes were used to analyze mtDNA of 1 56 specimens representing 1 3 populations from eastern Canada and northern Maine where normal,and dwarf phenotypes,of whitefish exist

Louis Bernatchez; Julian J. Dodson

2007-01-01

88

Use of randomly cloned DNA fragments for identification of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.  

PubMed

Randomly cloned fragments of DNA from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were used as hybridization probes for differentiation of B. thetaiotaomicron from closely related Bacteroides species. HindIII digestion fragments of DNA from B. thetaiotaomicron (type strain) were inserted into plasmid pBR322 and labeled with [alpha-32P]dCTP by nick translation. These labeled plasmids were screened for hybridization to HindIII digests of chromosomal DNA from type strains of the following human colonic Bacteroides species: B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus, reference strain 3452-A (formerly part of B. distasonis), Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides eggerthii, and reference strain B5-21 (formerly B. fragilis subsp. a). Two of the five cloned fragments hybridized only to DNA from B. thetaiotaomicron. Each of these two fragments hybridized to the same DNA restriction fragment in five strains of B. thetaiotaomicron other than the strain from which the DNA was cloned. One of the cloned fragments (pBT2) was further tested for specificity by determining its ability to hybridize to DNA from 65 additional strains of colonic Bacteroides. PMID:6833179

Salyers, A A; Lynn, S P; Gardner, J F

1983-04-01

89

A method for selective PCR-amplification of genomic DNA fragments (SAGF method)  

SciTech Connect

A method is suggested for dividing into individual sets of the complex mixtures of fragments obtained by DNA cleavage with type IIS and IIN restriction endonucleases producing single-stranded termini with different sequences at the DNA fragment ends. The method is based on the ligation of short double-stranded adapters with single-stranded ends complementary to termini of the selected set of fragments followed by PCR-amplification with the primer representing one of the adapter chains. Using endonucleases BcoKI and Bli736I, recognizing sequences CTCTTC and GGTCTC and producing three- and four nucleotide 5{prime}-termini, respectively, it has been shown that amplification of a set of fragments occurs only upon attachment of the adapters to the DNA fragments with DNA-ligase. Several possible applications of the SAGF method are suggested: obtaining individual bands in DNA fingerprinting; reducing the kinetic complexity of DNA in representative difference analysis (RDA method) of complex genomes; cataloging of DNA fragments; construction of physical genome maps. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Zheleznaya, L.A.; Menzenyuk, O.Y. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Matvienko, N.N. [Branch of Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic, Pushchino (Russian Federation); Matvienko, N.I. [Institute of Protein Research, Pushchino (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

90

Distribution of two DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) corresponding to Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) of the apo B gene in the Orang Asli (aborigines) of West Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and ninety five subjects of the Semai group of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia were examined for the distribution of Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) RFLPs of the apoB gene. Regions of apoB gene corresponding to nt 421 and 1981 representing these two Ags were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers of published sequences. Thr{sub 71} to Ile (Ag c/g) was detected as an ApaL I RFLP and Val{sub 591} to Ala (Ag al/d) by Alu I RFLP. DNA fragments were separated by 4% agarose gel electrophoresis and photographed over a UV transilluminator. The frequencies of Ag(d) (absence of ApaL I site) and Ag(d) (presence of Alu I site) were found to be 0.13 and 0.14, respectively, in the Orang Asli compared to frequencies of 0.30 and 0.45 in the Caucasian population. Distribution of the genotypes of these two polymorphisms was at Hardy-Weinberg equiilibrium.

Candlish, J.K.; Gajra, B; Saha, N. [National Univ. of Singapore, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)] [and others

1994-09-01

91

Species identification of Malayan Gaur, Kedah-Kelantan and Bali cattle using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a useful genetic marker that can be used for species identification. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene is a suitable mtDNA candidate gene for use in phylogenetic analyses due to its sequence variability, which makes it appropriate for comparisons at the subspecies, species, and genus levels. This study was conducted to develop a rapid molecular method for species identification of Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki), Kedah-Kelantan (KK) (Bos indicus), and Bali (Bos javanicus) cattle in Malaysia. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 8 Malayan gaurs, 30 KK, and 28 Bali cattle. A set of both specific and universal primers for the Cyt b gene were used in PCR amplification. DNA sequences obtained were then analyzed using BioEdit and Restriction Mapper softwares. The PCR products obtained from Cyt b gene amplification were then subjected to restriction enzyme digestion. The amplification, using both specific and universal primers, produced a 154- and a 603-bp fragment, respectively, in all three species. Two restriction enzymes, NlaIV and SspI, were used to obtain specific restriction profiles that allowed direct identification of Malayan gaur, KK, and Bali cattle. Our findings indicate that all three species can be identified separately using a combination of universal primers and the restriction enzyme SspI. PMID:24535867

Romaino, S M N; Fazly-Ann, Z A; Loo, S S; Hafiz, M M; Hafiz, M D; Iswadi, M I; Kashiani, P; Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Md-Zain, B M; Abas-Mazni, O

2014-01-01

92

Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation. PMID:24290644

Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

2014-04-01

93

Intermediate DNA at low added salt: DNA bubbles slow the diffusion of short DNA fragments  

E-print Network

We report a study of DNA (150 bp fragments) conformations in very low added salt $bubbles) which we postulate to form in AT-rich portions of the sequence, without the strands coming apart. Within the bubbles, DNA is locally stretched, while the whole molecule remains rod-like due to very low salt environment. Therefore, such intermediate DNA is elongated, in comparison to dsDNA, which accounts for its reduced $D_p$.

Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Ticijana Ban; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

2010-10-04

94

DNA restriction analysis of adenovirus prototypes 1 to 41  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary DNA restriction patterns of all known human adenovirus prototypes (1 to 41), ordered according to subgenera A to F, are presented for restriction endonucleases BamHI, BgIII, BstEII, HindIII, and SmaI. This catalogue is a prerequisite for typing of adenoviruses by DNA restriction analysis in diagnostic laboratories and for strain identification in reference laboratories. To determine the genetic relationship of

Th. Adrian; G. Wadell; J. C. Hierholzer; R. Wigand

1986-01-01

95

High-Sensitivity Stable-Isotope Probing by a Quantitative Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Protocol  

PubMed Central

Stable-isotope probing (SIP) has proved a valuable cultivation-independent tool for linking specific microbial populations to selected functions in various natural and engineered systems. However, application of SIP to microbial populations with relatively minor buoyant density increases, such as populations that utilize compounds as a nitrogen source, results in reduced resolution of labeled populations. We therefore developed a tandem quantitative PCR (qPCR)–TRFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) protocol that improves resolution of detection by quantifying specific taxonomic groups in gradient fractions. This method combines well-controlled amplification with TRFLP analysis to quantify relative taxon abundance in amplicon pools of FAM-labeled PCR products, using the intercalating dye EvaGreen to monitor amplification. Method accuracy was evaluated using mixtures of cloned 16S rRNA genes, DNA extracted from low- and high-G+C bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Rhodococcus, Variovorax, and Microbacterium), and DNA from soil microcosms amended with known amounts of genomic DNA from bacterial isolates. Improved resolution of minor shifts in buoyant density relative to TRFLP analysis alone was confirmed using well-controlled SIP analyses. PMID:22038597

Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.

2012-01-01

96

Biases for detecting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).  

PubMed

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of amplified ribosomal RNA genes is used for profiling microbial communities and sometimes for species richness and relative abundance estimation in environmental samples. However, the T-RFLP fingerprint may be subject to biases during the procedure, influencing the detection of real community structures in the environment. To investigate possible sources of T-RFLP bias, 18S rRNA gene clones derived from two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal sequences were combined in simple pairwise mixes to assess the effects of polymerase chain reaction cycle number, plant genomic DNA purification method and varying template ratio on the template-to-product ratio as measured by relative T-RF peak area. Varying cycle numbers indicated that amplification was still in the exponential phase at the cycle numbers lower than 18, so these small cycle numbers were used for the comparison of template-to-product quantities. Relative abundance estimated from T-RF peak ratios varied with different purification procedures, but the best results, closest to input ratios, were obtained by using phenol-chloroform purification. The presence of an excess of unpurified non-target plant genomic DNA generated a bias towards lower or overestimation of relative abundance. We conclude that a low number of amplification cycles and stringent DNA purification are necessary for accurate mixed sample analysis by T-RFLP. PMID:23839714

Watanarojanaporn, N; Longtonglang, A; Boonkerd, N; Tittabutr, P; Lee, J; Teaumroong, N

2014-01-01

97

Genetic Identification of the Main Opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a species-specific diagnosis. Due to the lack of other laboratory tests, a precise identification of these molds is thus notoriously difficult. In this study we aimed to develop a molecular biology tool to identify the main Mucorales involved in human pathology. A PCR strategy selectively amplifies genomic DNA from molds belonging to the genera Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, excluding human DNA and DNA from other filamentous fungi and yeasts. A subsequent digestion step identified the Mucorales at genus and species level. This technique was validated using both fungal cultures and retrospective analyses of clinical samples. By enabling a rapid and precise identification of Mucorales strains in infected patients, this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method should help clinicians to decide on the appropriate treatment, consequently decreasing the mortality of mucormycosis. PMID:16517858

Machouart, M.; Larché, J.; Burton, K.; Collomb, J.; Maurer, P.; Cintrat, A.; Biava, M. F.; Greciano, S.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Contet-Audonneau, N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gérard, A.; Fortier, B.

2006-01-01

98

Examination of mycoplasma gallisepticum strains using restriction endonuclease DNA analysis and DNA?DNA hybridisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from 10 Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains and one strain each of M. synoviae and M. gallinarum were studied by restriction endo?nuclease DNA analysis using endonucleases Eco RI, HindIII, BglII, BamHI, KpnI, and XhoI. Digestion patterns of DNA in agarose gels allowed easy differentiation of M. gallisepticum strains from different sources, while patterns obtained from one strain at the 6th and

S. H. Kleven; G. F. Browning; D. M. Bulach; E. Ghiocas; C. J. Morrow; K. G. Whithear

1988-01-01

99

Bacterial natural transformation by highly fragmented and damaged DNA  

PubMed Central

DNA molecules are continuously released through decomposition of organic matter and are ubiquitous in most environments. Such DNA becomes fragmented and damaged (often <100 bp) and may persist in the environment for more than half a million years. Fragmented DNA is recognized as nutrient source for microbes, but not as potential substrate for bacterial evolution. Here, we show that fragmented DNA molecules (?20 bp) that additionally may contain abasic sites, cross-links, or miscoding lesions are acquired by the environmental bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi through natural transformation. With uptake of DNA from a 43,000-y-old woolly mammoth bone, we further demonstrate that such natural transformation events include ancient DNA molecules. We find that the DNA recombination is RecA recombinase independent and is directly linked to DNA replication. We show that the adjacent nucleotide variations generated by uptake of short DNA fragments escape mismatch repair. Moreover, double-nucleotide polymorphisms appear more common among genomes of transformable than nontransformable bacteria. Our findings reveal that short and damaged, including truly ancient, DNA molecules, which are present in large quantities in the environment, can be acquired by bacteria through natural transformation. Our findings open for the possibility that natural genetic exchange can occur with DNA up to several hundreds of thousands years old. PMID:24248361

Overballe-Petersen, S?ren; Harms, Klaus; Orlando, Ludovic A. A.; Mayar, J. Victor Moreno; Rasmussen, Simon; Dahl, Tais W.; Rosing, Minik T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Brunak, S?ren; Inselmann, Sabrina; de Vries, Johann; Wackernagel, Wilfried; Pybus, Oliver G.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Johnsen, Pal Jarle; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Willerslev, Eske

2013-01-01

100

DNA fragmentation and sperm head morphometry in cat epididymal spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Sperm DNA fragmentation is an important parameter to assess sperm quality and can be a putative fertility predictor. Because the sperm head consists almost entirely of DNA, subtle differences in sperm head morphometry might be related to DNA status. Several techniques are available to analyze sperm DNA fragmentation, but they are labor-intensive and require expensive instrumentations. Recently, a kit (Sperm-Halomax) based on the sperm chromatin dispersion test and developed for spermatozoa of different species, but not for cat spermatozoa, became commercially available. The first aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of Sperm-Halomax assay, specifically developed for canine semen, for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal cat spermatozoa. For this purpose, DNA fragmentation indexes (DFIs) obtained with Sperm-Halomax and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether a correlation between DNA status, sperm head morphology, and morphometry assessed by computer-assisted semen analysis exists in cat epididymal spermatozoa. No differences were observed in DFIs obtained with Sperm-Halomax and TUNEL. This result indicates that Sperm-Halomax assay provides a reliable evaluation of DNA fragmentation of epididymal feline spermatozoa. The DFI seems to be independent from all the measured variables of sperm head morphology and morphometry. Thus, the evaluation of the DNA status of spermatozoa could effectively contribute to the completion of the standard analysis of fresh or frozen semen used in assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:25129872

Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Lange Consiglio, Anna; Faustini, Massimo; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

2014-10-15

101

Purification and cloning of DNA fragments fractionated on agarose gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of DNA fragments from acrylamide or agarose gels is a commonly used technique in the molecular biology laboratory.\\u000a This article describes a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive method of purifying DNA fractions from an agarose gel. The purified\\u000a DNA is suitable for use in a wide range of applications including ligation using DNA ligase. The procedure uses standard high-melting-temperature\\u000a agarose

Hugh G. Griffin; Michael J. Gasson

1995-01-01

102

Restriction map of the single-stranded DNA genome of Kilham rat virus strains 171, a nondefective parvovirus.  

PubMed Central

We constructed a physical map of Kilham rat virus strains 171 DNA by analyzing the sizes and locations of restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of the replicative-form viral DNA synthesized in vitro. BglI, KpnI, BamHI, SmaI, XhoI, and XorII did not appear to have any cleavage sites, whereas 11 other enzymes cleaved the genome at one to eight sites, and AluI generated more than 12 distinct fragments. The 30 restriction sites that were mapped were distributed randomly in the viral genome. A comparison of the restriction fragments of in vivo- and in vitro-replicated replicative-form DNAs showed that these DNAs were identical except in the size or configuration of the terminal fragments. Images PMID:6270368

Banerjee, P T; Rothrock, R; Mitra, S

1981-01-01

103

Differentiation by polymerase chain reaction — restriction fragment length polymorphism of some Oestridae larvae causing myiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of the most wide-spread Italian species of Oestridae larvae causing myiasis (Gasterophilus spp., Hypoderma bovis, Hypoderma lineatum, Oestrus ovis and Przhevalskiana silenus) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using conserved primers. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of amplicons was also carried out and their restriction profiles compared. A clear genetic difference between the

D Otranto; E Tarsitano; A Giangaspero; V Puccini

2000-01-01

104

Genomic representations using concatenates of Type IIB restriction endonuclease digestion fragments  

PubMed Central

We have developed a method for genomic representation using Type IIB restriction endonucleases. Representation by concatenation of restriction digests, or RECORD, is an approach to sample the fragments generated by cleavage with these enzymes. Here, we show that the RECORD libraries may be used for digital karyotyping and for pathogen identification by computational subtraction. PMID:15329383

Tengs, Torstein; LaFramboise, Thomas; Den, Robert B.; Hayes, David N.; Zhang, Jianhua; DebRoy, Saikat; Gentleman, Robert C.; O'Neill, Keith; Birren, Bruce; Meyerson, Matthew

2004-01-01

105

A Sex Chromosomal Restriction-Fragment-Length Marker Linked to Melanoma-Determining Tu Loci in Xiphophorus  

PubMed Central

In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

Schartl, M.

1988-01-01

106

Sperm DNA fragmentation in couples with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of sperm DNA fragmentation in couples with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and in those with no history of infertility or abortion. In this cohort study, 30 couples with RSA and 30 fertile couples as control group completed the demographic data questionnaires, and their semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards (September 2009-March 2010) for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation, using sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) technique. The percentage of morphologically normal sperm was significantly lower in RSA patients compared with control group (51.50 ± 11.60 versus 58.00 ± 9.05, P = 0.019), but not in other parameters. Additionally, the level of abnormal DNA fragmentation in the RSA group was significantly higher than in the control group (43.3% versus 16.7%, P = 0.024). Our results indicated a negative correlation between the number of sperm with progressive motility and DNA fragmentation (r = -0.613; P < 0.001). The sperm from men with a history of RSA had a higher incidence of DNA fragmentation and poor motility than those of the control group, indicating a possible relationship between idiopathic RSA and DNA fragmentation. PMID:23278374

Khadem, N; Poorhoseyni, A; Jalali, M; Akbary, A; Heydari, S T

2014-03-01

107

Epidemiology studies of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans of Japan by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Previous epidemiological studies of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in Japan showed that only C. neoformans var. neoformans is present and serotype A is the most common with frequencies in excess of 95%. A DNA fingerprinting method, using a genomic DNA probe (UT-4p), has become available recently which discriminates between individual isolates in a population that are morphologically and serologically indistinguishable. Fifty-two serotype A isolates of C. neoformans were obtained from three different institutions (in Nagasaki, Chiba, and Tokyo) in Japan. Only two of these strains were isolated from AIDS patients and one from pigeon excreta. Of the nine reported finger-printing patterns in serotype A, only three types (IV, V and VII) were observed in Japanese isolates. Pattern IV was almost exclusively observed in Nagasaki isolates (21/22) with only one of pattern VII. In Chiba, however, patterns VII and IV appeared to be equally distributed. In Tokyo, patterns IV and V (which included two isolates from AIDS patients) were observed at similar frequencies. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of four isolates of serotype AD showed a typical serotype A pattern which also contained a serotype D-specific band. This finding suggests the independence of serotype AD. These data could enhance the survey of the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. PMID:7876673

Kohno, S; Varma, A; Kwon-Chung, K J; Hara, K

1994-12-01

108

Cell nucleus and DNA fragmentation are not required for apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is the predominant form of cell death and occurs under a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Cells undergoing apoptotic cell death reveal a characteristic sequence of cytologi- cal alterations including membrane blebbing and nu- clear and cytoplasmic condensation. Activation of an endonuclease which cleaves genomic DNA into inter- nucleosomal DNA fragments is considered to be the hallmark of

Klaus Schulze-Osthoff; Herming Walczak; Peter H. Krammer

1994-01-01

109

A restriction fragment length polymorphism results in a nonconservative amino acid substitution encoded within the first exon of the human lysyl oxidase gene  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA covering most of the coding sequence for human lysyl oxidase was used to screen, by Southern blot analysis, genomic DNA from circulating lymphocytes obtained from unrelated, apparently normal individuals. A heritable restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within a PstI restriction site was detected in 36% of individuals screened (a total of 72 chromosomes were analyzed). The major allele was represented as a 1.7-kb PstI restriction fragment. The minor allele was detected as 1.4 and 0.3kb restriction fragments. Lambda phage-DNA recombinants were isolated from a human lung fibroblast genomic DNA library using the human lysyl oxidase cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis of several selected phage recombinants revealed that 83% of the coding sequence of lysyl oxidase was localized in four separate exons. Analysis of the coding sequence within exon 1, the most 5{prime} exon within the lysyl oxidase gene, revealed that the PstI RFLP was due to a G {r_arrow} A transition resulting in a nonconservative arginine to glutamine substitution proximal to a propeptide cleavage domain encoded by exon 1 of the lysyl oxidase gene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Csiszar, K.; Mariani, T.J.; Gosin, J.S.; Deak, S.B.; Boyd, C.D. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1993-05-01

110

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay for Detection of gyrA Mutations Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Campylobacter coli  

PubMed Central

A fragment of the gyrA gene was sequenced from 34 isolates of Campylobacter coli, including 23 isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates examined by DNA sequencing carried a point mutation at position Thr-86 on the gyrA gene product, involving the replacement of Thr-86 by Ile. A combined PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using RsaI was developed to detect this mutation. PMID:15561873

Alonso, Rodrigo; Mateo, Estibaliz; Girbau, Cecilia; Churruca, Estibaliz; Martinez, Irati; Fernandez-Astorga, Aurora

2004-01-01

111

Pig mitochondrial DNA: Polymorphism, restriction map orientation, and sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in pigs were analyzed using 18 enzymes which recognize six nucleotides and 1 four-nucleotide-recognizing enzyme. Pigs including Taiwan native breeds and miniature strains maintained in Japan were examined in this study; four commercial breeds of pigs and Japanese wild boars have been investigated earlier [Watanabe, T., et al. (1985). Biochem. Genet.23:105]. mtDNA

Tomomasa Watanabe; Yukimasa Hayashi; Jun Kimura; Yukio Yasuda; Naruya Saitou; Takeshi Tomita; Nobuaki Ogasawara I

1986-01-01

112

Differentiation among three species of bovine Thelazia (Nematoda: Thelaziidae) by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism of the first internal transcribed spacer ITS1 (rDNA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thelaziagulosa, Thelaziarhodesi and Thelaziaskrjabini are nematodes transmitted by some species of Musca (Diptera: Muscidae) which cause ocular infestations in bovines. Differences in the rDNA of these species were determined by a PCR using different sets of relatively conserved oligonucleotide primers. PCR on the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) revealed differences in size in Thelazia species (437 bp for T. gulosa,

Domenico Otranto; Elvira Tarsitano; Donato Traversa; Annunziata Giangaspero; Francesca De Luca; Vezio Puccini

2001-01-01

113

Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene.  

PubMed

An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Silva, Jailthon Carlos da; Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Pires e Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

2014-06-01

114

Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

Soares, Vitor Yamashiro Rocha; da Silva, Jailthon Carlos; da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e; Santos, Marcos Persio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

2014-01-01

115

Restriction fragment length polymorphism caused by a deletion involving Alu sequences within the human. alpha. sub 2 -plasmin inhibitor gene  

SciTech Connect

A restriction fragment length polymorphism within the human {alpha}{sub 2}-plasmin inhibitor gene has been detected by Southern blot hybridization using an {alpha}{sub 2}-plasmin inhibitor cDNA probe. This restriction fragment length polymorphism can be attributed to the presence of two alleles, A and B, that are distributed in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with frequencies of 73.5% and 2.65%, respectively, in 66 unrelated Caucasian individuals or with frequencies of 51.0% and 49.0%, respectively, in 50 unrelated Japanese individuals. The minor allele, B, is due to a deletion of about 720 base pairs in intron 8 of the {alpha}{sub 2}-plasmin inhibitor gene. Sequence analysis of the deletion junction in allele B and the corresponding regions of allele A demonstrated the presence of oppositely oriented Alu sequences at the 5{prime} and 3{prime} deletion boundaries. These data suggest that this restriction fragment length polymorphism was caused by intrastrand recombination between Alu sequences.

Miura, Osamu; Sugahara, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Hirosawa, Shinsaku; Aoki, Nobuo (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan))

1989-06-13

116

Okazaki Fragment Processing-independent Role for Human Dna2 Enzyme during DNA Replication*S  

E-print Network

evidence of Dna2 participating in this process is lacking. During OF processing, flap endonuclease Okazaki Fragment Processing-independent Role for Human Dna2 Enzyme during DNA Replication, and the **Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 633110 Background: Dna2

Monnat, Ray

117

Typing of Rhizobia by PCR DNA Fingerprinting and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Chromosomal and Symbiotic Gene Regions: Application toRhizobium leguminosarum and Its Different Biovars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of 43 strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars viciae, trifolii, and phaseoli was per- formed by two methodologies based on PCR amplification, i.e., PCR DNA fingerprinting of interrepeat sequencesandrestrictionfragmentlengthpolymorphism(RFLP)analysisofPCR-amplifiedchromosomaland symbiotic gene regions. Groupings generated by PCR DNAfingerprinting with either extragenic palindromic repetitive primers or two different single random primers were correlated with similar levels of resolution. Although less discriminating, PCR-RFLP

GISELE LAGUERRE; PATRICK MAVINGUI; MARIE-REINE ALLARD; MARIE-PAULE CHARNAY; PHILIPPE LOUVRIER; SYLVIE-ISABELLE MAZURIER; LIONEL RIGOTTIER-GOIS

1996-01-01

118

Restriction fragment length polymorphism in the cytadhesin P1 gene of human clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNA obtained from Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates spanning a 30-year period was analyzed for the presence of polymorphism in their P1 cytadhesin genes. All clinical isolates expressed a 170-kilodalton P1 protein that reacted with anti-P1 monoclonal antibodies. However, Southern blot analysis of specific M. pneumoniae isolates with subclones of the P1 structural gene revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism, permitting the classification of their P1 genes into two distinct categories. Images PMID:1971263

Dallo, S F; Horton, J R; Su, C J; Baseman, J B

1990-01-01

119

Detection of Methanotroph Diversity on Roots of Submerged Rice Plants by Molecular Retrieval of pmoA, mmoX, mxaF, and 16S rRNA and Ribosomal DNA, Including pmoA-Based Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profiling  

PubMed Central

The diversity of methanotrophic bacteria associated with roots of submerged rice plants was assessed using cultivation-independent techniques. The research focused mainly on the retrieval of pmoA, which encodes the ? subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase. A novel methanotroph-specific community-profiling method was established using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique. The T-RFLP profiles clearly revealed a more complex root-associated methanotrophic community than did banding patterns obtained by pmoA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The comparison of pmoA-based T-RFLP profiles obtained from rice roots and bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms suggested that there was a substantially higher abundance of type I methanotrophs on rice roots than in the bulk soil. These were affiliated to the genera Methylomonas, Methylobacter, Methylococcus, and to a novel type I methanotroph sublineage. By contrast, type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group could be detected with high relative signal intensity in both soil and root compartments. Phylogenetic treeing analyses and a set of substrate-diagnostic amino acid residues provided evidence that a novel pmoA lineage was detected. This branched distinctly from all currently known methanotrophs. To examine whether the retrieval of pmoA provided a complete view of root-associated methanotroph diversity, we also assessed the diversity detectable by recovery of genes coding for subunits of soluble methane monooxygenase (mmoX) and methanol dehydrogenase (mxaF). In addition, both 16S rRNA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were retrieved using a PCR primer set specific to type I methanotrophs. The overall methanotroph diversity detected by recovery of mmoX, mxaF, and 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA corresponded well to the diversity detectable by retrieval of pmoA. PMID:11526021

Horz, Hans-Peter; Yimga, Merlin Tchawa; Liesack, Werner

2001-01-01

120

Detection of methanotroph diversity on roots of submerged rice plants by molecular retrieval of pmoA, mmoX, mxaF, and 16S rRNA and ribosomal DNA, including pmoA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling.  

PubMed

The diversity of methanotrophic bacteria associated with roots of submerged rice plants was assessed using cultivation-independent techniques. The research focused mainly on the retrieval of pmoA, which encodes the alpha subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase. A novel methanotroph-specific community-profiling method was established using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique. The T-RFLP profiles clearly revealed a more complex root-associated methanotrophic community than did banding patterns obtained by pmoA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The comparison of pmoA-based T-RFLP profiles obtained from rice roots and bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms suggested that there was a substantially higher abundance of type I methanotrophs on rice roots than in the bulk soil. These were affiliated to the genera Methylomonas, Methylobacter, Methylococcus, and to a novel type I methanotroph sublineage. By contrast, type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group could be detected with high relative signal intensity in both soil and root compartments. Phylogenetic treeing analyses and a set of substrate-diagnostic amino acid residues provided evidence that a novel pmoA lineage was detected. This branched distinctly from all currently known methanotrophs. To examine whether the retrieval of pmoA provided a complete view of root-associated methanotroph diversity, we also assessed the diversity detectable by recovery of genes coding for subunits of soluble methane monooxygenase (mmoX) and methanol dehydrogenase (mxaF). In addition, both 16S rRNA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were retrieved using a PCR primer set specific to type I methanotrophs. The overall methanotroph diversity detected by recovery of mmoX, mxaF, and 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA corresponded well to the diversity detectable by retrieval of pmoA. PMID:11526021

Horz, H P; Yimga, M T; Liesack, W

2001-09-01

121

Restriction fragment length polymorphism based phylogenetic analysis of Avena L.  

PubMed

We report a molecular approach to the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Avena diploid and polyploid species based on RFLP detected with three cDNA probes of nuclear genes belonging to multigenic families (low pI ?-amylase, avenin, and globulin). All the probes were highly informative in the detection of polymorphism between oat species. Associations between species were determined from cluster (UPGMA) analysis based on distance values calculated from RFLP data separately for each of the two levels of ploidy. Results were in general agreement with morphology based phylogenetic analyses, confirming the large differentiation among A and C genomes in the evolution of diploid species and the genetic homogeneity among A. brevis, A. strigosa, and A. nuda and the recently discovered A. atlantica. A certain divergence was observed between two endemic species (A. canariensis and A. damascena) and the other diploid species with the A genome. The analysis of tetraploid species relationships confirms the differentiation of the barbata complex (A. wiestii, A. barbata, A. abyssinica, and A. vaviloviana) from the maroccana-murphyi-agadiriana group, which, despite some similarities in morphological and biochemical traits, seems to have accumulated deep genetic differences along its evolutionary pathway. PMID:18470246

Alicchio, R; Aranci, L; Conte, L

1995-12-01

122

DNA fragment encoding human IL-1beta 163-171 peptide enhances the immune responses elicited in mice by DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease.  

PubMed

DNA vaccine has been tested for protection against foot-and-mouth disease. However, the relatively low efficacy of DNA vaccine in inducing immune responses in large animals has restricted its practical use. Interleukin-1 plays an essential role in amplifying both the cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens, and may therefore represent a good candidate as an adjuvant of DNA vaccines. Since the inflammatory activity of IL-I may restrict its application in DNA vaccine treatment, we explored the possibilities of augmenting immune responses without unwanted inflammatory effects using the IL-1beta fragment (amino acids (aa) 163-171), which is essential for IL-1 receptor-1 binding. The DNA fragment encoding the human IL-1beta fragment (aa 163-171) was fused to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) DNA vaccine, and injected into mice to analyse its immune response. Compared with control mice receiving FMDV DNA vaccine alone, significant increases in the FMDV-specific antibody response and also in T cell proliferation were observed in mice receiving IL-1beta (163-171)-FMDV. These results suggested that DNA fragment encoding IL-1beta 163-171 peptide might represent a good candidate for an adjuvant of FMDV DNA vaccine. PMID:15727290

Shao, H J; Chen, L; Su, Y B

2005-01-01

123

Fragmentation dynamics of DNA sequence duplications  

E-print Network

Motivated by empirical observations of algebraic duplicated sequence length distributions in a broad range of natural genomes, we analytically formulate and solve a class of simple discrete duplication/substitution models that generate steady-states sharing this property. Continuum equations are derived for arbitrary time-independent duplication length source distribution, a limit that we show can be mapped directly onto certain fragmentation models that have been intensively studied by physicists in recent years. Quantitative agreement with simulation is demonstrated. These models account for the algebraic form and exponent of naturally occuring duplication length distributions without the need for fine-tuning of parameters.

M. V. Koroteev; J. Miller

2013-04-04

124

A new thermostable DNA polymerase mixture for efficient amplification of long DNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermostable DNA polymerases have been used for amplification of DNA fragments since the invention of PCR. The constraint\\u000a on the maximum size of the amplified fragments can be solved to certain level by the use of unbalanced mixtures of non-proofreading\\u000a and proofreading thermostable DNA polymerases. In this study, we tested the use of a mixtures of N-terminal deletional variant

K. G. Davalieva; G. D. Efremov

2010-01-01

125

Reverse restriction fragment length polymorphism (RRFLP): A novel technique for genotyping infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) live attenuated vaccines.  

PubMed

A novel technique, the reverse restriction fragment length polymorphism (RRFLP) assay, was developed as a means of detecting specific informative polymorphic sites in the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genome. During the RRFLP procedure, DNA is digested with restriction enzymes targeting an informative polymorphic site and then used as template in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers flanking the informative region. The analysis of the DeltaC(t) values obtained from digested and undigested template DNA provides the genotype of the DNA. In this study, the RRFLP assay was applied as a method to differentiate between the two types of infectious laryngotracheitis virus attenuated live vaccines. Sequence analysis of ILTV vaccines revealed an informative polymorphic site in the 5'-non-coding region of the infected cell protein (ICP4) gene. Unique AvaI and AlwI restriction enzyme sites were identified in the tissue culture origin and chicken embryo origin attenuated vaccines, respectively. These two informative polymorphic sites were used in a RRFLP assay to genotype rapidly and reproducibly ILTV attenuated live vaccines. PMID:19433109

Callison, Scott A; Riblet, Sylva M; Rodríguez-Avila, Andres; García, Maricarmen

2009-09-01

126

The 40-kDa subunit of DNA fragmentation factor induces DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the reconstitution of a path- way that leads to the apoptotic changes in nuclei by using recombinant DNA fragmentation factor (DFF), a heterodimeric protein of 40 and 45 kDa. Coexpression of DFF40 and DFF45 is required to generate recombinant DFF, which becomes activated when DFF45 is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFF45 dissociate from the

Xuesong Liu; Peng Li; Piotr Widlak; Hua Zou; Xu Luo; WILLIAM T. GARRARD; Xiaodong Wang

1998-01-01

127

Selective microbial genomic DNA isolation using restriction endonucleases.  

PubMed

To improve the metagenomic analysis of complex microbiomes, we have repurposed restriction endonucleases as methyl specific DNA binding proteins. As an example, we use DpnI immobilized on magnetic beads. The ten minute extraction technique allows specific binding of genomes containing the DpnI Gm6ATC motif common in the genomic DNA of many bacteria including ?-proteobacteria. Using synthetic genome mixtures, we demonstrate 80% recovery of Escherichia coli genomic DNA even when only femtogram quantities are spiked into 10 µg of human DNA background. Binding is very specific with less than 0.5% of human DNA bound. Next Generation Sequencing of input and enriched synthetic mixtures results in over 100-fold enrichment of target genomes relative to human and plant DNA. We also show comparable enrichment when sequencing complex microbiomes such as those from creek water and human saliva. The technique can be broadened to other restriction enzymes allowing for the selective enrichment of trace and unculturable organisms from complex microbiomes and the stratification of organisms according to restriction enzyme enrichment. PMID:25279840

Barnes, Helen E; Liu, Guohong; Weston, Christopher Q; King, Paula; Pham, Long K; Waltz, Shannon; Helzer, Kimberly T; Day, Laura; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T; Forsyth, R Allyn

2014-01-01

128

Selective Microbial Genomic DNA Isolation Using Restriction Endonucleases  

PubMed Central

To improve the metagenomic analysis of complex microbiomes, we have repurposed restriction endonucleases as methyl specific DNA binding proteins. As an example, we use DpnI immobilized on magnetic beads. The ten minute extraction technique allows specific binding of genomes containing the DpnI Gm6ATC motif common in the genomic DNA of many bacteria including ?-proteobacteria. Using synthetic genome mixtures, we demonstrate 80% recovery of Escherichia coli genomic DNA even when only femtogram quantities are spiked into 10 µg of human DNA background. Binding is very specific with less than 0.5% of human DNA bound. Next Generation Sequencing of input and enriched synthetic mixtures results in over 100-fold enrichment of target genomes relative to human and plant DNA. We also show comparable enrichment when sequencing complex microbiomes such as those from creek water and human saliva. The technique can be broadened to other restriction enzymes allowing for the selective enrichment of trace and unculturable organisms from complex microbiomes and the stratification of organisms according to restriction enzyme enrichment. PMID:25279840

Barnes, Helen E.; Liu, Guohong; Weston, Christopher Q.; King, Paula; Pham, Long K.; Waltz, Shannon; Helzer, Kimberly T.; Day, Laura; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T.; Forsyth, R. Allyn

2014-01-01

129

Reconstructing DNA replication kinetics from small DNA fragments Haiyang Zhang and John Bechhoefer*  

E-print Network

in cell-free embryos of the often-used frog Xenopus laevis have yielded enough data to begin to explore coalescence DNA replicates only once per cell cycle; two replicated domains that meet thus coalesceReconstructing DNA replication kinetics from small DNA fragments Haiyang Zhang and John Bechhoefer

Bechhoefer, John

130

Detection of linkage between quantitative trait loci and restriction fragment length polymorphisms using inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In segregating populations, large numbers of individuals are needed to detect linkage between markers, such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and quantitative trait loci (QTL), limiting the potential use of such markers for detecting linkage. Fewer individuals from inbred lines are needed to detect linkage. Simulation data were used to test the utility of two methods to detect linkage:

S. P. Simpson

1989-01-01

131

A restriction fragment length polymorphism based linkage map of a diploid Avena recombinant inbred line population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 100 F6-derived recombinant inbred lines was developed from the cross of two diploid (2n = 14) Avena accessions, CI3815 (A. strigosa) and CI1994 (A. wiestii). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes previously mapped in other grass species were used to develop a framework linkage map suitable for compara- tive genetics. Nine linkage groups were identified among the

C. A. Kremer; M. Lee; J. B. Holland

2001-01-01

132

MINI-REVIEW Advances in the use of terminal restriction fragment length  

E-print Network

polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis (Liu et al. 1997). These fingerprinting techniques have been successfully used frequently used high- throughput fingerprinting methods. Because of its relative simplicity, T-RFLP analysisMINI-REVIEW Advances in the use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T

Forney, Larry J.

133

MINI-REVIEW Advances in the use of terminal restriction fragment length  

E-print Network

restriction fragment length polymor- phism (T-RFLP) analysis is a popular high-throughput fingerprinting polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis (Liu et al. 1997). These fingerprinting techniques have been successfully used fingerprinting methods. Because of its relative simplicity, T-RFLP analysis has been applied to the analysis

Abdo, Zaid

134

Community terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms reveal insights into the diversity and dynamics of leaf endophytic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Plant endophytic bacteria play an important role benefiting plant growth or being pathogenic to plants or organisms that consume those plants. Multiple species of bacteria have been found co-inhabiting plants, both cultivated and wild, with viruses and fungi. For these reasons, a general understanding of plant endophytic microbial communities and their diversity is necessary. A key issue is how the distributions of these bacteria vary with location, with plant species, with individual plants and with plant growing season. Results Five common plant species were collected monthly for four months in the summer of 2010, with replicates from four different sampling sites in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma, USA. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from ground, washed plant leaf samples, and fragments of the bacterial 16S rDNA genes were amplified for analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). We performed mono-digestion T-RFLP with restriction endonuclease DdeI, to reveal the structures of leaf endophytic bacterial communities, to identify the differences between plant-associated bacterial communities in different plant species or environments, and to explore factors affecting the bacterial distribution. We tested the impacts of three major factors on the leaf endophytic bacterial communities, including host plant species, sampling dates and sampling locations. Conclusions Results indicated that all of the three factors were significantly related (??=?0.05) to the distribution of leaf endophytic bacteria, with host species being the most important, followed by sampling dates and sampling locations. PMID:23286760

2013-01-01

135

Calcium-activated DNA fragmentation kills immature thymocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid hormones kill immature thymocytes by activating a self-destructive process that involves exten- sive DNA fragmentation. It has been demonstrated that thymocyte suicide is dependent on an early, sustained increase in cytosolic Ca2 concentration, and new protein synthesis, but the biochemical lesion that leads to cell death has not been established. To determine whether endonuclease activation or activation of another

DAVID J. MCCONKEY; PIA HARTZELL; PIERLUIGI NICOTERA; STEN ORRENIUS

136

Development of mass spectrometry for rapid detection of DNA fragments  

SciTech Connect

Identifying the presence of a specific DNA fragment is becoming increasingly critical in medicine, law enforcement, consumer safety, and other applications. Regions in DNA that are diagnostic for a targeted genetic disease, individual, or microorganism are amplified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or other reactions. These products, which contain a specific number of nucleotide units, are currently analyzed by electrophoresis or hybridization. Mass spectrometry has the potential of characterizing the PCR products faster and more confidently than these methods. We have been investigating matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry for the detection of DNA fragments, with the goal of developing an analytical method that can be used to screen many samples quickly and reliably. We have demonstrated the efficacy of this approach by detecting PCR products isolated from both human and microbial samples. We are currently investigating approaches for improving sample preparation, enhancing ionization, extending mass range, and increasing mass resolution.

Buchanan, M.V.; Hurst, G.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-12-31

137

The immunomodulating agent gliotoxin causes genomic DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Gliotoxin, a member of the class of secondary fungal metabolites characterized by the presence of an epipolythiodioxopiperazine ring, caused fragmentation of spleen cell DNA as observed by flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis. Gliotoxin was found to cause substantial double-stranded DNA breakage in spleen cells which was dose- and time-dependent. The ability of gliotoxin to cause DNA breakage was also found to be specific to cell type. DNA breakage occurred in all cell types in which gliotoxin inhibited proliferation and so provides a general explanation as to how gliotoxin prevents cell proliferation. Other results showed that gliotoxin bound to a similar extent to both sensitive and resistant cells, indicating that differential uptake is not a likely mechanism to explain cell type selectivity. The results are discussed in terms of a mechanism for gliotoxin action involving genomic DNA as the central target. PMID:2441247

Braithwaite, A W; Eichner, R D; Waring, P; Müllbacher, A

1987-01-01

138

Identification of acetic acid bacteria by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR-amplified fragment of the gene coding for 16S rRNA.  

PubMed

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) irreversibly spoil wines and represent a serious problem. Limited studies on the ecology of AAB during winemaking have been done due to the lack of rapid and precise techniques for their identification. RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified fragment of 16S rDNA was performed on AAB reference strains. The amplified rDNAs were approximately 870-bp long for all AAB species while no amplicons were detected for lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Out of the four restriction enzymes tested, TaqI was the most efficient one and divided the studied AAB into six groups. However, complete differentiation among collection strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconoacetobacter hansenii was not possible. PMID:10886617

Poblet, M; Rozès, N; Guillamón, J M; Mas, A

2000-07-01

139

Anisotropic Brownian motion in ordered phases of DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching, we investigate the Brownian motion of DNA rod-like fragments in two distinct anisotropic phases with a local nematic symmetry. The height of the measurement volume ensures the averaging of the anisotropy of the in-plane diffusive motion parallel or perpendicular to the local nematic director in aligned domains. Still, as shown in using a model specifically designed to handle such a situation and predicting a non-Gaussian shape for the bleached spot as fluorescence recovery proceeds, the two distinct diffusion coefficients of the DNA particles can be retrieved from data analysis. In the first system investigated (a ternary DNA-lipid lamellar complex), the magnitude and anisotropy of the diffusion coefficient of the DNA fragments confined by the lipid bilayers are obtained for the first time. In the second, binary DNA-solvent system, the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient is found to decrease markedly as DNA concentration is increased from isotropic to cholesteric phase. In addition, the diffusion coefficient anisotropy measured within cholesteric domains in the phase coexistence region increases with concentration, and eventually reaches a high value in the cholesteric phase. PMID:22270455

Dobrindt, J; Rodrigo Teixeira da Silva, E; Alves, C; Oliveira, C L P; Nallet, F; Andreoli de Oliveira, E; Navailles, L

2012-01-01

140

A new thermostable DNA polymerase mixture for efficient amplification of long DNA fragments.  

PubMed

The thermostable DNA polymerases have been used for amplification of DNA fragments since the invention of PCR. The constraint on the maximum size of the amplified fragments can be solved to certain level by the use of unbalanced mixtures of non-proofreading and proofreading thermostable DNA polymerases. In this study, we tested the use of a mixtures of N-terminal deletional variant of Taq polymerase - Klentaq278 and Tne polymerase from Thermotoga neapolitana. Klentaq278 and Tne polymerase genes were cloned and expressed in different expression vectors under tac promoter. The most efficient ratio of Klentaq278/Tne polymerase for amplification was 10 : 1. The polymerase mixture of Klentaq278 and Tne polymerase is very effective in amplification of DNA fragments for up to 8 kb and is useful addition to a DNA polymerases used in long-range PCR. PMID:20391772

Davalieva, K G; Efremov, G D

2010-01-01

141

DNA fingerprinting by infrequent-restriction-site amplification.  

PubMed Central

Identification of bacterial strains by DNA fingerprinting facilitates epidemiologic studies and improves disease control. For some species of organisms, no typing method is available; for others, typing methods are tedious. We developed a method of amplifying DNA sequences flanking infrequent restriction sites by PCR and used the method to produce strain-specific electrophoretic patterns from crude bacterial lysates. This method of fingerprinting is rapid, sensitive, and widely applicable. Identical enzymes, adaptors, primers, and PCR conditions were used to characterize 32 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare isolates, 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, and 4 Staphylococcus aureus isolates. PMID:8880485

Mazurek, G H; Reddy, V; Marston, B J; Haas, W H; Crawford, J T

1996-01-01

142

Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA  

PubMed Central

A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources. PMID:12089057

Alippi, Adriana M.; López, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario

2002-01-01

143

Appearance in Europe of Naegleria fowleri displaying the Australian type of restriction-fragment-length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time the isolation in Europe ofNaegleria fowleri showing a type of restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) usually found in Australia. The presence of this type as well as the European type fluctuated with time in the cooling waters of the nuclear power station investigated. Two possible explanations for the appearance of the AustralianN. fowleri type in Europe

Pierre Pernin; Johan F. De Jonckheere

1992-01-01

144

Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and variation in electrophoretic karyotype in Naegleria fowleri from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains ofNaegleria fowleri isolated in Japan from two different places were found to differ in electro-phoretic karyotype and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) both from each other and from strains isolated on other continents. Using the Wagmer parsimony method on the RFLP, we found that the Japanese isolates are most closely related to the Australian isolates and most distinct from the European

Johan F. De Jonckheere; Kenji Yagita; Takuro Endo

1992-01-01

145

A framework linkage map of bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon  ×  transvaalensis ) based on single-dose restriction fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the first detailed linkage maps of two bermudagrass species, Cynodon dactylon (T89) and Cynodon transvaalensis (T574), based on single-dose restriction fragments (SDRFs). The mapping population consisted of 113 F1 progeny of a cross\\u000a between the two parents. Loci were generated using 179 bermudagrass genomic clones and 50 heterologous cDNAs from Pennisetum and rice. The map of T89

C. M. Bethel; E. B. Sciara; J. C. Estill; J. E. Bowers; W. Hanna; A. H. Paterson

2006-01-01

146

A non-radioactive method for mapping restriction fragment length polymorphic genetic markers in Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed

A non-radioactive method for in situ hybridisation of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphic (RFLP) markers to the polytene chromosome of Anopheles gambiae, the important malaria vector, which yielded good readable quality of chromosomal bands is reported. The methodology adopted was a Biotin-Streptavidin-Alkaline Phosphatase system which yielded fluorescent signals when stained with dyes such as Nitro Blue Tetrazolium and Bromo Chloro Indolyl Phosphate. PMID:10783765

Kumar, N P

1999-10-01

147

Variation in Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms among Serial Isolates from Patients with Trichophyton rubrum Infection  

PubMed Central

Molecular genotyping of strains of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes from patients with onychomycosis of the toes was performed to ascertain whether the fungal genotype changes over the course of time as sequential samples were obtained from patients receiving antifungal therapy and during follow-up. Sixty-six serial strains of T. rubrum and 11 strains of T. mentagrophytes were obtained from 20 patients (16 patients with T. rubrum, 4 with T. mentagrophytes) who were treated with oral antifungal therapy and observed over periods of up to 36 months. These strains were screened for genetic variation by hybridization of EcoRI-digested genomic DNAs with a probe amplified from the small-subunit (18S) ribosomal DNA and adjacent internal transcribed spacer regions. A total of five restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types were observed among 66 strains of T. rubrum. Two major RFLP types, differentiated by one band shift, represented 68% of the samples. None of the patients had a unique genotype. More than one RFLP type was often observed from a single patient (same nail) over a period of 1, 2, or 3 years, even in cases that did not appear cured at any time. Samples taken from different nails of the same patient had either the same or a different genotype. The genotypic variation did not correspond to any detectable phenotypic variation. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between the efficacy of the treatment administered and the genotype observed. While the DNA region studied distinguished among T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and T. tonsurans, intraspecific RFLP variation was observed for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes strains. While independent multiple infection and coinhabitation of multiple strains may explain the presence of different genotypes in a nail, microevolutionary events such as rapid substrain shuffling, as seen in studies of repetitive regions in Candida species, may also produce the same result. The recovery of multiple strains during the course of sequential sampling of uncured patients further suggests that the typing system is not able to distinguish between relapse or reinfection, ongoing infection, and de novo infection. PMID:11526160

Gupta, Aditya K.; Kohli, Yatika; Summerbell, Richard C.

2001-01-01

148

Similar DNA restriction endonuclease profiles in strains of Legionella pneumophila from different serogroups.  

PubMed Central

DNA of strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 3, 4, and 6, isolated from patients and environmental sources, was examined by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). Major differences in profiles enabled subtyping in many strains with the same serogroup antigen. However, a cluster of L. pneumophila strains, originating from all the examined serogroups, had similar restriction endonuclease profiles, sometimes with minor differences. This suggests that the genetic similarity between strains of L. pneumophila of different serogroups is sometimes closer than in strains with the same serogroup antigen. Seven environmental sources harbored two L. pneumophila strains with various serogroup antigens; six sources had similar restriction endonuclease profiles. The resolution of small differences in profiles is hampered in REA by the great magnitude of DNA fragments; even upon extensive analysis, these differences are not always readily visualized. Double digestions with the restriction enzymes HpaI and HpaII showed the best results and sometimes revealed differences not evident by digestions with a single endonuclease. REA has a great capacity for accurate epidemiological typing of L. pneumophila, in addition to classical serogrouping; it appeared that the results of the two techniques do not necessarily correlate. On the other hand, it should be stressed that small differences in profiles are not easily detected by REA. Images PMID:2846649

van Ketel, R J

1988-01-01

149

DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes. Antibody protection of a discrete DNA fragment from DNase digestion in vitro.  

PubMed Central

We examined the ability of DNase I to digest DNA that was contained with DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes. IgG isolated from the sera of 20 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and containing antibodies to DNA was incubated with double-stranded DNA to form immune complexes. Excess DNase was added, and digestion of DNA was monitored by the conversion of DNA to TCA soluble products. IgG from 8 of the 20 SLE patients protected DNA from degradation by DNase in direct proportion to the amount of DNA bound to IgG as measured in the Farr binding assay. Using IgG from these sera, we showed that the DNA protected from degradation remained bound to IgG during digestion and was 35-45 base pairs in size. The size of this fragment is the same as that which has been proposed to be the minimal size necessary for monogamous bivalent binding of IgG to DNA. We therefore compared the ability of F(ab')2 and Fab' to protect DNA from DNase digestion and demonstrated that the bivalent F(ab')2 fragments were protective, but that the univalent Fab' fragments were not. These results suggest that some antibodies to DNA that bind to DNA via monogamous bivalent binding can protect a 35-45-base pair DNA fragment from DNase digestion. The implications of this finding are discussed with regard to the in vivo behavior and potential pathogenicity of small DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes. Images PMID:6234327

Emlen, W; Ansari, R; Burdick, G

1984-01-01

150

Adaptive DNA Computing Algorithm by Using PCR and Restriction Enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce an adaptive DNA computing algorithm by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme. The adaptive algorithm is designed based on Adleman-Lipton paradigm[3] of DNA computing. In this work, however, unlike the Adleman- Lipton architecture a cutting operation has been introduced to the algorithm and the mechanism in which the molecules used by computation were feedback to the next cycle devised. Moreover, the amplification by PCR is performed in the molecule used by feedback and the difference concentration arisen in the base sequence can be used again. By this operation the molecules which serve as a solution candidate can be reduced down and the optimal solution is carried out in the shortest path problem. The validity of the proposed adaptive algorithm is considered with the logical simulation and finally we go on to propose applying adaptive algorithm to the chemical experiment which used the actual DNA molecules for solving an optimal network problem.

Kon, Yuji; Yabe, Kaoru; Rajaee, Nordiana; Ono, Osamu

151

Characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi by pectinolytic isozyme polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified fragments of pel genes.  

PubMed Central

Conserved regions about 420 bp long of the pelADE cluster specific to Erwinia chrysanthemi were amplified by PCR and used to differentiate 78 strains of E. chrysanthemi that were obtained from different hosts and geographical areas. No PCR products were obtained from DNA samples extracted from other pectinolytic and nonpectinolytic species and genera. The pel fragments amplified from the E. chrysanthemi strains studied were compared by performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. On the basis of similarity coefficients derived from the RFLP analysis, the strains were separated into 16 PCR RFLP patterns grouped in six clusters, These clusters appeared to be correlated with other infraspecific levels of E. chrysanthemi classification, such as pathovar and biovar, and occasionally with geographical origin. Moreover, the clusters correlated well with the polymorphism of pectate lyase and pectin methylesterase isoenzymes. While the pectin methylesterase profiles correlated with host monocot-dicot classification, the pectate lyase polymorphism might reflect the cell wall microdomains of the plants belonging to these classes. PMID:8779560

Nassar, A; Darrasse, A; Lemattre, M; Kotoujansky, A; Dervin, C; Vedel, R; Bertheau, Y

1996-01-01

152

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and physical mapping of large DNA fragments in the Tm2a region of chromosome 9 in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed which allows the isolation of very high molecular weight DNA (>2 million bp) from leaf protoplasts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The DNA isolated in this manner was digested in agarose with rare-cutting restriction enzymes and separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The size range of the reslting fragments was determined by hybridization to a number

Martin W. Ganal; Nevin D. Young; Steven D. Tanksley

1989-01-01

153

Differentiation of pathogenic from nonpathogenic Entamoeba histolytica by restriction fragment analysis of a single gene amplified in vitro.  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the identification of homologous cDNA clones derived from a pathogenic isolate and a nonpathogenic isolate of Entamoeba histolytica, which had been designated cEh-P1 and cEh-NP1, respectively. Sequence analysis of both clones had revealed 10% nucleic acid substitutions, which were dispersed over the entire sequence. This genetic difference had been found to be conserved between all four pathogenic and all five nonpathogenic laboratory strains of E. histolytica tested. On the basis of nucleic acid substitutions, we have now developed a sensitive assay to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic forms of E. histolytica by using fresh clinical isolates. Comparing the sequence of cEh-P1 and cEh-NP1, we identified a 482-bp segment that contained identical 5' and 3' ends but differed in internal cleavage sites for restriction endonucleases. By using oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the 5' and 3' ends of this segment, the corresponding gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Endonuclease digestion of the amplified DNA yielded restriction fragments that are characteristic for pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms. This assay allows the detection and classification of fewer than 10 amoebae within a few hours. The differentiation of 48 isolates into pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains by using this method corresponded to the clinical status of the infected individuals and to the classification obtained by isoenzyme determination. The results further support the concept that pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of E. histolytica constitute distinct subspecies. Images PMID:1672533

Tannich, E; Burchard, G D

1991-01-01

154

Detection of disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms in pemphigus vulgaris linked to the DQwl and DQw3 alleles of the HLA-D region  

SciTech Connect

Pemphigus vulgaris in Israeli Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews and in Austrian non-Jewish patients is strongly associated with the DR4 and DRw6 alleles of the HLA-D region class II genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was undertaken with DQ..beta.., DQ..cap alpha.., and DR..beta.. cDNA probes. Hybridization with the DQ..beta.. probe identifies Pvu II, BamHI, and EcoRV fragments that absolutely discriminate pemphigus vulgaris patients from healthy DR-, DQ-, and ethnic-matched controls. In contrast the DQ..cap alpha.. and DR..beta.. probes failed to identify disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism fragments. These studies indicate that DQw1 and DQw3 polymorphisms carried by pemphigus vulgaris patients may be directly involved in predisposition to the disease or may be tightly linked to the susceptibility gene itself. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an HLA restriction fragment length polymorphism that is highly associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

Szafer, F.; Brautbar, C.; Tzfoni, E.; Frankel, G.; Sherman, L.; Cohen, I.; Hacham-Zadeh, S.; Aberer, W.; Tappeiner, G.; Holubar, K.; Steinman, L.

1987-09-01

155

Detection of land animal remains in fish meals by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique.  

PubMed

In the present study a technique was developed with the aim of guaranteeing the composition and security of fish meals, since it allows verification of whether these meals contain land animal remains. The method is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and length polymorphism, followed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Specific primers for every species were designed and calibrated, generating exclusively a PCR product with a specific size when DNA for each species was present in the sample. This technique allows the detection of land animal remains in fish meals, specifically cow, chicken, pig, horse, sheep, and goat. The identity of the PCR products can be confirmed by RFLP analysis using only one restriction enzyme. The selected restrictase generated one characteristic restriction profile for every species included in this study. The detection limit of this method was calculated by using mixtures of fish meals in different proportions and meal that exclusively contained remains of one of these land species studied. The analytical strategy herein proposed was applied to fish and meat meals, giving good results, both in the analyzed standards and in commercial samples. PMID:17227058

Santaclara, Francisco J; Espiñeira, Montserrat; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M

2007-01-24

156

Lactic acid bacterial population dynamics during fermentation and storage of Thai fermented sausage according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

This study applied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "mum" Thai fermented sausages during fermentation and storage. A total of 630 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the sausages prepared using 2 methods. In Method 1, after stuffing, the sausages were stored at 30 °C for 14 days. In Method 2, after stuffing and storage at 30 °C for 3 days, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C until Day 28. The sausages were sampled on Days 0, 3, 14, and 28 for analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Of the restriction enzymes evaluated, Dde I displayed the highest discrimination capacity. The LAB were classified and 7 species were identified For Methods 1 and 2, during fermentation, the Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum species were dominant. For Method 2, the proportion of Leuconostoc mesenteroides markedly increased during storage, until L. sakei and Ln. mesenteroides represented the dominant species. The identification of LAB in the sausage samples could facilitate the selection of appropriate microorganisms for candidate starter cultures for future controlled mum production. PMID:25005265

Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Jindaprasert, Aphacha; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chumnqoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

2014-09-01

157

Epidemic of infectious laryngotracheitis in Italy: characterization of virus isolates by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Between May 2007 and October 2008, 34 outbreaks of mild to moderate forms of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) occurred in commercial broiler flocks in Italy. Affected birds showed watery eyes, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, reduction of feed and water consumption, and gasping with expectoration of blood-stained mucus. The mortality rate was < 10%. Gross lesions consisted of conjunctivitis, excess of mucus, blood, or presence of diphtheritic membranes in trachea. A real-time PCR assay was performed to confirm the presence of ILT virus (ILTV) DNA in tracheal tissue homogenates. Twenty-three ILTV isolates were propagated on the chorion-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs showing typical plaques. PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing of isolates showed a high genetic correlation between field strains and chicken embryo origin vaccines. PMID:21313836

Moreno, Ana; Piccirillo, Alessandra; Mondin, Alessandra; Morandini, Emilio; Gavazzi, Luigi; Cordioli, Paolo

2010-12-01

158

Rapid Identification of Rhizobia by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of PCR-Amplified 16S rRNA Genes  

PubMed Central

Forty-eight strains representing the eight recognized Rhizobium species, two new Phaseolus bean Rhizobium genomic species, Bradyrhizobium spp., Agrobacterium spp., and unclassified rhizobia from various host plants were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-one composite genotypes were obtained from the combined data of the RFLP analysis with nine endonucleases. Species assignments were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classification. Estimation from these data of genetic relationships between and within genera and species correlated well with previously published data based on DNA-rRNA hybridizations and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. This PCR-RFLP method provides a rapid tool for the identification of root nodule isolates and the detection of new taxa. Images PMID:16349165

Laguerre, Gisele; Allard, Marie-Reine; Revoy, Francoise; Amarger, Noelle

1994-01-01

159

Isolation and analysis of restriction endonuclease digestive patterns of chromosomal DNA from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and other Mycobacterium species.  

PubMed Central

A relatively rapid and efficient method for the extraction of chromosomal DNA from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria was developed. Approximately 25 to 50 micrograms of DNA could be extracted from 100 mg (wet weight) of cells, which was sufficient to perform several restriction endonuclease analyses from a single preparation. The DNA from five Mycobacterium species, including four strains of M. paratuberculosis and four strains of M. avium, was analyzed by this method. Digestion with the restriction endonucleases BstEII and PstI yielded the most definitive restriction patterns. For some strains, the restriction endonuclease analysis results were in agreement with the current identification of these organisms. The two strains of M. avium serotype 2 had identical fragment patterns. Similarly, the two strains of M. avium complex serotype 6 had identical fragment patterns. The three mycobactin-dependent M. paratuberculosis strains were very similar, whereas the mycobactin-independent M. paratuberculosis strain was more similar to the M. avium serotype 2 strains. Although many more cultures would need to be evaluated to determine correct groupings, the results of this study demonstrated the potential of restriction enzyme analysis for the differentiation of slowly growing mycobacteria. Images PMID:3040802

Whipple, D L; Le Febvre, R B; Andrews, R E; Thiermann, A B

1987-01-01

160

Secuencia parcial de un fragmento de ADN de patos silvestres homólogo al complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad de Gallus gallus Partial sequence of a DNA fragment from wild ducks homologous to the Gallus gallus major histocompatibility complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a genomic DNA fragment from domestic duck (Anas domesticus) was amplified by PCR. Such fragment shared 93 % identity to the chicken (Gallus gallus) MHC class II, which correspond to DAB1- (Disabled 1)-like sequence. The DAB1 sequence was also amplified from nine wild duck species of the Anas genus, which after performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism

Sofía González-Guzmán; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Virginia León-Régagnonc; Gary García-Espinosa

161

Evaluating the Assignment of alkB Terminal Restriction Fragments and Sequence Types to Distinct Bacterial Taxa  

PubMed Central

Sequence and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses revealed multiple alkB gene copies/cell in soil bacterial isolates and an apparently high genetic mobility among various phylogenetic groups. Identifying alkane degraders by alkB terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) and sequences is strongly biased, as the phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and alkB gene sequences were highly inconsistent. PMID:23455350

Giebler, Julia; Wick, Lukas Y.; Schloter, Michael; Harms, Hauke

2013-01-01

162

Determination of the parental origin of sex-chromosome monosomy using restriction fragment length polymorphisms.  

PubMed Central

The parental origin of the single X chromosome in sex-chromosome monosomy was evaluated by comparing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of 10 spontaneous aborted 45,X conceptions with those of their parents. Seven X-linked marker loci were used, and we were able to specify the origin of the X in nine cases, with six being maternally and three paternally derived. These results demonstrate the efficiency of the technique and show that the single X chromosome in 45,X spontaneous abortions can be derived from either parent. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2996336

Hassold, T; Kumlin, E; Takaesu, N; Leppert, M

1985-01-01

163

Correlations between two markers of sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation and DNA fragmentation, in fertile and infertile men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate two different assays of human sperm DNA integrity, DNA denaturation (DD) and DNA fragmentation (DF), and to correlate these with standard semen parameters.Design: Prospective, observational study.Setting: University infertility clinic.Patient(s): Forty consecutive semen samples from 33 nonazoospermic men presenting for infertility evaluation and 7 fertile men presenting for vasectomy.Intervention(s): Assessment of sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DD and DF.Main

Armand Zini; Ryszard Bielecki; Donna Phang; Maria Teresa Zenzes

2001-01-01

164

Okazaki Fragment Processing-independent Role for Human Dna2 Enzyme during DNA Replication*  

PubMed Central

Dna2 is an essential helicase/nuclease that is postulated to cleave long DNA flaps that escape FEN1 activity during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation in yeast. We previously demonstrated that the human Dna2 orthologue (hDna2) localizes to the nucleus and contributes to genomic stability. Here we investigated the role hDna2 plays in DNA replication. We show that Dna2 associates with the replisome protein And-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Depletion of hDna2 resulted in S/G2 phase-specific DNA damage as evidenced by increased ?-H2AX, replication protein A foci, and Chk1 kinase phosphorylation, a readout for activation of the ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint. In addition, we observed reduced origin firing in hDna2-depleted cells consistent with Chk1 activation. We next examined the impact of hDna2 on OF maturation and replication fork progression in human cells. As expected, FEN1 depletion led to a significant reduction in OF maturation. Strikingly, the reduction in OF maturation had no impact on replication fork progression, indicating that fork movement is not tightly coupled to lagging strand maturation. Analysis of hDna2-depleted cells failed to reveal a defect in OF maturation or replication fork progression. Prior work in yeast demonstrated that ectopic expression of FEN1 rescues Dna2 defects. In contrast, we found that FEN1 expression in hDna2-depleted cells failed to rescue genomic instability. These findings suggest that the genomic instability observed in hDna2-depleted cells does not arise from defective OF maturation and that hDna2 plays a role in DNA replication that is distinct from FEN1 and OF maturation. PMID:22570476

Duxin, Julien P.; Moore, Hayley R.; Sidorova, Julia; Karanja, Kenneth; Honaker, Yuchi; Dao, Benjamin; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Campbell, Judith L.; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stewart, Sheila A.

2012-01-01

165

Identification of the Genomic Locations of Duplicate Nucleotide Sequences in Maize by Analysis of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

While preparing a linkage map for maize based upon loci detected through the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), it was found that 62 of the 2 17 cloned maize sequences tested (29%) detected more than one fragment on genomic Southern blots. Thus, more than one nucleotide sequence is present within the maize genome which is in part homologous

Tim Helentjaris; David Weber; Scott Wright

166

Characterization of Bois noir isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of a Stolbur-specific putative membrane protein gene.  

PubMed

Bois noir phytoplasma (BNp), widespread in wine-producing areas of Europe and endemic in France and Italy, is classified in the 16SrXII-A subgroup, whose members are referred to as Stolbur phytoplasmas. The 16S rDNA gene of Stolbur phytoplasma shows low variability, and few non-ribosomal genes are available as markers to assess variation among isolates. We used the Stolbur-specific stol-1H10 gene, encoding a putative membrane-exposed protein, to investigate genetic diversity of French and Italian BNp isolates from plants and insects. Amplification of stol-1H10 from infected grapevines, weeds, and Hyalesthes obsoletus produced fragments of three sizes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis divided these amplicons further into 12 profiles (V1 to V12). French BNp isolates were more variable than Italian ones, and different profiles were present in infected grapevines from France and Italy. Isolate V3, most abundant among Italian affected grapes but present among French ones, was found in one Urtica dioica sample and in all H. obsoletus collected on this species. Four Italian-specific profiles were represented among infected Convolvulus arvensis, the most frequent of which (V12) was also detected in H. obsoletus collected on this species. Most of the variability in the stol-1H10 sequence was associated with type II on the tuf gene. PMID:19453230

Pacifico, D; Alma, A; Bagnoli, B; Foissac, X; Pasquini, G; Tessitori, M; Marzachì, C

2009-06-01

167

Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis.  

PubMed

This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment. PMID:25178301

Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul

2014-10-01

168

Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis  

PubMed Central

This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment. PMID:25178301

Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul

2014-01-01

169

Dependence on radiation quality of DNA fragmentation spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy deposition by radiation initially gives rise to cellular critical lesions such as DNA doublestrand breaks (DSB), that later lead to the formation of relevant biological endpoints. Studies on fragment size distributions induced by radiations of various qualities can be of great help in linking the characteristics of radiation to cellular endpoints, providing information for understanding the main mechanisms of cell damage. Here we are concerned with the damage induced by heavy charged particles; this issue is very important in the field of radioprotection of astronauts participating in long term space missions, besides being relevant also in other fields, like hadrontherapy. Galactic Cosmic Rays contain a large component of high-LET particles (HZE), e.g. helium and carbon ions, as well as highcharge particles such as iron ions. These particles are characterized by complex track structures with energy depositions not only along the path of the primary particle, but also at relatively large distance form the path, due to the presence of high energy secondary electrons. In this work we have simulated the irradiation of human fibroblasts with ?-rays, protons, helium, carbon and iron ions at a fixed dose with the biophysical Monte Carlo code PARTRAC,and calculated the induction of DSB. The PARTRAC code includes accurate representation of the chromatin geometry and of the physical and physico-chemical processes associated with the energy deposition by radiation. The results of a first validation of the code have been reported in A. Campa et al. (2005) and D. Alloni et al. (2007a, 2007b). DNA fragment spectra were calculated based on the DSB induction patterns and compared in particular for particles of the same specific energy and for particles of the same LET. Special emphasis has been directed to the calculation of very small fragments (< 1 kbp) that are not detectable by the most common experimental techniques and that can significantly influence the RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) of high LET radiation. This work was partially supported by EU ("RISC-RAD" project, Contract no. FI6R-CT 2003- 508842, and "NOTE" project, Contract no. FI6R-036465) and ASI (Italian Space Agency, "Mo-Ma/COUNT" project). References A. Campa, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, R. Cherubini, V. Dini, G. Esposito, W.Friedland, S. Gerardi, S. Molinelli, A. Ottolenghi, H. G. Paretzke, G. Simone and M. A. Tabocchini. DNA DSB induced in human cells by charged particles and gamma rays: experimental results and theoretical approaches. Int. J. Radiat.Biol. 81, 841-854 (2005). D. Alloni, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, A. Campa, G. Esposito, W. Friedland, M.Liotta, A. Ottolenghi and H. G. Paretzke. Modeling of DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by 56 Fe ions. Adv. Space Res. 40, 1401-1407 (2007a). D. Alloni, F. Antonelli, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, A. Campa, V. Dini, G.Esposito, W. Friedland, M. Liotta, A. Ottolenghi, H. G. Paretzke, G. Simone, E. Sorrentino and M. A. Tabocchini. Small DNA fragments induced in human fibroblasts by 56 Fe ions: experimental data and MC simulations. Proc. "Ion Beams in biology and medicine", Heidelberg, 26-29 September 2007, edited by J. Debus, K. Henrichs, G. Kraft, p. 164 (2207b).

Campa, Alessandro; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Alloni, Daniele; Ballarini, Francesca; Belli, Mauro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Facoetti, Angelica; Friedland, Werner; Liotta, Marco; Paretzke, Herwig

170

Novel Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Clostridia from the Grass Miscanthus sinensis as Revealed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic nitrogen-fixing consortia consisting of N2-fixing clostridia and diverse nondiazotrophic bacteria were previously isolated from various gramineous plants (K. Minamisawa, K. Nishioka, T. Miyaki, B. Ye, T. Miyamoto, M. You, A. Saito, M. Saito, W. Barraquio, N. Teaumroong, T. Sein, and T. Tadashi, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:3096-3102, 2004). For this work, clostridial populations and their phylogenetic structures in a stand of the grass Miscanthus sinensis in Japan were assessed by a 16S rRNA gene-targeted terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis combined with most-probable-number (MPN) counts. PCR primers and restriction enzymes were optimized for analyses of the plant clostridia. Clostridia were detected in strongly surface-sterilized leaves, stems, and roots of the plants at approximately 104 to 105 cells/g of fresh weight; they made up a large proportion of N2-fixing bacterial populations, as determined by MPN counts associated with an acetylene reduction assay. Phylogenetic grouping by MPN-TRFLP analysis revealed that the clostridial populations belonged to group II of cluster XIVa and groups IV and V of cluster I; this result was supported by a culture-independent TRFLP analysis using direct DNA extraction from plants. When phylogenetic populations from M. sinensis and the soil around the plants were compared, group II clostridia were found to exist exclusively in M. sinensis. PMID:15528521

Miyamoto, Takuya; Kawahara, Makoto; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2004-01-01

171

Molecular basis of an autoantibody-associated restriction fragment length polymorphism that confers susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Recently, combined serological and molecular studies of autoantibodies have revealed that these antibodies play an important role in the normal function of the immune system and in the development of the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a homozygous deletion of a critical autoantibody-associated Ig variable (V) gene may alter the immune system and thus predispose the host to autoimmune disorders. Initial experiments revealed several restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the Humhv3005 gene, that is likely to encode heavy chains of rheumatoid factors, and the closely related 1.9III gene. By probing EcoR1-digested DNA with the Humhv3005/P1 probe, we found that one of the four major hybridizing bands was missing in approximately 20% of patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, but only 2% of normal subjects. To delineate the genetic basis of this polymorphism, we have now employed the PCR to amplify and analyze hv3005, 1.9III, and homologous genes in individuals with characteristic RFLP genotypes. Our results indicate that the human Vh gene repertoire contains several hv3005- and 1.9III-like genes, and that a complete deletion of the hv3005-like genes is relatively restricted to a subset of autoimmune patients. These findings provide initial evidence for deletion of developmentally regulated autoreactive V genes in autoimmune diseases. PMID:1676037

Olee, T; Yang, P M; Siminovitch, K A; Olsen, N J; Hillson, J; Wu, J; Kozin, F; Carson, D A; Chen, P P

1991-07-01

172

DNA fragment assembly: an application of graph theory in molecular biology  

E-print Network

DNA fragment assembly: an application of graph theory in molecular biology Martin Mascher Leibniz Technology Since the central importance of the DNA in storing biological informa- tion had been recognised limitations permit scientists only to obtain contigu- ous DNA fragments whose lengths range from a few dozen

Willems, Wolfgang

173

Improved Assessment of Denitrifying, N2Fixing, and Total-Community Bacteria by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Using Multiple Restriction Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of terminal restriction fragments (tRFs) of the 16S rRNA gene was set up utilizing 13 restriction enzymes and 17,327 GenBank sequences. A computer program, termed TReFID, was developed to allow identification of any of these 17,327 sequences by means of polygons generated from the specific tRFs of each bacterium. The TReFID program complements and exceeds in its data

Christopher Rosch; Hermann Bothe

2005-01-01

174

A simple and effective separation and purification procedure for DNA fragments using Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we describe a simple two step separation procedure for the separation and purification of short DNA fragments. The first step involves precipitating the DNA using the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, unlike cetyltrimethylammonium bromide will not precipitate DNA before complexation is complete thus providing a high purity DNA. The second step involves dissolution of the DNA-dodecyltrimethylammonium

Daragh M. McLoughlin; Julie O'Brien; Jennifer J. McManus; Alexander V. Gorelov; Kenneth A. Dawson

2000-01-01

175

A standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for typing Mycobacterium avium isolates links IS901 with virulence for birds.  

PubMed

A standardised method for PvuII-PstI-IS901 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing was developed and evaluated against 173 isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. silvaticum originating from birds (N=46) and their aviaries (N=5), pigs (N=85), cattle (N=18), reference serotype strains (N=9), humans (N=7), a horse (N=1), a nutria (N=1), and strain M. avium subsp. avium ST 18 (formerly M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis ST 18). PvuII-IS1245 RFLP typing was also performed on all isolates. DNA was digested in parallel by restriction endonucleases PvuII or PstI and hybridised to standard probes prepared by PCR. DNA fingerprints were scanned by CCD camera and analysed by the Gel Compar (Applied Maths, Version 4.1, Kortrijk, Belgium) software using a standard isolate control profile. A total of 52 PvuII-PstI RFLP profiles was described including 25 PvuII RFLP profiles designated A to Y and 25 PstI RFLP profiles designated A1-L3. Profiles were found to be stable in vivo and in vitro after multiple subcultures. High IS901 copy number was associated with a "bird" PvuII-IS1245 RFLP profile and low IS901 copy number with M. avium subsp. avium isolates from humans and the nutria. A virulence assay of 100 IS901-positive isolates using intramuscular infections of pullets showed 83 isolates differentiated into 32 RFLP types to be virulent and 17 isolates differentiated into 12 RFLP types as nonvirulent. Attenuation of virulence for pullets could be attributed to either multiple in vitro subculture, polyclonal infection or human passage and was not related to IS901 or IS1245 profiles. PMID:14499991

Dvorska, Lenka; Bull, Tim John; Bartos, Milan; Matlova, Ludmila; Svastova, Petra; Weston, Ross Tim; Kintr, Jaromir; Parmova, Ilona; Van Soolingen, Dick; Pavlik, Ivo

2003-10-01

176

Bovine mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns and the location of the polymorphic sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleavage patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by restriction endonuclease analysis were examined in four Japanese Black cows, three Japanese Shorthorn cows, and six Holstein cows. Seventeen restriction enzymes which recognize six base pairs and two restriction enzymes which recognize four base pairs were used in this study. Polymorphism was observed with three restriction enzymes, HindIII, TaqI, and MspI, and was

Tomomasa Watanabe; Yukimasa Hayashi; Reiji Semba; Nobuaki Ogasawara

1985-01-01

177

Chloroplast DNA restriction site mapping and the phylogeny of Ranunculus ( Ranunculaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chloroplast DNA restriction site map forRanunculus sceleratus (Ranunculaceae) was constructed using 14 restriction endonucleases. The total size of the chloroplast genome is 152.4kb. No inversions were detected relative to the tobacco chloroplast DNA. Cladistic analyses of chloroplast DNA restriction site polymorphism were employed in order to elucidate the phylogeny among 76 species of the genusRanunculus in a wide sense

Jan Thomas Johansson

1998-01-01

178

Electric linear dichroism transients of bent DNA fragments.  

PubMed

We study the effect of translational-rotational hydrodynamic coupling on the transient electric linear dichroism of DNA fragments in aqueous solution. As opposed to previous theoretical works, where analytic solutions valid in the limit of low electric field were reported, we present here a numerical approach which allows to obtain numerical results valid independently from the applied electric field strength. Numerical procedures here used are an extension to the transient-state of those developed in a previous work for the study of the problem in the steady-state. The molecular orientational processes induced by an electric field is characterized with statistical arguments solving the Fokker-Planck equation by means of the finite difference method to know the orientational distribution function of molecules. PMID:23485329

Umazano, Juan P; Bertolotto, Jorge A

2013-03-01

179

DNA digestion protocol & hints Overview: Although it is pretty standard to digest DNA with restriction enzymes, here  

E-print Network

Liu 4/2004 DNA digestion protocol & hints Overview: Although it is pretty standard to digest DNA in molecular biology (3.1.1-3.1.2) Materials: · DNA sample in water or TE buffer · 10x digestion buffer · restriction enzyme · DNA loading buffer · Agarose gel 0.8% (or different depending on expected band sizes

Doering, Tamara

180

Clusters of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. II. Experimental detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic 30-nm chromatin fiber in the mammalian cell consists of an unknown (possibly helical) arrangement of nucleosomes, with about 1.2 kb of DNA per 10-nm length of fiber. Track-structure considerations suggest that interactions of single delta rays or high-LET particles with the chromatin fiber might result in the formation of multiple lesions spread over a few kilobases of DNA (see the accompanying paper: W.R. Holley and A. Chatterjee, Radiat. Res. 145, 188-199, 1996). In particular, multiple DNA double-strand breaks and single-strand breaks may form. To test this experimentally, primary human fibroblasts were labeled with [3H]thymidine and exposed at 0 degrees C to X rays or accelerated nitrogen or iron ions in the LET range of 97-440 keV/microns. DNA was isolated inside agarose plugs and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis under conditions that allowed good separation of 0.1-2 kb size DNA. The bulk of DNA remained in the well or migrated only a small distance into the gel. It was found that DNA fragments in the expected size range were formed linearly with dose with an efficiency that increased with LET. A comparison of the yield of such fragments with the yield of total DNA double-strand breaks suggests that for the high-LET ions a substantial proportion (20-90%) of DNA double-strand breaks are accompanied within 0.1-2 kb by at least one additional DNA double-strand break. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations based on treating the 30-nm chromatin fiber as the target for ionizing particles. Theoretical considerations also predict that the clusters will contain numerous single-strand breaks and base damages. It is proposed that such clusters be designated "regionally multiply damaged sites." Postirradiation incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in a decline in the number of short DNA fragments, suggesting a repair activity. The biological significance of regionally multiply damaged sites is presently unknown.

Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

181

Restriction Analysis of PCR-Amplified Internal Transcribed Spacers of Ribosomal DNA as a Tool for Species Identification in Different Genera of the Order Glomales  

PubMed Central

A technique combining PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to generate specific DNA fragment patterns from spore extracts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. With the universal primers ITS1 and ITS4, DNA fragments were amplified from species of Scutellospora and Gigaspora that were approximately 500 bp long. The apparent lengths of the corresponding fragments from Glomus spp. varied between 580 and 600 bp. Within the genus Glomus, the restriction enzymes MboI, HinfI, and TaqI were useful for distinguishing species. Depending on the restriction enzyme used, groups of species with common fragment patterns could be found. Five tropical and subtropical isolates identified as Glomus manihotis and G. clarum could not be distinguished by their restriction patterns, corresponding to the morphological similarity of the spores. The variation of internal transcribed spacer sequences among the Gigaspora species under study was low. Fragment patterns of Scutellospora spp. showed their phylogenetic relationship with Gigaspora and revealed only a slightly higher degree of variation. PMID:16535592

Redecker, D.; Thierfelder, H.; Walker, C.; Werner, D.

1997-01-01

182

Origin of leukemic relapse after bone marrow transplantation detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation has become an accepted modality in the treatment of acute leukemia. With this therapy, it is possible to obtain long-term disease-free survival. However, leukemia recurs occasionally. In most cases, leukemic relapse is of recipient origin. There have been several reports, though, of leukemia developing in donor cells. These cases have been limited to instances in which there is an easily identifiable chromosome difference or abnormality, usually a sex chromosome. In this paper we describe the use of restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis to determine the origin of recurrent leukemia cells in which no identifying chromosome was present. We found that the leukemia had recurred in recipient cells. We also were able to demonstrate the presence of normal hemopoietic cells of donor origin. Images PMID:2981254

Minden, M D; Messner, H A; Belch, A

1985-01-01

183

A Time-Efficient and User-Friendly Method for Plasmid DNA Restriction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which plasmid DNA is digested with restriction enzymes that cleave the plasmid either once or twice. The DNA is stained, loaded on a gel, electrophoresed, and viewed under normal laboratory conditions during electrophoresis. (DDR)

LaBanca, Frank; Berg, Claire M.

1998-01-01

184

Dynamics of DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) under external force.  

PubMed

During DNA synthesis, high-fidelity DNA polymerase (DNAP) translocates processively along the template by utilizing the chemical energy from nucleotide incorporation. Thus, understanding the chemomechanical coupling mechanism and the effect of external mechanical force on replication velocity are the most fundamental issues for high-fidelity DNAP. Here, based on our proposed model, we take Klenow fragment as an example to study theoretically the dynamics of high-fidelity DNAPs such as the replication velocity versus different types of external force, i.e., a stretching force on the template, a backward force on the enzyme and a forward force on the enzyme. Replication velocity as a function of the template tension with only one adjustable parameter is in good agreement with the available experimental data. The replication velocity is nearly independent of the forward force, even at very low dNTP concentration. By contrast, the backward force has a large effect on the replication velocity, especially at high dNTP concentration. A small backward force can increase the replication velocity and an optimal backward force exists at which the replication velocity has maximum value; with any further increase in the backward force the velocity decreases rapidly. These results can be tested easily by future experiments and are aid our understanding of the chemomechanical coupling mechanism and polymerization dynamics of high-fidelity DNAP. PMID:23197324

Xie, Ping

2013-03-01

185

Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.  

PubMed Central

Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes. PMID:7937074

McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

1994-01-01

186

Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice. PMID:25031574

Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

2014-01-01

187

[Characteristics of the restriction profile of chromosomal DNA in strains of Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, adapted to various oxidation substrates].  

PubMed

Restriction profiles of chromosomal DNA were studied in different Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains grown on medium with Fe2+ and further adapted to another oxidation substrate (S0, FeS2, or sulfide ore concentrates). The restriction endonuclease XbaI digested the chromosomal DNA from different strains into different numbers of fragments of various sizes. Adaptation of two strains (TFBk and TFN-d) to new oxidation substrates resulted in structural changes in XbaI-restriction patterns of their chromosomal DNA. Such changes in the DNA restriction patterns occurred in strain TFBk after the adaptation to precyanidated gravitational pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrate (no. 1) from the Nezhdaninskoe deposit or to copper-containing ore from the Udokanskoe deposit and also in strain TFN-d adapted to untreated pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrate (no. 2) from the Nezhdaninskoe deposit. No changes in the number or size of the XbaI-restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA were revealed in either strain TFBk cultivated on media with pyrite from the Angren and Tulun deposits or in strains TFN-d and TFO grown on media with S0 and pyrite. Neither were changes observed in the XbaI-restriction patterns of the DNA from strain TFV-1, isolated from the copper ore of the Volkovskoe deposit, when Fe2+ was substituted with alternative substrates--S0, pyrite or concentrate no. 2 from the ore of Nezhdaninskoe deposit. In strain TFO, no differences in the XbaI-restriction patterns of the chromosomal DNA were revealed between the culture grown on medium containing concentrate no. 2 or the concentrate of surface-lying ore from Olimpiadinskoe deposit and the culture grown on medium with Fe2+. When strain TFO was cultivated on the ore concentrate from deeper horizons of the Olimpiadinskoe deposit, which are characterized by lower oxidation degree and high antimony content, mutant TFO-2 differing from the parent strain in the chromosomal DNA structure was isolated. The correlation between the lability of chromosomal DNA structure in A. ferrooxidans strains and the physical and chemical peculiarities of the isolation substrate and habitat is discussed. PMID:12244722

Kondrat'eva, T F; Ageeva, S N; Pivovarova, T A; Karava?ko, G I

2002-01-01

188

Characterization of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-specific DNA restriction endonucleases  

PubMed Central

In T4 bacteriophage, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is incorporated into DNA during replication. In response, bacteria may have developed modification-dependent type IV restriction enzymes to defend the cell from T4-like infection. PvuRts1I was the first identified restriction enzyme to exhibit specificity toward hmC over 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and cytosine. By using PvuRts1I as the original member, we identified and characterized a number of homologous proteins. Most enzymes exhibited similar cutting properties to PvuRts1I, creating a double-stranded cleavage on the 3? side of the modified cytosine. In addition, for efficient cutting, the enzymes require two cytosines 21–22-nt apart and on opposite strands where one cytosine must be modified. Interestingly, the specificity determination unveiled a new layer of complexity where the enzymes not only have specificity for 5-?-glucosylated hmC (5?ghmC) but also 5-?-glucosylated hmC (5?ghmC). In some cases, the enzymes are inhibited by 5?ghmC, whereas in others they are inhibited by 5?ghmC. These observations indicate that the position of the sugar ring relative to the base is a determining factor in the substrate specificity of the PvuRts1I homologues. Lastly, we envision that the unique properties of select PvuRts1I homologues will permit their use as an additive or alternative tool to map the hydroxymethylome. PMID:23482393

Borgaro, Janine G.; Zhu, Zhenyu

2013-01-01

189

Hydrodynamics-based transfer of PCR-amplified DNA fragments into rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high level of plasmid DNA expression in rat liver can be achieved by the rapid injection of a large volume of a naked DNA solution into the tail vein, called the ‘hydrodynamics-based procedure.’ The preparation of PCR-amplified DNA fragments is easier than that of naked DNA. In this paper we evaluated the effects of expressing the erythropoietin (Epo) gene

S Kameda; H Maruyama; N Higuchi; G Nakamura; N Iino; Y Nishikawa; J Miyazaki; F Gejyo

2003-01-01

190

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of the Phospholipase B (PLB1) Gene for Subtyping of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that is currently divided into three varieties, five serotypes, and eight molecular types. The following report describes the use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the phospholipase B gene (PLB1) as a simple tool to differentiate between C. neoformans subgroups. A PLB1 fragment, 1,970 bp, was amplified and digested with either Ava

G. Nicolas Latouche; Matthew Huynh; Tania C. Sorrell; Wieland Meyer

2003-01-01

191

Cell death in Alzheimer's disease evaluated by DNA fragmentation in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of nerve cells is a hallmark of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the patterns of cell death are unknown. By analyzing DNA fragmentation in situ we found evidence for cell death not only of nerve cells but also of oligodendrocytes and microglia in AD brains. In average, 30 times more brain cells showed DNA fragmentation in AD

Hans Lassmann; Christian Bancher; Helene Breitschopf; Jerzy Wegiel; Maciej Bobinski; Kurt Jellinger; Henryk M. Wisniewski

1995-01-01

192

Enhancement of immune responses to the hepatitis B virus core protein through DNA vaccines with a DNA fragment encoding human IL-1beta 163-171 peptide.  

PubMed

DNA vaccines have been widely used as effective means of eradicating a variety of viruses, parasites, bacteria as well as means of alleviating allergic and autoimmune diseases and tumors. As interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays an essential role in augmenting both cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens, it may represent a good candidate for an adjuvant to DNA vaccines. Since the inflammatory activity of IL-1 may have a restricted application to DNA vaccines, we explored the possibility of augmenting immune response without unwanted inflammatory effect using IL-1beta 163-171 peptide, which is essential for IL-1 receptor 1 binding. A DNA fragment encoding the human IL-1beta 163-171 peptide of concern was fused to the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core DNA vaccine, and injected into mice to analyze its immune responses. Compared with the control mice which received hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) alone, significant increase in not only the HBcAg-specific antibody response but also in T cell proliferation was observed in mice which received IL-1beta 163-171-HBcAg. These results suggest that the DNA fragment encoding the IL-1beta polypeptide of aa 163-171 might represent a good candidate for an adjuvant of DNA vaccines. PMID:15068376

Shao, H J; Chen, L; Shen, M S; Yu, G F

2003-01-01

193

Clusters of DNA induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the chromatin fibers in mammalian DNA.

Holley, W. R.; Chatterjee, A.

1996-01-01

194

Oxidative DNA damage precedes DNA fragmentation after experimental stroke in rat brain  

PubMed Central

Experimental stroke using a focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (FCIR) model was induced in male Long-Evans rats by a bilateral occlusion of both common carotid arteries and the right middle cerebral artery for 30–90 min, followed by various periods of reperfusion. Oxidative DNA lesions in the ipsilateral cortex were demonstrated using Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine DNA N-glycosylase (Fpg protein)-sensitive sites (FPGSS), as labeled in situ using digoxigenin-dUTP and detected using antibodies against digoxigenin. Because Fpg protein removes 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanine (oh8dG) and other lesions in DNA, FPGSS measure oxidative DNA damage. The number of FPGSS-positive cells in the cortex from the sham-operated control group was 3 ± 3 (mean ± SD per mm2). In animals that received 90 min occlusion and 15 min of reperfusion (FCIR 90/15), FPGSS-positive cells were significantly increased by 200-fold. Oxidative DNA damage was confirmed by using monoclonal antibodies against 8-hydroxy-guanosine (oh8G) and oh8dG. A pretreatment of RNase A (100 ?g/ml) to the tissue reduced, but did not abolish, the oh8dG signal. The number of animals with positive FPGSS or oh8dG was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the FCIR group than in the sham-operated control group. We detected few FPGSS of oh8dG-positive cells in the animals treated with FCIR of 90/60. No terminal UTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, as a detection of cell death, were detected at this early reperfusion time. Our data suggest that early oxidative DNA lesions elicited by experimental stroke could be repaired. Therefore, the oxidative DNA lesions observed in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of the brain are different from the DNA fragmentation detected using TUNEL. PMID:10783150

CUI, JIANKUN; HOLMES, ERIC H.; GREENE, THOMAS G.; LIU, PHILIP K.

2009-01-01

195

Applicability of combined amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns in bacterial phylogeny and taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardized method for amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) is described. The first step involves selection of five tetracutter restriction enzymes on the basis of theoretical digestions of known 16S rDNA (rRNA) sequences. In the second step, the experimentally obtained restriction patterns are normalized and combined by means of the pattern recognition and analysis software GelCompar. Finally, numerical analysis

M. Heyndrickx; L. Vauterin; P. Vandamme; K. Kersters; P. De Vos

1996-01-01

196

Rapid Discrimination among Dermatophytes, Scytalidium spp., and Other Fungi with a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Ribotyping Method  

PubMed Central

Dermatomycoses are very common infections caused mainly by dermatophytes. Scytalidiosis is a differential mycological diagnosis, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Since a culture-based diagnosis takes 2 to 3 weeks, we set up a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for rapid discrimination of these fungi in clinical samples. The hypervariable V4 domain of the small ribosomal subunit 18S gene was chosen as the target for PCR. The corresponding sequences from 19 fungal species (9 dermatophytes, 2 Scytalidium species, 6 other filamentous fungi, and 2 yeasts) were obtained from databases or were determined in the laboratory. Sequences were aligned to design primers for dermatophyte-specific PCR and to identify digestion sites for RFLP analysis. The reliability of PCR-RFLP for the diagnosis of dermatomycosis was assessed on fungal cultures and on specimens from patients with suspected dermatomycosis. Two sets of primers preferentially amplified fungal DNA from dermatophytes (DH1L and DH1R) or from Scytalidium spp. (DH2L and DH1R) relative to DNA from bacteria, yeasts, some other filamentous fungi, and humans. Digestion of PCR products with EaeI or BamHI discriminated between dermatophytes and Scytalidium species, as shown with cultures of 31 different fungal species. When clinical samples were tested by PCR-RFLP, blindly to mycological findings, the results of the two methods agreed for 74 of 75 samples. Dermatophytes and Scytalidium spp. can thus be readily discriminated by PCR-RFLP within 24 h. This method can be applied to clinical samples and is suited to rapid etiologic diagnosis and treatment selection for patients with dermatomycosis. PMID:11158128

Machouart-Dubach, Marie; Lacroix, Claire; de Chauvin, Martine Feuilhade; Le Gall, Isabelle; Giudicelli, Catherine; Lorenzo, Frederic; Derouin, Francis

2001-01-01

197

DFF, a Heterodimeric Protein That Functions Downstream of Caspase3 to Trigger DNA Fragmentation during Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified and purified from HeLa cytosol a protein that induces DNA fragmentation in coincubated nuclei after it is activated by caspase-3. This protein, designated DNA Fragmentation Factor (DFF), is a heterodimer of 40 kDa and 45 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 45 kDa subunit, determined from its cDNA sequence, reveals it to be a novel

Xuesong Liu; Hua Zou; Clive Slaughter; Xiaodong Wang

1997-01-01

198

A wheat genomic DNA fragment reduces pollen transmission of maize transgenes by reducing pollen viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic DNA fragment from wheat carrying the Glu-1Dx5 gene has been shown to exhibit reduced pollen transmission in transgenic maize. To localize the region of the DNA fragment\\u000a responsible for this reduced pollen transmission, we produced transgenic maize plants in which the wheat genomic DNA proximal\\u000a to the 1Dx5 coding sequence was replaced with the maize 27 kDa ?-zein promoter.

M. Paul Scott; Joan M. Peterson; Daniel L. Moran; Varaporn Sangtong; LaTrice Smith

2007-01-01

199

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing. PMID:19253611

Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

2009-02-01

200

Identification of raw and heat-processed meats from game bird species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mitochondrial D-loop region.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and woodpigeon (Columba palumbus). Polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 310 bp from the mitochondrial D-loop region. Restriction site analysis based on sequence data from this DNA fragment permitted the selection of HinfI, MboII, and Hpy188III endonucleases for species identification. The restriction profiles obtained when amplicons were digested with the chosen enzymes allowed the unequivocal identification of all game bird species analyzed. Consistent results were obtained with both raw and heat-processed meats. PMID:19211540

Rojas, M; González, I; Fajardo, V; Martín, I; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

2009-03-01

201

Identification of Carnobacterium Species by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of the 16S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Spacer Region and Species-Specific PCR  

PubMed Central

The genus Carnobacterium is currently divided into the following eight species: Carnobacterium piscicola, C. divergens, C. gallinarum, C. mobile, C. funditum, C. alterfunditum, C. inhibens, and C. viridans. An identification tool for the rapid differentiation of these eight Carnobacterium species was developed, based on the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer region (ISR). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of this 16S-23S rDNA ISR was performed in order to obtain restriction profiles for all of the species. Three PCR amplicons, which were designated small ISR (S-ISR), medium ISR (M-ISR), and large ISR (L-ISR), were obtained for all Carnobacterium species. The L-ISR sequence revealed the presence of two tRNA genes, tRNAAla and tRNAIle, which were separated by a spacer region that varied from 24 to 38 bp long. This region was variable among the species, allowing the design of species-specific primers. These primers were tested and proved to be species specific. The identification method based on the 16S-23S rDNA ISR, using PCR-RFLP and specific primers, is very suitable for the rapid low-cost identification and discrimination of all of the Carnobacterium species from other phylogenetically related lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15294774

Rachman, Cinta; Kabadjova, Petia; Valcheva, Rosica; Prevost, Herve; Dousset, Xavier

2004-01-01

202

Knotting probability of DNA molecules confined in restricted volumes: DNA knotting in phage capsids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When linear double-stranded DNA is packed inside bacteriophage capsids, it becomes highly compacted. However, the phage is believed to be fully effective only if the DNA is not entangled. Nevertheless, when DNA is extracted from a tailless mutant of the P4 phage, DNA is found to be cyclic and knotted (probability of 0.95). The knot spectrum is very complex, and most of the knots have a large number of crossings. We quantified the frequency and crossing numbers of these knots and concluded that, for the P4 tailless mutant, at least half the knotted molecules are formed while the DNA is still inside the viral capsid rather than during extraction. To analyze the origin of the knots formed inside the capsid, we compared our experimental results to Monte Carlo simulations of random knotting of equilateral polygons in confined volumes. These simulations showed that confinement of closed chains to tightly restricted volumes results in high knotting probabilities and the formation of knots with large crossing numbers. We conclude that the formation of the knots inside the viral capsid is driven mainly by the effects of confinement.

Arsuaga, Javier; Vázquez, Mariel; Trigueros, Sonia; Witt Sumners, De; Roca, Joaquim

2002-04-01

203

A Genetic Map of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) With Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Isozyme, Disease Resistance and Morphological Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed linkage map of lettuce was constructed using 53 genetic markers including 4 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci, five downy mildew resistance genes, four isozyme loci and three morphological markers. The genetic markers were distributed into nine linkage groups and cover 404 cM which may be 25-30% of the lettuce genome. The majority (31 of 34) of

Benoit S. Landry; Rick V. Kesseli; Barry Farrara; Richard W. Michelmore

1987-01-01

204

Discrimination of relapsing fever Borrelia persica and Borrelia microtti by diagnostic species-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in Africa and Eurasia and attributed to different Borrelia species. In the Central Asia and Middle Eastern countries, TBRF is caused mainly by Borrelia persica; however, other Borrelia species such B. microtti, B. latyschewii, B. baltazardi, and B. caucasica have also been described. The classic taxonomy of Borrelia spp. is based on the cospeciation concept that is very complex and rather confusing. In this study, we report two DNA-based methods to discriminate B. persica and B. microtti, the two main prevalent species in the region. Molecular typing of the species was performed using (i) restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified fragments of either 16S-rRNA or glpQ genes, and (ii) species-specific PCR of glpQ gene. Sequence analyses of the data obtained in this study indicate that the glpQ gene is more variable than 16S-rRNA (6.9% vs. 1.2%); thus glpQ is a more useful marker for discrimination of B. persica from B. microtti. The 16S-rRNA fragment comprises only one useful species-specific restriction site (TaqI), whereas the glpQ fragment includes several species-specific restriction sites and its digestion by DraI, TaqI, EcoRV, HinfI, or SspI results in distinctively different PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns for the two species. Further, the species-specific primers amplified a 253-bp fragment for B. persica and a 451-bp one for B. microtti. Phylogenetic analysis of the data revealed that B. microtti and B. persica are associated to the African and new world RF agents, respectively. This study demonstrates that both typing methods are simple, sensitive, and fast, and that they allow one to differentiate between B. persica and B. microtti. This could prove that both methods are important and useful in monitoring of TBRF disease in endemic areas. PMID:20586604

Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Rafinejad, Javad; Choubdar, Nayereh; Piazak, Norayer; Vatandoost, Hassan; Telmadarraiy, Zakiye; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Ravasan, Naseh Maleki

2011-03-01

205

Genetic Interrelatedness among Clover Proliferation Mycoplasmalike Organisms (MLOs) and Other MLOs Investigated by Nucleic Acid Hybridization and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses  

PubMed Central

DNA was isolated from clover proliferation (CP) mycoplasmalike organism (MLO)-diseased periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.) and cloned into pSP6 plasmid vectors. CP MLO-specific recombinant DNA clones were biotin labeled and used as probes in dot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to study the genetic interrelatedness among CP MLO and other MLOs, including potato witches'-broom (PWB) MLO. Results from dot hybridization analyses indicated that both a Maryland strain of aster yellows and a California strain of aster yellows are distantly related to CP MLO. Elm yellows, paulownia witches'-broom, peanut witches'-broom, loofah witches'-broom, and sweet potato witches'-broom may be very distantly related, if at all, to CP MLO. A new Jersey strain of aster yellows MLO, tomato big bud MLO, clover phyllody MLO, beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence MLO, and ash yellows MLO are related to CP MLO, but PWB MLO is the most closely related. Similarity coefficients derived from restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed that PWB and CP MLOs are closely related strains and thus provided direct evidence of their relatedness in contrast to reliance solely on biological characterization. Images PMID:16348604

Lee, Ing-Ming; Davis, Robert E.; Hiruki, Chuji

1991-01-01

206

The sperm chromatin dispersion test: a simple method for the determination of sperm DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Sperm DNA fragmentation is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of infertility. We herein describe the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test, a novel assay for sperm DNA fragmentation in semen. The SCD test is based on the principle that sperm with fragmented DNA fail to produce the characteristic halo of dispersed DNA loops that is observed in sperm with non-fragmented DNA, following acid denaturation and removal of nuclear proteins. This was confirmed by the analysis of DNA fragmentation using the specific DNA Breakage Detection-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH) assay, which allows the detection of DNA breaks in lysed sperm nuclei. Sperm suspensions either prepared from semen or isolated from semen by gradient centrifugation were embedded in an agarose microgel on slides and treated with 0.08 N HCl and lysing solutions containing 0.8 M dithiothreitol (DTT), 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 2 M NaCl. Then, the slides were sequentially stained with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and/or the Diff-Quik reagent, and the percentages of sperm with nondispersed and dispersed chromatin loops were monitored by fluorescence and brightfield microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that all sperm with nondispersed chromatin displayed DNA fragmentation, as measured by DBD-FISH. Conversely, all sperm with dispersed chromatin had very low to undetectable DBD-FISH labeling. SCD test values were significantly higher in patients being screened for infertility than in normozoospermic sperm donors who had participated in a donor insemination program. The coefficient of variation obtained using 2 different observers, either by digital image analysis (DIA) or by brightfield microscopy scoring, was less than 3%. In conclusion, the SCD test is a simple, accurate, highly reproducible, and inexpensive method for the analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation in semen and processed sperm. Therefore, the SCD test could potentially be used as a routine test for the screening of sperm DNA fragmentation in the andrology laboratory. PMID:12514084

Fernández, Jose Luis; Muriel, Lourdes; Rivero, Maria Teresa; Goyanes, Vicente; Vazquez, Rosana; Alvarez, Juan G

2003-01-01

207

Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of yeast species isolated from bovine intramammary infection.  

PubMed

This study reports a rapid PCR-based technique using a one-enzyme RFLP for discrimination of yeasts isolated from bovine clinical and subclinical mastitis milk samples. We analyzed a total of 1,486 milk samples collected over 1 yr in south Sardinia and northern Italy, and 142 yeast strains were preliminarily grouped based on their cultural morphology and physiological characteristics. Assimilation tests were conducted using the identification kit API ID 32C and APILAB Plus software (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). For PCR-RFLP analysis, the 18S-ITS1-5.8S ribosomal(r)DNA region was amplified and then digested with HaeIII, and dendrogram analysis of RFLP fragments was carried out. Furthermore, within each of the groups identified by the API or PCR-RFLP methods, the identification of isolates was confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region using an ABI Prism 310 automatic sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The combined phenotypic and molecular approach enabled the identification of 17 yeast species belonging to the genera Candida (47.9%), Cryptococcus (21.1%), Trichosporon (19.7%), Geotrichum (7.1%), and Rhodotorula (4.2%). All Candida species were correctly identified by the API test and their identification confirmed by sequencing. All strains identified with the API system as Geotrichum candidum, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus, and Rhodotorula glutinis also produced characteristic restriction patterns and were confirmed as Galactomyces geotrichum (a teleomorph of G. candidum), Filobasidium uniguttulatum (teleomorph of Crypt. uniguttulatus), and R. glutinis, respectively, by D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. With regard to the genus Trichosporon, preliminary identification by API was problematic, whereas the RFLP technique used in this study gave characteristic restriction profiles for each species. Moreover, sequencing of the D1/D2 region allowed not only successful identification of Trichosporon gracile where API could not, but also correct identification of misidentified isolates. In conclusion, the 18S-ITS1-5.8S region appears to be useful in detecting genetic variability among yeast species, which is valuable for taxonomic purposes and for species identification. We have established an RFLP database for yeast species identified in milk samples using the software GelCompar II and the RFLP database constitutes an initial method for veterinary yeast identification. PMID:24119798

Fadda, M E; Pisano, M B; Scaccabarozzi, L; Mossa, V; Deplano, M; Moroni, P; Liciardi, M; Cosentino, S

2013-12-01

208

Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis in Ecuador by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis present in a human population living in a northern Ecuadorian rain forest. All Giardia positive samples (based on an ELISA assay) were analysed using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that targets the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene; those amplified were subsequently genotyped using NlaIV and RsaI enzymes. The gdh gene was successfully amplified in 74 of 154 ELISA positive samples; 69 of the 74 samples were subsequently genotyped. Of these 69 samples, 42 (61%) were classified as assemblage B (26 as BIII and 16 as BIV), 22 (32%) as assemblage A (3 as AI and 19 as AII) and five (7%) as mixed AII and BIII types. In this study site we observe similar diversity in genotypes to other regions in Latin America, though in contrast to some previous studies, we found similar levels of diarrheal symptoms in those individuals infected with assemblage B compared with those infected with assemblage A. PMID:23827993

Atherton, Richard; Bhavnani, Darlene; Calvopina, Manuel; Vicuna, Yosselin; Cevallos, William; Eisenberg, Joseph

2013-01-01

209

Forensic identification of ungulate species using restriction digests of PCR-amplified mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

A survey of mitochondrial D-loop variation in 15 species of ungulates was conducted via amplification by the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. This survey included moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), waipiti (Cervus elaphus), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Stone's sheep (O. dalli), domestic sheep (O. aries), moulflon sheep (O. musimon), mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus), domestic goat (Capra hircus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and bison (Bison bison). The results of this preliminary survey indicate that there may be sufficient species specific variation in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome of the ungulate species examined here, with the exception of deer (Odocoileus) species, to establish the species origin of the mitochondrial haplotypes of this group. The Odocoileus species are known to hybridize and sharing of mtDNA haplotypes was observed. The chelex DNA extraction technique was successfully used on small blood stains. PMID:8522926

Murray, B W; McClymont, R A; Strobeck, C

1995-11-01

210

Paternal inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids of the genus Actinidia revealed by PCR-amplification of chloroplast DNA fragments.  

PubMed

RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) -amplified fragments were used to trace the pattern of plastid DNA inheritance in the genus Actinidia. A total of 51 progeny originating from interspecific crosses between three A. arguta cultivars and A. deliciosa, the kiwifruit, and 12 progeny originating from the cross between A. kolomikta and A. chinensis were analysed together with their parents. No reciprocal crosses could be tested since they all failed to set viable seeds. Attempts to rescue immature embryos failed in all cases as well. The A. argutaXA. deliciosa crosses were checked for the RFLP patterns of a sequence encoding part of the Rubisco large subunit (rbcL), using either AluI or MseI, and for a sequence encoding part of the photosystem II D1 protein (psbA), using HinfI. The A. kolomiktaXA. chinensis cross was checked for the RFLP patterns of sequences encoding the spacers between trnT and the 5'-trnL exon (a-b spacer DNA) and the trnL 3' exon and trnF (e-f spacer DNA), respectively. The first spacer revealed a natural polymorphism between the two parent species due to a large deletion occurring in A. kolomikta detectable without further restriction enzyme treatment. The e-f spacer DNA was digested with HinfI. The comparison of the RFLP patterns in the parents and their progeny showed a strictly paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA in Actinidia, with no exception found in any of the crosses examined. As the reciprocal crosses were not available, we do not know whether paternal inheritance of plastids is restricted to the crosses we analysed or if this is the general rule for plastid inheritance in the genus Actinidia. Actinidia is dioecious and is the first purely outbreeding species for which a paternal plastid inheritance has so far been documented. PMID:7616960

Cipriani, G; Testolin, R; Morgante, M

1995-06-25

211

Phylogenetic relationships and infraspecific variation in Canadian Arctic Poa based on chloroplast DNA restriction site data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infraspecific variation and phylogenetic relationships of Canadian Arctic species of the genus Poa were stud- ied based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation. Restriction site analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified cpDNA was used to reexamine the status of infraspecific taxa, reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, and reexamine previous classification systems and hypotheses of relationships. Infraspecific variation was detected in three species, but

Lynn J. Gillespie; Ruben Boles

2001-01-01

212

Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease.  

PubMed

MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5' ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

Nicholls, Thomas J; Zsurka, Gábor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Schöler, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S; Minczuk, Michal

2014-12-01

213

Linear mtDNA fragments and unusual mtDNA rearrangements associated with pathological deficiency of MGME1 exonuclease  

PubMed Central

MGME1, also known as Ddk1 or C20orf72, is a mitochondrial exonuclease found to be involved in the processing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication. Here, we present detailed insights on the role of MGME1 in mtDNA maintenance. Upon loss of MGME1, elongated 7S DNA species accumulate owing to incomplete processing of 5? ends. Moreover, an 11-kb linear mtDNA fragment spanning the entire major arc of the mitochondrial genome is generated. In contrast to control cells, where linear mtDNA molecules are detectable only after nuclease S1 treatment, the 11-kb fragment persists in MGME1-deficient cells. In parallel, we observed characteristic mtDNA duplications in the absence of MGME1. The fact that the breakpoints of these mtDNA rearrangements do not correspond to either classical deletions or the ends of the linear 11-kb fragment points to a role of MGME1 in processing mtDNA ends, possibly enabling their repair by homologous recombination. In agreement with its functional involvement in mtDNA maintenance, we show that MGME1 interacts with the mitochondrial replicase PolgA, suggesting that it is a constituent of the mitochondrial replisome, to which it provides an additional exonuclease activity. Thus, our results support the viewpoint that MGME1-mediated mtDNA processing is essential for faithful mitochondrial genome replication and might be required for intramolecular recombination of mtDNA. PMID:24986917

Nicholls, Thomas J.; Zsurka, Gabor; Peeva, Viktoriya; Scholer, Susanne; Szczesny, Roman J.; Cysewski, Dominik; Reyes, Aurelio; Kornblum, Cornelia; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Minczuk, Michal

2014-01-01

214

Manipulating mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy by a mitochondrially targeted restriction endonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause a variety of human diseases. In most cases, such mutations are heteroplasmic (i.e. mutated and wild-type mtDNA coexist) and a small percentage of wild-type sequences can have a strong protective effect against a metabolic defect. Because a genetic approach to correct mtDNA mutations is not currently available, the ability to modulate hetero-

Sarika Srivastava; Carlos T. Moraes

2001-01-01

215

Differentiation of Aedes atlanticus and Aedes tormentor by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the second internal transcribed spacer.  

PubMed

Using novel DNA sequence data, we designed a restriction enzyme assay that distinguishes Aedes atlanticus and Ae. tormentor, based on size polymorphisms. The restriction endonuclease Hpy188I digests polymerase chain reaction-amplified 2nd internal transcribed spacer products once for Ae. atlanticus and twice for Ae. tormentor, thus providing a useful method for identifying adult female collections that are generally considered morphologically indistinguishable. PMID:24551971

Sither, Charles B; Hopkins, Virginia E; Harrison, Bruce A; Bintz, Brittania J; Hickman, E Y; Brown, Jeffrey S; Wilson, Mark R; Byrd, Brian D

2013-12-01

216

A Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Map and Electrophoretic Karyotype of the Fungal Maize Pathogen Cochliobolus Heterostrophus  

PubMed Central

A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map has been constructed of the nuclear genome of the plant pathogenic ascomycete Cochliobolus heterostrophus. The segregation of 128 RFLP and 4 phenotypic markers was analyzed among 91 random progeny of a single cross; linkages were detected among 126 of the markers. The intact chromosomal DNAs of the parents and certain progeny were separated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and hybridized with probes used to detect the RFLPs. In this way, 125 markers were assigned to specific chromosomes and linkages among 120 of the markers were confirmed. These linkages totalled 941 centimorgans (cM). Several RFLPs and a reciprocal translocation were identified tightly linked to Tox1, a locus controlling host-specific virulence. Other differences in chromosome arrangement between the parents were also detected. Fourteen gaps of at least 40 cM were identified between linkage groups on the same chromosomes; the total map length was therefore estimated to be, at a minimum, 1501 cM. Fifteen A chromosomes ranging from about 1.3 megabases (Mb) to about 3.7 Mb were identified; one of the strains also has an apparent B chromosome. This chromosome appears to be completely dispensable; in some progeny, all of 15 markers that mapped to this chromosome were absent. The total genome size was estimated to be roughly 35 Mb. Based on these estimates of map length and physical genome size, the average kb/cM ratio in this cross was calculated to be approximately 23. This low ratio of physical to map distance should make this RFLP map a useful tool for cloning genes. PMID:1346261

Tzeng, T. H.; Lyngholm, L. K.; Ford, C. F.; Bronson, C. R.

1992-01-01

217

Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

1995-01-01

218

Intestinal Microbiota is Different in Women with Preterm Birth: Results from Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.  

PubMed

Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Studies using a cultivation method or molecular identification have shown that bacterial vaginosis is one of the risk factors for preterm birth. However, an association between preterm birth and intestinal microbiota has not been reported using molecular techniques, although the vaginal microbiota changes during pregnancy. Our aim here was to clarify the difference in intestinal and vaginal microbiota between women with preterm birth and women without preterm labor. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes were amplified from fecal and vaginal DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), we compared the levels of operational taxonomic units of both intestinal and vaginal flora among three groups: pregnant women who delivered term babies without preterm labor (non-PTL group) (n?=?20), those who had preterm labor but delivered term babies (PTL group) (n?=?11), and those who had preterm birth (PTB group) (n?=?10). Significantly low levels of Clostridium subcluster XVIII, Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium subcluster XIVa, and Bacteroides, and a significantly high level of Lactobacillales were observed in the intestinal microbiota in the PTB group compared with those in the non-PTL group. The levels of Clostridium subcluster XVIII and Clostridium subcluster XIVa in the PTB group were significantly lower than those in the PTL group, and these levels in the PTL group were significantly lower than those in non-PTL group. However, there were no significant differences in vaginal microbiota among the three groups. Intestinal microbiota in the PTB group was found to differ from that in the non-PTL group using the T-RFLP method. PMID:25372390

Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoneda, Noriko; Yonezawa, Rika; Matsubayashi, Takamichi; Seo, Genichiro; Saito, Shigeru

2014-01-01

219

Intestinal Microbiota is Different in Women with Preterm Birth: Results from Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Studies using a cultivation method or molecular identification have shown that bacterial vaginosis is one of the risk factors for preterm birth. However, an association between preterm birth and intestinal microbiota has not been reported using molecular techniques, although the vaginal microbiota changes during pregnancy. Our aim here was to clarify the difference in intestinal and vaginal microbiota between women with preterm birth and women without preterm labor. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes were amplified from fecal and vaginal DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), we compared the levels of operational taxonomic units of both intestinal and vaginal flora among three groups: pregnant women who delivered term babies without preterm labor (non-PTL group) (n?=?20), those who had preterm labor but delivered term babies (PTL group) (n?=?11), and those who had preterm birth (PTB group) (n?=?10). Significantly low levels of Clostridium subcluster XVIII, Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium subcluster XIVa, and Bacteroides, and a significantly high level of Lactobacillales were observed in the intestinal microbiota in the PTB group compared with those in the non-PTL group. The levels of Clostridium subcluster XVIII and Clostridium subcluster XIVa in the PTB group were significantly lower than those in the PTL group, and these levels in the PTL group were significantly lower than those in non-PTL group. However, there were no significant differences in vaginal microbiota among the three groups. Intestinal microbiota in the PTB group was found to differ from that in the non-PTL group using the T-RFLP method. PMID:25372390

Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoneda, Noriko; Yonezawa, Rika; Matsubayashi, Takamichi; Seo, Genichiro; Saito, Shigeru

2014-01-01

220

Oxygen Tension Influences DNA Fragmentation and Cell Death in Glucocorticoid-Treated Thymocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and cell death induced by dexamethasone in rat thymocytes were inhibited when cells were cultured in 95% N2\\/5% CO2 atmosphere, in which oxygen was rapidly reduced to under 0.5%. DNA fragmentation was delayed by a less severe hypoxia in 5% oxygen whilst in cell cultured in high oxygen atmosphere (95% O2) cell death was increased. On the

C. Stefanelli; I. Stanic; F. Bonavita; C. Muscari; C. Pignatti; C. Rossoni; C. M. Caldarera

1995-01-01

221

Investigations of Bacterial Inactivation and DNA Fragmentation Induced by Flowing Humid Argon Post-discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-contaminated surfaces were exposed to an atmospheric pressure flowing post-discharge, i.e. without direct contact of the plasma with the surface. The non-thermal plasma source was a dielectric barrier discharge. Using humid argon as a feed gas, a reduction of six orders of magnitude of survivors could be obtained for Escherichia coli. An investigation of bacterial inactivation mechanisms during the plasma induced treatment was conducted. For this purpose, DNA (plasmid and genomic DNA in aqueous solution) degradation by the plasma process was studied, assuming that the bacterial inactivation is obtained when the bacterial DNA is fragmented. According to the operating conditions (feed gas, reactor geometry and discharge input power), DNA fragmentation was evaluated in correlation with aqueous phase hydrogen peroxide concentration measurements. It appears that hydrogen peroxide is not the only factor responsible for DNA fragmentation and that short-lived species produced by water dissociation are major contributors.

Odic, Emmanuel; Limam, S.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Dodet, B.; Salamitou, S.; DuBow, M. S.

222

Brachydactyly A-1 mutations restricted to the central region of the N-terminal active fragment of Indian Hedgehog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the gene Indian Hedgehog (IHH) that cause Brachydactyly A-1 (BDA1) have been restricted to a specific region of the N-terminal active fragment of Indian Hedgehog involving codons 95, 100, 131, and 154. We describe two novel mutations in codons 128 and 130, not previously implicated in BDA1. Furthermore, we identified an independent mutation at codon 131 and we

Ashley M Byrnes; Lemuel Racacho; Allison Grimsey; Louanne Hudgins; Andrea C Kwan; Michel Sangalli; Alexa Kidd; Yuval Yaron; Yu-Lung Lau; Sarah M Nikkel; Dennis E Bulman

2009-01-01

223

Species-Specific Identification of Mycobacterium leprae by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of the hsp65 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene present in all mycobacteria was used in the present investigation to characterize Mycobacterium leprae. Bacilli were extracted and purified from different organs from experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice (Swiss mice of nu\\/nu origin). A total of 15 samples were assayed in duplicate, and the results were compared with those

NALIN RASTOGI; KHYE SENG GOH; MYLENE BERCHEL

1999-01-01

224

Routine Use of PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis for Identification of Mycobacteria Growing in Liquid Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure capable of rapidly identifying 28 species of clinically encountered mycobacteria was evaluated for use in the routine identification of acid-fast isolates growing in BACTEC 12B and 13A liquid media. PCR-RFLP identified 100 of 103 acid-fast isolates recovered from 610 patient specimens submitted for culture during the study. The three isolates unidentifiable by PCR-RFLP

THERESA B. TAYLOR; CANDY PATTERSON; YVONNE HALE; ANDWILLIAM W. SAFRANEK

1997-01-01

225

Characterization of Microbial Diversity by Determining Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative molecular technique was developed for rapid analysis of microbial community diversity in various environments. The technique employed PCR in which one of the two primers used was fluorescently labeled at the 5* end and was used to amplify a selected region of bacterial genes encoding 16S rRNA from total community DNA. The PCR product was digested with restriction

WEN-TSO LIU; TERENCE L. MARSH; HANS CHENG; LARRY J. FORNEY

1997-01-01

226

Exploration of factors driving incorporation of unnatural dNTPS into DNA by Klenow fragment (DNA polymerase I) and DNA polymerase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further understand how DNA polymerases discriminate against incorrect dNTPs, we synthesized two sets of dNTP analogues and tested them as sub- strates for DNA polymerase a (pol a) and Klenow fragment (exo? ) of DNA polymerase I (Escherichia coli ). One set of analogues was designed to test the importance of the electronic nature of the base.

Kristi Kincaid; Jeff Beckman; Aleksandra Zivkovic; Randall L. Halcomb; Joachim W. Engels; Robert D. Kuchta

2005-01-01

227

Restriction Enzyme Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Restriction mapping is a cornerstone of modern-day biotechnology. During this three-day exercise, students will digest samples of DNA with three different restriction enzymes. The DNA samples will be electrophoresed and the resulting fragments photographed under and ultraviolet transilluminator. Attached readings and activities will help explain the process of restriction enzyme analysis and how it is used in the DNA fingerprinting procedure. This 17-page pdf contains teacher information for presenting the activity, the complete procedure of the laboratory, and two student activities.

2008-08-13

228

Detection and Identification of Decay Fungi in Spruce Wood by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Amplified Genes Encoding rRNA†  

PubMed Central

We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and organic extractions, was amplified by the PCR using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We surveyed 14 species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes (brown-rot and white-rot fungi), as well as 25 species of wood-inhabiting ascomycetes (pathogens, endophytes, and saprophytes). DNA was isolated from pure cultures of these fungi and also from spruce wood blocks colonized by individual isolates of wood decay basidiomycetes or wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4 (universal primer) amplified the internal transcribed spacer region from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes from both pure culture and wood, as expected. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4-B (specific for basidiomycetes) was shown to reliably detect the presence of wood decay basidiomycetes in both pure culture and wood; ascomycetes were not detected by this primer pair. We detected the presence of decay fungi in wood by PCR before measurable weight loss had occurred to the wood. Basidiomycetes were identified to the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the internal transcribed spacer region. PMID:11055916

Jasalavich, Claudia A.; Ostrofsky, Andrea; Jellison, Jody

2000-01-01

229

Restricted pollen flow of Dieffenbachia seguine populations in fragmented and continuous tropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation can change the ecological context of populations, rupturing genetic connectivity among them, changing genetic structure, and increasing the loss of genetic diversity. We analyzed mating system and pollen structure in two population fragments and two continuous forest populations of Dieffenbachia seguine (Araceae), an insect-pollinated understory herb in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, México, using nine allozyme

S Cuartas-Hernández; J Núñez-Farfán; P E Smouse

2010-01-01

230

Repeated blast exposures cause brain DNA fragmentation in mice.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent behavioral deficits are not well understood. Unraveling the mechanisms of injury is critical to derive effective countermeasures against this form of neurotrauma. Preservation of the integrity of cellular DNA is crucial for the function and survival of cells. We evaluated the effect of repeated blast exposures on the integrity of brain DNA and tested the utility of cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of blast-induced polytrauma. The results revealed time-dependent breakdown in cellular DNA in different brain regions, with the maximum damage at 24 h post-blast exposures. CFD levels in plasma showed a significant transient increase, which was largely independent of the timing and severity of brain DNA damage; maximum levels were recorded at 2 h after repeated blast exposure and returned to baseline at 24 h. A positive correlation was observed between the righting reflex time and CFD level in plasma at 2 h after blast exposure. Brain DNA damage subsequent to repeated blast was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased release of cytochrome C, and up-regulation of caspase-3, all of which are indicative of cellular apoptosis. Shock-wave-induced DNA damage and initiation of mitochondrial-driven cellular apoptosis in the brain after repeated blast exposures indicate that therapeutic strategies directed toward inhibition of DNA damage or instigation of DNA repair may be effective countermeasures. PMID:24074345

Wang, Ying; Arun, Peethambaran; Wei, Yanling; Oguntayo, Samuel; Gharavi, Robert; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Long, Joseph B

2014-03-01

231

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in native Philippine cattle based on restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of patterns of cleavage of mtDNA by restriction endonucleases was performed for nine individuals from the Philippine\\u000a population of native cattle. MtDNA polymorphisms were detected in the restriction patterns generated by the following six\\u000a enzymes,BamHI,BglII,EcoRV,HindIII,PstI, andScaI. The restriction patterns showing polymorphisms were distributed nonrandomly among the nine individuals examined from the\\u000a Philippine population of native cattle, indicating the

Tomomasa Watanabe; Joseph S. Masangkay; Shigeharu Wakana; Naruya Saitou; Takeshi Tomita

1989-01-01

232

Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (Electrons  

E-print Network

Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (Electrons Joanna Berdys,, Iwona-mail: simons@chemistry.utah.edu Abstract: Although electrons having enough energy to ionize or electronically suggested that even lower- energy electrons (most recently 1 eV and below) can also damage DNA. The findings

Simons, Jack

233

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA base excision repair are affected differently by caloric restriction1  

E-print Network

. Caloric restriction lowers DNA repair activity in brain and kidney but not liver mitochondria Most DNA was assessed by measuring BER activity in mito- chondrial extracts prepared from liver, brain, and kidney and kidney mitochon- dria, CR resulted in 30% reductions of BER activity (t test; P 0.06) compared with PF

Stuart, Jeffrey A.

234

SAMHD1 restricts herpes simplex virus 1 in macrophages by limiting DNA replication.  

PubMed

Macrophages play important roles in host immune defense against virus infection. During infection by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), macrophages acquire enhanced antiviral potential. Restriction of HSV-1 replication and progeny production is important to prevent viral spread, but the cellular mechanisms that inhibit the DNA virus in macrophages are unknown. SAMHD1 was recently identified as a retrovirus restriction factor highly expressed in macrophages. The SAMHD1 protein is expressed in both undifferentiated monocytes and differentiated macrophages, but retroviral restriction is limited to differentiated cells by modulation of SAMHD1 phosphorylation. It is proposed to block reverse transcription of retroviral RNA into DNA by depleting cellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). Viruses with DNA genomes do not employ reverse transcription during infection, but replication of their viral genomes is also dependent on intracellular dNTP concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 restricts replication of the HSV-1 DNA genome in differentiated macrophage cell lines. Depleting SAMHD1 in THP-1 cells enhanced HSV-1 replication, while ectopic overexpression of SAMHD1 in U937 cells repressed HSV-1 replication. SAMHD1 did not impact viral gene expression from incoming HSV-1 viral genomes. HSV-1 restriction involved the dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity of SAMHD1 and was partially overcome by addition of exogenous deoxynucleosides. Unlike retroviruses, restriction of HSV-1 was not affected by SAMHD1 phosphorylation status. Our results suggest that SAMHD1 functions broadly to inhibit replication of DNA viruses in nondividing macrophages. PMID:24067963

Kim, Eui Tae; White, Tommy E; Brandariz-Núñez, Alberto; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Weitzman, Matthew D

2013-12-01

235

Typing of Campylobacter pylori by bacterial DNA restriction endonuclease analysis and determination of plasmid profile.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter pylori isolates from 37 symptomatic patients and 3 asymptomatic volunteers were examined by chromosomal DNA restriction endonuclease analysis and determination of plasmid profile. Restriction digests with HindIII, HaeIII, PvuII, and BglII produced clear and reproducible results that permitted discrimination between different strains. Only 35% of C. pylori isolates were found to have plasmid DNA. Isolates from different patients, including those from two pairs of siblings, had unique restriction patterns and plasmid profiles. Consecutive isolates obtained 1 year apart from each of two asymptomatic volunteers had identical restriction patterns and plasmid profiles, suggesting persistence of the same strain. A pair of isolates obtained one year apart from the third volunteer differed in plasmid DNA content but had similar chromosomal DNA restriction patterns. Plasmid profile determination and bacterial DNA restriction endonuclease analysis provide a reliable means of discriminating between different strains of C. pylori and may be useful for typing these organisms in epidemiologic studies. Images PMID:2153701

Simor, A E; Shames, B; Drumm, B; Sherman, P; Low, D E; Penner, J L

1990-01-01

236

Components of variance in transcriptomics based on electrophoretic separation of cDNA fragments (cDNA-AFLP).  

PubMed

The sources of variance and errors in transcriptomics based on the electrophoretic separation of amplified cDNA fragments were investigated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Transcriptome profiles of the plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum were generated by a standard cDNA-AFLP protocol followed by electrophoretic separation of amplified DNA fragments in flatbed polyacrylamide gels with fluorescence detection as well as by capillary electrophoresis (DNA sequencer). The total variance was partitioned into contributions of cDNA synthesis, adapter ligation, preamplification, amplification, and electrophoresis. Parameters of computer-aided peak recognition and matching were investigated and strategies improving matching success based on double passage with different signal intensity thresholds were developed. The overall quality of data was similar for cDNA-AFLP and microarray hybridization. Variance of cDNA-AFLP was independent of signal intensity, whereas microarray data showed higher variance for low-intensity signals. Capillary electrophoresis significantly reduced the number of wrongly matched and unmatched signals as compared with flatbed gels. These results are also likely to apply to related electrophoresis-based transcriptome analysis techniques such as mRNA differential display. PMID:19588459

Weiberg, Arne; Karlovsky, Petr

2009-07-01

237

Components of variance in transcriptomics based on electrophoretic separation of cDNA fragments (cDNA-AFLP)  

PubMed Central

The sources of variance and errors in transcriptomics based on the electrophoretic separation of amplified cDNA fragments were investigated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Transcriptome profiles of the plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum were generated by a standard cDNA-AFLP protocol followed by electrophoretic separation of amplified DNA fragments in flatbed polyacrylamide gels with fluorescence detection as well as by capillary electrophoresis (DNA sequencer). The total variance was partitioned into contributions of cDNA synthesis, adapter ligation, preamplification, amplification, and electrophoresis. Parameters of computer-aided peak recognition and matching were investigated and strategies improving matching success based on double passage with different signal intensity thresholds were developed. The overall quality of data was similar for cDNA-AFLP and microarray hybridization. Variance of cDNA-AFLP was independent of signal intensity, whereas microarray data showed higher variance for low-intensity signals. Capillary electrophoresis significantly reduced the number of wrongly matched and unmatched signals as compared with flatbed gels. These results are also likely to apply to related electrophoresis-based transcriptome analysis techniques such as mRNA differential display. PMID:19588459

Weiberg, Arne; Karlovsky, Petr

2009-01-01

238

A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students  

PubMed Central

Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104

DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

2011-01-01

239

A semester-long project for teaching basic techniques in molecular biology such as restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to undergraduate and graduate students.  

PubMed

Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky(73). Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104

DiBartolomeis, Susan M

2011-01-01

240

Fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brittle materials fragment when exploded or under impact. The study of fragmentation is of practical importance in many areas, ranging from archaeology to milling. In the last 10 years much progress has been achieved in the understanding of the fragment size and velocity distributions as function of the total energy, the geometry and the material strength. Scaling laws, analogous to those of critical phenomena, have been formulated. Recent experiments of exploding egg shells and Christmas balls have given insight also into the fragmentation of containers. For the case of shells, new critical exponents are obtained. These results are confirmed by numerical simulations. These laws are important to understand space debris.

Herrmann, Hans J.; Wittel, Falk K.; Kun, Ferenc

2006-11-01

241

Isolation and characterization of matrix associated region DNA fragments in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

To investigate the interactions between chromosomal DNA and nuclear matrices in higher plants, matrix associated regions (MARs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) DNAs were cloned. First, we prepared nuclear matrices from isolated nuclei by digesting them with EcoRI and then extracting with 2 M NaCl. About 6% of the total DNA remained in the nuclear matrices after this digestion and extraction. The residual DNA fragments in the nuclear matrices were cloned. Some of the cloned DNA fragments showed binding to certain nuclear proteins. One of the MAR fragments contained sequences related to known consensus motifs and a hairpin loop structure. A method is presented for isolation of matrix associated region (MAR) DNAs from plant cells. PMID:9360323

Nomura, K; Saito, W; Ono, K; Moriyama, H; Takahashi, S; Inoue, M; Masuda, K

1997-09-01

242

HLA-DO polymorphism associated with resistance to type I diabetes detected with monoclonal antibodies, isoelectric point differences, and restriction fragment length polymorphism  

PubMed Central

A new HLA-DQ-related genetic system with two alleles, 2B3 and TA10, defined serologically by MAbs and alloantisera, showed an almost perfect correlation with charge differences on DQ beta molecules, as well as with two polymorphic DNA fragments hybridizing with a DQ beta probe and various restriction enzymes on a panel of 14 DR4+ homozygous typing cells. It was therefore concluded that the serologically defined alleles 2B3 and TA10 are coded by the DQ beta gene and situated on the HLA-DQ beta chain. This 2B3/TA10 polymorphism is independent of HLA-D and segregates with HLA in families. The TA10 allele appears to be a new marker for resistance to type I diabetes, which is independent from the known resistance marker DR2, whereas no association was observed between this DQ beta polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:3462303

1986-01-01

243

Cloning and sequence analysis of an XbaI fragment of rainbow trout mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.4 kbp Xbal fragment of rainbow trout mitochondrial DNA was cloned into pTZ18R. DNA sequence analysis reveals that this segment of the genome encodes URF3, tRNAArg, URF4L and URF4 in the same orientation as other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. Comparison of these segments of the rainbow trout mitochondrial genome with the corresponding sequences in human mitochondrial DNA shows that approximately

William S. Davidson; Sylvia E. Bartlett; Tim P. Birt; John M. Green

1988-01-01

244

Fast multiple gene fragment ligation method based on Type IIs restriction enzyme DraIII  

E-print Network

With the established BioBrick Assembly standards, ligation of different parts has to be accomplished step by step. It can be time-consuming when dealing with multiple fragment ligation. BBF RFC 61 is developed aimed at ...

Shi, Zhenyu

2010-10-31

245

Identification of two groups of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis strains by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNA was prepared from four reference strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and 46 isolates of this organism from New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and Norway and also from two mycobactin-dependent "wood pigeon" strains. The DNA was characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis, both with and without DNA hybridization, with a probe specific to a repetitive DNA sequence in M. paratuberculosis. Both techniques differentiated M. paratuberculosis strains into two groups, but DNA hybridization revealed more differences between strains within the larger group. All the strains from cattle and many strains from other animals belonged to this group. The second group of nine strains included the Faroe Islands strain, all New Zealand sheep strains, and one New Zealand goat strain. Primary isolation of strains belonging to this group was difficult to achieve. DNA from acid-fast organisms harvested directly from intestinal tissues of sheep with Johne's disease was shown to have restriction and hybridization patterns identical to those of DNA obtained from M. paratuberculosis isolates cultured from the same tissues. Two Norwegian goat strains and the wood pigeon strains did not hybridize to the M. paratuberculosis probe and had restriction patterns very different from those of other M. paratuberculosis strains. The wood pigeon strains had restriction patterns very similar to those of strains of Mycobacterium avium, indicating that they should be classified as that species. The presence of two distinct groups of M. paratuberculosis strains and their predominant distribution in different host animals may be significant in management of mixed-animal farming operations. Images PMID:2166089

Collins, D M; Gabric, D M; de Lisle, G W

1990-01-01

246

A fluorescence method for detection of DNA and DNA methylation based on graphene oxide and restriction endonuclease HpaII.  

PubMed

DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological events and is associated with various diseases. Most traditional methods for detection of DNA methylation are based on the complex and expensive bisulfite method. In this paper, we report a novel fluorescence method to detect DNA and DNA methylation based on graphene oxide (GO) and restriction endonuclease HpaII. The skillfully designed probe DNA labeled with 5-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and optimized GO concentration keep the probe/target DNA still adsorbed on the GO. After the cleavage action of HpaII the labeled FAM is released from the GO surface and its fluorescence recovers, which could be used to detect DNA in the linear range of 50pM-50nM with a detection limit of 43pM. DNA methylation induced by transmethylase (Mtase) or other chemical reagents prevents HpaII from recognizing and cleaving the specific site; as a result, fluorescence cannot recover. The fluorescence recovery efficiency is closely related to the DNA methylation level, which can be used to detect DNA methylation by comparing it with the fluorescence in the presence of intact target DNA. The method for detection of DNA and DNA methylation is simple, reliable and accurate. PMID:25281112

Wei, Wei; Gao, Chunyan; Xiong, Yanxiang; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin; Pu, Yuepu

2015-01-01

247

DNA methylation protects hematopoietic stem cell multipotency from myeloerythroid restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA methylation is a dynamic epigenetic mark that undergoes extensive changes during differentiation of self-renewing stem cells. However, whether these changes are the cause or consequence of stem cell fate remains unknown. Here, we show that alternative functional programs of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are governed by gradual differences in methylation levels. Constitutive methylation is essential for HSC self-renewal but

Ann-Marie Bröske; Lena Vockentanz; Shabnam Kharazi; Matthew R Huska; Elena Mancini; Marina Scheller; Christiane Kuhl; Andreas Enns; Marco Prinz; Rudolf Jaenisch; Claus Nerlov; Achim Leutz; Miguel A Andrade-Navarro; Sten Eirik W Jacobsen; Frank Rosenbauer

2009-01-01

248

Methods for rapid cloning and detection for sequencing of cloned inverse PCR-generated DNA fragments adjacent to known sequences in bacterial chromosomes.  

PubMed

Since the invention of PCR, many adaptation techniques have been developed for sequencing DNA fragments flanking known sequences. Of them, inverse PCR is a matter of interest because of the simplicity of its principle. However, the protocols for inverse PCR introduced so far consist of some time-consuming procedures, and with them, we cannot "walk" chromosomes too far since the number of suitable restriction enzymes is limited. Our experiments led to confirming simpler technical approaches applicable to the case of bacterial chromosomes, that is, designing two end-specific "contextual" sequences with which we can quickly detect the desired clones of targeted DNA fragments by simply analyzing PCR products, employing "the minimum value of the desired fragments" as a "discriminating minimum" value to decrease contaminant DNA fragments, and creating a new tandem of two cleaved end fragments of a known sequence ("reordering") for PCR amplification in combination with cloning of the inverse PCR-generated DNA. With the improvements, we could both simplify the procedures and broaden the capacity of the inverse PCR in "walking" chromosomes. PMID:10553675

Pham, H S; Kiuchi, A; Tabuchi, K

1999-01-01

249

Linear contour length dependence of electrical polarizability of nucleosomal DNA fragments: implications for the flexibility of DNA.  

PubMed

The transient electric birefringence of monodisperse oligonucleosomal DNA ranging from 145 to 990 base pairs has been studied. The orientation of fragments can be described in terms of an induced dipole moment with a small contribution of a permanent dipole. The electrical polarizability delta alpha was found to increase linearly with the DNA contour length. This unexpected dependence might result from a bent structure of DNA already considerable for very short segments. The observed delta alpha values agree with a segmental orientation of rigid subunits of length 13-18 nm as estimated in the elastic model of DNA with a kink angle of about 41 degrees. PMID:2306234

Hacques, M F; Marion, C

1990-02-14

250

Electric dichroism and bending amplitudes of DNA fragments according to a simple orientation function for weakly bent rods.  

PubMed

The linear dichroism is calculated for DNA fragments in their thermal bending equilibrium. These calculations are given for relatively short fragments, where bent molecules can be described by an arc model. Using the measured value of 350 A for the persistence length, the limit dichroism (corresponding to complete alignment) decreases due to thermal bending, e.g., for a fragment with 100 base pairs to 80% of the value expected for straight molecules. Thermal bending should lead to a strong continuous decrease of the dichroism with increasing chain length, which is not observed, however, in electric dichroism experiments due to electric stretching. The influence of the electric field on the bending equilibrium is described by a contribution to the bending energy, which is calculated from the movement of charge equivalents against the potential gradient upon bending. The charge equivalents, which are assigned to the helix ends, are derived from the dipole moments causing the stationary degree of orientation. By this procedure the energy term inducing DNA stretching is given for induced, permanent, and saturating induced dipole models without introduction of any additional parameter. The stationary dichroism at a given electric field strength is then calculated according to an arc model by integration over all angles of orientation of helix axes or chords with respect to the field vector, and at each of these angles the contribution to the dichroism is calculated by integration over all helices with different degrees of bending. Orientation functions obtained by this procedure are fitted to dichroism data measured for various restriction fragments. Optimal fits are found for an induced dipole model with saturation of the polarizability. The difference between orientation functions with and without electric stretching is used to evaluate dichroism bending amplitudes. Both chain length and field strength dependence of bending amplitudes are consistent with experimental amplitudes derived from the dichroism decay in low salt buffers containing multivalent ions like Mg2+, spermine, or [CoNH3)6]3+. Bending amplitudes can be used to evaluate the persistence length from electrooptical data obtained for a single DNA restriction fragment. Bending and stretching effects are considerable already at relatively low chain length, and thus should not be neglected in any quantitative evaluation of experimental data. PMID:2752096

Porschke, D

1989-08-01

251

Effect of different gravity environments on DNA fragmentation and cell death in Kalanchoe leaves.  

PubMed

Different gravity environments have been shown to significantly affect leaf-plantlet formation and asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë daigremontiana Ham. and Perr. In the present work, we investigated the effect of gravity at tissue and cell levels. Leaves and leaf-plantlets were cultured for different periods of time (min to 15 d) in different levels of gravity stimulation: simulated hypogravity (1 rpm clinostats; 2 x 10(-4) g), 1 g (control) and hypergravity (centrifugation; 20 and 150 g). Both simulated hypogravity and hypergravity affected cell death (apoptosis) in this species, and variations in the number of cells showing DNA fragmentation directly correlated with nitric oxide (NO) formation. Apoptosis in leaves was more common as gravity increased. Apoptotic cells were localized in the epidermis, mainly guard cells, in leaf parenchyma, and in tracheary elements undergoing terminal differentiation. Exposures to acute hypergravity (up to 60 min) showed that chloroplast DNA fragmentation occurred prior to nuclear DNA fragmentation, marginalization of chromatin, nuclear condensation, and nuclear blebbing. Addition of sodium nitroprusside (NO donor) mimicked centrifugation. NO and DNA fragmentation decreased with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NO-synthase inhibitor). The variations in NO levels, nucleoid DNA fragmentation, and cell death show how chloroplasts, cells and leaves may respond (and adapt) to gravity changes. PMID:11762440

Pedroso, M C; Durzan, D J

2000-11-01

252

Influence of dsDNA fragment length on particle binding in an evanescent field biosensing system.  

PubMed

Particle labels are widely used in affinity-based biosensing due to the high detection signal per label, the high stability, and the convenient biofunctionalization of particles. In this paper we address the question how the time-course of particle binding and the resulting signals depend on the length of captured target molecules. As a model system we used fragments of dsDNA with lengths of 105 bp (36 nm), 290 bp (99 nm) and 590 bp (201 nm), detected in an evanescent-field optomagnetic biosensing system. On both ends the fragments were provided with small-molecule tags to allow binding of the fragments to protein-coated particles and to the capture molecules at the sensor surface. For isolated single particles bound to the surface, we observe that the optical scattering signal per particle depends only weakly on the fragment length, which we attribute to the pivoting motion that allows the particles to get closer to the surface. Our data show a strong influence of the fragment length on the particle binding: the binding rate of particles to the sensor surface is an order of magnitude higher for the longest dsDNA fragments compared to the smallest fragment studied in this paper. We attribute the enhanced binding rate to the length and motional freedom of the fragments. These results generate a new dimension for the design of assays and systems in particle-based biosensing. PMID:24534803

Koets, Marjo; van Ommering, Kim; Wang, Liqin; Testori, Emilie; Evers, Toon H; Prins, Menno W J

2014-04-01

253

Effective fragment potential study of the interaction of DNA bases.  

PubMed

Hydrogen-bonded and stacked structures of adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine nucleotide base pairs, along with their methylated analogues, are examined with the ab inito based general effective fragment potential (EFP2) method. A comparison of coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple (CCSD(T)) energies is presented, along with an EFP2 energy decomposition to illustrate the components of the interaction energy. PMID:21877717

Smith, Quentin A; Gordon, Mark S; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V

2011-10-20

254

DNA Fingerprinting by Infrequent-Restriction-Site Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of bacterial strains by DNA fingerprinting facilitates epidemiologic studies and improves disease control. For some species of organisms, no typing method is available; for others, typing methods are tedious.WedevelopedamethodofamplifyingDNAsequencesflankinginfrequentrestrictionsitesbyPCRand used the method to produce strain-specific electrophoretic patterns from crude bacterial lysates. This method of fingerprinting is rapid, sensitive, and widely applicable. Identical enzymes, adaptors, primers, and PCR conditions were

GERALD H. MAZUREK; VENKAT REDDY; BARBARA J. MARSTON; WALTER H. HAAS; ANDJACK T. CRAWFORD

1996-01-01

255

[Polymorphism of restriction sites of a control region of mitochondrial DNA in populations of Russian Old Believers and migrant slavic inhabitants of northern Siberia].  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was studied in restriction sites AvaII, BamHI, EcoRV, KpnI, HaeIII, and RsaI of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop in populations of Old Believers (Starovery) and in Slavic migrants in northern Siberia. Frequencies of rare variants of all polymorphic sites studied were estimated. The results were compared with the published data on mtDNA polymorphism sites studied were estimated. The results were compared with the published data on mtDNA polymorphism in Russian populations of central and southern Russia and in other Eastern Slavic, Caucasoid, and Mongolian populations. Significance of interpopulation differences with respect to distributions of variants of polymorphism sites was estimated with the use of the chi2 test. The comparison did not reveal significant differences between any groups of Eastern Slavs, including Old Believers. However, they significantly differed from both Mongols and Europeans (P < 0.05). To date, stable estimates of the polymorphism level in most of the restriction sites have been obtained for the Russian population. Regarding the distribution of the restriction-site variants of mtDNA, Russians significantly differ from the total European population, as well as from Mongols. In the populations of Old Believers, the effect of isolation on the diversity of the mitochondrial genome was demonstrated. PMID:9612696

Kazakovtseva, M A; Voevoda, M I; Babenko, V N; Osipova, L P

1998-04-01

256

Genetic diversity in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the genetic diversity in coconut by RFLP analysis was performed in 100 individuals representing 10 Tall and seven\\u000a Dwarf local populations or 'ecotypes' from various geographical origins. Nine cDNA clones from rice, one mitochondrial DNA\\u000a clone (CoxI) and one genomic clone (rDNA) from wheat were used as probe for southern hybridization. The distribution of the\\u000a 40 polymorphic

P. Lebrun; Y. P. N'cho; M. Seguin; L. Grivet; L. Baudouin

1998-01-01

257

DNA-Fragments Are Transcytosed across CaCo-2 Cells by Adsorptive Endocytosis and Vesicular Mediated Transport  

PubMed Central

Dietary DNA is degraded into shorter DNA-fragments and single nucleosides in the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary DNA is mainly taken up as single nucleosides and bases, but even dietary DNA-fragments of up to a few hundred bp are able to cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood stream. The molecular mechanisms behind transport of DNA-fragments across the intestine and the effects of this transport on the organism are currently unknown. Here we investigate the transport of DNA-fragments across the intestinal barrier, focusing on transport mechanisms and rates. The human intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 was used as a model. As DNA material a PCR-fragment of 633 bp was used and quantitative real time PCR was used as detection method. DNA-fragments were found to be transported across polarized CaCo-2 cells in the apical to basolateral direction (AB). After 90 min the difference in directionality AB vs. BA was >103 fold. Even undegraded DNA-fragments of 633 bp could be detected in the basolateral receiver compartment at this time point. Transport of DNA-fragments was sensitive to low temperature and inhibition of endosomal acidification. DNA-transport across CaCo-2 cells was not competed out with oligodeoxynucleotides, fucoidan, heparin, heparan sulphate and dextrane sulphate, while linearized plasmid DNA, on the other hand, reduced transcytosis of DNA-fragments by a factor of approximately 2. Our findings therefore suggest that vesicular transport is mediating transcytosis of dietary DNA-fragments across intestinal cells and that DNA binding proteins are involved in this process. If we extrapolate our findings to in vivo conditions it could be hypothesized that this transport mechanism has a function in the immune system. PMID:23409196

Johannessen, Lene E.; Spilsberg, Bj?rn; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G.

2013-01-01

258

Seasonal changes in sperm DNA fragmentation of Murciano-Granadina goats: The compelling case for dynamic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is provided of seasonal changes in the rate of DNA fragmentation dynamics of sperm collected from goats Murciano-Granadina breed), in a Spanish Breeding Centre at 41°N latitude. Results show that the initial assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation (T0) was not sufficient to differentiate sperm DNA fragmentation of bucks collected at different times of the year (Kruskal–Wallis 2.399; P=0.493). However,

C. López-Fernández; S. D. Johnston; A. Gosálbez; J. Gosálvez

2011-01-01

259

Stretching of single DNA molecules complexed with restriction endonuclease by Langmuir-Blodgett method.  

PubMed

We have proposed a new technique for stretching single double-stranded DNA molecules on solid substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. The polyion complex monolayer of a cationic amphiphile and DNA molecules formed at the air-water interface was transferred on a clean glass substrate. Vertical lifting up of the glass substrate provided the transferred monolayer consisting the stretched individual DNA molecules aligned parallel to the lifting direction on the glass. The DNA molecules complexed with the restriction endonuclease (EcoRI) were employed for stretching by using this method. Fluorescence images of the transferred monolayer showed that the EcoRI-binding DNA molecules could be stretched and immobilized on the glass substrate. A specific sequence of DNA recognized by EcoRI was detected as spatial positions of the stretched DNA molecules. PMID:15708499

Matsuo, Yasutaka; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Shimomura, Masatsugu

2005-02-25

260

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF PCR-AMPLIFIED NIFH SEQUENCES FROM WETLAND PLANT RHIZOSPHERE COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

We describe a method to assess the community structure of N2-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Total DNA was extracted from Spartina alterniflora and Sesbania macrocarpa root zones by bead-beating and purified by CsCl-EtBr gradient centrifugation. The average DNA yield was 5.5 ...

261

Highlights of the DNA cutters: a short history of the restriction enzymes  

PubMed Central

In the early 1950’s, ‘host-controlled variation in bacterial viruses’ was reported as a non-hereditary phenomenon: one cycle of viral growth on certain bacterial hosts affected the ability of progeny virus to grow on other hosts by either restricting or enlarging their host range. Unlike mutation, this change was reversible, and one cycle of growth in the previous host returned the virus to its original form. These simple observations heralded the discovery of the endonuclease and methyltransferase activities of what are now termed Type I, II, III and IV DNA restriction-modification systems. The Type II restriction enzymes (e.g. EcoRI) gave rise to recombinant DNA technology that has transformed molecular biology and medicine. This review traces the discovery of restriction enzymes and their continuing impact on molecular biology and medicine. PMID:24141096

Loenen, Wil A. M.; Dryden, David T. F.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Murray, Noreen E.

2014-01-01

262

Cleavage of adenine-modified functionalized DNA by type II restriction endonucleases  

PubMed Central

A set of 6 base-modified 2?-deoxyadenosine derivatives was incorporated to diverse DNA sequences by primer extension using Vent (exo-) polymerase and the influence of the modification on cleavage by diverse restriction endonucleases was studied. While 8-substituted (Br or methyl) adenine derivatives were well tolerated by the restriction enzymes and the corresponding sequences were cleaved, the presence of 7-substituted 7-deazaadenine in the recognition sequence resulted in blocking of cleavage by some enzymes depending on the nature and size of the 7-substituent. All sequences with modifications outside of the recognition sequence were perfectly cleaved by all the restriction enzymes. The results are useful both for protection of some sequences from cleavage and for manipulation of functionalized DNA by restriction cleavage. PMID:19820117

Macickova-Cahova, Hana; Hocek, Michal

2009-01-01

263

Clinical value of DNA fragmentation evaluation tests under ART treatments  

PubMed Central

Male reproductive health has been under scrutiny recently. Many studies in the literature have concluded that semen quality is declining and that the incidence of testicular cancers is increasing. The reason for this change has been attributed to damage in sperm chromatin. During in vivo reproduction, the natural selection process ensures that only a spermatozoon with normal genomic material can fertilize an oocyte. However, the assisted reproduction technique (ART) is our selection process, leading to the possibility that abnormal spermatozoa could be used to fertilize an oocyte. We could avoid this by quantifying the amount and type of genomic damage in sperm using well-accepted laboratory methods. The sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity is important for success of natural or assisted fertilization as well as normal development of the embryo, fetus and child. Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is bypassing natural sperm selection mechanisms, which increases the risk of transmitting damaged DNA. The significance of required investigations and multiple techniques is that they could evaluate DNA defects in human spermatozoa. The ability of these techniques to accurately estimate sperm DNA damage depends on many technical and biological aspects. The aim of this review is to evaluate the most commonly used methods. PMID:24592055

Tavukçuo?lu, ?lkay ?afak; Al-Azawi, Tahani; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Khaki, Arash; Khalil, Ahmed; Al-Hasani, Safaa

2012-01-01

264

A simple DNA extraction method for marijuana samples used in amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.  

PubMed

As a first step in developing a molecular method for the individualization of marijuana samples, we evaluated a plant DNA extraction kit. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method uses a spin column format for recovery of DNA and is effective for obtaining high molecular weight DNA from leaf, flower (bud), and seed samples of marijuana. The average DNA yield was 125-500 ng per 100 milligrams of fresh plant tissue. The recovered DNA was of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quality as measured by the ability to generate reproducible amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles. AFLP is a technique used to create a DNA profile for plant varieties and is being applied to marijuana samples by the authors to link growers and distributors of clonal material. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method was simple, efficient, and reproducible for processing small quantities of marijuana into DNA. PMID:12664992

Miller Coyle, Heather; Shutler, Gary; Abrams, Sharon; Hanniman, Janet; Neylon, Suzanne; Ladd, Carll; Palmbach, Timothy; Lee, Henry C

2003-03-01

265

Molecular Scissors: Restriction Enzymes 2009 1 Minority Science Programs School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine  

E-print Network

Molecular Scissors: Restriction Enzymes 2009 1 Minority Science Programs a group of enzymes (proteins that aid chemical reactions) in bacteria, which when added to any DNA result fragmented. These "molecular scissors" are called restriction enzymes (RE) How Restriction Enzymes

Rose, Michael R.

266

Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition  

SciTech Connect

Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2006-05-01

267

Portable capillary electrophoresis system with potential gradient detection for separation of DNA fragments.  

PubMed

A portable capillary electrophoresis (CE) system with a novel potential gradient detection (PGD) was utilized to separate DNA fragments. For the first time it was demonstrated that separation of DNA fragments in polymer solution could be detected by a portable CE system integrated with PGD, with a limit of detection (LOD) comparable to that of the CE-ultraviolet (UV) method. Effects of buffer solution, sieving medium, and applied voltage were also investigated. The portable CE-PGD system shows several potential advantages, such as simplicity, cost effectiveness, and miniaturization. PMID:15690452

Xu, Yan; Qin, Weidong; Li, Sam F Y

2005-02-01

268

Development of procedures for the identification of human papilloma virus DNA fragments in laser plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the investigation of laser plume for the existence of HPV DNA fragments, which possibly occur during laser treatment of virus infected tissue, human papillomas and condylomas were treated in vitro with the CO2-laser. For the sampling of the laser plume a new method for the trapping of the material was developed by use of water-soluble gelatine filters. These samples were analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which was optimized in regard of the gelatine filters and the specific primers. Positive PCR results for HPV DNA fragments up to the size of a complete oncogene were obtained and are discussed regarding infectiousity.

Woellmer, Wolfgang; Meder, Tom; Jappe, Uta; Gross, Gerd; Riethdorf, Sabine; Riethdorf, Lutz; Kuhler-Obbarius, Christina; Loening, Thomas

1996-01-01

269

Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA  

SciTech Connect

Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

Dybvig, K.

1981-01-01

270

Sorting Short Fragments of Single-Stranded DNA with an Evolving Electric Double Layer  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a new procedure for separation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) fragments that are anchored to the surface of a gold electrode by end hybridization. The new separation procedure takes the advantage of the strong yet evolving non-uniform electric field near the gold surface in contact with a buffer solution gradually being diluted with deionized water. Separation of short ssDNA fragments is demonstrated by monitoring the DNA at the gold surface with in situ fluorescence measurement. The experimental results can be rationalized with a simple theoretical model of electric double layer that relates the strength of the surface pulling force to the ionic concentration of the changing buffer solution. PMID:23356906

Wu, Jiamin; Zhao, Shuang-Liang; Gao, Lizeng; Wu, Jianzhong; Gao, Di

2013-01-01

271

Electrostatic field of the large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I.  

PubMed

The electrostatic field of the large fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Klenow fragment) has been calculated by the finite difference procedure on a 2 A grid. The potential field is substantially negative at physiological pH (reflecting the net negative charge at this pH). The largest regions of positive potential are in the deep crevice of the C-terminal domain, which is the proposed binding site for the DNA substrate. Within the crevice, the electrostatic potential has a partly helical form. If the DNA is positioned to fulfil stereochemical requirements, then the positive potential generally follows the major groove and (to a lesser extent) the negative potential is in the minor groove. Such an arrangement could stabilize DNA configurations related by screw symmetry. The histidine residues of the Klenow fragment give the positive field of the groove a sensitivity to relatively small pH changes around neutrality. We suggest that the histidine residues could change their ionization states in response to DNA binding, and that this effect could contribute to the protein-DNA binding energy. PMID:3912509

Warwicker, J; Ollis, D; Richards, F M; Steitz, T A

1985-12-01

272

Restriction and Sequence Alterations Affect DNA Uptake Sequence-Dependent Transformation in Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

Transformation is a complex process that involves several interactions from the binding and uptake of naked DNA to homologous recombination. Some actions affect transformation favourably whereas others act to limit it. Here, meticulous manipulation of a single type of transforming DNA allowed for quantifying the impact of three different mediators of meningococcal transformation: NlaIV restriction, homologous recombination and the DNA Uptake Sequence (DUS). In the wildtype, an inverse relationship between the transformation frequency and the number of NlaIV restriction sites in DNA was observed when the transforming DNA harboured a heterologous region for selection (ermC) but not when the transforming DNA was homologous with only a single nucleotide heterology. The influence of homologous sequence in transforming DNA was further studied using plasmids with a small interruption or larger deletions in the recombinogenic region and these alterations were found to impair transformation frequency. In contrast, a particularly potent positive driver of DNA uptake in Neisseria sp. are short DUS in the transforming DNA. However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for DUS specificity remains unknown. Increasing the number of DUS in the transforming DNA was here shown to exert a positive effect on transformation. Furthermore, an influence of variable placement of DUS relative to the homologous region in the donor DNA was documented for the first time. No effect of altering the orientation of DUS was observed. These observations suggest that DUS is important at an early stage in the recognition of DNA, but does not exclude the existence of more than one level of DUS specificity in the sequence of events that constitute transformation. New knowledge on the positive and negative drivers of transformation may in a larger perspective illuminate both the mechanisms and the evolutionary role(s) of one of the most conserved mechanisms in nature: homologous recombination. PMID:22768309

Ambur, Ole Herman; Frye, Stephan A.; Nilsen, Mariann; Hovland, Eirik; Tønjum, Tone

2012-01-01

273

Thermodynamic DNA Looping by a Two-Site Restriction Endonuclease Studied using Optical Tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many enzyme-DNA interactions involve multimeric protein complexes that bind at two distant sites such that the DNA is looped. An example is the type IIe restriction enzyme Sau3AI, which requires two recognition sites to cleave the DNA. Here we study this process at the single DNA level using force measuring optical tweezers. We characterize cleavage rates of single DNA molecules in the presence of Sau3AI as a function of enzyme concentration, incubation time, and the fractional extension of the DNA molecule. Activity is completely inhibited by tensions of a few picoNewtons. By replacing Mg^2+ with Ca^2+, the Sau3AI dimers form but do not cleave the DNA, thus trapping DNA loops. We are able to pull apart these loops, measuring the force needed and the length of DNA released for each. We also characterize the number and length distributions of these loops as a function of incubation time and DNA fractional extension. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of a Brownian dynamics model of DNA looping.

Gemmen, Gregory J.

2005-03-01

274

On-chip fraction collection for multiple selected ssDNA fragments using isolated extraction channels.  

PubMed

High efficiency and high-purity fraction collection is highly sought in analysis of fragments-of-interest from selective polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated by High Coverage Gene Expression Profiling (HiCEP) methods. Here we demonstrate a new electrophoretic chip device enabling automatic high-efficient fractionation of multiple ssDNA target fragments during a run of separation. We used thoroughly isolated extraction channels for each selected target to reduce the risk of cross-contamination between targets due to cross-talk of extraction channels. Fragments of 35, 108 and 138 b, were successfully isolated, then the recovery was PCR-amplified and assessed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. Total impurity level of the targets due to unwanted fragments of 0.7%, 2% and 6% respectively, was estimated. Difficulties in collecting multiple target factions are due to band diffusion and DNA adsorption to the walls for the fragments in the separation channel, which is generated by transferring the DNA target fraction from the extraction section to the target reservoir. Therefore, we have carefully measured band broadening and analyzed its influence on the separation resolution due to the delay. PMID:21227429

Li, Zheyu; Sun, Kai; Sunayama, Misato; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Araki, Ryoko; Ueno, Kosei; Abe, Masumi; Misawa, Hiroaki

2011-02-18

275

Temporal Profile of In Situ DNA Fragmentation After Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We measured the temporal profile and anatomic distribution of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation at various durations of reperfusion after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats (n = 62) using an intraluminal monofilament blockade of the MCA. After 2 h of MCA occlusion, the animals were killed at different

Yi Li; Michael Chopp; Ning Jiang; Fayi Yao; Cecylia Zaloga

1995-01-01

276

Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.  

PubMed

Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool. PMID:23451394

Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

2012-01-01

277

An artificial restriction DNA cutter for site-selective gene insertion in human cells.  

PubMed

With the use of a chemistry-based artificial restriction DNA cutter (combination of Ce(IV)-EDTA and a pair of pcPNA), both an antibiotic-resistance gene and a fluorescent reporter protein gene were incorporated into the targeted site through homologous recombination in human cells. PMID:23778429

Ito, Kenichiro; Shigi, Narumi; Komiyama, Makoto

2013-08-01

278

Characterization of microbial diversity in hypersaline environments by melting profiles and reassociation kinetics in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).  

PubMed

The diversity of prokaryotes inhabiting solar saltern ponds was determined by thermal melting and reassociation of community DNA. These measurements were compared with fingerprinting techniques such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) analysis, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and cloning and sequencing approaches. Three ponds with salinities of 22, 32, and 37% (NaCl saturation) were studied. The combination of independent molecular techniques to estimate the total genetic diversity provided a realistic assessment to reveal the microbial diversity in these environments. The changes in the prokaryotic communities at different salinity (22, 32, and 37% salt) were significant and revealed that the total genetic diversity increased from 22% to 32% salinity. At 37% salinity the diversity was reduced again to nearly half that at 22% salinity. Our results revealed that the community "genome" had a DNA complexity that was 7 (in 22% salinity pond), 13 (in 32% salinity pond), and 4 (in 37% salinity pond) times the complexity of an Escherichia coli genome. The base composition profiles showed two abundant populations, which changed in relative amount between the three ponds. They indicated an uneven taxon distribution at 22% and 37% salinity and a more even distribution at 32% salinity. The results indicated a large predominating population at 37% salinity, which might correspond to the abundance of square archaea (SPhT) observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and also indicated by the same T-RFLP fragment as the SPhT. The SPhT phylotype has also been reported to be the most frequently retrieved phylotype from this environment by culture independent techniques. In addition, two different operational taxonomic units (OTU) were detected at 37% salinity based on PCR with bacterial specific primers and T-RFLP. One of these predominant phylotypes is the extreme halophilic bacterium belonging to the bacteroidetes group, Salinibacter ruber. PMID:12904916

Øvreås, L; Daae, F L; Torsvik, V; Rodríguez-Valera, F

2003-10-01

279

Assessment of the degree and the type of restriction fragment length polymorphism in barley ( Hordeum vulgare )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the extent of polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare), DNA from 48 varieties was analyzed with 23 genomic, single-copy probes, distributed across all seven chromosomes. Upon hybridization to wheat-barley addition lines, the probes showed different degrees of homology compared to the wheat genome. Polymorphisms were detected in the barley genome at a frequency of 43% after digestion

A. Graner; H. Siedler; A. Jahoor; R. G. Herrmann; G. Wenzel

1990-01-01

280

Single nucleotide polymorphism detection by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate analysis of DNA sequence variation in not only humans and animals but also other organisms has played a significant role in expanding our knowledge about genetic variety and diversity in a number of different biological areas. The search for an understanding of the causes of genetic variants and mutations has resulted in the development of a simple laboratory technique,

Hirofumi Fukushima; Jerzy K Kulski; Hidetoshi Inoko; Masao Ota

2007-01-01

281

A restriction fragment length polymorphism-based polymerase chain reaction as an alternative to serotyping for identifying Salmonella serotypes.  

PubMed

The phase 1 (fliC) and phase 2 (fljB) Salmonella flagella genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to aid in the identification of different Salmonella serotypes. Twenty-four phase 1 flagellin and eight phase 2 flagellin genes could be differentiated among each other with restriction endonucleases Sau3A and HhaI in RFLP-PCR analysis. These flagellin genes comprise the major antigenic formulas for 52 serotypes of Salmonella sp., which include the common serotypes found in poultry and other important food animal species. With the knowledge of the O antigen composition determined from conventional O serotyping, 90% of the Salmonella serotypes could be identified by this double restriction enzyme RFLP analysis of fliC and fljB genes. This RFLP-PCR flagellar typing scheme was successfully applied to the identification of serotype for 112 Salmonella isolates obtained from poultry environment. There was a significant correlation between RFLP-PCR and conventional serotyping (chi-square, P < 0.001). Overall, PCR-RFLP proved to be a fast, accurate, and economical alternative approach to serotyping Salmonella sp. PMID:12887198

Hong, Yang; Liu, Tongrui; Hofacre, Charles; Maier, Marie; White, David G; Ayers, Sherry; Wang, Lihua; Maurer, John J

2003-01-01

282

Non-monotonic density dependence of the diffusion of DNA fragments in low-salt suspensions  

E-print Network

The high linear charge density of 20-base-pair oligomers of DNA is shown to lead to a striking non-monotonic dependence of the long-time self-diffusion on the concentration of the DNA in low-salt conditions. This generic non-monotonic behavior results from both the strong coupling between the electrostatic and solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions, and from the renormalization of these electrostatic interactions at large separations, and specifically from the dominance of the far-field hydrodynamic interactions caused by the strong repulsion between the DNA fragments.

M. G. McPhie; G. Naegele

2008-11-26

283

G Protein-Mediated Neuronal DNA Fragmentation Induced by Familial Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Mutants of APP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missense mutations in the 695-amino acid form of the amyloid precursor protein (APP695) cosegregate with disease phenotype in families with dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. These mutations convert valine at position 642 to isoleucine, phenylalanine, or glycine. Expression of these mutant proteins, but not of normal APP695, was shown to induce nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in neuronal cells. Induction of DNA fragmentation

Tomoki Yamatsuji; Takashi Matsui; Takashi Okamoto; Katsumi Komatsuzaki; Shizu Takeda; Hiroaki Fukumoto; Takeshi Iwatsubo; Nobuhiro Suzuki; Asano Asami-Odaka; Scott Ireland; T. Bernard Kinane; Ugo Giambarella; Ikuo Nishimoto

1996-01-01

284

Modification-dependent restriction endonuclease, MspJI, flips 5-methylcytosine out of the DNA helix.  

PubMed

MspJI belongs to a family of restriction enzymes that cleave DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). MspJI is specific for the sequence 5(h)mC-N-N-G or A and cleaves with some variability 9/13 nucleotides downstream. Earlier, we reported the crystal structure of MspJI without DNA and proposed how it might recognize this sequence and catalyze cleavage. Here we report its co-crystal structure with a 27-base pair oligonucleotide containing 5mC. This structure confirms that MspJI acts as a homotetramer and that the modified cytosine is flipped from the DNA helix into an SRA-like-binding pocket. We expected the structure to reveal two DNA molecules bound specifically to the tetramer and engaged with the enzyme's two DNA-cleavage sites. A coincidence of crystal packing precluded this organization, however. We found that each DNA molecule interacted with two adjacent tetramers, binding one specifically and the other non-specifically. The latter interaction, which prevented cleavage-site engagement, also involved base flipping and might represent the sequence-interrogation phase that precedes specific recognition. MspJI is unusual in that DNA molecules are recognized and cleaved by different subunits. Such interchange of function might explain how other complex multimeric restriction enzymes act. PMID:25262349

Horton, John R; Wang, Hua; Mabuchi, Megumu Yamada; Zhang, Xing; Roberts, Richard J; Zheng, Yu; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Cheng, Xiaodong

2014-10-29

285

Sequence specific detection of restriction enzymes at DNA-modified carbon nanotube field effect transistors.  

PubMed

Protein-DNA interactions play a central role in many cellular processes, and their misregulation has been implicated in a number of human diseases. Thus, there is a pressing need for the development of analytical strategies for interrogating the binding of proteins to DNA. Herein, we report the electrical monitoring of a prototypical DNA-binding protein, the PvuII restriction enzyme, at microfluidic-encapsulated, DNA-modified carbon nanotube field effect transistors. Our integrated platform enables the sensitive, sequence specific detection of PvuII at concentrations as low as 0.5 pM in a volume of 0.025 ?L (corresponding to ~7500 proteins). These figures of merit compare favorably to state of the art values reported for alternative fluorescent and electrical assays. The overall detection strategy represents a step toward the massively parallel electrical monitoring, identification, and quantification of protein-DNA interactions at arrayed nanoscale devices. PMID:25137193

Ordinario, David D; Burke, Anthony M; Phan, Long; Jocson, Jonah-Micah; Wang, Hanfei; Dickson, Mary N; Gorodetsky, Alon A

2014-09-01

286

Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp. PMID:24019490

Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; Garcia, Nuria; Paabo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

2013-01-01

287

Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Although an inverse relationship is expected in ancient DNA samples between the number of surviving DNA fragments and their length, ancient DNA sequencing libraries are strikingly deficient in molecules shorter than 40 bp. We find that a loss of short molecules can occur during DNA extraction and present an improved silica-based extraction protocol that enables their efficient retrieval. In combination with single-stranded DNA library preparation, this method enabled us to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome sequence from a Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri) bone excavated at Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the U. deningeri sequence forms an early diverging sister lineage to all Western European Late Pleistocene cave bears. Our results prove that authentic ancient DNA can be preserved for hundreds of thousand years outside of permafrost. Moreover, the techniques presented enable the retrieval of phylogenetically informative sequences from samples in which virtually all DNA is diminished to fragments shorter than 50 bp. PMID:24019490

Dabney, Jesse; Knapp, Michael; Glocke, Isabelle; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Weihmann, Antje; Nickel, Birgit; Valdiosera, Cristina; García, Nuria; Pääbo, Svante; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Meyer, Matthias

2013-09-24

288

Response of DNA fragments to potentiometric sensors studied using HPLC.  

PubMed

Potentiometric sensors are studied as viable candidates for the construction of high throughput DNA arrays. For preliminary investigations, such sensors were used in an HPLC setup in the present work. This avoided errors due to ionic contaminants or additives in the commercial samples. The oligonucleotides dT(10), dT(20) and dT(30) were used as test substances. The potentiometric sensors were of the coated wire type, containing PVC, DOP, MTDDACl and a synthetic podand urea receptor. The HPLC system consisted of a reversed phase column eluted with a phosphate buffer, triethylammoniumacetate (TEAA), and an acetonitrile gradient. Molar responses and sensitivities increased with increasing chain length of oligonucleotides, yielding detection limits as low as 10(-6)M (dT(30), injected concentration). The slopes of the calibration graphs were at least 23 mV/decade (dT(10)), which was much higher than expected. The results are discussed in view of the potential use of this sensor type in high throughput microarrays. PMID:17979638

Nagels, Luc J; Everaert, Joseph; Bohets, Hugo; Del Favero, Jurgen; Goossens, Dirk; Robbens, Johan; Pietraszkiewicz, Marek; Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana

2007-08-01

289

Identification of Mycobacterium avium Genotypes with Distinctive Traits by Combination of IS1245-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Restriction Analysis of hsp65  

PubMed Central

One-hundred eight Mycobacterium avium isolates from pigs, humans, birds, and bovines were typed by the IS1245-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) of hsp65. Nine clusters of isolates showing more than 80% similarity in their RFLP profiles were detected. The largest cluster (cluster B) included 32 of 79 pig isolates (40.5%), 3 of 25 human isolates (12%), and 1 of 2 bovine isolates, comprising 33% of all isolates. The second largest cluster (cluster A) included 18 pig isolates (22.8%) and 6 human isolates (24%). Six smaller clusters included six pig isolates (clusters C and D), four and two human isolates (clusters E and F, respectively), two pig isolates (cluster I), and two pig isolates plus one bovine isolate and the avian purified protein derivative strain (cluster H). Cluster G represented the “bird-type” profile and included the bird isolate in this series, one pig isolate, plus reference strain R13. PRA revealed four allelic variants. Seventy-seven isolates were identified as M. avium PRA variant I, 24 were identified as M. avium PRA variant II, 6 were identified as M. avium PRA variant III, and 1 was identified as M. avium PRA variant IV. Except for three isolates from cluster B, each of the RFLP clusters was associated with a single PRA pattern. Isolates with unique (nonclustered) RFLP profiles were distributed between PRA variants I and II, and there was one unique isolate of PRA variant IV. These observations are consistent with divergent evolution within M. avium, resulting in the emergence of distinct lineages with particular competence to infect animals and humans. PMID:12517823

Oliveira, R. S.; Sircili, M. P.; Oliveira, E. M. D.; Balian, S. C.; Ferreira-Neto, J. S.; Leao, S. C.

2003-01-01

290

Improved Assessment of Denitrifying, N2-Fixing, and Total-Community Bacteria by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Using Multiple Restriction Enzymes  

PubMed Central

A database of terminal restriction fragments (tRFs) of the 16S rRNA gene was set up utilizing 13 restriction enzymes and 17,327 GenBank sequences. A computer program, termed TReFID, was developed to allow identification of any of these 17,327 sequences by means of polygons generated from the specific tRFs of each bacterium. The TReFID program complements and exceeds in its data content the Web-based phylogenetic assignment tool recently described by A. D. Kent, D. J. Smith, B. J. Benson, and E. W. Triplett (Appl. Environ. Microb. 69:6768-6766, 2003). The method to identify bacteria is different, as is the region of the 16S rRNA gene employed in the present program. For the present communication the software of the tRF profiles has also been extended to allow screening for genes coding for N2 fixation (nifH) and denitrification (nosZ) in any bacterium or environmental sample. A number of controls were performed to test the reliability of the TReFID program. Furthermore, the TReFID program has been shown to permit the analysis of the bacterial population structure of bacteria by means of their 16S rRNA, nifH, and nosZ gene content in an environmental habitat, as exemplified for a sample from a forest soil. The use of the TReFID program reveals that noncultured denitrifying and dinitrogen-fixing bacteria might play a more dominant role in soils than believed hitherto. PMID:15812035

Rosch, Christopher; Bothe, Hermann

2005-01-01

291

Cloning human telomeric DNA fragments into Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a yeast-artificial-chromosome vector  

SciTech Connect

Telomeric fragments of human DNA ranging in size from 50 to 250 kilobases were cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a yeast-artificial-chromosome (YAC) vector. Six human-telomeric YAC (HTY) strains were selected by virtue of the specific hybridization of their DNA with the human telomeric terminal-repeat sequence (TTAGGG){sub n}, and the telomeric localization of this sequence within each YAC was demonstrated by its sensitivity to nuclease BAL-31. In situ hybridization of DNA from three of these HTY strains with human metaphase chromosomes yielded discrete patterns of hybridization signals at the telomeres of a limited number of human chromosomes, different for each clone. DNA from selected cosmid subclones of one of the HTY strains was used to localize the origin of the cloned telomeric DNA by in situ hybridization to the tip of the long arm of chromosome 7.

Riethman, H.C.; Burke, D.T.; Olson, M.V. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA)); Moyzis, R.K.; Meyne, J. (Univ. of California, Los Alamos, NM (USA))

1989-08-01

292

Sensitive PCR analysis of animal tissue samples for fragments of endogenous and transgenic plant DNA.  

PubMed

An optimized DNA extraction protocol for animal tissues coupled with sensitive PCR methods was used to determine whether trace levels of feed-derived DNA fragments, plant and/or transgenic, are detectable in animal tissue samples including dairy milk and samples of muscle (meat) from chickens, swine, and beef steers. Assays were developed to detect DNA fragments of both the high copy number chloroplast-encoded maize rubisco gene (rbcL) and single copy nuclear-encoded transgenic elements (p35S and a MON 810-specific gene fragment). The specificities of the two rbcL PCR assays and two transgenic DNA PCR assays were established by testing against a range of conventional plant species and genetically modified maize crops. The sensitivities of the two rbcL PCR assays (resulting in 173 and 500 bp amplicons) were similar, detecting as little as 0.08 and 0.02 genomic equivalents, respectively. The sensitivities of the p35S and MON 810 PCR assays were approximately 5 and 10 genomic equivalents for 123 bp and 149 bp amplicons, respectively, which were considerably less than the sensitivity of the rbcL assays in terms of plant cell equivalents, but approximately similar when the higher numbers of copies of the chloroplast genome per cell are taken into account. The 173 bp rbcL assay detected the target plant chloroplast DNA fragment in 5%, 15%, and 53% of the muscle samples from beef steers, broiler chickens, and swine, respectively, and in 86% of the milk samples from dairy cows. Reanalysis of new aliquots of 31 of the pork samples that were positive in the 173 bp rbcL PCR showed that 58% of these samples were reproducibly positive in this same PCR assay. The 500 bp rbcL assay detected DNA fragments in 43% of the swine muscle samples and 79% of the milk samples. By comparison, no statistically significant detections of transgenic DNA fragments by the p35S PCR assay occurred with any of these animal tissue samples. PMID:15453677

Nemeth, Anne; Wurz, Andreas; Artim, Lori; Charlton, Stacy; Dana, Greg; Glenn, Kevin; Hunst, Penny; Jennings, James; Shilito, Ray; Song, Ping

2004-10-01

293

Chromosomal assignment of human genomic NotI restriction fragments in a two-dimensional electrophoresis profile  

SciTech Connect

Using DNA from sorted human chromosomes and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we assigned 2295 NotI sites, 43% of the total, to specific chromosomes and designated the procedure CA-RLGS (chromosome-assigned restriction landmark genomic scanning). Although the NotI enzyme is sensitive to DNA methylation, our results suggested that the majority of the spots did not seem to be affected by this modification. The NotI sites were distributed at higher levels in chromosomes 17, 19, and 22, suggesting higher gene content in these chromosomes. Most spots were assigned to unique chromosomes, but some spots were found on two or more chromosomes. Quantitative analysis revealed the intensity of the DNA spots on the sex chromosomes to be haploid and that of the chromosome 21 spots in DNA from a male with Down syndrome to be trisomic, although there were exceptions. We report here the first-generation CA-RLGS map of the human genome. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Nagai, Hisaki; Matsubara, Kenichi [Osaka Univ. (Japan)] [and others] [Osaka Univ. (Japan); and others

1996-01-01

294

DNA vaccination with VP2 gene fragment confers protection against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in chickens.  

PubMed

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) causes immunosuppression in young chickens by destruction of antibody producing B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius and poses a potential threat to the poultry industry. We have examined the protective efficacy of a subunit DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens in this study. An immunodominant VP2 gene fragment (VP252-417) was cloned into CMV promoter based DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 and in vitro expression of the DNA encoded antigens was confirmed by transfection of CHO cells with vaccine constructs followed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis using IBDV-antiserum. Two weeks old chickens were immunized intramuscularly with pVAXVP252-417 and the in vivo transcription of the plasmid DNA was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of DNA injected muscle tissue at different intervals of post immunization. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the plasmid DNA was extensively distributed in muscle, spleen, kidney, liver, and bursa tissues. Chickens immunized with pVAXVP252-417 developed high titer (1:12,000) of anti-VP252-417 antibodies. Further, chicken splenocytes from pVAXVP252-417 immunized group showed a significantly high proliferation to the whole viral and recombinant antigen (P<0.01) compared to control groups, which implies that pVAXVP252-417 codes for immunogenic fragment which has epitopes capable of eliciting both B and T cell responses. This is evident by the fact that, pVAXVP252-417 immunized chicken conferred 75% protection against virulent IBDV (vIBDV) challenge compared to the control group. Thus, the present study confirms that the immunodominant VP2 fragment can be used as a potential DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens. PMID:24745626

Pradhan, Satya Narayan; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Arunkumar, Chakkaravarthy; Roy, Parimal; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Antony, Usha

2014-06-25

295

IS1311 and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses, Serotypes, and Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium Complex Isolates Obtained from a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Patient  

PubMed Central

Six isolates of Mycobacterium avium of genotype dnaJ+ IS901? IS1311+ IS1245+ and serotypes 6 (n = 1), 6/9, (n = 2), and 9 (n = 3) were obtained within a 5-month period from a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient treated for tuberculosis. The isolates were identified with PvuII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis as a single IS1311 RFLP type and six different IS1245 RFLP types. Six separate colonies/clones obtained by subculture from each of the six isolates were tested for MICs of a set of 10 drugs. This report documents the appearance of isolates that are resistant to antimycobacterial drugs as the duration of therapy increases. Because isolates recovered from the patient following longer duration of treatment were more likely to be resistant to more antimycobacterial drugs, we would conclude that there was selection for antimycobacterial drug-resistant isolates. Analyses of all 36 clones identified three IS1311 and 22 IS1245 types forming three clusters. Tests of 105 environmental samples collected in the home and the work place of the patient yielded 16 mycobacterial isolates, of which one M. avium from soil was of genotype dnaJ+ IS901+ IS1311+ IS1245+ and serotype 2, and the second M. avium from a vacuum cleaner was of genotype dnaJ+ IS901? IS1311+ IS1245+ and serotype 9. Overall analyses of the results did not reveal any relation between serotype, RFLP type, and drug susceptibility. Based on the course of the disease in the patient and different serotypes, IS1311 and IS1245 RFLP types of isolates of M. avium we suppose represent polyclonal infection. PMID:12354870

Dvorska, Lenka; Bartos, Milan; Ostadal, Oldrich; Kaustova, Jarmila; Matlova, Ludmila; Pavlik, Ivo

2002-01-01

296

16S rRNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Characterization of the Nasopharyngeal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

A novel non-culture based 16S rRNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method using the restriction enzymes Tsp509I and Hpy166II was developed for the characterization of the nasopharyngeal microbiota and validated using recently published 454 pyrosequencing data. 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP for 153 clinical nasopharyngeal samples from infants with acute otitis media (AOM) revealed 5 Tsp509I and 6 Hpy166II terminal fragments (TFs) with a prevalence of >10%. Cloning and sequencing identified all TFs with a prevalence >6% allowing a sufficient description of bacterial community changes for the most important bacterial taxa. The conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV-7) and prior antibiotic exposure had significant effects on the bacterial composition in an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) in concordance with the 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing data. In addition, the presented T-RFLP method is able to discriminate S. pneumoniae from other members of the Mitis group of streptococci, which therefore allows the identification of one of the most important human respiratory tract pathogens. This is usually not achieved by current high throughput sequencing protocols. In conclusion, the presented 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP method is a highly robust, easy to handle and a cheap alternative to the computationally demanding next-generation sequencing analysis. In case a lot of nasopharyngeal samples have to be characterized, it is suggested to first perform 16S rRNA T-RFLP and only use next generation sequencing if the T-RFLP nasopharyngeal patterns differ or show unknown TFs. PMID:23284951

Brugger, Silvio D.; Frei, Laurence; Frey, Pascal M.; Aebi, Suzanne; Muhlemann, Kathrin; Hilty, Markus

2012-01-01

297

16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for the characterization of the nasopharyngeal microbiota.  

PubMed

A novel non-culture based 16S rRNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method using the restriction enzymes Tsp509I and Hpy166II was developed for the characterization of the nasopharyngeal microbiota and validated using recently published 454 pyrosequencing data. 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP for 153 clinical nasopharyngeal samples from infants with acute otitis media (AOM) revealed 5 Tsp509I and 6 Hpy166II terminal fragments (TFs) with a prevalence of >10%. Cloning and sequencing identified all TFs with a prevalence >6% allowing a sufficient description of bacterial community changes for the most important bacterial taxa. The conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV-7) and prior antibiotic exposure had significant effects on the bacterial composition in an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) in concordance with the 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing data. In addition, the presented T-RFLP method is able to discriminate S. pneumoniae from other members of the Mitis group of streptococci, which therefore allows the identification of one of the most important human respiratory tract pathogens. This is usually not achieved by current high throughput sequencing protocols. In conclusion, the presented 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP method is a highly robust, easy to handle and a cheap alternative to the computationally demanding next-generation sequencing analysis. In case a lot of nasopharyngeal samples have to be characterized, it is suggested to first perform 16S rRNA T-RFLP and only use next generation sequencing if the T-RFLP nasopharyngeal patterns differ or show unknown TFs. PMID:23284951

Brugger, Silvio D; Frei, Laurence; Frey, Pascal M; Aebi, Suzanne; Mühlemann, Kathrin; Hilty, Markus

2012-01-01

298

Efficient tracing of global isolates of Yersinia pestis by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using three insertion sequences as probes.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague, a disease that is transmitted from rodent to rodent and from rodent to humans by fleabites. Multiple copies of three insertion sequences (IS100, IS285, and IS1541) are scattered over the Y. pestis genome. The genomic instability generated by these insertion sequences (IS) creates a polymorphism of the hybridizing restriction fragments (restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP]) which can be used to subtype this relatively clonal species. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the potential of the three IS-RFLP techniques, individually or in combination, to define clusters of strains according to their focus of origin. The analysis of 61 Y. pestis isolates of worldwide origin indicated that no satisfactory strain clustering was observed with each IS-RFLP used individually. In contrast, the combination of the three IS-RFLP data (3IS-RFLP) resulted in both an efficient strain discrimination (D = 0.999) and a robust clustering of the isolates according to their biovar and geographical origin. This geographical clustering was observed even within the Orientalis group, although these strains had only a short period of time (one century) to diverge from the original clone that spread globally. Therefore, 3IS-RFLP is a technique that may be useful for addressing epidemiological problems and forensic issues. When plague reemerges after several decades of silence in a quiescent focus, it may help in determining whether the disease was reimported or reactivated. It may also be of value to identify the origin of a strain when plague cases appear in a previously plague-free region. Finally, this technique could be useful for the tracing of a Y. pestis isolate that has been used as a biological terrorism threat. PMID:16757602

Torrea, Gabriela; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

2006-06-01

299

Characterization of psychrotrophic bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packed meat with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Characterization of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta communities is needed to understand the microbial ecology of spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) meats. To overcome the limitations of the currently used methods for the characterization of psychrotrophic bacterial communities in meat, we developed a culture-independent, 16S rRNA gene-targeted terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. An identification library consisting of 100 Gram-positive and 30 Gram-negative meat-associated bacterial strains was set up to identify the terminal restriction fragments derived from the communities. The taxonomic resolution level of the T-RFLP method was in between genus and species within the investigated LAB strains and within family and genus within the investigated Gram-negative strains. The established library was applied to identify the members of bacterial communities in MAP minced meat at the end of the shelf life. The T-RFLP results and plate counts on Man-Rogosa-Sharpe, Violet Red Bile Glucose, and Streptomycin sulfate thallium acetate actidione agars indicated that LAB and B. thermosphacta predominated in meat. The bacterial taxa associated with the T-RFLP results were compared to those identified among plate-grown LAB isolates by numerical ribopattern analysis. Both methods agreed that Leuconostoc spp. and Carnobacterium spp. prevailed in the LAB community in minced meat followed by Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus spp. and Weissella spp. Colony identification revealed that Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, L. gelidum, Carnobacterium divergens and C. maltaromaticum were the predominant LAB species. The T-RFLP results were shown to correlate with viable counts of Leuconostoc spp. and B. thermosphacta. The T-RFLP method was found to be a useful tool enabling rapid and high-throughput characterization of psychrotrophic bacteria prevailing in MAP meat. PMID:21093087

Nieminen, T T; Vihavainen, E; Paloranta, A; Lehto, J; Paulin, L; Auvinen, P; Solismaa, M; Björkroth, K J

2011-01-01

300

Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation and its Correlation with Conventional Semen Parameters  

PubMed Central

Background The initial step in the diagnostic investigation of male infertility has been traditionally based on the conventional seminal profile. However, there are significant limitations regarding its ability to determine the underlying mechanisms that cause the disorder. Sperm DNA fragmentation has emerged as a potential causative factor of reproductive failure and its assessment has been suggested as a useful adjunct to the laboratory methodology of male infertility evaluation, especially before the application of assisted reproduction technology (ART). Methods A review of recent bibliography was carried out in PubMed by the use of relevant keywords, in order to evaluate the possible correlation between the conventional seminal parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation assessment as diagnostic tools in male infertility evaluation. Results A comprehensive diagnostic approach of male infertility should be based on a combination of diagnostic attributes, derived from the conventional semen analysis, as well as the investigation of genomic integrity testing. Conclusion Due to its strong correlation with several aspects of ART procedures and further consequences for the offspring, sperm DNA fragmentation is a parameter worth integrating in routine clinical practice. However, additional large scale studies focusing on specific subgroups of infertile men who may benefit from an efficient therapeutic management based on the optimization of sperm DNA integrity are needed. PMID:24696791

Evgeni, Evangelini; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Asimakopoulos, Byron

2014-01-01

301

Correlation between human clusterin in seminal plasma with sperm protamine deficiency and DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Seminal proteins can be considered as factors that control fertilization. Clusterin is one such protein that has been implicated in many activities, including apoptosis inhibition, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and sperm maturation. In this study, the relationship between human secretory clusterin (sCLU) in seminal plasma with sperm parameters, protamine deficiency, and DNA fragmentation was investigated. Semen samples were collected from 63 Iranian men, and semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization criteria and computer aided semen analysis (CASA). The concentration of sCLU in seminal plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), protamine deficiency was determined by chromomycin A3 staining (CMA3 ), and sperm DNA fragmentation was checked by sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay. The level of sCLU in seminal fluid of fertile patients was 48.3 ± 38.6 ng/ml and in infertile patients was 15.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml; this difference was significant (P < 0.001). sCLU correlated negatively with protamine deficiency, sperm DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. In conclusion, seminal clusterin can be considered as a marker for the quick assessment of semen quality in male infertility studies. PMID:23740886

Salehi, Mohammad; Akbari, Hakimeh; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Molouki, Aidin; Murulitharan, Kavitha; Moeini, Hassan; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Aabed, Farhang; Taheri, Hossein; Fadaei, Fateme; Mohsenzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari, Mohammad; Pirouzi, Aliyar; Heidari, Reihane

2013-09-01

302

Study of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia.  

PubMed

This study investigated meiotic segregation in spermatozoa to determine if severe teratozoospermia should prevent the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of the high production of gametes with chromosomal aneuploidies and analysed DNA fragmentation in gametes from the same semen to determine if DNA integrity was worse in patients with severe teratozoospermia. Sperm samples from 12 infertile patients were studied by fluorescence in-situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18 and 21 and by TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling. Four patients with a majority of macrocephalic forms with multiple flagella had more than 99% spermatozoa with abnormal chromosomal content. The other patients (globozoospermia or other abnormalities concerning sperm heads) had no increased aneuploidy or a slightly significant increase (P<0.05). The rate of DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in infertile patients than in the controls (P<0.001; 14.3% versus 1.20%, respectively) but presented important variability. Therefore, ICSI should not be attempted if men have macrocephalic gametes with multiple flagella but morphology is not always a good predictor of chromosomal content, depending upon the kind of teratozoospermia. Evaluation of the rate of aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in gametes of patients with severe teratozoospermia is recommended. PMID:21233018

Perrin, A; Louanjli, N; Ziane, Y; Louanjli, T; Le Roy, C; Gueganic, N; Amice, V; De Braekeleer, M; Morel, F

2011-02-01

303

Structural analysis of DNA-protein complexes regulating the restriction-modification system Esp1396I  

PubMed Central

The controller protein of the type II restriction–modification (RM) system Esp1396I binds to three distinct DNA operator sequences upstream of the methyltransferase and endonuclease genes in order to regulate their expression. Previous biophysical and crystallographic studies have shown molecular details of how the controller protein binds to the operator sites with very different affinities. Here, two protein–DNA co-crystal structures containing portions of unbound DNA from native operator sites are reported. The DNA in both complexes shows significant distortion in the region between the conserved symmetric sequences, similar to that of a DNA duplex when bound by the controller protein (C-protein), indicating that the naked DNA has an intrinsic tendency to bend when not bound to the C-protein. Moreover, the width of the major groove of the DNA adjacent to a bound C-protein dimer is observed to be significantly increased, supporting the idea that this DNA distortion contributes to the substantial cooperativity found when a second C-protein dimer binds to the operator to form the tetrameric repression complex. PMID:23989141

Martin, Richard N. A.; McGeehan, John E.; Ball, Neil J.; Streeter, Simon D.; Thresh, Sarah-Jane; Kneale, G. G.

2013-01-01

304

Restriction enzyme Ecl18kI-induced DNA looping dynamics by single-molecule FRET.  

PubMed

Many type II restriction endonucleases require binding of two copies of a recognition site for efficient DNA cleavage. Simultaneous interaction of the enzyme with two DNA sites results in DNA loop formation. It was demonstrated with the tethered particle motion technique that such looping is a dynamic process where a DNA loop is repeatedly formed and disrupted. Here we use a better and in the context of protein-induced DNA looping virtually unexploited strategy of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer of surface immobilized biomolecules to quantitatively study the dynamics of Ecl18kI endonuclease-induced DNA looping and determine the rate constants of loop formation and disruption. We show that two DNA-bound Ecl18kI dimers efficiently form a bridging tetramer looping out intervening DNA with a rate that is only a few orders of magnitude lower than the diffusion limited rate. On the other hand, the existence of Ecl18kI tetramer is only transient, and the loop is rapidly disrupted within about 1 s. PMID:24971497

Rutkauskas, Danielis; Petkelyte, Milda; Naujalis, Paulius; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Siksnys, Virginijus

2014-07-24

305

Role of Magnesium Ions in DNA Recognition by the EcoRV Restriction Endonuclease  

SciTech Connect

The restriction endonuclease EcoRV binds two magnesium ions. One of these ions, Mg2+A, binds to the phosphate group where the cleavage occurs and is required for catalysis, but the role of the other ion, Mg2+B is debated. Here, multiple independent molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Mg2+B is crucial for achieving a tightly bound protein DNA complex and stabilizing a conformation that allows cleavage. In the absence of Mg2+B in all simulations the protein DNA hydrogen bond network is significantly disrupted and the sharp kink at the central base pair step of the DNA, which is observed in the two-metal complex, is not present. Also, the active site residues rearrange in such a way that the formation of a nucleophile, required for DNA hydrolysis, is unlikely.

Zahran, Mai [ORNL; Berezniak, Tomasz [University of Heidelberg; Imhof, Petra [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2011-01-01

306

Molecular typing of the actin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Human trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted infection. However, little is known about the degree of strain variability of T. vaginalis. A reliable classification method for T. vaginalis strains would be a useful tool in the study of the epidemiology, pathogenesis and transmission of T. vaginalis. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism typing method was designed and evaluated using T. vaginalis isolates obtained after culture of vaginal specimens collected in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in Zambia. The variation of the actin gene of T. vaginalis was determined for three ATCC reference strains and 151 T. vaginalis isolates. Eight different types were identified, on the basis of the digestion patterns of the amplified actin gene, with each of the restriction enzymes HindII, MseI and RsaI. It was determined that the ATCC reference strains 30001, 30240 and 50141 were of actin genotypes G, H and E, respectively. The actin genotype type E was more common in the Democratic Republic of Congo, whereas type G was the commonest type in Zambia. Translation of the nucleotide sequence showed up to three amino acid substitutions. We developed a reproducible, sensitive and specific typing method for T. vaginalis, and were able to distinguish at least eight T. vaginalis actin genotypes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the method using clinical specimens and to determine the utility of the typing method for the genotypic characterization of T. vaginalis. PMID:18844685

Crucitti, T; Abdellati, S; Van Dyck, E; Buvé, A

2008-09-01

307

Structure and mutagenesis of the DNA modification-dependent restriction endonuclease AspBHI.  

PubMed

The modification-dependent restriction endonuclease AspBHI recognizes 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the double-strand DNA sequence context of (C/T)(C/G)(5mC)N(C/G) (N = any nucleotide) and cleaves the two strands a fixed distance (N12/N16) 3' to the modified cytosine. We determined the crystal structure of the homo-tetrameric AspBHI. Each subunit of the protein comprises two domains: an N-terminal DNA-recognition domain and a C-terminal DNA cleavage domain. The N-terminal domain is structurally similar to the eukaryotic SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain, which is known to bind to a hemi-methylated CpG dinucleotide. The C-terminal domain is structurally similar to classic Type II restriction enzymes and contains the endonuclease catalytic-site motif of DX20EAK. To understand how specific amino acids affect AspBHI recognition preference, we generated a homology model of the AspBHI-DNA complex, and probed the importance of individual amino acids by mutagenesis. Ser41 and Arg42 are predicted to be located in the DNA minor groove 5' to the modified cytosine. Substitution of Ser41 with alanine (S41A) and cysteine (S41C) resulted in mutants with altered cleavage activity. All 19 Arg42 variants resulted in loss of endonuclease activity. PMID:24604015

Horton, John R; Nugent, Rebecca L; Li, Andrew; Mabuchi, Megumu Yamada; Fomenkov, Alexey; Cohen-Karni, Devora; Griggs, Rose M; Zhang, Xing; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Shuang-yong; Cheng, Xiaodong

2014-01-01

308

Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism and IS1311 polymorphism analyses of isolates from animals and a human in Australia.  

PubMed

The distribution and prevalence of strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were determined among sheep, cattle, and other species with Johne's disease in Australia. A total of 328 isolates were evaluated from numerous farms in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, Australia. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of genomic DNA using BstEII and an IS900 probe and IS1311 polymorphism analysis using PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) was used to classify isolates as cattle (C) or sheep (S) strains. IS1311 PCR-REA provided similar information to IS900 RFLP analysis but was more useful than RFLP analysis where DNA was degraded or scarce. Twelve IS900 RFLP types were found. Johne's disease in sheep was always due to S strains, while cattle were infected only with C strains. RFLP type S1 was the dominant strain in sheep in New South Wales (97% of isolates) and was the only strain found in sheep from Victoria. Seven RFLP types were present in cattle. RFLP types C3 and C1 were most common (collectively, 85% of isolates), but C1 was not found in New South Wales and C3 was present in dairy cattle but not in beef cattle in Victoria. These differences may be explained by restricted livestock trading patterns between different segments of the cattle industry. Up to five RFLP types were present in some geographic regions in Victoria, while up to three RFLP types were found among cattle on some farms. Individual cattle usually were infected with only one RFLP type, but one animal was infected with both C5 and CU4. Two isolates from goats were C type as were three from alpacas, one from a rhinoceros, and two from a human with Crohn's disease. The prevalences of specific RFLP types in Australia differ from those reported in Europe and elsewhere. Given the existence of geographical and farm enterprise differences in IS900 RFLP type, this technique may be applied selectively to trace the spread of Johne's disease, at least in the cattle industries. As these observations reflect past exposure of livestock to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the monitoring of strains present in animals in Australia is continuing. PMID:10970365

Whittington, R J; Hope, A F; Marshall, D J; Taragel, C A; Marsh, I

2000-09-01

309

Three dimensional imaging of DNA fragments during electrophoresis using a confocal detector  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the three dimensional distribution of DNA fragments within an electrophoretic band. The measurements were made using a confocal microscope and a photon counting photomultiplier detector. A DNA sequencing standard was loaded into glass microchannel plates containing polyacrylamide gel. The measurements were made by scanning the plates in three dimensions using a mechanical stage under computer control, while electrophoresis was taking place. We found that the distribution of DNA was the same for all the bands measured in the sequencing ladder with an approximate Gaussian distribution along all three axes. These measurements are important to understand what physical forces shape electrophoretic bands confined by a channel and also to aid in the design of high throughput DNA sequencers.

Brewer, L.R.; Davidson, C.; Balch, J.; Carrano, A.

1995-01-30

310

Unusual Structures Are Present in DNA Fragments Containing Super-Long Huntingtin CAG Repeats  

PubMed Central

Background In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD), expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM). As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I. Conclusions/Significance “Super-long” CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD. PMID:21347256

Duzdevich, Daniel; Li, Jinliang; Whang, Jhoon; Takahashi, Hirohide; Takeyasu, Kunio; Dryden, David T. F.; Morton, A. Jennifer; Edwardson, J. Michael

2011-01-01

311

Chromosome loss caused by DNA fragmentation induced in main nuclei and micronuclei of human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid.  

PubMed

Aneuploidy, a change in the number of chromosomes, plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that a loss of a whole chromosome is induced in human lymphocytes by colcemid, a well-known aneugen. Here, to clarify the mechanism for colcemid-induced chromosome loss, we investigated the relationship between chromosome loss and DNA fragmentation in human lymphoblastoid cells treated with colcemid (an aneugen) compared with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; a clastogen). We analyzed the number of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals targeted for a whole chromosome 2 in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated TK6 cells and WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid and MMS, and concurrently detected DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results revealed that DNA fragmentation occurred in 60% of all binucleated TK6 cells harboring colcemid-induced chromosome loss (30% of micronuclei and 30% of main nuclei). DNA fragmentation was observed in colcemid-induced micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not in MMS-induced micronuclei containing chromosome fragments. In contrast, colcemid-induced nondisjunction had no effect on induction of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that DNA fragmentation was triggered by micronuclei containing a whole chromosome but not by micronuclei containing chromosome fragments or nondisjunction. In addition, the frequency of binucleated cells harboring chromosome loss with DNA fragmentation in micronuclei or main nuclei was higher in wild-type p53 TK6 cells than in mutated-p53 WTK-1 cells treated with colcemid. Taken together, these present and previous results suggest that colcemid-induced chromosome loss is caused by DNA fragmentation, which is triggered by a micronucleus with a whole chromosome and controlled by the p53-dependent pathway. PMID:24582839

Yamamoto, Mika; Wakata, Akihiro; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Miyamae, Yoichi; Kodama, Seiji

2014-04-01

312

Site-selective scission of human genome using PNA-based artificial restriction DNA cutter.  

PubMed

Site-selective scission of genomes is quite important for future biotechnology. However, naturally occurring restriction enzymes cut these huge DNAs at too many sites and cannot be used for this purpose. Recently, we have developed a completely chemistry-based artificial restriction DNA cutter (ARCUT) by combining a pair of pseudo-complementary PNA (pcPNA) strands (sequence recognition moiety) and Ce(IV)/EDTA complex (molecular scissors). The scission site of ARCUT and its scission specificity can be freely modulated in terms of the sequences and lengths of the pcPNA strands so that even huge genomes can be selectively cut at only one predetermined site. In this chapter, the method of site-selective scission of human genomic DNA using ARCUT is described in detail. PMID:24297354

Ito, Kenichiro; Komiyama, Makoto

2014-01-01

313

Mapping of the X-linked agammaglobulinemia locus by use of restriction fragment-length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

A molecular linkage analysis in 11 families with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) localized the XLA gene to the proximal part of the long arm of the human X chromosome. Significant linkage was detected between XLA and loci defined by two polymorphic DNA probes called 19-2 for the DXS3 locus and S21 for the DXS17 locus. Both localize to the region Xq21.3-Xq22. Most likely recombination distances (theta) and associated logarithm of the odds (lod) scores for the XLA-DXS3 and XLA-DXS17 pairs were theta = 0.04 morgans (lod, 3.65) and theta = 0 (lod, 2.17), respectively. Tight linkage between XLA and the locus DXS43 defined by the X short arm probe D2 (localized to Xp22-Xp21) was strongly excluded and we obtained no evidence for significant linkage between XLA and any other X short arm probe. The probe pair 19-2 and S21 should be informative for molecular linkage-based analysis of XLA segregation in the majority of families afflicted with this disorder. Images PMID:3003164

Kwan, S P; Kunkel, L; Bruns, G; Wedgwood, R J; Latt, S; Rosen, F S

1986-01-01

314

Magnetic bead purification of labeled DNA fragments forhigh-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an automated purification method for terminator sequencing products based on a magnetic bead technology. This 384-well protocol generates labeled DNA fragments that are essentially free of contaminates for less than $0.005 per reaction. In comparison to laborious ethanol precipitation protocols, this method increases the phred20 read length by forty bases with various DNA templates such as PCR fragments, Plasmids, Cosmids and RCA products. Our method eliminates centrifugation and is compatible with both the MegaBACE 1000 and ABIPrism 3700 capillary instruments. As of September 2001, this method has produced over 1.6 million samples with 93 percent averaging 620 phred20 bases as part of Joint Genome Institutes Production Process.

Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh; Smith, Troy; Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor

2001-09-15

315

Isolation of specific DNA fragments of Mycobacterium avium and their possible use in diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

We cloned and sequenced two DNA fragments (DT1 and DT6) from Mycobacterium avium serotype 2 for use in the identification of members of the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC). Reference strains of MAC belonging to serovars 1 to 28 were examined by using these DNA fragments as probes. The study revealed that the DT6 probe hybridized with DNAs from M. avium strains (serovars 1 to 6, 8 to 11, and 21), while the DT1 probe hybridized with DNAs from serovars 2, 3, 7, 12 to 20, and 23 to 25. DT1- and DT6-derived oligonucleotides were selected for use as primers in a polymerase chain reaction test. Amplification of the DT1 and DT6 sequences may provide the basis for a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of mycobacteria belonging to MAC. Images PMID:8501206

Thierry, D; Vincent, V; Clement, F; Guesdon, J L

1993-01-01

316

Ovarian Steroids Decrease DNA Fragmentation In Serotonin Neurons of Non-injured Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

We previously found that ovarian steroids promote neuroprotection in serotonin neurons by decreasing the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and proteins in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rhesus macaques, even in the absence of overt injury. In this study, we questioned whether these actions would lead to a reduction in DNA fragmentation in serotonin neurons. Ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys received Silastic implants that were empty (placebo) or containing estradiol (E), progesterone (P) or estradiol plus progesterone (E+P) for one month. Eight levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus in a rostral to caudal direction were immunostained with TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling). Two staining patterns were observed, which are referred to as type I, with complete dark staining of the nucleus, and type II, with peripheral staining in the perinuclear area. A montage of the dorsal raphe was created at each level with a Marianas Stereology Microscope and Slidebook 4.2 and TUNEL positive cells were counted. In direct comparison with OVX animals, P treatment and E+P treatment significantly reduced the total number of TUNEL positive cells (Mann Whitney test, both treatments p=0.04) and E+P treatment reduced the number of TUNEL positive cells/cubic millimeter (Mann Whitney test, p=0.04). Double immunocytochemistry for TUNEL and TPH indicated that DNA fragmentation was prominent in serotonin neurons. These data suggest that in the absence of ovarian steroids, a cascade of gene and protein expression leads to an increase in DNA fragmentation in serotonin neurons. Conversely, ovarian steroids have a neuroprotective role in the non-injured brain and prevent DNA fragmentation and cell death in serotonin neurons of nonhuman primates. PMID:19823180

Lima, Fernanda B.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

2009-01-01

317

A RCA-based assay for analyzing individual strand break in DNA heteroduplex cleavage by restriction endonucleases.  

PubMed

We have developed a rapid and high-throughput assay based on rolling circle amplification, to distinguish individual strand cleavage of DNA duplexes by restriction endonucleases. As an illustration, we analyzed nicking activity of Nb.BbvCI and uneven cleavage of LNA modified DNA by EcoRI. This assay has potential for analyzing protein-DNA interactions. PMID:25157639

Zhao, Guojie; Hu, Tianyu; Li, Jun; Wei, Hua; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

2014-10-14

318

The proteolytic YB-1 fragment interacts with DNA repair machinery and enhances survival during DNA damaging stress.  

PubMed

The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a DNA/RNA-binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein whose regulatory effect on many DNA and RNA-dependent events is determined by its localization in the cell. We have shown previously that YB-1 is cleaved by 20S proteasome between E219 and G220, and the truncated N-terminal YB-1 fragment accumulates in the nuclei of cells treated with DNA damaging drugs. We proposed that appearance of truncated YB-1 in the nucleus may predict multiple drug resistance. Here, we compared functional activities of the full-length and truncated YB-1 proteins and showed that the truncated form was more efficient in protecting cells against doxorubicin treatment. Both forms of YB-1 induced changes in expression of various genes without affecting those responsible for drug resistance. Interestingly, although YB-1 cleavage did not significantly affect its DNA binding properties, truncated YB-1 was detected in complexes with Mre11 and Rad50 under genotoxic stress conditions. We conclude that both full-length and truncated YB-1 are capable of protecting cells against DNA damaging agents, and the truncated form may have an additional function in DNA repair. PMID:24107631

Kim, Ekaterina R; Selyutina, Anastasia A; Buldakov, Ilya A; Evdokimova, Valentina; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Sorokin, Alexey V

2013-12-15

319

The proteolytic YB-1 fragment interacts with DNA repair machinery and enhances survival during DNA damaging stress  

PubMed Central

The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a DNA/RNA-binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein whose regulatory effect on many DNA and RNA-dependent events is determined by its localization in the cell. We have shown previously that YB-1 is cleaved by 20S proteasome between E219 and G220, and the truncated N-terminal YB-1 fragment accumulates in the nuclei of cells treated with DNA damaging drugs. We proposed that appearance of truncated YB-1 in the nucleus may predict multiple drug resistance. Here, we compared functional activities of the full-length and truncated YB-1 proteins and showed that the truncated form was more efficient in protecting cells against doxorubicin treatment. Both forms of YB-1 induced changes in expression of various genes without affecting those responsible for drug resistance. Interestingly, although YB-1 cleavage did not significantly affect its DNA binding properties, truncated YB-1 was detected in complexes with Mre11 and Rad50 under genotoxic stress conditions. We conclude that both full-length and truncated YB-1 are capable of protecting cells against DNA damaging agents, and the truncated form may have an additional function in DNA repair. PMID:24107631

Kim, Ekaterina R; Selyutina, Anastasia A; Buldakov, Ilya A; Evdokimova, Valentina; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Sorokin, Alexey V

2013-01-01

320

The Evolution of Restricted Recombination and the Accumulation of Repeated DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

We suggest hypotheses to account for two major features of chromosomal organization in higher eukaryotes. The first of these is the general restriction of crossing over in the neighborhood of centromeres and telomeres. We propose that this is a consequence of selection for reduced rates of unequal exchange between repeated DNA sequences for which the copy number is subject to stabilizing selection: microtubule binding sites, in the case of centromeres, and the short repeated sequences needed for terminal replication of a linear DNA molecule, in the case of telomeres. An association between proximal crossing over and nondisjunction would also favor the restriction of crossing over near the centromere. The second feature is the association between highly repeated DNA sequences of no obvious functional significance and regions of restricted crossing over. We show that highly repeated sequences are likely to persist longest (over evolutionary time) when crossing over is infrequent. This is because unequal exchange among repeated sequences generates single copy sequences, and a population that becomes fixed for a single copy sequence by drift remains in this state indefinitely (in the absence of gene amplification processes). Increased rates of exchange thus speed up the process of stochastic loss of repeated sequences. PMID:3957013

Charlesworth, Brian; Langley, Charles H.; Stephan, Wolfgang

1986-01-01

321

Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)] [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia) [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)] [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)] [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-04-20

322

Evidence for DNA fragmentation triggered in the self-incompatibility response in pollen of Papaver rhoeas.  

PubMed

Studies of the molecular and biochemical basis of self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas have revealed much about the signalling pathways triggered in pollen early in this response. The aim of the current investigation was to begin to study downstream events in order to elucidate some of the later cellular responses involved in the SI response and identification of the mechanisms controlling the irreversible inhibition of pollen tube growth. We have used the FragEL assay to investigate if there is any evidence for DNA fragmentation stimulated in pollen of P. rhoeas in an S-specific manner. Our data clearly demonstrate that S proteins are responsible for triggering this, specifically in incompatible, and not compatible, pollen. DNA fragmentation was first detected in incompatible pollen tubes 4 h after challenge with S proteins, and continued to increase for a further 10 h. This provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that this phenomenon is associated with the SI response. We also demonstrate that mastoparan, which increases [Ca2+]i, also triggers DNA fragmentation in these pollen tubes, thereby implicating an involvement of Ca2+ signalling in this process. Together, our data represent a significant breakthrough in understanding of the SI response in Papaver pollen. PMID:10972873

Jordan, N D; Franklin, F C; Franklin-Tong, V E

2000-08-01

323

Molecular Investigation of Quinolone Resistance of Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region in Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Isolated from Iran Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method  

PubMed Central

Objectives The resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the recently available antibiotic treatment has been a growing problem. The aim of the study was to determine the quinolone-resistant strains and detect the presence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, parE, and parC genes. Methods In this study, for the first time in Iran, the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used to investigate the presence of mutations at quinolone resistance-determining regions of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase on 82 S. pneumoniae strains, among them 45 clinical samples were from patients and 37 from healthy carriers (control group). Results In clinical samples, 34 (75.56%) strains contained mutations in the parC gene, 31 (68.89%) carried mutations in the gyrA gene, and 14 (31.11%) had parE gene mutations. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) criteria on three different generations of quinolone family, with nalidixic acid (82.22%) showing the highest resistance and levofloxacin (42.22%) the least resistance. Conclusion Results indicated that there is a significant correlation between quinolone resistance development and mutations in the parE gene as well as in the parC and gyrA genes.

Kargar, Mohammad; Moein Jahromi, Fataneh; Doosti, Abbas; Handali, Somayeh

2014-01-01

324

A Mimicking-of-DNA-Methylation-Patterns Pipeline for Overcoming the Restriction Barrier of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Genetic transformation of bacteria harboring multiple Restriction-Modification (R-M) systems is often difficult using conventional methods. Here, we describe a mimicking-of-DNA-methylation-patterns (MoDMP) pipeline to address this problem in three difficult-to-transform bacterial strains. Twenty-four putative DNA methyltransferases (MTases) from these difficult-to-transform strains were cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli strain lacking all of the known R-M systems and orphan MTases. Thirteen of these MTases exhibited DNA modification activity in Southwestern dot blot or Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS) assays. The active MTase genes were assembled into three operons using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA assembler and were co-expressed in the E. coli strain lacking known R-M systems and orphan MTases. Thereafter, results from the dot blot and restriction enzyme digestion assays indicated that the DNA methylation patterns of the difficult-to-transform strains are mimicked in these E. coli hosts. The transformation of the Gram-positive Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TA208 and B. cereus ATCC 10987 strains with the shuttle plasmids prepared from MoDMP hosts showed increased efficiencies (up to four orders of magnitude) compared to those using the plasmids prepared from the E. coli strain lacking known R-M systems and orphan MTases or its parental strain. Additionally, the gene coding for uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (upp) was directly inactivated using non-replicative plasmids prepared from the MoDMP host in B. amyloliquefaciens TA208. Moreover, the Gram-negative chemoautotrophic Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14 was transformed and expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Finally, the sequence specificities of active MTases were identified by restriction enzyme digestion, making the MoDMP system potentially useful for other strains. The effectiveness of the MoDMP pipeline in different bacterial groups suggests a universal potential. This pipeline could facilitate the functional genomics of the strains that are difficult to transform. PMID:23028379

Zhang, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenzhao; Deng, Aihua; Sun, Zhaopeng; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Yong; Che, Yongsheng; Wen, Tingyi

2012-01-01

325

Long-fragment DNA as a potential marker for stool-based detection of colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Neoplastic cells that are exfoliated from the colorectal epithelium exhibit dysfunctional apoptotic mechanisms, and thus it is possible to identify high-molecular-weight DNA fragments (long DNA) in feces. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of fecal-based long DNA assays were evaluated for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). Feces were collected from 54 healthy volunteers and 130 patients with CRC prior to surgical treatment. The presence of long DNA of the adenomatosis polyposis coli, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), B-raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase and p53 genes was assessed by polymerase chain reaction followed by electrophoresis. The identification of long DNA in feces was found to exhibit a sensitivity of 56.2% and specificity of 96.3% for CRC detection. In addition, long DNA was identified in the feces of 58/90 (64.4%) patients with distal CRC and 15/40 (37.5%) patients with proximal CRC. This study indicates the potential of the fecal long DNA assay as a non-invasive and easily performed method for the detection of individuals with CRC.

ZHANG, YIBO; SUEHIRO, YUTAKA; SHINDO, YOSHITARO; SAKAI, KOUHEI; HAZAMA, SHOICHI; HIGAKI, SHINGO; SAKAIDA, ISAO; OKA, MASAAKI; YAMASAKI, TAKAHIRO

2015-01-01

326

DNA looping and cleavage by restriction enzymes studied by manipulation of single DNA molecules with optical tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looping and cleavage of single DNA molecules by the two-site restriction endonuclease Sau3AI were measured with optical tweezers. A DNA template containing many recognition sites was used, permitting loop sizes from ~10 to 10,000 basepairs. At high enzyme concentration cleavage events were detected within 5 seconds and nearly all molecules were cleaved within 5 minutes. Activity decreased ~10-fold as the DNA tension was increased from 0.03 to 0.7 pN. Substituting Ca 2+ for Mg 2+ blocked cleavage, permitting measurement of stable loops. At low tension, the initial rates of cleavage and looping were similar (~0.025 s -1 at 0.1 pN), suggesting that looping is rate limiting. Short loops formed more rapidly than long loops. The optimum size decreased from ~250 to 45 bp and the average number of loops (in 1 minute) from 4.2 to 0.75 as tension was increased from 0.03 to 0.7 pN. No looping was detected at 5 pN. These findings are in qualitative agreement with recent theoretical predictions considering only DNA mechanics, but we observed weaker suppression with tension and smaller loop sizes. Our results suggest that the span and elasticity of the protein complex and protein-induced DNA bending and wrapping play an important role.

Smith, Douglas E.; Gemmen, Gregory J.; Millin, Rachel

2006-08-01

327

DNA Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many of the revolutionary changes that have occurred in biology since 1970 can be attributed directly to the ability to manipulate DNA in defined ways. The principal tools for this recombinant DNA technology are enzymes that can "cut and "paste" DNA. Restriction enzymes are the "chemical scissors" of the molecular biologist; these enzymes cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences. A sample of someone's DNA, incubated with restriction enzymes, is reduced to millions of DNA fragments of varying sizes. A DNA sample from a different person would have a different nucleotide sequence and would thus be enzymatically "chopped up" into a very different collection of fragments. We have been asked to apply DNA fingerprinting to determine which suspect should be charged with a crime perpetrated in our city.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Suzanne Black N:Black;Suzanne ORG:Inglemoor High School REV:2005-04-09 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

328

Does quantum entanglement in DNA synchronize the catalytic centers of type II restriction endonucleases?  

E-print Network

Several living systems have been examined for their apparent optimization of structure and function for quantum behavior at biological length scales. Orthodox type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, recognize four-to-eight base pair sequences of palindromic DNA, cut both strands symmetrically, and act without an external metabolite such as ATP. While it is known that these enzymes induce strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, what remains unclear is the mechanism by which cutting occurs in concert at the catalytic centers. Previous studies indicate the primacy of intimate DNA contacts made by the specifically bound enzyme in coordinating the two synchronized cuts. We propose that collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix generates coherent oscillations, quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the endonuclease, that provide the energy required to break two phosphodiester bonds. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise and electromagnetic in...

Kurian, P; Lindesay, J

2014-01-01

329

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguish Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates from different geographical locations.  

PubMed

Genetic variability among Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis isolates representing several geographical regions was determined by restriction endonuclease analysis. Five previously unidentified EcoRI digestion patterns and one previously unidentified HhaI digestion pattern were seen with the various isolates. The copy number and genomic distribution of an L. borgpetersenii insertion sequence (IS1533) was determined. Hardjo-bovis isolate 033 (the type strain for hardjo-bovis) contained 40 well dispersed copies of IS1533. IS1533 probes were used to compare hardjo-bovis isolates by DNA blot hybridization analysis. Use of these probes showed the presence of additional genetic heterogeneity among hardjo-bovis isolates, which restriction endonuclease analysis did not show. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of DNAs from several isolates suggested that some polymorphisms arose by genomic rearrangements. All hardjo-bovis isolates were categorized into 14 distinct groups on the basis of common hybridization and endonuclease digestion patterns. Most of these groups were isolated from distinct geographical regions, suggesting that several different clonal populations of hardjo-bovis exist. PMID:7681437

Zuerner, R L; Ellis, W A; Bolin, C A; Montgomery, J M

1993-03-01

330

Qualitative analysis of sequence specific binding of flavones to DNA using restriction endonuclease activity assays.  

PubMed

Flavones, found in nature as secondary plant metabolites, have shown efficacy as anti-cancer agents. We have examined the binding of two flavones, 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone; FlavA) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone; FlavB), to phiX174 RF DNA using restriction enzyme activity assays employing the restriction enzymes Alw44, AvaII, BssHII, DraI, MluI, NarI, NciI, NruI, PstI, and XhoI. These enzymes possess differing target and flanking sequences allowing for observation of sequence specificity analysis. Using restriction enzymes that cleave once with a mixture of supercoiled and relaxed DNA substrates provides for observation of topological effects on binding. FlavA and FlavB show differing sequence specificities in their respective binding to phiX. For example, with relaxed DNA, FlavA shows inhibition of cleavage with DraI (reaction site (5') TTTAAA) but not BssHII ((5') GCGCGC) while FlavB shows the opposite results. Evidence for tolological specificity is also observed, Molecular modeling and conformational analysis of the flavones suggests that the phenyl ring of FlavB is coplanar with the flavonoid ring while the phenyl ring of FlavA is at an angle relative to the flavonoid ring. This may account for aspects of the observed sequence and topological specificities in the effects on restriction enzyme activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 99: 530-537, 2013. PMID:23712489

Duran, Elizabeth; Ramsauer, Victoria P; Ballester, Maria; Torrenegra, Ruben D; Rodriguez, Oscar E; Winkle, Stephen A

2013-08-01

331

DNA fragmentation and DNA repair synthesis induced in rat and human thyroid cells by chemicals carcinogenic to the rat thyroid.  

PubMed

Five chemicals that are known to induce in rats thyroid follicular-cell adenomas and carcinomas were assayed for their ability to induce DNA damage and DNA repair synthesis in primary cultures of human thyroid cells. Significant dose-dependent increases in the frequency of DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as measured by the same Comet assay, were obtained after a 20-h exposure to the following subtoxic concentrations of the five test compounds: methimazole from 2.5 to 10mM; nitrobenzene, potassium bromate, N,N'-diethylthiourea and ethylenethiourea from 1.25 to 5mM. Under the same experimental conditions, DNA repair synthesis, as evaluated by quantitative autoradiography, was present in potassium bromate-exposed thyroid cells from all the three donors and in those from two of three donors with either nitrobenzene or ethylenethiourea, but did not match the criteria for a positive response in thyroid cells from any of the donors with methimazole and N,N'-diethylthiourea. Consistently with their ability to induce thyroid tumors, all the five test compounds, administered p.o. in rats in a single dose corresponding to 1/2 LD50, induced a statistically significant degree of DNA fragmentation in the thyroid. These findings suggest that the five test compounds might be carcinogenic to thyroid in humans. PMID:16942904

Mattioli, Francesca; Martelli, Antonietta; Gosmar, Marzia; Garbero, Claudia; Manfredi, Valeria; Varaldo, Emanuela; Torre, Gian Carlo; Brambilla, Giovanni

2006-10-30

332

Localization by restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping in potato of a major dominant gene conferring resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostocbiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major dominant locus conferring resistance against several pathotypes of the root cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis was mapped on the linkage map of potato using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The assessment of resistance versus susceptibility of the plants in the experimental population considered was based on an in vivo (pot) and an in vitro (petri dish) test. By

Amalia Barone; Enrique Ritter; Undine Schachtschabel; Thomas Debener; Francesco Salamini; Christiane Gebhardt

1990-01-01

333

Epidemiology of paratuberculosis in wild ruminants studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Czech Republic during the period 1995–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies carried out during the period 1995–1998, paratuberculosis was diagnosed in domestic and wild ruminants in the Czech Republic. The isolated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains were analysed by standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) [Pavlik, I., Horvathova, A., Dvorska, L., Bartl, J., Svastova, P., du Maine, R., Rychlik, I., 1999. J. Microbiol. Methods 38, 155–167]. In December

I. Pavlik; J. Bartl; L. Dvorska; P. Svastova; R. du Maine; M. Machackova; W. Yayo Ayele; A. Horvathova

2000-01-01

334

Environmental toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation as detected by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA[reg])  

SciTech Connect

Studies over the past two decades have clearly shown that reproductive toxicants cause sperm DNA fragmentation. This DNA fragmentation can usually be detected prior to observing alterations of metaphase chromosomes in embryos. Thus, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA)-detected DNA damage is viewed as the molecular precursor to later gross chromosome damage observed under the light microscope. SCSA measurements of animal or human sperm consist of first obtaining a fresh or flash frozen neat semen sample in LN2 or dry ice. Samples are then sent to a SCSA diagnostic laboratory where the samples are thawed, diluted to {approx}1-2 x 106 sperm/ml, treated for 30 s with a pH 1.2 detergent buffer and then stained with acridine orange (AO). The low pH partially denatures DNA at the sites of DNA strand breaks and the AO-ssDNA fluoresces red while the AO-dsDNA fluoresces green. Flow cytometry measurements of 5000 sperm/sample provide statistically robust data on the ratio of red to green sperm, the extent of the DNA fragmentation and the standard deviations of measures. Numerous experiments on rodents treated with reproductive toxicants clearly showed that SCSA measures are highly dose responsive and have a very low CV. Different agents that act on germ cells at various stages of development usually showed sperm DNA fragmentation when that germ cell fraction arrived in the epididymis or ejaculate. Some of these treated samples were capable of successful in vitro fertilization but with frequent embryo failure. A 2-year longitudinal study of men living a valley town with a reported abnormal level of infertility and spontaneous miscarriages and also a seasonal atmospheric smog pollution, showed, for the first time, that SCSA measurements of human sperm DNA fragmentation were detectable and correlated with dosage of air pollution while the classical semen measures were not correlated. Also, young men spraying pesticides without protective gear are at an increased risk for elevated sperm DNA fragmentation. Extensive DNA fragmentation probably cannot be repaired by the egg and the spontaneous abortion rate is {approx}2x higher if a man has more than 30% of sperm showing DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation is an excellent marker for exposure to potential reproductive toxicants and a diagnostic/prognostic tool for potential male infertility.

Evenson, Donald P. [HCLD, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States) and SCSA Diagnostics, 807 32nd Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)]. E-mail: scsa@brookings.net; Wixon, Regina [SCSA Diagnostics, 807 32nd Avenue, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

2005-09-01

335

Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments in the blood, tissues, and digesta of broilers.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine the fate of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA fragments in the blood, tissues, and digesta of broilers. Male broiler chicks (n = 24) were allocated at 1 day old to each of four treatment diets designated T1-T4. T1 and T2 contained the near isogenic nongenetically modified (GM) maize grain, whereas T3 and T4 contained GM maize grain [cry1a(b) gene]; T1 and T3 also contained the near isogenic non-GM soybean meal, whereas T2 and T4 contained GM soybean meal (cp4epsps gene). Four days prior to slaughter at 39-42 days old, 50% of the broilers on T2-T4 had the source(s) of GM ingredients replaced by their non-GM counterparts. Detection of specific DNA sequences in feed, tissue, and digesta samples was completed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Seven primer pairs were used to amplify fragments ( approximately 200 bp) from single copy genes (maize high mobility protein, soya lectin, and transgenes in the GM feeds) and multicopy genes (poultry mitochondrial cytochrome b, maize, and soya rubisco). There was no effect of treatment on the measured growth performance parameters. Except for a single detection of lectin (nontransgenic single copy gene; unsubstantiated) in the extracted DNA from one bursa tissue sample, there was no positive detection of any endogenous or transgenic single copy genes in either blood or tissue DNA samples. However, the multicopy rubisco gene was detected in a proportion of samples from all tissue types (23% of total across all tissues studied) and in low numbers in blood. Feed-derived DNA was found to survive complete degradation up to the large intestine. Transgenic DNA was detected in gizzard digesta but not in intestinal digesta 96 h after the last feeding of treatment diets containing a source of GM maize and/or soybean meal. PMID:16366726

Deaville, Eddie R; Maddison, Ben C

2005-12-28

336

Pyrrolamide DNA gyrase inhibitors: fragment-based nuclear magnetic resonance screening to identify antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme in bacteria, and its inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and, subsequently, cell death. The pyrrolamides are a novel class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase. These compounds were identified by a fragment-based lead generation (FBLG) approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the ATP pocket of DNA gyrase. A pyrrole hit with a binding constant of 1 mM formed the basis of the design and synthesis of a focused library of compounds that resulted in the rapid identification of a lead compound that inhibited DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3 ?M. The potency of the lead compound was further optimized by utilizing iterative X-ray crystallography to yield DNA gyrase inhibitors that also displayed antibacterial activity. Spontaneous mutants were isolated in Staphylococcus aureus by plating on agar plates containing pyrrolamide 4 at the MIC. The resistant variants displayed 4- to 8-fold-increased MIC values relative to the parent strain. DNA sequencing revealed two independent point mutations in the pyrrolamide binding region of the gyrB genes from these variants, supporting the hypothesis that the mode of action of these compounds was inhibition of DNA gyrase. Efficacy of a representative pyrrolamide was demonstrated against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse lung infection model. These data demonstrate that the pyrrolamides are a novel class of DNA gyrase inhibitors with the potential to deliver future antibacterial agents targeting multiple clinical indications. PMID:22183167

Eakin, Ann E; Green, Oluyinka; Hales, Neil; Walkup, Grant K; Bist, Shanta; Singh, Alok; Mullen, George; Bryant, Joanna; Embrey, Kevin; Gao, Ning; Breeze, Alex; Timms, Dave; Andrews, Beth; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Demeritt, Julie; Loch, James T; Hull, Ken; Blodgett, April; Illingworth, Ruth N; Prince, Bryan; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Hauck, Sheila; MacPherson, Lawrence J; Ni, Haihong; Sherer, Brian

2012-03-01

337

Structures of Minimal Catalytic Fragments of Topoisomerase V Reveals Conformational Changes Relevant for DNA Binding  

SciTech Connect

Topoisomerase V is an archaeal type I topoisomerase that is unique among topoisomerases due to presence of both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities in the same protein. It is organized as an N-terminal topoisomerase domain followed by 24 tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motifs. Structural studies have shown that the active site is buried by the (HhH) motifs. Here we show that the N-terminal domain can relax DNA in the absence of any HhH motifs and that the HhH motifs are required for stable protein-DNA complex formation. Crystal structures of various topoisomerase V fragments show changes in the relative orientation of the domains mediated by a long bent linker helix, and these movements are essential for the DNA to enter the active site. Phosphate ions bound to the protein near the active site helped model DNA in the topoisomerase domain and show how topoisomerase V may interact with DNA.

Rajan, Rakhi; Taneja, Bhupesh; Mondragón, Alfonso (NWU)

2010-12-03

338

Geographic distribution and evolution of yellow fever viruses based on direct sequencing of genomic cDNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compared the nucleotide sequence of an envelope protein gene fragment encoding amino acids 291 to 406 of 22 yellow fever (YF) virus strains of diverse geographic and host origins isolated over a 63 year time span. The nucleotide fragment of viral RNA was examined by direct sequencing ofa PCR product derived from complementary DNA. Alignment with the proto-

Loic Lepiniec; Lynn Dalgarno; V. T. Q. Huong; T. P. Monath; J.-P. Digoutte; V. Deubel

1994-01-01

339

Cutting and pasting DNA, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragments at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends.

2008-10-06

340

Allopatric Origin of Sympatric Populations of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) as Revealed by Mitochondrial-DNA Restriction Analysis  

E-print Network

Allopatric Origin of Sympatric Populations of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) as Revealed WHITEFISH (COREGONUS CLUPEAFORMIS) AS REVEALED BY MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA RESTRICTION ANALYSIS, sympatric populations of ever, species recognition of sympatric pop- lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

Bernatchez, Louis

341

An Improved PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Method for the Identification of cry1-Type Genes  

PubMed Central

The cry1-type genes of Bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. It is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. In the present study, an improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. This improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 B. thuringiensis strains that are toxic to lepidoptera. The results showed that the improved method can efficiently identify single and clustered cry1-type genes and can be used to evaluate cry1-type genes in novel strain collections of B. thuringiensis. Among the detected cry1-type genes, we identified four novel genes, cry1Ai, cry1Bb, cry1Ja, and cry1La. The bioassay results from the expressed products of the four novel cry genes showed that Cry1Ai2, Cry1Bb2, and Cry1Ja2 were highly toxic against Plutella xylostella, whereas Cry1La2 exhibited no activity. Moreover, Cry1Ai2 had good lethal activity against Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea, Chilo suppressalis, and Bombyx mori larvae and considerable weight loss activity against Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:23995930

Shu, Changlong; Liu, Dongming; Zhou, Zishan; Cai, Jilin; Peng, Qi; Gao, Jiguo; Song, Fuping

2013-01-01

342

Prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus infection in Korean women as determined by restriction fragment mass polymorphism assay.  

PubMed

The development of a prophylactic vaccine that targets human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 to prevent cervical cancer has increased interest in the ethnic and geographical distributions of HPV genotypes. We investigated HPV prevalence and type distribution by restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) testing a total of 60,775 specimens (aged 18-79 yr, median 44) taken from liquid-based cytology. Overall HPV positive rate of total patients was 34.2%. Among the positive patients, 87.7% was single type infections, and 12.3% was multiple HPV types. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype observed in 2,307 (26.0%), followed by type 52 in 2,269 (25.5%), type 58 in 1,090 (12.3%), type 18 in 633 (7.1%), type 56 in 436 (4.9%). The pattern of high risk-HPV positive rate according to age showed U-shape with a peak in HPV prevalence among women less than 30 yr of age, and a second peak among the older females aged 70 to 79 yr. The leading four high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV-16, HPV-52, HPV-58, and HPV-18 in descending order. In conclusion, this study provides the most representative prevalence and type-specific distribution of HPV among Korean women, and demonstrates that the epidemiology of HPV infection is different from that of other regions of the world. PMID:22969258

Lee, Eun Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Hong, Young-Joon; Cha, Young Joo

2012-09-01

343

Use of a Multiple Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method for Detecting Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Clinical Samples?  

PubMed Central

Since the announcement of the WHO program for the global eradication of poliomyelitis and the establishment of epidemiological and virological surveillance, the emergence and circulation of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) presenting >1% nucleotide divergence from the sequence of the original vaccine strain have been demonstrated in certain regions. We developed and used a multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method to investigate the frequency of these VDPV in a population with a high level of oral poliovirus vaccine coverage in northwestern Russia. Modified RFLP profiles were found to be strongly correlated with the presence of mutations and recombination events in vaccine strains. We found that a substantial proportion of vaccine strains had high percentages of nucleotide substitutions (>0.5%), including a type 3 VDPV with 1.4% nucleotide divergence. These findings indicate that VDPV or pre-VDPV strains are not rare in certain populations with high levels of vaccine coverage. The multiple RFLP method appears to be a simple and rapid tool for monitoring such strains, which could jeopardize the benefits of the eradication program. PMID:16957032

Romanenkova, Natalia I.; Guillot, Sophie; Rozaeva, Nadejda R.; Crainic, Radu; Bichurina, Maina A.; Delpeyroux, Francis

2006-01-01

344

An improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for the identification of cry1-type genes.  

PubMed

The cry1-type genes of Bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. It is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. In the present study, an improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. This improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 B. thuringiensis strains that are toxic to lepidoptera. The results showed that the improved method can efficiently identify single and clustered cry1-type genes and can be used to evaluate cry1-type genes in novel strain collections of B. thuringiensis. Among the detected cry1-type genes, we identified four novel genes, cry1Ai, cry1Bb, cry1Ja, and cry1La. The bioassay results from the expressed products of the four novel cry genes showed that Cry1Ai2, Cry1Bb2, and Cry1Ja2 were highly toxic against Plutella xylostella, whereas Cry1La2 exhibited no activity. Moreover, Cry1Ai2 had good lethal activity against Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea, Chilo suppressalis, and Bombyx mori larvae and considerable weight loss activity against Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:23995930

Shu, Changlong; Liu, Dongming; Zhou, Zishan; Cai, Jilin; Peng, Qi; Gao, Jiguo; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

2013-11-01

345

Rapid purification of truncated Taq DNA polymerase Stoffel fragment by boiling lysis of bacterial expression cultures.  

PubMed

A simplified and low-cost method, boiling lysis, was developed and used to purify the truncated DNA polymerase Stoffel fragment after overproduction of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The method is based on the thermostable properties of the Stoffel fragment. Conditions such as the boiling time and number of cycles employed were identified as determinants with which to achieve a high yield and activity of this truncated Taq enzyme. Under established conditions, a period of 8 min consisting of two cycles of boiling and centrifuging was ideal for the purification of the Taq protein, followed by dibasic phosphate and ethanol extraction in a single type of storage buffer to remove contaminating nucleic acid. The whole purification process could be achieved within 1 or 2 h. A total yield of 80 mg of truncated Taq enzyme with an activity of 1.6x10(7) units was purified from l litre of bacterial culture. The purified Taq enzyme had a molecular mass of 61 kDa, a value consistent with the truncated DNA polymerase Stoffel fragment reported previously. PMID:18184110

Yang, Zhengan; Ding, Yumei; Zhang, Yinghua; Liu, Feihu

2008-06-01

346

PyroTRF-ID: a novel bioinformatics methodology for the affiliation of terminal-restriction fragments using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data  

PubMed Central

Background In molecular microbial ecology, massive sequencing is gradually replacing classical fingerprinting techniques such as terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) combined with cloning-sequencing for the characterization of microbiomes. Here, a bioinformatics methodology for pyrosequencing-based T-RF identification (PyroTRF-ID) was developed to combine pyrosequencing and T-RFLP approaches for the description of microbial communities. The strength of this methodology relies on the identification of T-RFs by comparison of experimental and digital T-RFLP profiles obtained from the same samples. DNA extracts were subjected to amplification of the 16S rRNA gene pool, T-RFLP with the HaeIII restriction enzyme, 454 tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing, and PyroTRF-ID analysis. Digital T-RFLP profiles were generated from the denoised full pyrosequencing datasets, and the sequences contributing to each digital T-RF were classified to taxonomic bins using the Greengenes reference database. The method was tested both on bacterial communities found in chloroethene-contaminated groundwater samples and in aerobic granular sludge biofilms originating from wastewater treatment systems. Results PyroTRF-ID was efficient for high-throughput mapping and digital T-RFLP profiling of pyrosequencing datasets. After denoising, a dataset comprising ca. 10?000 reads of 300 to 500 bp was typically processed within ca. 20 minutes on a high-performance computing cluster, running on a Linux-related CentOS 5.5 operating system, enabling parallel processing of multiple samples. Both digital and experimental T-RFLP profiles were aligned with maximum cross-correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.92 for high- and low-complexity environments, respectively. On average, 63±18% of all experimental T-RFs (30 to 93 peaks per sample) were affiliated to phylotypes. Conclusions PyroTRF-ID profits from complementary advantages of pyrosequencing and T-RFLP and is particularly adapted for optimizing laboratory and computational efforts to describe microbial communities and their dynamics in any biological system. The high resolution of the microbial community composition is provided by pyrosequencing, which can be performed on a restricted set of selected samples, whereas T-RFLP enables simultaneous fingerprinting of numerous samples at relatively low cost and is especially adapted for routine analysis and follow-up of microbial communities on the long run. PMID:23270314

2012-01-01

347

DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.  

PubMed

Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

2014-01-01

348

DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil  

PubMed Central

Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

do Amaral, Catia Lira; Milagro, Fermin I.; Curi, Rui; Martinez, J. Alfredo

2014-01-01

349

Congruence in Control-Region Sequence and Restriction Site Variation in Mitochondrial DNA of Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the congruence in genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes detected with restriction-frag- ment-length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and sequence analysis in the brook charr, Sulvelinus fontinalis Mitchill. This was accomplished by analyzing variation both at 172 restriction sites subsampling 903 bp over the entire mitochondrial genome and in the sequence of a 300-bp segment of the

Louis Bernatchez; Roy G. Danzmann

1993-01-01

350

Large DNA fragment sizing by flow cytometry: application to the characterization of P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones.  

PubMed Central

A flow cytometry-based, ultrasensitive fluorescence detection technique is used to size individual DNA fragments up to 167 kb in length. Application of this technology to the sizing of P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) in both linear and supercoiled forms is described. It is demonstrated that this method is well suited to characterizing PAC/BAC clones and will be very useful for the analysis of large insert libraries. Fluorescence bursts are recorded as individual, dye stained DNA fragments pass through a low power, focused, continuous laser beam. The magnitudes of the fluorescence bursts are linearly proportional to the lengths of the DNA fragments. The histograms of the burst sizes are generated in <3 min with <1 pg of DNA. Results on linear fragments are consistent with those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sizing of large DNA fragments by this approach is more accurate, much faster, requires much less DNA, and is independent of the DNA conformation. PMID:8932373

Huang, Z; Petty, J T; O'Quinn, B; Longmire, J L; Brown, N C; Jett, J H; Keller, R A

1996-01-01

351

Ty1 integrase overexpression leads to integration of non-Ty1 DNA fragments into the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The integrase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty1 integrates Ty1 cDNA into genomic DNA likely via a transesterification reaction. Little is known about the mechanisms ensuring that integrase does not integrate non-Ty DNA fragments. In an effort to elucidate the conditions under which Ty1 integrase accepts non-Ty DNA as substrate, PCR fragments encompassing a selectable marker gene were transformed into yeast strains overexpressing Ty1 integrase. These fragments do not exhibit similarity to Ty1 cDNA except for the presence of the conserved terminal dinucleotide 5?-TG-CA-3?. The frequency of fragment insertion events increased upon integrase overexpression. Characterization of insertion events by genomic sequencing revealed that most insertion events exhibited clear hallmarks of integrase-mediated reactions, such as 5 bp target site duplication and target site preferences. Alteration of the terminal dinucleotide abolished the suitability of the PCR fragments to serve as substrates. We hypothesize that substrate specificity under normal conditions is mainly due to compartmentalization of integrase and Ty cDNA, which meet in virus-like particles. In contrast, recombinant integrase, which is not confined to virus-like particles, is able to accept non-Ty DNA, provided that it terminates in the proper dinucleotide sequence. PMID:20677012

Friedl, Anna A.; Kiechle, Markus; Maxeiner, Horst G.; Eckardt-Schupp, Friederike

2010-01-01

352

Evaluation of DNA fragmentation in llama (Lama glama) sperm using the sperm chromatin dispersion test.  

PubMed

The integrity of sperm chromatin is now viewed as an important factor in male fertility and in early embryonic development. The objectives of this study were: (1) adapt the simple and inexpensive sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test to evaluate DNA fragmentation in llama sperm and establish the halo patterns observed in this species, (2) determine an effective and reliable positive control for this technique and (3) evaluate correlation between the SCD test and the toluidine blue (TB) stain. To adapt the SCD test, three different mercaptoethanol (ME) concentrations were assayed (2.5%, 5% and 10% ME). To determine an effective positive control, three treatments (incubation at 100 °C for 30 min, incubation with 0.3 M NaOH for 30 min at room temperature and exposure to UV light for 2h) were assayed. The concentration selected to use in the SCD test was 5% ME, because it produced the largest halo while still conserving the structure of the core. Four DNA dispersion patterns were clearly observed: (I) nuclei with large DNA dispersion halos; (II) nuclei with medium halos; (III) nuclei with very small halos and (IV) nuclei with no halo. All treatments used as positive controls were effective in producing DNA fragmentation. A high correlation (r=0.84, P=0.03) was observed between spermatozoa without halos and TB positive cells. To conclude, SCD patterns in llama sperm have been established as well as a repeatable positive control for the assay. The SCD test and TB stain are simple and inexpensive techniques that can be used to evaluate DNA damage in llama sperm. PMID:22437148

Carretero, M I; Lombardo, D; Arraztoa, C C; Giuliano, S M; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

2012-03-01

353

Mechanism of DNA Recognition by the Restriction Enzyme EcoRV  

SciTech Connect

EcoRV, a restriction enzyme in Escherichia coli, destroys invading foreign DNA by cleaving it at the center step of a GATATC sequence. In the EcoRV-cognate DNA crystallographic complex, a sharp kink of 50 degrees has been found at the center base-pair step (TA). Here, we examine the interplay between the intrinsic propensity of the cognate sequence to kink and the induction by the enzyme by performing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of EcoRV unbound and interacting with three DNA sequences: the cognate sequence, GATATC (TA); the non-cognate sequence, GAATTC (AT); and with the cognate sequence methylated on the first adenine GA(CH(3))TATC (TA-CH(3)). In the unbound EcoRV, the cleft between the two C-terminal subdomains is found to be open. Binding to AT narrows the cleft and forms a partially bound state. However, the intrinsic bending propensity of AT is insufficient to allow tight binding. In contrast, the cognate TA sequence is easier to bend, allowing specific, high-occupancy hydrogen bonds to form in the complex. The absence of cleavage for this methylated sequence is found to arise from the loss of specific hydrogen bonds between the first adenine of the recognition sequence and Asn185. On the basis of the results, we suggest a three-step recognition mechanism. In the first step, EcoRV, in an open conformation, binds to the DNA at a random sequence and slides along it. In the second step, when the two outer base pairs, GAxxTC, are recognized, the R loops of the protein become more ordered, forming strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, resulting in a partially bound EcoRV-DNA complex. In the third step, the flexibility of the center base pair is probed, and in the case of the full cognate sequence the DNA bends, the complex strengthens and the protein and DNA interact more closely, allowing cleavage.

Zahran, Mai [ORNL; Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Imhof, Petra [University of Heidelberg

2010-08-01

354

A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA  

PubMed Central

Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science. PMID:22544708

Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

2012-01-01

355

Electronic Measurements of Single-Molecule Processing by DNA Polymerase I (Klenow Fragment)  

PubMed Central

Bioconjugating single molecules of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I into electronic nanocircuits allowed electrical recordings of enzymatic function and dynamic variability with the resolution of individual nucleotide incorporation events. Continuous recordings of DNA polymerase processing multiple homopolymeric DNA templates extended over 600 s and through >10,000 bond forming events. An enzymatic processivity of 42 nucleotides for a template of the same length was directly observed. Statistical analysis determined key kinetic parameters for the enzyme’s open and closed conformations. Consistent with these nanocircuit-based observations, the enzyme closed complex forms a phosphodiester bond in a highly efficient process >99.8% of the time with a mean duration of only 0.3 ms for all four dNTPs. The rate-limiting step for catalysis occurs during the enzyme open state, but with a nearly two-fold longer duration for dATP or dTTP incorporation than for dCTP or dGTP into complementary, homopolymeric DNA templates. Taken together, the results provide a wealth of new information complementing prior work on the mechanism and dynamics of DNA polymerase I. PMID:23631761

Olsen, Tivoli J.; Choi, Yongki; Sims, Patrick C.; Gul, O. Tolga; Corso, Brad L.; Dong, Chengjun; Brown, William A.; Collins, Philip G.; Weiss, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

356

Detection of a mouse OGG1 fragment during caspase-dependent apoptosis: oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis.  

PubMed

We investigated the expression of mouse 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (mOGG1) in mouse non-parenchymal hepatocytes (NCTC) during etoposide- or mitomycin C (MMC)-induced apoptosis. We observed mOGG1 fragmentation in apoptotic cells. The apoptosis accompanying the fragmentation of mOGG1 was caspase-dependent. The mOGG1 fragment existed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the etoposide-treated NCTC, indicating that the mOGG1 fragment could be transferred into the nucleus. In addition, 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine) accumulated in the DNA of NCTC treated with etoposide, suggesting that the mOGG1 fragment might not function as a normal repair enzyme in etoposide-treated NCTC. Although we have not clarified in detail the mechanism and the significance of the mOGG1 fragmentation, further study of the fragmentation of DNA repair enzymes might provide insights into the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis. PMID:15298724

Hirano, Takeshi; Kawai, Kazuaki; Ootsuyama, Yuko; Orimo, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hiroshi

2004-08-01

357

Characterization of Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in the Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase Gene by Using Recombinant Mutant Viruses Generated from Overlapping DNA Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of specific point mutations in the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase (UL54) gene have been tentatively associated with decreased susceptibility to antiviral agents and consequently with clinical failure. To precisely determine the roles of UL54 mutations in HCMV drug resistance, recombinant UL54 mutant viruses were generated by using cotransfection of nine overlapping HCMV DNA fragments into permissive fibroblasts,

TOMAS CIHLAR; MICHAEL D. FULLER; JULIE M. CHERRINGTON

1998-01-01

358

DNA fragmentation pattern in human fibroblasts after irradiation with iron ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we studied the fragmentation pattern produced by the double stand breaks (DSB) induced in AG1522 primary human fibroblasts by two different iron beams, one of energy 414 MeV/u, and the other of energy 115 MeV/u (with dose-average LET in water equal to 202 keV/µm and 442 keV/µm, respectively). Irradiation with several doses up to 200 Gy was performed at the HIMAC facility of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan. Experimental data, first obtained for fragments belonging to the size ranges 23-1000 kbp and 1000-5700 kbp (Belli et al., 2006), have successively been obtained also for fragments belonging to the size ranges 1-9 kbp and 9-23 kbp; the experimental analysis was performed with pulsed and constant field electrophoresis. The RBE for DSB production was evaluated in two different fragment size ranges (i.e., 23-5700 kbp and 1-5700 kbp), and it was found larger for the wider size range, especially for the beam with the higher LET. The experimental results have been compared to those computed on the basis of the Monte Carlo PARTRAC simulation code, following the line of research started in Campa et al. (2005), and exploiting the recent update of the PARTRAC code to ions heavier than helium (Friedland et al., 2006). Because the agreement has been found satisfactory for both radiation qualities, the spectra outside the experimentally observable fragment size range were also computed in order to evaluate the overall fragmentation pattern. The marked increases of the RBEs for DSB production, obtained when also the very small fragments (< 1 kbp) are included, makes them closer to the RBE values observed for the late cellular effects. This finding is a further indication for the biological significance of the spatial correlation of DSB at short distances. This work was partially supported by ASI (Italian Space Agency, "Mo-Ma/COUNT" project). References M. Belli, A. Campa, V. Dini, G. Esposito, Y. Furusawa, G. Simone, E. Sorrentino and M. A. Tabocchini. DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by accelerated 56 Fe ions of differing energies. Radiat. Res. 165, 713-720 (2006). A. Campa, F. Ballarini, M. Belli, R. Cherubini, V. Dini, G. Esposito, W. Friedland, S. Gerardi, S. Molinelli, A. Ottolenghi, H. G. Paretzke, G. Simone and M. A. Tabocchini. DNA DSB induced in human cells by charged particles and gamma rays: experimental results and theoretical approaches. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 81, 841-854 (2005). W. Friedland, P. Jacob, H. G. Paretzke, A. Ottolenghi, F. Ballarini and M. Liotta. Simulation of light ion induced DNA damge patterns. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 122, 116-120 (2006).

Campa, Alessandro

359

Rumen bacterial community evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in dairy sheep fed marine algae.  

PubMed

Developing novel strategies to increase the content of bioactive unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant-derived products requires a deeper understanding of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria involved in this process. Although high-throughput pyrosequencing may allow for a great coverage of bacterial diversity, it has hardly been used to investigate the microbiology of ruminal FA metabolism. In this experiment, 454 pyrosequencing and a molecular fingerprinting technique (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; T-RFLP) were used concurrently to assess the effect of diet supplementation with marine algae (MA) on the rumen bacterial community of dairy sheep. Eleven lactating ewes were divided in 2 lots and offered a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and concentrate (40:60), supplemented with 0 (control) or 8 (MA) g of MA/kg of dry matter. After 54 d on treatments, animals were slaughtered and samples of rumen content and fluid were collected separately for microbial analysis. Pyrosequencing yielded a greater coverage of bacterial diversity than T-RFLP and allowed the identification of low abundant populations. Conversely, both molecular approaches pointed to similar conclusions and showed that relevant changes due to MA addition were observed within the major ruminal phyla, namely Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Decreases in the abundance of unclassified Bacteroidales, Porphyromonadaceae, and Ruminococcaceae and increases in as-yet uncultured species of the family Succinivibrionaceae, might be related to a potential role of these groups in different pathways of rumen FA metabolism. Diet supplementation with MA, however, had no effect on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio genera. In addition, results from both 454 pyrosequencing and T-RFLP indicate that the effect of MA was rather consistent in rumen content or fluid samples, despite inherent differences between these fractions in their bacterial composition. PMID:24440247

Castro-Carrera, T; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; McEwan, N R; Hervás, G; Abecia, L; Pinloche, E; Girdwood, S E; Belenguer, A

2014-03-01

360

Recombination of homologous DNA fragments transfected into mammalian cells occurs predominantly by terminal pairing.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which double-strand cleavages stimulate the joining of plasmid DNA fragments introduced into cultured mammalian cells was investigated by cotransfecting pairs of plasmids encoding deletion mutations in a dominant selectable gene into LMtk- cells. Plasmid recombination substrates were produced by creating deletions of different sizes within the neo coding region of the pSV2neo plasmid. Complementing pairs of deleted plasmid DNAs were linearized at specific unique sites before cotransfection into mouse LMtk- cells by the calcium phosphate precipitation method. Cleaving one donor plasmid produced a 4- to 10-fold stimulation in the production of colonies able to survive in medium containing G-418. The linearization of the second plasmid further increased the efficiency by another factor of 6 to 15 when the cut was made on the opposite side of the homology, approximately equidistant from the center of the overlap. Fifty-seven individual G-418-resistant colonies representing the products of individual crosses were isolated, and the genomic DNAs containing the presumably integrated, functional recombinant neo genes were analyzed on Southern blots. A band consistent with the exchange of markers flanking the neo gene was present in 90% of the DNAs examined. In only one case was the pattern indicative of either a double crossover or a gene conversion event. These results support the idea that homologous extrachromosomal DNA fragments are joined through annealing of overlapping single-stranded ends. This DNA-joining phenomenon may represent the activity of cellular DNA repair enzymes; its relationship to genetic recombination occurring at the chromosomal level remains to be determined. PMID:3023971

Anderson, R A; Eliason, S L

1986-09-01

361

Structure of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-specific restriction enzyme, AbaSI, in complex with DNA.  

PubMed

AbaSI, a member of the PvuRts1I-family of modification-dependent restriction endonucleases, cleaves deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) containing 5-hydroxymethylctosine (5hmC) and glucosylated 5hmC (g5hmC), but not DNA containing unmodified cytosine. AbaSI has been used as a tool for mapping the genomic locations of 5hmC, an important epigenetic modification in the DNA of higher organisms. Here we report the crystal structures of AbaSI in the presence and absence of DNA. These structures provide considerable, although incomplete, insight into how this enzyme acts. AbaSI appears to be mainly a homodimer in solution, but interacts with DNA in our structures as a homotetramer. Each AbaSI subunit comprises an N-terminal, Vsr-like, cleavage domain containing a single catalytic site, and a C-terminal, SRA-like, 5hmC-binding domain. Two N-terminal helices mediate most of the homodimer interface. Dimerization brings together the two catalytic sites required for double-strand cleavage, and separates the 5hmC binding-domains by ?70 Å, consistent with the known activity of AbaSI which cleaves DNA optimally between symmetrically modified cytosines ?22 bp apart. The eukaryotic SET and RING-associated (SRA) domains bind to DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the hemi-methylated CpG sequence. They make contacts in both the major and minor DNA grooves, and flip the modified cytosine out of the helix into a conserved binding pocket. In contrast, the SRA-like domain of AbaSI, which has no sequence specificity, contacts only the minor DNA groove, and in our current structures the 5hmC remains intra-helical. A conserved, binding pocket is nevertheless present in this domain, suitable for accommodating 5hmC and g5hmC. We consider it likely, therefore, that base-flipping is part of the recognition and cleavage mechanism of AbaSI, but that our structures represent an earlier, pre-flipped stage, prior to actual recognition. PMID:24895434

Horton, John R; Borgaro, Janine G; Griggs, Rose M; Quimby, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhang, Xing; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Zheng, Yu; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cheng, Xiaodong

2014-01-01

362

Structure of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine-specific restriction enzyme, AbaSI, in complex with DNA  

PubMed Central

AbaSI, a member of the PvuRts1I-family of modification-dependent restriction endonucleases, cleaves deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) containing 5-hydroxymethylctosine (5hmC) and glucosylated 5hmC (g5hmC), but not DNA containing unmodified cytosine. AbaSI has been used as a tool for mapping the genomic locations of 5hmC, an important epigenetic modification in the DNA of higher organisms. Here we report the crystal structures of AbaSI in the presence and absence of DNA. These structures provide considerable, although incomplete, insight into how this enzyme acts. AbaSI appears to be mainly a homodimer in solution, but interacts with DNA in our structures as a homotetramer. Each AbaSI subunit comprises an N-terminal, Vsr-like, cleavage domain containing a single catalytic site, and a C-terminal, SRA-like, 5hmC-binding domain. Two N-terminal helices mediate most of the homodimer interface. Dimerization brings together the two catalytic sites required for double-strand cleavage, and separates the 5hmC binding-domains by ?70 Å, consistent with the known activity of AbaSI which cleaves DNA optimally between symmetrically modified cytosines ?22 bp apart. The eukaryotic SET and RING-associated (SRA) domains bind to DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the hemi-methylated CpG sequence. They make contacts in both the major and minor DNA grooves, and flip the modified cytosine out of the helix into a conserved binding pocket. In contrast, the SRA-like domain of AbaSI, which has no sequence specificity, contacts only the minor DNA groove, and in our current structures the 5hmC remains intra-helical. A conserved, binding pocket is nevertheless present in this domain, suitable for accommodating 5hmC and g5hmC. We consider it likely, therefore, that base-flipping is part of the recognition and cleavage mechanism of AbaSI, but that our structures represent an earlier, pre-flipped stage, prior to actual recognition. PMID:24895434

Horton, John R.; Borgaro, Janine G.; Griggs, Rose M.; Quimby, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhang, Xing; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Zheng, Yu; Zhu, Zhenyu; Cheng, Xiaodong

2014-01-01

363

Phenotypic debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity among extensive metabolizers is unrelated to genotype as determined by the Xba-I restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

1. The major pathway for 4-hydroxylation of debrisoquine in man is polymorphic and under genetic control. More than 90% of subjects (extensive metabolizers, EMs) have active debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450IID6) while in the remainder (poor metabolizers, PMs), cytochrome P450IID6 activity is greatly impaired. 2. Within the EM group, cytochrome P450IID6-mediated metabolism of a range of substrates varies widely. Some of this intra-phenotype non-uniformity may be explained by the presence of two subsets of subjects with different genotypes (heterozygotes and homozygotes). 3. Cytochrome P450IID6 substrates have not differentiated between these two genotypes. However, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) which identifies mutant alleles of cytochrome P450IID6 locus has been described and can definitively assign genotype in some heterozygous EM subjects. 4. In this study, we used RFLP analysis and encainide as a model substrate to determine if non-uniformity in cytochrome P450IID6 activity among EMs is related to genotype. We tested the hypothesis that heterozygotes exhibit intermediate metabolic activity and that homozygous dominants exhibit the highest activity. We proposed encainide as a useful substrate for this purpose since cytochrome P450IID6 catalyzes not only its biotransformation to O-desmethyl encainide (ODE) but also the subsequent metabolism of ODE to 3-methoxy-O-desmethyl encainide (MODE). 5. A single 50 mg oral dose of encainide was administered to 139 normal volunteers and 14 PMs were identified. Urinary ratios among encainide, ODE and MODE in the remaining 125 EM subjects revealed a wide range of cytochrome P450IID6 activity. However, Southern blotting of genomic DNA digested with XbaI identified obligate heterozygotes in both extremes of all ratio distributions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 PMID:1685663

Turgeon, J; Evans, W E; Relling, M V; Wilkinson, G R; Roden, D M

1991-01-01

364

Species-specific variation in efficacy of yeast genomic DNA isolation techniques assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for isolating genomic DNA from yeasts are optimized for strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DNeasy tissue kit proved to be effective with 65 additional yeast species, providing 0.1 to 4.7?g DNA\\/ml culture with sufficient purity to give reproducible amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles, but was unsuccessful with 13 other species. Two alternative yeast DNA purification kits, MasterPure and

Linda J. Fuller; Donald A. MacKenzie; Ian N. Roberts

2008-01-01

365

Restricted leucine zipper dimerization and specificity of DNA recognition of the melanocyte master regulator MITF  

PubMed Central

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a master regulator of melanocyte development and an important oncogene in melanoma. MITF heterodimeric assembly with related basic helix–loop–helix leucine zipper transcription factors is highly restricted, and its binding profile to cognate DNA sequences is distinct. Here, we determined the crystal structure of MITF in its apo conformation and in the presence of two related DNA response elements, the E-box and M-box. In addition, we investigated mouse and human Mitf mutations to dissect the functional significance of structural features. Owing to an unusual three-residue shift in the leucine zipper register, the MITF homodimer shows a marked kink in one of the two zipper helices to allow an out-of-register assembly. Removal of this insertion relieves restricted heterodimerization by MITF and permits assembly with the transcription factor MAX. Binding of MITF to the M-box motif is mediated by an unusual nonpolar interaction by Ile212, a residue that is mutated in mice and humans with Waardenburg syndrome. As several related transcription factors have low affinity for the M-box sequence, our analysis unravels how these proteins discriminate between similar target sequences. Our data provide a rational basis for targeting MITF in the treatment of important hereditary diseases and cancer. PMID:23207919

Pogenberg, Vivian; Ogmundsdottir, Margret H; Bergsteinsdottir, Kristin; Schepsky, Alexander; Phung, Bengt; Deineko, Viktor; Milewski, Morlin; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Wilmanns, Matthias

2012-01-01

366

Genetic diversity of Azotobacter strains isolated from soils by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis.  

PubMed

Strains of Azotobacter mediate in the nitrogen fixation process by reducing of N2 to ammonia. In this study, 50 strains were isolated from different rhizospheric soil in central Iran, by using soil paste-plate method. These strains were biochemically identified and characterized on differential LG medium based on morphological and physiological properties. Results obtained showed that identified strains were belonging to three species, namely A. chroococcum, A. vinelandii and A. beijernckii. In order to molecular analysis, the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using 27f and 1495r primers and PCR products were subsequently digested with RsaI, HpaII and HhaI. Cluster analysis based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis were revealed intraspecific polymorphism and differentiated strains into two mains clusters, clusters A and B. Cluster A strains were related to the A. vinelandii, whereas cluster B strains were related to the A. chroococcum and A. beijerinckii. The results show that amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis is a powerful and discriminatory tool for the identification of members of the genus Azotobacter. PMID:25318174

Mazinani, Z; Asgharzadeh, A

2014-01-01

367

Manning free counterions fraction for a rod-like polyion - short DNA fragments in very low salt  

E-print Network

We quantified the Manning free (uncondensed) counterions fraction $\\theta$ for dilute solutions of rod-like polyions - 150bp DNA fragments, in very low salt $salt environment, with the decrease in DNA concentration itself. The extremes of the experimental $\\theta(c)$ range occur towards the highest, above 1 mM and the lowest, below 0.05 mM, DNA concentrations, and correspond to the theoretical $\\theta$ values for dsDNA and ssDNA, respectively. Therefore, we confirmed Manning condensation and conductivity models to be valuable in description of dilute solutions of rod-like polyions.

Tomislav Vuletic; Sanja Dolanski Babic; Danijel Grgicin; Damir Aumiler; Joachim Raedler; Francoise Livolant; Silvia Tomic

2010-10-04

368

Validation of a field based chromatin dispersion assay to assess sperm DNA fragmentation in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in the use of assisted reproductive technology for genetic and reproductive management of captive dolphin populations, including evaluation of sperm DNA quality. This study validated a customized sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a means of assessing sperm DNA damage both in the field and in the laboratory. After performing the SCDt, two different sperm morphotypes were identified: (i) sperm with fragmented DNA showed large haloes of dispersed DNA fragments emerging from a compact sperm nucleoid core and (ii) sperm containing non-fragmented DNA displayed small compact haloes surrounded by a dense core of non-dispersed DNA and protein complex. Estimates of sperm DNA fragmentation by means of SCDt were directly comparable to results obtained following a two-tailed comet assay and showed a significant degree of correlation (r = 0.961; p < 0.001). This investigation also revealed that the SCDt, with minor modifications to the standard protocol, can be successfully conducted in the field using a LED florescence microscopy obtaining a high correlation (r = 0.993; p = 0.01) between the data obtained in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:25130370

Sánchez-Calabuig, M-J; López-Fernández, C; Martínez-Nevado, E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F; de la Fuente, J; Johnston, S D; Blyde, D; Harrison, K; Gosálvez, J

2014-10-01

369

Patterns of Genomic Integration of Nuclear Chloroplast DNA Fragments in Plant Species  

PubMed Central

The transfer of organelle DNA fragments to the nuclear genome is frequently observed in eukaryotes. These transfers are thought to play an important role in gene and genome evolution of eukaryotes. In plants, such transfers occur from plastid to nuclear [nuclear plastid DNAs (NUPTs)] and mitochondrial to nuclear (nuclear mitochondrial DNAs) genomes. The amount and genomic organization of organelle DNA fragments have been studied in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. At present, publicly available genomic data can be used to conduct such studies in non-model plants. In this study, we analysed the amount and genomic organization of NUPTs in 17 plant species for which genome sequences are available. The amount and distribution of NUPTs varied among the species. We also estimated the distribution of NUPTs according to the time of integration (relative age) by conducting sequence similarity analysis between NUPTs and the plastid genome. The age distributions suggested that the present genomic constitutions of NUPTs could be explained by the combination of the rapidly eliminated deleterious parts and few but constantly existing less deleterious parts. PMID:24170805

Yoshida, Takanori; Furihata, Hazuka Y.; Kawabe, Akira

2014-01-01

370

Monte Carlo predictions of DNA fragment-size distributions for large sizes after HZE particle irradiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DSBs (double-strand breaks) produced by densely ionizing space radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. DSB clustering at large scales, from >100 Mbp down to approximately 2 kbp, is modeled using a Monte-Carlo algorithm. A random-walk model of chromatin is combined with a track model, that predicts the radial distribution of energy from an ion, and the RLC (randomly-located-clusters) formalism, in software called DNAbreak. This model generalizes the random-breakage model, whose broken-stick fragment-size distribution is applicable to low-LET radiation. DSB induction due to track interaction with the DNA volume depends on the radiation quality parameter Q. This dose-independent parameter depends only weakly on LET. Multi-track, high-dose effects depend on the cluster intensity parameter lambda, proportional to fluence as defined by the RLC formalism. After lambda is determined by a numerical experiment, the model reduces to one adjustable parameter Q. The best numerical fits to the experimental data, determining Q, are obtained. The knowledge of lambda and Q allows us to give biophysically based extrapolations of high-dose DNA fragment-size data to low doses or to high LETs.

Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.

2001-01-01

371

Bulky DNA adducts in human sperm associated with semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background DNA adducts are widely used marker of DNA damage induced by environmental pollutants. The present study was designed to explore whether sperm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts were associated with sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. Methods A total of 433 Han Chinese men were recruited from an infertility clinic. Immunofluorescence was applied to analyze sperm PAH-DNA adducts. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Results After adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression, sperm PAH-DNA adducts were negatively associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility, and curvilinear velocity (VCL). In addition, a positive relationship between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and sperm DNA fragmentation was found. Conclusions Our findings suggested an inverse association between sperm PAH-DNA adducts and semen quality, and provided the first epidemiologic evidence of an adverse effect of PAH-DNA adducts on sperm DNA integrity. PMID:24073787

2013-01-01

372

Rates of nuclear DNA evolution in pheasant-like birds: evidence from restriction maps.  

PubMed Central

To examine the tempo of genomic evolution in birds, we mapped 161 restriction sites in the nuclear DNA of seven species of birds belonging to the pheasant superfamily Phasianoidea. The three regions mapped lie on different chromosomes and bear eight genes, coding for lysozyme c, three "alpha-like" globins, and four "beta-like" globins. Together, the three regions span about 56 kilobases, most of which is presumably noncoding. The maps differed from one another at a minimum of 77 sites and by 9 length mutations. The extent of sequence divergence due to base substitutions was inferred to be similar for all three regions, even though the three coding regions differ by 5-fold from one another in mean rate of evolution at the amino acid level. A tree relating the maps differs in branching order from that implied by the traditional classification of phasianoid birds and is supported by published protein comparisons. Five of the nodes in the tree were associated with fossil evidence and historical biogeographic information, allowing us to estimate the mean rate of DNA divergence to be 0.34-0.40% per million years. This rate is similar to that estimated for the globin gene regions of higher primates, which validates the concept of an evolutionary clock at the DNA level. Our fossil-based calibration of DNA evolution differs by a factor of almost 2 from that proposed by others on the basis of biogeography. In consequence, published estimates of divergence times for birds and primates that are based on a biogeographically calibrated DNA clock may be too long. PMID:3003745

Helm-Bychowski, K M; Wilson, A C

1986-01-01

373

Does quantum entanglement in DNA synchronize the catalytic centers of type II restriction endonucleases?  

E-print Network

Several living systems have been examined for their apparent optimization of structure and function for quantum behavior at biological length scales. Orthodox type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, recognize four-to-eight base pair sequences of palindromic DNA, cut both strands symmetrically, and act without an external metabolite such as ATP. While it is known that these enzymes induce strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, what remains unclear is the mechanism by which cutting occurs in concert at the catalytic centers. Previous studies indicate the primacy of intimate DNA contacts made by the specifically bound enzyme in coordinating the two synchronized cuts. We propose that collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix generates coherent oscillations, quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the endonuclease, that provide the energy required to break two phosphodiester bonds. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise and electromagnetic interference through decoherence shielding, the specific complex's exclusion of water and ions surrounding the helix. Clamping energy imparted by the enzyme decoherence shield is comparable with zero-point modes of the dipole-dipole oscillations in the DNA recognition sequence. The palindromic mirror symmetry of this sequence should conserve parity during the process. Experimental data corroborate that symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the endonuclease complex is violated, or when environmental parameters are perturbed far from biological optima. Persistent correlation between states in DNA sequence across spatial separations of any length--a characteristic signature of quantum entanglement--may be explained by such a physical mechanism.

P. Kurian; G. Dunston; J. Lindesay

2014-03-21

374

Chloroplast DNA inheritance in the Stellaria longipes complex (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was examined in F1 progenies derived from three crosses and three corresponding reciprocal crosses betweenStellaria porsildii andS. longifolia. Chloroplast DNA restriction fragments were analyzed using methods of nonradioactive digoxigenin-11-dUTP labeling and chemiluminescent detection with Lumi-Phos 530. Distinct interspecific restriction fragment polymorphisms were identified and used to demonstrate the mode of cpDNA inheritance. Mode of cpDNA

D. K. X. Chong; C. C. Chinnappa; F. C. Yeh; S. Chuong

1994-01-01

375

Smoking influence on sperm vitality, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species and zinc in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the influence of smoking duration and intensity on sperm vitality, sperm DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and zinc (Zn) levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). A total of 246 men were investigated who were divided into OAT nonsmokers, OAT smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers with Vx. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and semen analysis. In their semen, sperm hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, sperm DNA fragmentation test, seminal ROS and seminal Zn were assessed. The results demonstrated significantly decreased HOS test, seminal Zn level and significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation, seminal ROS levels in OAT smokers with Vx more than OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Smoking intensity, smoking duration and Vx grade demonstrated significant negative correlations with sperm motility, HOS test percentage and significant positive correlations with sperm DNA fragmentation, seminal ROS level. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm progressive motility, HOS test, seminal Zn and positive impact on sperm DNA fragmentation, semen ROS level that are exaggerated if Vx is associated being correlated with smoking intensity, smoking duration and Vx grade. PMID:23866014

Taha, E A; Ezz-Aldin, A M; Sayed, S K; Ghandour, N M; Mostafa, T

2014-08-01

376

PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Campylobacter jejuni genes involved in lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis identifies putative molecular markers for Guillain-Barré syndrome.  

PubMed

Molecular mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides (LOS) by gangliosides in peripheral nerve tissue probably triggers the Guillain-Barré syndrome due to the induction of cross-reactive antibodies. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of C. jejuni genes involved in the biosynthesis of LOS demonstrated that specific genes were associated with the expression of ganglioside mimics and the development of neuropathy. PMID:17507514

Godschalk, Peggy C R; van Belkum, Alex; van den Braak, Nicole; van Netten, Diana; Ang, C Wim; Jacobs, Bart C; Gilbert, Michel; Endtz, Hubert P

2007-07-01

377

Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in the Human Vagina by Analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of 16S rRNA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define and monitor the structure of microbial communities found in the human vagina, a cultivation- independent approach based on analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes was developed and validated. Sixteen bacterial strains commonly found in the human vagina were used to construct model communities that were subsequently used to develop efficient means for

Marco J. L. Coolen; Eduard Post; Catherine C. Davis; Larry J. Forney

2005-01-01

378

Rapid Detection of K-ras Mutations in Bile by Peptide Nucleic Acid-Mediated PCR Clamping and Melting Curve Analysis: Comparison with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current methods for detection of K-ras gene mutations are time-consuming. We aimed to de- velop a one-step PCR technique using fluorescent hy- bridization probes and competing peptide nucleic acid oligomers to detect K-ras mutations in bile and to compare the efficacy with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Methods: Bile samples were obtained from 116 patients with biliary obstruction,

Chiung-Yu Chen; Shu-Chu Shiesh; Sheu-Jen Wu

379

Comparison of Large Restriction Fragments of Mycobacterium avium Isolates Recovered from AIDS and Non-AIDS Patients with Those of Isolates from Potable Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) pattern analyses were done with AseI. The LRF patterns of Mycobacterium avium

T. ARONSON; A. HOLTZMAN; N. GLOVER; M. BOIAN; S. FROMAN; O. G. W. BERLIN; H. HILL; G. STELMA

1999-01-01

380

The repair fidelity of restriction enzyme-induced double strand breaks in plasmid DNA correlates with radioresistance in human tumor cell lines  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of DNA repair may play a role in determining the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation. Repair, as measured by DNA strand breakage, often shows little difference between tumor cell lines of widely different radiosensitivity. The mechanism by which DNA fragments are rejoined is poorly understood. This study used plasmid transfection as a probe to assess the balance between correct repair and misrepair. A general trend for sensitive cells to show lower repair fidelity relative to resistant cells was observed. The type of double-strand cleavage of the plasmid (staggered or blunt) made little difference to the measured repair fidelity, in contrast to published studies in which restriction-enzyme breaks had been introduced into DNA within chromatin. Specific comparison of parent lines and their radiosensitive clones showed significant differences in repair fidelity for a relatively small change in radiation response, which was in line with the overall correlation. These same pairs have previously been shown to have no difference in the loss of DNA fragmentation with time after irradiation, and Southern analysis had confirmed the integrated plasmid copy number was similar in the cell lines compared. The number of intact copies of the damaged gene relative to the undamaged gene mirrored the observed repair fidelity. However, in one cell line out of the 10 studied, an exception to the observed trend was found. In comparison of two equally radioresistant bladder cancer cell lines, large differences in repair fidelity were observed. Again, no difference in the integrated copy number was found, and the damaged gene was highly rearranged or deleted in the cell line with low repair fidelity. It is suggested that repair fidelity can be, but is not invariably, a measure of correct repair relative to misrepair, resulting from the processing of double-strand breaks and, hence, the response to ionizing radiation. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Powell, S.N. [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)]|[Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); McMillan, T.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

1994-07-30

381

Binding and cleavage of DNA with the restriction enzyme EcoR1 using time-resolved second harmonic generation  

PubMed Central

The binding of EcoR1 to a 90-bp DNA duplex attached to colloidal microparticles and the subsequent cleavage by the enzyme was observed in real time and label-free with time-resolved second harmonic (SH) spectroscopy. This method provides a unique way to investigate biomolecular interactions based on its sensitivity to changes in structure and electrical charge on formation of a complex and subsequent dynamics. The binding of EcoR1 to the recognition sequence in DNA appears as a rapid increase in the SH signal, which is attributed to the enzyme-induced change in the DNA conformation, going from a rod-like to a bent shape. In the presence of the cofactor Mg2+, the subsequent decay in the SH signal was monitored in real time as the following processes occurred: cleavage of DNA, dissociation of the enzyme from the DNA, and diffusion of the 74-bp fragment into the bulk solution leaving the 16-bp fragment attached to the microparticle. The observed decay was dependent on the concentration of Mg2+, which functions as a cofactor and as an electrolyte. With SH spectroscopy the rehybridization dynamics between the rehybridized microparticle bound and free cleaved DNA fragments was observed in real time and label-free following the cleavage of DNA. Collectively, the experiments reported here establish SH spectroscopy as a powerful method to investigate equilibrium and time-dependent biological processes in a noninvasive and label-free way. PMID:22114185

Doughty, Benjamin; Kazer, Samuel W.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

2011-01-01

382

A multiple-staining procedure for the detection of different DNA fragments on a single blot.  

PubMed

We have developed a method that implies the use of a particular type of substrate which can be used in combination with alkaline phosphatase in detecting nucleic acid on filters. The method allows the detection of several different nucleic acid sequences on a single filter. In consecutive steps, the target DNA molecules are hybridized with different digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. After each hybridization step, digoxigenin is detected with an antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. This enzyme is subsequently visualized by a color reaction using different 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid anilide (naphthol AS) phosphates as substrates in combination with varying diazonium salts. The multiple-staining procedure is based on the fact that the probe DNA-antibody complex can be removed while the color precipitate remains stably bound at its place on the filter. This allows several repeated hybridizations with other digoxigenin-labeled probes followed by antibody detection and color reaction with other naphthol AS phosphate-diazonium salt combinations. Aside from the ability to simultaneously visualize different target DNAs on a single filter, this new method provides several important features that are more powerful than the conventional 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate-nitro blue tetrazolium (BCIP-NBT) color reaction for alkaline phosphatase. The colors are more stable and brilliant than BCIP-NBT; their development is faster, the resolution of closely spaced bands is greater, and the background is much lower. The detection limit for alkaline phosphates is as good as with BCIP-NBT (0.1 pg of DNA). One major advantage is the simplicity of removing the colors by ethanol incubation. In this paper, the method is described using the example of Southern blotted DNA fragments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1705397

West, S; Schröder, J; Kunz, W

1990-11-01

383

Novel apparatus to measure hyperthermal heavy ion damage to DNA: Strand breaks, base loss, and fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel apparatus that allows us to irradiate nonvolatile organic films of high mass (1-100 {mu}g range) spread out over a large surface area (42 cm{sup 2}) with low energy (kT-100 eV) heavy ions and to quantitatively analyze the film substance via standard biochemical techniques afterwards. Here we discuss the details of the apparatus and method and show that it allows us to measure substantial damage to double stranded DNA molecules (plasmids) and its fundamental subunits induced by heavy ions with unprecedented low energies, i.e., 2.5 eV/amu; these energies correspond to track end energies of stopping ions or secondary ions created along primary ion tracks. We find that hyperthermal Ar{sup +} ions interacting with plasmid DNA will lead to the formation of single and double strand breaks, as well as fragmentation of nucleosides, which also involve chemical modifications and site specific rupture along the N1-C1 glycosidic bond, resulting in base release. In cells, such localized clustered damage will enhance the severity of DNA strand lesions, thus making them harder to repair.

Sellami, L.; Lacombe, S.; Hunting, D.; Wagner, R. J.; Huels, M. A. [Ion Reaction Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

2007-08-15

384

Identification of individual herbal drugs in tea mixtures using restriction analysis of ITS DNA and real-time PCR.  

PubMed

We have studied a sedative tea made of Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.), Lupuli strobuli (Humulus lupulus L.), Melissae folium (Melissa officinalis L.) and Menthae piperitae folium (Mentha piperita L.). In order to identify the constituent drugs a method was established involving amplification of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA on the basis of restriction analysis and real-time PCR. ITS regions of individual drugs were amplified and sequenced. Restriction analysis was performed with selected restriction endonucleases Nae I, PshA I and Xcm I. Real-time PCR was carried out, using primers specifically designed for each individual herbal drug. Real-time PCR proved to be a method for identifying individual herbal drugs in a tea mixture with a single DNA extraction in a single PCR run, since its limit of detection is lower than that for restriction analysis. PMID:17152982

Slanc, P; Ravnikar, M; Strukelj, B

2006-11-01

385

Species-specific variation in efficacy of yeast genomic DNA isolation techniques assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Methods for isolating genomic DNA from yeasts are optimized for strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DNeasy tissue kit proved to be effective with 65 additional yeast species, providing 0.1 to 4.7 microg DNA/ml culture with sufficient purity to give reproducible amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles, but was unsuccessful with 13 other species. Two alternative yeast DNA purification kits, MasterPure and Y-DER, were effective with 6 of these and 2 additional species, leaving only 9 species that remained recalcitrant to yielding sufficient amounts of DNA with the required purity. PMID:18601896

Fuller, Linda J; MacKenzie, Donald A; Roberts, Ian N

2008-10-01

386

Characterization of HIFU ablation using DNA fragmentation labeling as apoptosis stain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to compare modalities to precisely quantify the extent of thermally induced lesions: gross pathology vs. histopathology vs. devascularization. Liver areas of 14 rabbits were targeted with HIFU and RF ablations in an acute study. Contrast enhanced computorized tomography (CE-CT) scan images were acquired two hours after HIFU and RF treatment to obtain the devascularized volumes of the livers. The animals were then euthanized and deep frozen. The livers were sliced and each slice was photographed and stacked yielding a volume of gross pathology. The volume VGP of the HIFU lesions were derived. The area AGP of the lesions were computed on a particular slice. The lesions were segmented as hypo intense (devascularized) regions on CE-CT images and their volumes VC were computed. The ratios VC/VGP were computed for all the HIFU lesions on all the 14 subjects with a mean value of 1.2. Histology was performed on the livers using Hematoxyline Eosine Staining (HES) and DNA Fragmentation labeling (TUNEL® technology) which characterizes apoptosis. Apoptotic regions of area AT were segmented on the images stained by TUNEL®. No necrosis was identified on the HES data. While TUNEL® did not mark the cores of the RF lesions as apoptotic, the periphery of HIFU and RF lesions was always recognized with TUNEL® as apoptotic. The ratio AGP/AT was computed. The mean value was 0.95 and 0.25 for HIFU and RF lesions respectively. These findings show that the devascularized territory seen on CE-CT scan coincide with the coagulated territories seen with gross pathology. Those actually correspond to cells in apoptosis. It is confirmed that HES stain does not show necrosis 2 hours after thermal ablation. TUNEL® technology for DNA fragmentation labeling appears as a useful marker for thermally induced acute lesions in the liver.

Anquez, Jeremie; Corréas, Jean-Michel; Pau, Bernard; Lacoste, François; Yon, Sylvain

2012-11-01

387

T-RFPred: a nucleotide sequence size prediction tool for microbial community description based on terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism chromatograms  

PubMed Central

Background Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a technique used to analyze complex microbial communities. It allows for the quantification of unique or numerically dominant phylotypes in amplicon pools and it has been used primarily for comparisons between different communities. T-RFPred, Terminal-Restriction Fragment Prediction, was developed to identify and assign taxonomic information to chromatogram peaks of a T-RFLP fingerprint for a more comprehensive description of microbial communities. The program estimates the expected fragment size of representative 16S rRNA gene sequences (either from a complementary clone library or from public databases) for a given primer and restriction enzyme(s) and provides candidate taxonomic assignments. Results To show the accuracy of the program, T-RFLP profiles of a marine bacterial community were described using artificial bacterioplankton clone libraries of sequences obtained from public databases. For all valid chromatogram peaks, a phylogenetic group could be assigned. Conclusions T-RFPred offers enhanced functionality of T-RFLP profile analysis over current available programs. In particular, it circumvents the need for full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences during taxonomic assignments of T-RF peaks. Thus, large 16S rRNA gene datasets from environmental studies, including metagenomes, or public databases can be used as the reference set. Furthermore, T-RFPred is useful in experimental design for the selection of primers as well as the type and number of restriction enzymes that will yield informative chromatograms from natural microbial communities. PMID:20950425

2010-01-01

388

The BRCA1-RAP80 complex regulates DNA repair mechanism utilization by restricting end resection.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor protein BRCA1 is a constituent of several different protein complexes and is required for homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The most recently discovered BRCA1-RAP80 complex is recruited to ubiquitin structures on chromatin surrounding the break. Deficiency of any member of this complex confers hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents by undefined mechanisms. In striking contrast to other BRCA1-containing complexes that are known to promote HDR, we demonstrate that the BRCA1-RAP80 complex restricts end resection in S/G(2) phase of the cell cycle, thereby limiting HDR. RAP80 or BRCC36 deficiency resulted in elevated Mre11-CtIP-dependent 5' end resection with a concomitant increase in HDR mechanisms that rely on 3' single-stranded overhangs. We propose a model in which the BRCA1-RAP80 complex limits nuclease accessibility to DSBs, thus preventing excessive end resection and potentially deleterious homology-directed DSB repair mechanisms that can impair genome integrity. PMID:21335604

Coleman, Kara A; Greenberg, Roger A

2011-04-15

389

The BRCA1-RAP80 Complex Regulates DNA Repair Mechanism Utilization by Restricting End Resection*  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor protein BRCA1 is a constituent of several different protein complexes and is required for homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The most recently discovered BRCA1-RAP80 complex is recruited to ubiquitin structures on chromatin surrounding the break. Deficiency of any member of this complex confers hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents by undefined mechanisms. In striking contrast to other BRCA1-containing complexes that are known to promote HDR, we demonstrate that the BRCA1-RAP80 complex restricts end resection in S/G2 phase of the cell cycle, thereby limiting HDR. RAP80 or BRCC36 deficiency resulted in elevated Mre11-CtIP-dependent 5? end resection with a concomitant increase in HDR mechanisms that rely on 3? single-stranded overhangs. We propose a model in which the BRCA1-RAP80 complex limits nuclease accessibility to DSBs, thus preventing excessive end resection and potentially deleterious homology-directed DSB repair mechanisms that can impair genome integrity. PMID:21335604

Coleman, Kara A.; Greenberg, Roger A.

2011-01-01

390

Cloned single- and double-stranded DNA copies of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) RNA and co-inoculated subgenomic DNA fragments are infectious.  

PubMed Central

A set of monomeric and oligomeric potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) specific DNA forms representing complete DNA copies of the circular PSTV RNA genome were constructed and cloned in plasmid pBR322 and bacteriophage M13. Both single- and double-stranded PSTV DNAs are capable of initiating viroid replication in mechanically inoculated tomato plants where it normally proceeds via the RNA-RNA pathway without DNA being involved. All dimeric and higher multimeric forms were infectious irrespective of their polarity in the case of single-stranded DNA and regardless of their orientation in the vector DNA in the case of double-stranded DNA. The vector-inserted monomeric PSTV DNA units were also found to be infectious but of low specific infectivity which was increased when these monomers had been excised. Even two subgenomic DNA fragments, representing together the 359 nucleotides of the PSTV RNA genome, initiated the synthesis of viroid RNA progeny when co-inoculated although each fragment by itself is non-infectious. These results are discussed with respect to the infectivity previously observed with certain cloned DNAs of conventional RNA and DNA viruses. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6549294

Tabler, M; Sänger, H L

1984-01-01

391

Assessment of four DNA fragments (COI, 16S rDNA, ITS2, 12S rDNA) for species identification of the Ixodida (Acari: Ixodida)  

PubMed Central

Background The 5’ region of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, COI has proved to be of limited use in identifying some species, and for some taxa, the coding sequence is not efficiently amplified by PCR. These deficiencies lead to uncertainty as to whether COI is the most suitable barcoding fragment for species identification of ticks. Methods In this study, we directly compared the relative effectiveness of COI, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and 12S rDNA for tick species identification. A total of 307 sequences from 84 specimens representing eight tick species were acquired by PCR. Besides the 1,834 published sequences of 189 tick species from GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database, 430 unpublished sequences representing 59 tick species were also successfully screened by Bayesian analyses. Thereafter, the performance of the four DNA markers to identify tick species was evaluated by identification success rates given by these markers using nearest neighbour (NN), BLASTn, liberal tree-based or liberal tree-based (+threshold) methods. Results Genetic divergence analyses showed that the intra-specific divergence of each marker was much lower than the inter-specific divergence. Our results indicated that the rates of correct sequence identification for all four markers (COI, 16S rDNA, ITS2, 12S rDNA) were very high (> 96%) when using the NN methodology. We also found that COI was not significantly better than the other markers in terms of its rate of correct sequence identification. Overall, BLASTn and NN methods produced higher rates of correct species identification than that produced by the liberal tree-based methods (+threshold or otherwise). Conclusions As the standard DNA barcode, COI should be the first choice for tick species identification, while 16S rDNA, ITS2, and 12S rDNA could be used when COI does not produce reliable results. Besides, NN and BLASTn are efficient methods for species identification of ticks. PMID:24589289

2014-01-01

392

A PCR-free cloning method for the targeted ?80 Int-mediated integration of any long DNA fragment, bracketed with meganuclease recognition sites, into the Escherichia coli chromosome.  

PubMed

The genetic manipulation of cells is the most promising strategy for designing microorganisms with desired traits. The most widely used approaches for integrating specific DNA-fragments into the Escherichia coli genome are based on bacteriophage site-specific and Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination systems. Specifically, the recently developed Dual In/Out integration strategy enables the integration of DNA fragments directly into specific chromosomal loci (Minaeva et al., 2008). To develop this strategy further, we designed a method for the precise cloning of any long DNA fragments from the E. coli chromosome and their targeted insertion into the genome that does not require PCR. In this method, the region of interest is flanked by I-SceI rare-cutting restriction sites, and the I-SceI-bracketed region is cloned into the unique I-SceI site of an integrative plasmid vector that then enables its targeted insertion into the E. coli chromosome via bacteriophage ?80 Int-mediated specialized recombination. This approach allows any long specific DNA fragment from the E. coli genome to be cloned without a PCR amplification step and reproducibly inserted into any chosen chromosomal locus. The developed method could be particularly useful for the construction of marker-less and plasmid-less recombinant strains in the biotechnology industry. PMID:22484061

Ublinskaya, Anna A; Samsonov, Valeriy V; Mashko, Sergey V; Stoynova, Nataliya V

2012-06-01

393

A simple test using restricted PCR-amplified mitochondrial DNA to study the genetic structure of Apis mellifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COI-COII intergenic region ofApis mellifera mitochondrial DNA contains an important length polymorphism based on a variable number of copies of a 192–196 bp sequence (Q) and the completer or partial deletion of 67 pb sequence (Po). This length variability has been combined with a restriction site polymorphism to produce a rapid and simple test for the characterization of mtDNA

L. Garnery; M. Solignac; G. Celebrano; J.-M. Cornuet

1993-01-01

394

Cloning and expression of small cDNA fragment encoding strong antiviral peptide from Celosia cristata in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A small cDNA fragment containing a ribosome-inactivating site was isolated from the leaf cDNA population of Celosia cristata by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was conducted linearly using a degenerate primer designed from the partially conserved peptide of ribosome-inactivating/antiviral proteins. Sequence analysis showed that it is 150 bp in length. The cDNA fragment was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli as a ~57 kD fused protein, and its presence was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified product showed strong antiviral activity towards tobacco mosaic virus on host plant leaves, Nicotiana glutinosa, indicating the presence of a putative antiviral determinant in the isolated cDNA product. It is speculated that antiviral site is at, or is separate but very close to, the ribosome-inactivating site. We nominate this short cDNA fragment reported here as a good candidate to investigate further the location of the antiviral determinants. The isolated cDNA sequence was submitted to EMBL databases under accession number of AJ535714. PMID:16266271

Gholizadeh, A; Kohnehrouz, B Baghban; Santha, I M; Lodha, M L; Kapoor, H C

2005-09-01

395

The metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G translocation and oxidative DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the involvement of mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G in piracetam (P)-induced protective mechanisms. Studies have shown the antiapoptotic effects of piracetam but the mechanism of action of piracetam is still an enigma. To assess the involvement of endonuclease G in piracetam-induced protective effects, astrocyte glial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and piracetam. LPS treatment caused significantly decreased viability, mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation, which were attenuated by piracetam cotreatment. Cotreatment of astrocytes with piracetam showed its significantly time-dependent absorption as observed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Astrocytes treated with piracetam alone showed enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in comparison to control astrocytes. However, in LPS-treated cells no significant alteration in MMP was observed in comparison to control cells. Protein and mRNA levels of the terminal executor of the caspase-mediated pathway, caspase-3, were not altered significantly in LPS or LPS + piracetam-treated astrocytes, whereas endonuclease G was significantly translocated to the nucleus in LPS-treated astrocytes. Piracetam cotreatment attenuated the LPS-induced endonuclease G translocation. In conclusion this study indicates that LPS treatment of astrocytes caused decreased viability, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, and translocation of endonuclease G to the nucleus, which was inhibited by piracetam cotreatment, confirming that the mitochondrion-specific endonuclease G is one of the factors involved in piracetam-induced protective mechanisms. PMID:24882422

Gupta, Sonam; Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Biswas, Joyshree; Rama Raju, K Siva; Joshi, Neeraj; Wahajuddin; Singh, Sarika

2014-08-01

396

Detection of Restriction Enzyme-Digested Target DNA by PCR Amplification Using a Stem-Loop Primer: Application to the Detection of Hypomethylated Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and monitoring. Among the fetal markers that have been described, methylation markers are sex- and polymorphism-independent. Methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases are commonly used to digest hypomethylated DNA mole- cules, and the hypermethylated molecules remain intact for detection. The positive detection of the

Yu K. Tong; Rossa W. K. Chiu; Tak Y. Leung; Chunming Ding; Tze K. Lau; Tse N. Leung; Y. M. Dennis Lo; C. Prontera; M. Fontana; L. Zyw; C. Passino; M. Emdin; J. Montgomery; C. T. Wittwer; J. O. Kent; L. Zhou; M. Kramski; H. Meisel; B. Klempa; D. H. Kruger; G. Pauli; A. Nitsche; C. Ding; T. K. Lau

2007-01-01

397

Pretreatment with Restriction Enzyme or Bovine Serum Albumin for Effective PCR Amplification of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in DNA Extracted from Paraffin-Embedded Gastric Carcinoma Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric carcinoma has been studied through the EBV genome present in the carcinoma cells. Recently, we found that EBV DNA in paraffin-embedded gastric carcinoma tissue was detected effectively by PCR after pretreatment of the extracted DNA with a restriction enzyme, BamHI or EcoRI. Here, we show that the PCR amplification was also enhanced

YUKIO SATOH; NORIKO TAKASAKA; YOSHIKO HOSHIKAWA; MITSUHIKO OSAKI; SATOSHI OHFUJI; HISAO ITO; NOBUAKI KAIBARA; TAKESHI KURATA; TAKESHI SAIRENJI

1998-01-01

398

Fusion of GFP to the M.EcoKI DNA methyltransferase produces a new probe of Type I DNA restriction and modification enzymes.  

PubMed

We describe the fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein to the C-terminus of the HsdS DNA sequence-specificity subunit of the Type I DNA modification methyltransferase M.EcoKI. The fusion expresses well in vivo and assembles with the two HsdM modification subunits. The fusion protein functions as a sequence-specific DNA methyltransferase protecting DNA against digestion by the EcoKI restriction endonuclease. The purified enzyme shows Förster resonance energy transfer to fluorescently-labelled DNA duplexes containing the target sequence and to fluorescently-labelled ocr protein, a DNA mimic that binds to the M.EcoKI enzyme. Distances determined from the energy transfer experiments corroborate the structural model of M.EcoKI. PMID:20599730

Chen, Kai; Roberts, Gareth A; Stephanou, Augoustinos S; Cooper, Laurie P; White, John H; Dryden, David T F

2010-07-23

399

Towards standardisation of cell-free DNA measurement in plasma: controls for extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and quantification.  

PubMed

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming an important clinical analyte for prenatal testing, cancer diagnosis and cancer monitoring. The extraction stage is critical in ensuring clinical sensitivity of analytical methods measuring minority nucleic acid fractions, such as foetal-derived sequences in predominantly maternal cfDNA. Consequently, quality controls are required for measurement of extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and yield for validation of cfDNA methods. We evaluated the utility of an external DNA spike for monitoring these parameters in a study comparing three specific cfDNA extraction methods [QIAamp® circulating nucleic acid (CNA) kit, NucleoSpin® Plasma XS (NS) kit and FitAmp™ plasma/serum DNA isolation (FA) kit] with the commonly used QIAamp DNA blood mini (DBM) kit. We found that the extraction efficiencies of the kits ranked in the order CNA kit > DBM kit > NS kit > FA kit, and the CNA and NS kits gave a better representation of smaller DNA fragments in the extract than the DBM kit. We investigated means of improved reporting of cfDNA yield by comparing quantitative PCR measurements of seven different reference gene assays in plasma samples and validating these with digital PCR. We noted that the cfDNA quantities based on measurement of some target genes (e.g. TERT) were, on average, more than twofold higher than those of other assays (e.g. ERV3). We conclude that analysis and averaging of multiple reference genes using a GeNorm approach gives a more reliable estimate of total cfDNA quantity. PMID:24853859

Devonshire, Alison S; Whale, Alexandra S; Gutteridge, Alice; Jones, Gerwyn; Cowen, Simon; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F