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1

Genomic DNA fingerprinting by restriction fragment end labeling.  

PubMed Central

A typing method for bacteria was developed and applied to several species, including Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Total genomic DNA was digested with a restriction endonuclease, and fragments were enabled with [alpha-32P]dATP by using the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase and separated by electrophoresis in 6% polyacrylamide/8 M urea (sequencing gel). Depending on the restriction endonuclease and the bacterium, the method produced approximately 30-50 well-separated fragments in the size range of 100-400 nucleotides. For A. actinomycetemcomitans, all strains had bands in common. Nevertheless, many polymorphisms could be observed, and the 31 strains tested could be classified into 29 distinct types. Furthermore, serotype-specific fragments could be assigned for the three serotypes investigated. The method described is very sensitive, allowing more distinct types to be distinguished than other commonly used typing methods. When the method was applied to 10 other clinically relevant bacterial species, both species-specific bands and strain-specific bands were found. Isolates from different locations of one patient showed indistinguishable patterns. Computer-assisted analysis of the DNA fingerprints allowed the determination of similarity coefficients. It is concluded that genomic fingerprinting by restriction fragment end labeling (RFEL) is a powerful and generally applicable technique to type bacterial species. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

van Steenbergen, T J; Colloms, S D; Hermans, P W; de Graaff, J; Plasterk, R H

1995-01-01

2

DNA Restriction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragment at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents DNA restriction through a series of illustrations of processes involved.

2011-11-25

3

The Restriction Fragment Map of Rat-Liver Mitochondrial DNA: A Reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Rat-liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains at least 8 cleavage sites for the restriction endonuclease Eco RI, 6 for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, 2 for the restriction endonuclease Bam HI and 11 for the restriction endonuclease Hap II.\\u000a2. The physical map of the restriction fragments of Eco RI, Hind III, Bam HI and Hap II is constructed on

A. M. Kroon; G. Pepe; H. Bakker; M. Holtrop; J. E. Bollen; E. F. J. van Bruggen; P. Cantatore; P. Terpstra; C. Saccone

1977-01-01

4

Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product  

DOEpatents

The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

5

DNA restriction fragment analysis of the proopiomelanocortin gene in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.  

PubMed Central

The method of DNA restriction fragment analysis using gene probes for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene was employed to detect possible molecular variation in the POMC gene in schizophrenia and bipolar illness. No gross structural abnormalities in restriction fragments were observed with the set of restriction enzymes used. Two allelic restriction sites were observed giving rise to fragment length polymorphisms. One of these is a new polymorphism, not previously reported, which will be of value as a linkage marker. The associations between the two DNA polymorphisms that are closely linked to the POMC gene and both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were investigated. No association was found, thus adding weight to the evidence that there are no alterations in the POMC gene in schizophrenia and bipolar illness. Images Fig. 1

Feder, J; Gurling, H M; Darby, J; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

1985-01-01

6

Reverse-phase HPLC of DNA restriction fragments and ribooligonucleotides on uncoated Kel-F powder.  

PubMed Central

Uncoated Kel-F powder offers some unique features as a support for reverse-phase HPLC of oligonucleotides and DNA restriction fragments. Compounds are eluted from the column by a gradient of acetonitrile (0 tto 18% v/v) in 0.1 M aqueous triethylammonium acetate. In contrast to RPC-5 chromatography, oligonucleotides are not eluted by aqueous salt solutions alone, and the separation of restriction fragments depends only on the chainlength. The packing material is cheap, easy to pack, chemically inert, and does not bleed, so that separations are highly reproducible. The DNA loading capacity for Kel-F is presently inferior to RPC-5, but recovery of microgram amounts of material is typically better than 50%. Images

Usher, D A

1979-01-01

7

Enhanced recovery and restriction mapping of DNA fragments cloned in a new lambda vector.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe a modification to the lambda vector EMBL3 which greatly expedites the construction of restriction maps of cloned DNA sequences. In the modified vector, EMBL3cos, all the phage coding sequences are placed to the right of the cloning sites so that the left cohesive end is separated by only 200bp, rather than 20kb (as in conventional lambda vectors), from the inserted DNA fragment. We show that reliable restriction maps can be rapidly constructed from partial digests of clones made in this vector by labelling the left cohesive end with a complementary 32P-labelled oligonucleotide. In addition, we quantify the restriction of clones containing human DNA by the McrA and McrB systems of E. coli and show that the use of Mcr- plating strains can increase the yield of recombinant phage up to tenfold, to give cloning efficiencies of greater than or equal to 10(7) pfu/microgram of human DNA. Images

Whittaker, P A; Campbell, A J; Southern, E M; Murray, N E

1988-01-01

8

High interindividual restriction fragment length and copy number of polymorphism of a TVRI family in moderate human DNA repeats  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the selection of cloned human DNA sequences, with a copy number not exceeding 1000 copies per diploid genome, and their testing for interindividual restriction fragment lengths and copy number of polymorphism (RFLCP). As a result of the investigation a DNA clone was found (TVRI-6), about 2.8 kilobase-pairs in size, for which an unusually high level of interindividual RFLCP was discovered. The TVRI-6 sequence was obtained from a bank of Pst I restriction fragments of human placental nuclear DNA cloned in pBR 322. The bank was analyzed by hybridization of colonies with phosphorus 32-labelled human nuclear DNA.

Rogaev, E.I.; Shapiro, Yu.A.

1987-06-01

9

Restriction fragment length polymorphism detected by cDNA and genomic DNA clones in Stylosanthes.  

PubMed

A DNA isolation method suitable for genomic library construction and RFLP analyses of the forage legume Stylosanthes was developed. Probes isolated using this method were used to investigate the feasibility of constructing RFLP-based genetic maps in this genus. Two hundred and seventy-one PstI genomic DNA and 134 cDNA clones were analysed against four Stylosanthes accessions, including two tetraploids and two diploids, with the use of two restriction enzymes, DraI and HindIII. The proportion of clones which detected single-copy sequences from the PstI genomic library was higher than that from the cDNA library, but the percentage of clones which detected low-copy sequences was doubled in the latter. There was no significant difference in the level of RFLPs detected by gDNA and cDNA probes, although the level of polymorphism was lower in the diploids. A large proportion of RFLPs seemed to have resulted from mutation/base substitution events, and this was especially the case in diploids. PMID:24170048

Liu, C J; Musial, J M

1995-12-01

10

Salt dependence and thermodynamic interpretation of the thermal denaturation of small DNA restriction fragments.  

PubMed Central

The influence of cation concentration on the thermal denaturation of DNA restriction fragments from the E. coli lac regulatory region and from pVH51, ranging in size from 43- to 880- bp, is described. Upon increasing the ionic strength, the melting transitions broaden in a cooperative manner at salt concentrations characteristic for the specific fragment. For three fragments studied in detail, the salt concentration dependence at the midpoint varied between 0.03 and 0.19 M Na+. Along with the broadening, the melting transitions become more symmetrical. This result is discussed with respect to the irreversibility of melting transitions at low ionic strength. After a cooperative broadening, the shape of the melting curves remains constant up to salt concentrations of 0.5 M Na+. The dTM/dlog[Na+] values for three fragments fall between 15.7 and 16.7. An easily applicable approximation of the van't Hoff equation is used to evaluate the enthalpies of 13 transitions arising from the denaturation of 43 to 600 bp. The results of this analysis are compared to calculations of the expected enthalpies based on calorimetric measurements. The TMs of most transitions were directly related to the base composition, but several deviations from the predicted behavior were observed. The possible influences of fragment length and sequence on the thermal stability are discussed. The experimental and mathematical procedure to resolve a thermal denaturation transition with a width f 0.17 +/- 0.01 degrees and its distinction from another preceeding transition only approximately 0.15 degrees away in an 880-bp Hae III fragment from pVH51 is described. This transition is about half as wide as the smallest one reported to date.

Hillen, W; Goodman, T C; Wells, R D

1981-01-01

11

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Regions Is Useful for Differentiating Strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty isolates of Tricophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 47 isolates of T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, identified by morphological characteristics, were screened by restriction fragment length poly- morphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Sixty isolates (14 of 20 T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates and 46 of 47 T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates)

Takashi Mochizuki; Hiroshi Ishizaki; Richard C. Barton; Mary K. Moore; Colin J. Jackson; Steven L. Kelly; E. Glyn; V. Evans

2003-01-01

12

Gel electrophoretic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNA derived from individual nematodes, using the PhastSystem.  

PubMed

The DNA sequences constituting the internal transcribed spacer region, located between 18S and 26S rDNA genes within the rRNA operon, derived from single nematodes of two genera (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subjected to digestion by four restriction enzymes. The digests were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) gel electrophoresis on the PhastSystem, using 7.5%T, 5%C(Bis) polyacrylamide. The downscaling from conventional agarose to PhastSystem gels permitted the analysis to be done on individual nematodes, rather than on mixed samples with average properties. The analysis time was reduced so as to allow for the electrophoretic separation on 200 samples/workday. The resulting patterns of DNA fragments differed from those obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis under conventional conditions by an increased number of detected fragments. The PhastSystem gel analysis provides the basis for taxonomical revisions. PMID:10380768

Triga, D; Pamjav, H; Vellai, T; Fodor, A; Buzás, Z

1999-06-01

13

[Restriction fragment length differences (RFLDs) of genomic DNA from different geographical strains of Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus].  

PubMed

Total DNA was extracted from three geographical strains of Anopheles sinensis and two geographical strains of Anopheles anthropophagus and digested respectively with three restriction endonucleases (Bgl II, Hae III and Pst I). The restriction fragment length differences (RFLDs) of repetitive DNA detected after agarose gel electrophoretic separation and ethidium bromide staining were compared among the above-mentioned geographical strains of both An. sinensis and An. anthropohagus. The results indicated that the band patterns are species- specific and strain-specific, their main bands being similar while their minor bands being distinctly different. Pst I digestion produced unique fragments for three geographical strains of An. sinensis while Bgl II digestion produced unique fragments for two geographical strains of An. anthropophagus. In view of the variation in repetitive DNA of different geographical strains of both An. sinensis and An. anthropophagus presented, the RFLDs could be used as a means to distinguish various closely related geographical strains of anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:1982859

Li, B W; Lu, H L; Yao, K T; Liu, D

1990-01-01

14

Physical mapping of the Hind III, Eco RI, Sal and Sma restriction endonuclease cleavage fragments from bacteriophage T5 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA of bacteriophage T5+ (molecular weight 76×106 dalton) has been dissected by various specific endonucleases. The restriction enzymes HindIII and EcoRI produce 16 and 7 fragments respectively, whereas Sal and Sma produce 4 fragments each. Complete cleavage maps were established for the enzymes EcoRI, Sal and Sma and an almost complete map for HindIII. Furthermore the location and size

Alexander Gabain; Gary S. Hayward; Hermann Bujard

1976-01-01

15

Capillary electrophoretic separation of DNA restriction fragments using dilute polymer solutions  

SciTech Connect

Because the mechanism of DNA separation in capillary electrophoresis is not well understood, selection of polymers is a {open_quotes}trial-and-error{close_quotes} procedure. We investigated dilute-solution DNA separations by capillary electrophoresis using solutions of four polymers that differ in size, shape and stiffness. Hydroxyethylcellulose of high molecular weight provides excellent separation of large DNA fragments (2027 bp - 23130 bp). Polyvinylpyrrolidone separates DNA from 72 bp to 23 kbp and star-(polyethylene oxide), like linear poly (ethylene oxide), provides separation of fragments up to 1353 bp.

Braun, B.; Blanch, W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1997-02-01

16

Mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphisms in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracts from 13 isolatesof Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.niveum, including 12 from widely separated geographic regions within the United States and representing the three races, and one\\u000a race 2 isolate from Israel, were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA and were also subjected to restriction endonucleases\\u000a analysis. None of the mtDNA from any isolate had a copurifying

D. H. kim; R. D. martyn; C. W. magill

1991-01-01

17

DNA sequence variation and phylogenetic relationships among strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae inferred from restriction site maps and restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the restriction fragment length polymorphism of genomic DNA among 53 strains of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Twenty-nine strains were isolated from beans, and the rest were isolated from 11 other hosts. Southern blots of DNA digested with EcoRI or HindIII were hybridized to two random probes from a cosmid library of P. syringae pv. syringae and a hrp (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) cluster cloned from P. syringae pv. syringae. The size of hybridizing fragments was determined, and a similarity matrix was constructed by comparing strains on a pairwise basis for the presence or absence of fragments. The proportion of shared fragments was then used to estimate sequence divergence. Dendrograms were produced by using the unweighted pair group method with averages and the neighbor-joining method. For the hrp region, BamHI, EcoRI, EcoRV, and HindIII restriction sites were mapped for six representative bean strains and used to construct EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps for all 30 strains pathogenic on beans. Restriction mapping revealed the presence of a 3-kb insertion in nine bean strains and a probable second insertion or deletion event on the left-hand side of the hrp cluster that biased estimates of nucleotide sequence divergence from fragment comparisons. This demonstrated that the determination of phylogenetic relationships among bacteria by using restriction fragment length polymorphism data requires mapping restriction sites to remove the effect of insertion or deletion events on the analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Legard, D E; Aquadro, C F; Hunter, J E

1993-01-01

18

Intrageneric relationships of maple trees based on the chloroplast DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maple tree genus,Acer is the largest genus in broad-leaved deciduous trees and contains about 200 species. A delimitation of the genus is clear\\u000a but the intrageneric classification was controversial because of homoplasies in morphological characters. In this study, a\\u000a phylogenetic relationship inAcer was inferred based on chloroplast DNA restriction site polymorphisms with 17 restriction endonucleases and previously proposed\\u000a intrageneric

Mitsuyasu Hasebe; Toshio Ando; Kunio Iwatsuki

1998-01-01

19

DNA profiling of banana and plantain cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genomic DNA from 57 Musa cultivars with 60 random 10-mer primers generated 605 polymorphic amplification products which were useful in unambiguous cultivar identifications. Unweighted pair-group method analysis of this data grouped the cultivars into specific clusters depending on their genomic similarities. The diploid ancestral species of cultivated banana and plantains, namely Musa acuminata sp malaccensis, an A genome donor and M. balbisiana, a B genome donor, were farthest apart from each other in the phenogram. The edible fruit yielding cultivars with the genomic constitutions AA, AAA, AB, AAB, ABB, and ABBB grouped in different clusters according to overall genetic homologies. The restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) prevalent among the cultivars were studied by hybridization of 19 random genomic clones to blots of HindIII, EcoRI and MspI digests. Cluster analysis of these data on 107 polymorphic alleles resulted in a phenogram comparable to the one obtained with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two multilocus probes useful in distinguishing all the 57 cultivars analyzed were also identified. The A and B types of cytoplasms in the cultivars were further distinguished by hybridization of heterologous chloroplast DNA probes. Results showed that use of different kinds of molecular markers in gene banks is essential for characterization and classification of germplasm collections. PMID:8582364

Bhat, K V; Jarret, R L; Rana, R S

1995-09-01

20

Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of dnaJ Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method that analyzes a part of the dnaJ gene was designed for the rapid and accurate identification of Staphylococcus spp. XapI or Bsp143I digestion of the PCR-generated products rendered distinctive RFLP patterns that allowed 41 reference species and subspecies to be identified with a high degree of specificity. The novel method was validated

Tomasz Hauschild; Srdjan Stepanovic

21

Topographical analysis of yeast ribosomal DNA by cleavage with restriction endonucleases. II. The physical map of EcoRI fragments.  

PubMed Central

Yeast ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was digested with the restriction endonuclease EcoRI. Eight distinct fragments were obtained with a molecular weight of 4.35 (1), 1.75 (2), 1.45 (3), 1.07 (4), 0.42 (5), 0.37 (6), 0.26 (7) and 0.22 x 10(6) (8) daltons, respectively. Except for fragment 1 with a molecular weight of 4.35 x 10(6) daltons, all fragments are derived from the multiple ribosomal transcription units. The 'spacer' sequences, on the other hand, gave rise to digestion products which are very heterogeneous in size. By analysis of the partial digestion products which are very heterogeneous in size. By analysis of the partial digestion products, together with the data obtained by digestion with a combination of two restriction enzymes (EcoRI and Hind II or Hind III) and redigestion of the Hind II-and Hind III-fragments with EcoRI, the physical map of the EcoRI cleavage sites in the ribosomal transcription unit could be established.

Meyerink, J H; Retel, J

1976-01-01

22

Large-restriction-fragment analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii genomic DNA and its application in molecular typing.  

PubMed Central

Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) polymorphisms in Mycobacterium kansasii isolates from 84 patients with bronchopulmonary infections in Japan between the 1960s and 1995 were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with VspI were most suitable for PFGE separation of 16 to 21 fragments of between 40 and 550 kbp. All 84 isolates and the type strain M. kansasii ATCC 12478 were successfully typed by LRF analysis with VspI digestion. Twenty-one distinctive LRF types were identified, and the LRF patterns tested over time were reproducible and stable. A computer-assisted dendrogram of the percent similarity demonstrated that isolates of 18 LRF types had relatively close genetic relatedness, while isolates of the remaining 3 types showed divergence. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene in the isolates showing divergent genetic relatedness revealed a sequence identical to that of a previously reported subspecies of M. kansasii. In the Chugoku district of Japan, 11 cases of M. kansasii infection which occurred in workers in a coastal industrial zone between 1982 and 1993 were caused by one particular strain tentatively named LRF type M. When both detailed demographic data for the patients and ecologic data for the M. kansasii isolates are obtained, LRF typing may be of potential use for investigating the source and transmission of M. kansasii infection.

Iinuma, Y; Ichiyama, S; Hasegawa, Y; Shimokata, K; Kawahara, S; Matsushima, T

1997-01-01

23

DNA large restriction fragment patterns of sporadic and epidemic nosocomial strains of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus.  

PubMed Central

Large restriction fragment (LRF) pattern analysis of genomic DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on three reference strains, 32 sporadic isolates, and 92 nosocomial isolates from 12 epidemics of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus. Only 17 of 30 (57%) unrelated strains of M. abscessus, compared with 10 of 11 (91%) of M. chelonae strains, gave satisfactory DNA extractions, with the remainder resulting in highly fragmented DNA. DraI, AsnI, XbaI, and SpeI gave satisfactory LRF patterns. Sporadic isolates of the two species had highly variable LRF patterns, except for one reference strain and one sporadic isolate of M. chelonae that differed by only two to five bands. Evaluation of repeat isolates from five patients monitored for 8 months to 13 years (mean, 5.8 years) revealed LRF patterns to be stable, with changes of not more than two bands. LRF analysis of the seven nosocomial outbreaks with evaluable DNA revealed identical patterns in most or all of the patient isolates and in three outbreaks revealed identity with environmental isolates. These outbreaks included endoscope contamination, postinjection abscesses, and surgical wound infections. LRF analysis of genomic DNA is a useful technique for epidemiologic studies of M. abscessus and M. chelonae, although improved technology is needed for the approximately 50% of strains of M. abscessus with unsatisfactory DNA extractions. Images

Wallace, R J; Zhang, Y; Brown, B A; Fraser, V; Mazurek, G H; Maloney, S

1993-01-01

24

Genetic characterization of Epimedium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) diagnosis.  

PubMed

Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of seven Epimedium species grown in different places in Japan. Their genetic characterization was performed by DNA analyses of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 32 random primers having 10 base sequences, and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). E. sagittatum and E. koreanum were easily distinguished by a representative amplified band pattern. It became evident that E. sagittatum had extremely different genetic composition compared to the other species. A dendrogram obtained from the similarity matrix by cluster analysis indicates that E. sagittatum can be completely isolated from the other species. Moreover, it became evident that E. grandiflorum var. higoense, E. trifoliatobinatum and E. koreanum are independent species, contrary to the previous assumption that they are subspecies or a variety. The geographical variation of E. sempervirens was confirmed by cluster analysis. E. diphyllum showed wide genetic variations, in spite of sampling from the same area. PMID:8820914

Nakai, R; Shoyama, Y; Shiraishi, S

1996-01-01

25

Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of dnaJ Gene?  

PubMed Central

A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis method that analyzes a part of the dnaJ gene was designed for the rapid and accurate identification of Staphylococcus spp. XapI or Bsp143I digestion of the PCR-generated products rendered distinctive RFLP patterns that allowed 41 reference species and subspecies to be identified with a high degree of specificity. The novel method was validated by the identification of 23 clinical staphylococcal strains, and the results were compared with those obtained by other genotypic identification methods. A 100% concordance of the results was shown. Therefore, PCR-RFLP analysis of the dnaJ gene is proposed as a reliable and reproducible method for the identification of Staphylococcus spp.

Hauschild, Tomasz; Stepanovic, Srdjan

2008-01-01

26

Restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer of Aeromonas spp.  

PubMed

We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) of Aeromonas species. A total of 69 isolates belonging to 18 DNA hybridization groups (HG; equivalent of genomic species) were used in this study. ISRs were amplified by PCR and the products were digested with four restriction endonucleases: Hin6I, Csp6I, TaqI, and TasI. The RFLP patterns obtained after digesting by particular enzymes revealed ISR polymorphism of isolates allocated to individual genomic species. The combined Hin6I, Csp6I, TaqI, and TasI restriction profiles were examined by Dice coefficient (SD) and unweighted pair group method of clustering (UPGMA). The isolates were allocated into 15 groups, three strains were unclustered. The strains belonging to the following genomic species: A. hydrophila, A. bestiarum, A. salmonicida, A. caviae, A. media, A. schubertii, A. allosaccharophila, A. popoffii, and A. culicicola formed distinct clusters. Strains belonging to HG 6, HG 7, HG 11, and HG 16 revealed similar combined RFLP patterns and constituted one group. Similarly, the strains of A. jandaei (HG 9) and the type strain of A. trota were allocated into one cluster. Two isolates of HG 14 formed distinct cluster. We noticed a genetic diversity among A. veronii isolates, the strains were clustered in two groups. Our study showed that combined ISR-RFLP analysis may be used for identification of some species of Aeromonas. PMID:15490556

?aganowska, Marzena; Kaznowski, Adam

2004-09-01

27

Flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii (epidemic typhus rickettsiae) characterized by a specific DNA fragment produced by restriction endonuclease digestion.  

PubMed Central

The DNA from flying squirrel-associated Rickettsia prowazekii was characterized by using a specific DNA fragment produced by digestion with the enzyme BamHI. The DNA fragment was cloned into a plasmid vector and used to readily distinguish between available human- and flying squirrel-associated R. prowazekii DNAs derived from crude cytoplasmic extracts. Images

Regnery, R L; Fu, Z Y; Spruill, C L

1986-01-01

28

An IS6110-targeting fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism alternative to IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprinting.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and highly discriminatory DNA fingerprinting methodology which produces data that can be easily interpreted, compared and transported is the ultimate goal for studying the epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel TaqI fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) approach to M. tuberculosis DNA fingerprinting that targeted the variable IS6110 marker was developed in this study. The new method was tested for specificity and reproducibility, and compared with the standard reference IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for a panel of 78 isolates. Clustering conflicts between the two methods were resolved using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) data. Comparison with an in-silico digestion of strain H37Rv showed that fAFLP-detected fragments were highly specific in vitro. The reproducibility of repeated digestions of strain H37Rv was 100%. Clustering results obtained by fAFLP and RFLP were highly congruent, with fAFLP allocating 97% of RFLP-clustered isolates to the same eight clusters as RFLP. Two single-copy isolates that had been clustered by RFLP were not clustered by fAFLP, but the MIRU-VNTR patterns of these isolates were different, indicating that the RFLP data had falsely clustered these isolates. Analysis by fAFLP will allow rapid screening of isolates to confirm or refute epidemiological links, and thereby provide insights into the frequency, conservation and consequences of specific transposition events. PMID:17803750

Thorne, N; Evans, J T; Smith, E G; Hawkey, P M; Gharbia, S; Arnold, C

2007-10-01

29

Use of Pooled DNA Samples to Detect Linkage Disequilibrium of Polymorphic Restriction Fragments and Human Disease: Studies of the HLA Class II Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method has been developed and used to search for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium with disease-associated loci. By using genomic blot-hybridization analysis with DQ beta -chain and DR beta -chain cDNA probes, we examined DNA polymorphisms within the HLA class II loci associated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent mellitus (IDDM). To facilitate the search

Norman Arnheim; Carolyn Strange; Henry Erlich

1985-01-01

30

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis shows divergence among mer determinants from gram-negative soil bacteria indistinguishable by DNA-DNA hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Mercury resistant (Hgr) bacteria were isolated from four terrestrial sites: three containing high levels of mercury (sites T2, SE, and SO) and one uncontaminated site (SB). The frequencies of Hgr bacteria in the total cultivable populations were 0.05% (SB), 0.69% (SO), 4.8% (SE), and 25% (T2). Between 35 and 100% of the isolates from the four sites contained DNA sequences homologous to a DNA probe from the mercury resistance (mer) operon of the Tn501 Hgr determinant. The mer sequences of 10 Tn501-homologous Hgr determinants from each site were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed to consensus sequences of the mer determinants of Tn501, Tn21, and pMJ100, and were classified on the basis of the size of the amplified product and the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern. Two main groups of amplification product were identified. The first, represented by the T2 and SB isolates and one SE isolate, gave an amplification product indistinguishable in size from that amplified from Tn501 (approximately 1,010 bp). The second group, represented by the SO isolates and the majority of the SE isolates, produced larger amplification products of 1,040 or 1,060 bp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that each amplification product size group could be further subdivided into five subgroups. Images

Osborn, A M; Bruce, K D; Strike, P; Ritchie, D A

1993-01-01

31

New strain typing method with Sporothrix schenckii using mitochondrial DNA and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique.  

PubMed

The complete sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from two strains of different genotypes, American Type Culture Collection 10268 of mtDNA type 1 and KMU2025 of mtDNA type 4, were determined. These are circular molecules, 27 125 and 26 095 bp in length, respectively. The greatest difference between the two strains was found in the region encompassed by atp9 and cox2 genes, which was amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and used for preliminary restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Eight isolates of five mtDNA types were used and RFLP patterns obtained with the restriction enzyme AseI showed that this method seems to have greater discrimination power than the other PCR-RFLP typing method using internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear DNA. PMID:21955258

Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

2012-04-01

32

Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: joining of correct and incorrect ends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated from the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results from this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 X 10(-3) break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. The misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between 2 and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes.

Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

33

Repair of x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in specific Not I restriction fragments in human fibroblasts: Joining of correct and incorrect ends  

SciTech Connect

An assay that allows measurement of absolute induction frequencies for DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in defined regions of the genome and that quantitates rejoining of correct DNA ends has been used to study repair of dsbs in normal human fibroblasts after x-irradiation. The approach involves hybridization of single-copy DNA probes to Not I restriction fragments separated according to size by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Induction of dsbs is quantitated form the decrease in the intensity of the hybridizing restriction fragment and an accumulation of a smear below the band. Rejoining of dsbs results in reconstitution of the intact restriction fragment only if correct DNA ends are joined. By comparing results form this technique with results from a conventional electrophoresis assay that detects all rejoining events, it is possible to quantitate the misrejoining frequency. Three Not I fragments on the long arm of chromosome 21 were investigated with regard to dsb induction, yielding an identical induction rate of 5.8 x 10{sub {minus}3} break per megabase pair per Gy. Correct dsb rejoining was measured for two of these Not I fragments after initial doses of 80 and 160 Gy. They misrejoining frequency was about 25% for both fragments and was independent of dose. This result appears to be representative for the whole genome as shown by analysis of the entire Not I fragment distribution. The correct rejoining events primarily occurred within the first 2 h, while the misrejoining kinetics included a much slower component, with about half of the events occurring between w and 24 h. These misrejoining kinetics are similar to those previously reported for production of exchange aberrations in interphase chromosomes. 37 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Loebrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1995-12-19

34

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of blood and other body fluid stains subjected to contamination and environmental insults.  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profile results were obtained from bloodstains and other body fluid stains subjected to mixture with other body fluids, environmental insults (sunlight and temperature), different substrates (cotton, nylon, blue denim, glass, aluminum, and wood), and contaminants (gasoline, bleach, sodium hydroxide, soil, motor oil, detergent, phosphate salt, glacial acetic acid, and microorganisms). Of the samples that produced profile results, all had profiles that were consistent with those of untreated control samples. PMID:1683360

Adams, D E; Presley, L A; Baumstark, A L; Hensley, K W; Hill, A L; Anoe, K S; Campbell, P A; McLaughlin, C M; Budowle, B; Giusti, A M

1991-09-01

35

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of a Diagnostic 452-Base-Pair DNA Fragment Discriminates between Cryptosporidium parvum and C. meleagridis and between C. parvum Isolates of Human and Animal Origin  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNAs from human Cryptosporidium isolates previously typed by analysis of the 18S ribosomal DNA locus (Cryptosporidium parvum bovine genotype, C. parvum human genotype, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium felis) were used to amplify the diagnostic fragment described by Laxer et al. (M. A. Laxer, B. K. Timblin, and R. J. Patel, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 45:688-694, 1991). The obtained 452-bp amplified fragments were sequenced and aligned with the homologous Cryptosporidium wrairi sequence. Polymorphism was exploited to develop a restriction fragment length polymorphism method able to discriminate Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum genotypes.

Guyot, K.; Follet-Dumoulin, A.; Recourt, C.; Lelievre, E.; Cailliez, J. C.; Dei-Cas, E.

2002-01-01

36

A Laboratory Introduction to DNA Restriction Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop will serve as an introduction to laboratory exercises in molecular biology. DNA from lambda virus will be digested with various restriction enzymes, and the resulting fragments separated using agarose gel electrophoresis. The separation patterns will be visualized, photographed and used to illustrate the relationship between DNA fragment size and electrophoretic mobility.

David A. Micklos (DNA Learning Center of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;); Greg A. Freyer (Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons;)

2008-04-11

37

Differentiation among spotted fever group rickettsiae species by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA.  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes was used to study spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, extending the previous work of Regnery et al. (R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, and B.D. Plikaytis, J. Bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991). Twenty-six strains of SFG rickettsia were studied, including several recognized species which have never been studied (R. parkeri, R. helvetica, and R. japonica) as well as strains which are not currently classified. Two previously used primer pairs derived from the R. prowazekii citrate syntase gene and the R. rickettsii 190-kDa protein antigen gene were studied, as were primer pairs obtained from the R. rickettsii 120-kDa protein antigen gene. By using three amplifications and three enzyme digestions, it was possible to differentiate between almost all of the known SFG rickettsia species and to differentiate between several strains of the R. conorii complex. Two human pathogens, "R. africae" and the Israeli tick typhus rickettsia, were first separated by using BG-12 pair primer amplification and then RsaI restriction endonuclease digestion. The proposed simplified model of identification may be useful in studying the geographical distributions of SFG rickettsiae. Images

Eremeeva, M; Yu, X; Raoult, D

1994-01-01

38

Specific Fragmentation of DNA of Adenovirus Serotypes 3, 5, 7, and 12, and Adeno-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Virus Ad2+ND1 by Restriction Endonuclease R? EcoRI  

PubMed Central

The products of complete digestion of duplex DNA of each of seven human adenoviruses with restriction endonuclease R· EcoRI ranged from two fragments for adenovirus 7 DNA (Ad7) to six fragments for Ad12 and Ad2 DNA. Viral serotypes from the same subgroups appeared to have related cleavage sites; Ad3 DNA and Ad7 (cl E46-LL) DNA were each cleaved into three fragments, and Ad7 (cl 19) DNA lacked one of the cleavage sites present in Ad3 and Ad7 (cl E46-LL) DNA. One of the cleavage sites in Ad2 DNA was deleted in the DNA? of adeno-SV40 hybrid virus Ad2+ND1, and three of the cleavage sites in Ad2 DNA were missing in Ad5 DNA. Thus, Ad2+ND1 DNA was cleaved into five and Ad5 DNA into three fragments. Each fragment represented a unique segment of viral DNA since each fragment was obtained in equimolar amounts and since the sum of the molecular weights of the fragments equaled the molecular weight of the homologous intact adenovirus DNA. Images

Mulder, Carel; Sharp, Phillip A.; Delius, Hajo; Pettersson, Ulf

1974-01-01

39

Isolation of restrictible DNA.  

PubMed

A simple method for the isolation of pure and high-yield DNA from whole blood, suitable for restriction enzyme digestion, is described. The steps of the procedure are as follows: cell lysis with NH4Cl, NaHCO3, EDTA; digestion with proteinase K in the presence of SDS; extraction with phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol; and precipitation with ethanol. The 260 nm/280 nm absorbance ratio showed a mean value of 2, and the average yield of DNA was 212 micrograms/l. Such DNA preparations were found to be quite suitable for digestion by a variety of restriction endonucleases, as well as for the analysis of gene disorders by different biological methods. The method proposed appears to be useful in clinical chemistry laboratories. PMID:1892954

Topi?, E; Gluhak, J

1991-05-01

40

Preferential nucleosome placement on pBR322 restriction fragments.  

PubMed

Two restriction fragments of DNA containing the regulatory feature GTG/CAC were experimentally associated with core histones. The reconstituted DNA-histone complexes consisted of different forms of mononucleosomes. Lambda exonuclease and Fnu4HI were used to probe the structure of each distinct nucleoprotein complex. For each of the DNA fragments, one form of particle was produced that showed preferred placement of the core octamer on the DNA. The GTG/CAC base triplets may play some role in determining the final histone core positions in these reconstitutes. PMID:3017311

McNamara, P T; Winicov, I; Harrington, R E

1986-07-16

41

DNA typing of rickettsiae in naturally infected ticks using a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism system.  

PubMed

We used the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) rickettsial typing system of Regnery and others to rapidly identify rickettsiae in naturally infected ticks. Unlike previously described methods, our PCR assays type rickettsiae directly from tick tissues without first isolating the organisms. We collected 226 adult Dermacentor andersoni ticks in the Bitterroot Mountains of western Montana and analyzed them for possible rickettsial infection by hemolymph test using the Gimenez stain. Thirteen (5.8%) of these ticks were positive by hemolymph test and selected for further analysis using the above PCR/RFLP typing system. The PCR assays performed using the first primer set (RpCS) resulted in amplification of fragments of the predicted size from nine of the 13 hemolymph test-positive tick samples. Only four of these nine tick samples were also positive in similar PCR assays performed with a second primer set (Rr190) that is presumed to be spotted fever group specific. The RFLP analyses of material amplified from these four ticks indicated they were infected with Rickettsia rickettsii (one sample) and R. rhipicephali (three samples). The PCR/RFLP analyses of the five PCR-positive tick samples that were positive only in assays performed with the RpCS primer set indicated that these ticks were infected with R. bellii. The remaining four of 13 hemolymph test-positive tick samples gave negative PCR results with both the RpCS and Rr190 primer sets. Infected hemocytes from these PCR-negative ticks contained organisms of distinctive bacillary morphology that appeared similar to those described previously as long forms, and it is possible that these organisms belong to a genus other than Rickettsia. We also examined established laboratory isolates of tick-borne rickettsiae from different regions of North America to determine whether this typing system produces consistent results. Multiple isolates of R. montana (nine isolates), R. bellii (five isolates), R. rickettsii (Hlp-like) (four isolates), and R. canada (two isolates) were tested and no significant variations in PCR/RFLP patterns were observed between members of the same serotypes. However, among the five isolates of R. rhipicephali tested, two slightly different RFLP patterns were noted. Our results suggest that this PCR/RFLP typing scheme has wide applicability for identifying rickettsiae directly from D. andersoni or D. variabilis tick tissues. PMID:7906924

Gage, K L; Schrumpf, M E; Karstens, R H; Burgdorfer, W; Schwan, T G

1994-02-01

42

Restriction Enzymes and DNA Fingerprinting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery of restriction enzymes and their applications in DNA analysis has proven to be essential for biologists and chemists. This lesson focuses on restriction enzymes and their applications to DNA analysis and DNA fingerprinting. Use this lesson and its associated activity in conjunction with biology lessons on DNA analysis and DNA replication.

University Of Houston

43

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms Detected with Novel DNA Probes Differentiate among Diverse Lineages of Serogroup 4 Listeria monocytogenes and Identify Four Distinct Lineages in Serotype 4b  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes of serotype 4b has been implicated in numerous outbreaks of food-borne listeriosis and in ca. 40% of sporadic cases. Strains of this serotype appear to be relatively homogeneous genetically, and molecular markers specific for distinct serotype 4b lineages have not been frequently identified. Here we show that DNA fragments derived from the putative mannitol permease locus of Listeria monocytogenes had an unexpectedly high potential to differentiate among different strains of serotype 4b when used as probes in Southern blotting of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA, yielding four distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Strains of two epidemic-associated lineages, including the major epidemic clone implicated in several outbreaks in Europe and North America, had distinct RFLPs which differed from those of all other serotype 4b strains that we screened but which were encountered among strains of serotypes 1/2b and 3b. In addition, three serogroup 4 lineages were found to have unique RFLPs that were not encountered among any other L. monocytogenes strains. One was an unusual lineage of serotype 4b, and the other two were members of the serotype 4a and 4c group. The observed polymorphisms may reflect evolutionary relationships among lineages of L. monocytogenes and may facilitate detection and population genetic analysis of specific lineages.

Tran, Huyen L.; Kathariou, Sophia

2002-01-01

44

Utility of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA for characterizing Gibberella fujikuroi isolates.  

PubMed

In the present report, a total of thirty-one isolates of Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw. species complex of Fusarium (section Liseola) morphologically classified as F. moniliforme according to the taxonomy of Nelson, Toussoun and Marasas (1983) were analyzed for their ability to produce fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2 by an optimized liquid chromatographic method. They were isolated from three hosts (Zea mays, Musa sapientum and Pinus pinea). The results indicate that M. sapientum is a preferential host for G. fujikuroi isolates with low or null capacity for producing fumonisins, while isolates from Z. mays and P. pinea are generally high fumonisin producers. The molecular characterization of isolates was carried out in parallel using an optimized, simple and low-cost method for isolating DNA from filamentous fungi and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) of the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region. The haplotypes obtained with Hha I enzyme and combinations of Hha I, EcoR I, Alu I, Pst I and Xho I enzymes provided very characteristic groupings of G. fujikuroi isolates as a function of host type and fumonisin B1 and B2 producing capacity. IGS region restriction patterns showed no relationship to isolate geographical origin. This is the first report on this method's capacity to detect polymorphism permitting discrimination between G. fujikuroi isolates from different hosts and with different toxigenic profiles. PMID:15612625

Hinojo, María J; Llorens, Amparo; Mateo, Rufino; Patiño, Belén; González-Jaén, María Teresa; Jiménez, Misericordia

2004-11-01

45

Molecular authentication of 21 Korean artemisia species (Compositae) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism based on trnL-F region of chloroplast DNA.  

PubMed

The present study describes the molecular authentication of 21 Korean Artemisia species using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique based on the trnL-F sequences in chloroplast DNA. Five different banding patterns were generated from 21 Artemisia species using HinfI restriction enzyme. A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana have specific banding patterns. The remaining 18 species had shared two banding patterns. Phylogenetic analysis based on trnL-F sequence variations showed results similar to PCR-RFLP banding patterns. It suggested that the trnL-F region does not have sufficient variations to identify the 21 Artemisia species. However, the specific banding patterns for A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana can be utilized as a DNA marker for discriminating them from other Artemisia species. These markers will be also useful for developing A. apiacea, A. keiskeana and A. sieversiana into new medicine and food based on their efficacy. PMID:19881307

Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jei Wan; Sung, Jung Sook; Bang, Kyong Hwan; Moon, Sung Gi

2009-11-01

46

DNA sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the P1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius associated with Brazilian purpuric fever.  

PubMed Central

Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a fulminant pediatric disease caused by specific strains of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. A conserved epitope on the P1 protein of strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius is seen on most virulent isolates. The P1 protein from a Brazilian case-clone strain of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius was analyzed by cloning and sequencing the gene. Three major variable regions are present within the P1 gene of the BPF clone in an architecture similar to that of the previously sequenced P1 genes from H. influenzae. The DNA sequence data of the P1 gene provided information for restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses among strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Using PCR for amplification of the P1 gene, we found that AlwI restriction of this gene allowed for a highly accurate segregation of virulent strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius associated with BPF. The strong association of virulent phenotypes with specific AlwI restriction patterns of the P1 gene provides a basis for the convenient and accurate identification of strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius which cause BPF.

Reed, R B; Frost, J B; Kort, K; Myers, S D; Lesse, A J

1996-01-01

47

Physical mapping of the Bgl I, Bgl II, Pst I and Eco RI restriction fragments of staphylococcal phage ?11 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cleavage map of the generalized transducing staphylococcal phage ?11 DNA has been constructed by reciprocal double digestion. All three BglI, the six BglII, the three PstI, and 11 out of 15 EcoRI sites have been mapped. The map is circular, with a total length of 42 kb, and has been divided into 100 map units. The phage DNA

Brigitte Bächi

1980-01-01

48

Restriction fragment length polymorphism diversity in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight soybean accessions from the genus Glycine, subgenus Soja, were surveyed with 17 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers to assess the level of molecular diversity and to evaluate the usefulness of previously identified RFLP markers. In general, only low levels of molecular diversity were observed: 2 of the 17 markers exhibited three alleles per locus, whereas all others

P. Keim; R. C. Shoemaker; R. G. Palmer

1989-01-01

49

Calculation of restriction fragment lengths by image processing.  

PubMed

The image processing system, LabEye Profile, calculates the size of DNA restriction fragments according to the formula MD = f(x); x = 1/log bp. The migration distances (MD) of known fragment sizes are interpolated by the use of cubic splines. Cubic splines are also used to correct for gel distortions. A comparison to the Biotrac system, which uses the reciprocal method, gives almost identical standard deviations for calculated sizes compared to known sizes, 0.88% for LabEye Profile and 0.89% for Biotrac. The measurement error for LabEye Profile is 0.24% of the size of the fragments. PMID:1358604

Holmlund, G; Karlberg, K; Gustavsson, B; Lindblom, B

1992-07-01

50

Evaluation of a restriction fragment length polymorphism typing method for Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an evaluation of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing for Listeria monocytogenes are presented. The method depends on the use of cloned DNA fragments from an L monocytogenes (serovar 4b) strain to probe Southern blotted NciI restriction fragments derived from L. monocytogenes strains. Analyses of 862 isolates of serogroups 12, 3 and 4 were performed and a

A. M Ridley

1995-01-01

51

The effects of incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into mammalian DNA on the migration patterns of DNA fragments subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after X irradiation or cutting with a restriction enzyme.  

PubMed

Incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA in both Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human melanoma (U1) cells reduced the rate of DNA migration in transverse alternating-field electrophoresis (TAFE) agarose gel optimized for separating molecules larger than 2 Mb. This "BrdU migration effect" was independent of the method of damaging the DNA; i.e., the effect was observed after irradiation of the cells or treatment of the plugs containing DNA with the restriction enzyme, Mlu-1, and similar results were found for CHO and U1 cells. However, when the amount of cutting of DNA was estimated from the amount of DNA migrating from the plugs, a difference between U1 cells and CHO cells was observed in that incorporation of BrdU enhanced the cutting of DNA by either irradiation or Mlu-1 digestion for U1 cells but not for CHO cells. Therefore, the "BrdU migration effect" could not be attributed to an increase in large molecules because of reduced cutting of the BrdU-labeled DNA. The decrease in migration rate during pulsed-field gel electrophoresis when BrdU replaces thymidine in the DNA is hypothesized to result from the increase in negative charge on BrdU-labeled DNA. An increase in electron charge density is expected to increase the reorientation time of BrdU-labeled DNA fragments during each voltage pulse due to an increase in the elongation length of the DNA caused by an increase in electronegativity. PMID:8146300

Latz, D L; Trinh, M M; Thompson, L L; Gardiner, K; Zhu, Y; Bodell, W J; Dewey, W C

1994-04-01

52

High-resolution genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, ribotyping, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis for the inter- and intraspecies differentiation of a collection of 96 strains of Listeria monocytogenes and 10 non-L. monocytogenes strains representing six other Listeria species of different origin. The AFLP technique was compared with three other molecular typing methods--ribotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--in terms of discriminatory ability. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was included for virulence gene allele characterization. The 96 L. monocytogenes strains were divided into two major clusters by AFLP fingerprinting at a similarity level of 82% in concordance with the results of PFGE, RAPD, and ribotyping. One main cluster consisted of all of the 24 L. monocytogenes hly allele 1 strains, while another main cluster consisted of all of the 72 L. monocytogenes hly allele 2 strains. This indicates the existence of two distinct phylogenetic divisions. Isolates of the remaining Listeria species were not included in the clusters. AFLP, PFGE, and RAPD typing were highly discriminatory methods, with discrimination (D) indices of 0.974, 0.969, and 0.954, respectively, whereas ribotyping had a lower D index of 0.874. AFLP, PFGE, and RAPD typing showed some level of agreement in terms of strain grouping and differentiation. However, all three methods subdivided types of strains grouped by the other methods. Isolates with identical DNA profiles were distributed across the spectrum of origin. It was not possible to associate certain types with specific food sectors or clinical cases, which is indicative of the spread of L. monocytogenes clones across species. Overall, AFLP fingerprinting was suitable for the high-resolution genotyping of L. monocytogenes and had an equally high or higher differentiation power compared to PFGE or RAPD typing. PMID:15330530

Fonnesbech Vogel, Birte; Fussing, Vivian; Ojeniyi, Bente; Gram, Lone; Ahrens, Peter

2004-08-01

53

Linkage arrangement of restriction fragment length polymorphism loci in Brassica oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed genetic linkage map of Brassica oleracea was constructed based on the segregation of 258 restriction fragment length polymorphism loci in a broccoli × cabbage F2 population. The genetic markers defined nine linkage groups, covering 820 recombination units. A majority of the informative genomic DNA probes hybridized to more than two restriction fragments in the F2 population. “Duplicate” sequences

M. K. Slocum; S. S. Figdore; W. C. Kennard; J. Y. Suzuki; T. C. Osborn

1990-01-01

54

Genetic Diversity among Strains of Moraxella catarrhalis: Analysis Using Multiple DNA Probes and a Single-Locus PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, a causative agent of otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbation of bronchi- tis, has acquired widespread ability to produce b-lactamase and can be nosocomially transmitted. The typing methods used in epidemiological analyses of M. catarrhalis are not optimal for genetic analyses. Two methods, a multiple-locus Southern blot (SB) method and a single-locus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method,

ELAINE S. WALKER; ROBERT A. PRESTON; J. CHRISTOPHER POST; GARTH D. EHRLICH; JOHN H. KALBFLEISCH; KARIN L. KLINGMAN

1977-01-01

55

Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex of the pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human HLA cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the SLA major histocompatibility complex in swine. Cellular genomic DNA from 19 SLA homozygous pigs representing 13 different haplotypes was digested with restriction endonucleases Eco RI, Hind III, or Bam H1, separated by electrophoresis, and transferred onto diazobenzyloxymethyl paper by the Southern blot technique. The

Patrick Chardon; Marcel Vaiman; Marek Kirszenbaum; Claudine Geffrotin; Christine Renard; Daniel Cohen

1985-01-01

56

Assessment of the degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism in Brassica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of creating a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) linkage map in Brassica species was assessed by screening EcoRI-, HindIII-, or EcoRV-digested total genomic DNA from several accessions of B. campestris, B. oleracea, and B. napus using random genomic DNA clones from three Brassica libraries as hybridization probes. Differences in restriction fragment hybridization patterns occurred at frequencies of 95%

S. S. Figdore; W. C. Kennard; K. M. Song; M. K. Slocum; T. C. Osborn

1988-01-01

57

Physical mapping of Bgl II, Bam HI, Eco RI, Hin dIII and Pst I Restriction fragments of bacteriophage P1 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cleavage map of bacteriophage P1 DNA was established by reciprocal double digestion with various restriction endonucleases. The enzymes used and, in parenthesis, the number of their cleavage sites on the P1clts genome are: PstI (1), HindIII (3), BglII (11), BamHI (14) and EcoRI (26). The relative order of the PstI, HindIII and BglII sites, as well as the order

Brigitte Bächi; Werner Arber

1977-01-01

58

Organellar DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and nuclear random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of morphotypes of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme phenotypic variability recognized among the species of Gracilaria has highlighted the need for the application of refined methods to help solve taxa identifications. In Chile, there still exists uncertainty about the exact number of Gracilaria species. Our investigations are centered on DNA analyses of morphotypes collected from different geographical locations, namely Lenga and Isla Santa María, Region VIII

Mariela González; Rolando Montoya; Arturo Candia; Patricia Gómez; Manuel Cisternas

1996-01-01

59

Differentiation of spotted fever group rickettsiae by sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA.  

PubMed Central

Currently, the genotypic identification of the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae is based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified genes coding for the enzyme citrate synthase and the surface proteins rOmpA and rOmpB. A set of useful restriction endonucleases was found following comparison of Rickettsia rickettsii and R. prowazekii sequences. However, by using three PCR amplifications and four enzyme digestions with this set, it was impossible to differentiate between all of the known serotypes of the SFG rickettsiae. We amplified by PCR and sequenced using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer a fragment of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA from 21 serotypes of the SFG rickettsiae. A 632-bp amplification product was obtained for most of the strains, although no product could be obtained by using R. akari, R. australis, R. helvetica, and R. bellii DNAs. We found a characteristic sequence for all strains studied except the two isolates of R. massiliae, isolates GS and Mtul. Using the software package BISANCE, we determined the restriction map of this fragment and identified five potentially useful endonucleases, RsaI, AluI, PstI, XbaI, and AvaII. We confirmed the computer analysis-derived profiles by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The combination of the profiles obtained after digestion of the PCR product by RsaI and PstI allowed for the differentiation of 16 strains. The use of AluI and XbaI allowed for the characterization of R. parkeri and strain HA-91, respectively. R. africae and strain S were differentiated by AvaII digestion. Thus, using a single PCR amplification, we were able to differentiate all of the SFG rickettsiae whose ompA gene was amplified by PCR.

Roux, V; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D

1996-01-01

60

DNA polymorphism of the C2 and factor B genes. Detection of a restriction fragment length polymorphism which subdivides haplotypes carrying the C2C and factor B F alleles.  

PubMed

Factor B and the second component of complement (C2) in man are encoded within the major histocompatibility complex by single loci that are less than 1 kb apart. A 2.3 kb factor B-specific cDNA probe has been used to examine, by Southern blot analysis, the genomic DNA of individuals typed for C2 and factor B by protein electrophoresis. We have identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism using the endonuclease Taq I, which subdivides haplotypes carrying both the common variant of C2 (C2C) and the fast (F) variant of factor B. This DNA polymorphism has been mapped to lie in the C2 gene and represents a new genetic marker not defined by protein electrophoresis. This polymorphism may serve as a useful marker in the genetic analysis of diseases that are related to the major histocompatibility complex. PMID:2981769

Cross, S J; Edwards, J H; Bentley, D R; Campbell, R D

1985-01-01

61

Isolation of DNA fragments containing replicating growing forks from both E. coli and B. subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the use of a restriction enzyme digestion of gently lysed E. coli or B. subtilis cells, it is possible to isolate a minute fraction of the total DNA that has an unusually high sedimentation coefficient. Upon inspection of this DNA in the electron microscope, branched DNA fragments are observed. Single branched DNA fragments were analyzed by restriction enzyme and

Manuel S. Valenzuela; Maria Del Pilar Aguinaga; Ross B. Imman

1981-01-01

62

Genetic evidence for the existence of cryptic species in the Anopheles albitarsis complex in Brazil: allozymes and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction studies were undertaken to determine the extent of genetic divergence among field populations of Anopheles albitarsis in Brazil. Two sympatric species, An. deaneorum and An. marajoara, were identified in collections from Costa Marques (CM), Rondonia. Genetic evidence includes (1) the presence of two types of individuals, each with diagnostic allelic clusters (for Had-1, Pgi-1, Pep-1, Mpi-1, and Idh-1), (2) a deficiency of heterozygotes, and (3) characteristic mtDNA haplotypes. In addition, two allopatric cryptic species of An. marajoara were identified, one from Iguape (An. marajoara form IG), Sao Paulo state, and the other from the Island of Marajo (An. marajoara form MA). Though form IG and form-MA resemble form CM in wing spot morphology, they differ from it in diagnostic allozymes and mtDNA haplotypes. An. marajoara form CM had a higher variability (mean heterozygosity, H = 0.22, and percentage of polymorphic loci, P = 66.7) than did form IG and form MA (H = 0.08 in both, and P = 25.0 and 33.3, respectively). Form MA and form IG are genetically more similar to each other than both are to form CM. Based on wing morphology, estimates of F statistics, and genetic similarities, we propose that An. albitarsis in Brazil is a species complex. It comprises at least two morphologically distinguishable species: (1) An. deaneorum (currently one taxon) and (2) the An. marajoara species complex, which further consists of at least three cryptic forms, marajoara form MA, marajoara form IG, and marajoara form CM. PMID:8097085

Narang, S K; Klein, T A; Perera, O P; Lima, J B; Tang, A T

1993-02-01

63

Sizing of single fluorescently stained DNA fragments by scanning microscopy  

PubMed Central

We describe an approach to determine DNA fragment sizes based on the fluorescence detection of single adsorbed fragments on specifically coated glass cover slips. The brightness of single fragments stained with the DNA bisintercalation dye TOTO-1 is determined by scanning the surface with a confocal microscope. The brightness of adsorbed fragments is found to be proportional to the fragment length. The method needs only minute amount of DNA, beyond inexpensive and easily available surface coatings, like poly-l-lysine, 3-aminoproyltriethoxysilane and polyornithine, are utilizable. We performed DNA-sizing of fragment lengths between 2 and 14 kb. Further, we resolved the size distribution before and after an enzymatic restriction digest. At this a separation of buffers or enzymes was unnecessary. DNA sizes were determined within an uncertainty of 7–14%. The proposed method is straightforward and can be applied to standardized microtiter plates.

Laib, Stephan; Rankl, Michael; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Seeger, Stefan

2003-01-01

64

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms as genetic markers in soybean, Glycine max (L.) merrill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) have been identified between widely distant cultivars (‘Minsoy’ and ‘Noir 1 ’) of soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Using as probes randomly chosen clones of DNA, one in five probes revealed a polymorphism. More than half of these polymorphisms appear to result from rearrangements of the genomic DNA. Twenty seven markers were analyzed for linkage

N. R. Apuya; B. L. Frazier; P. Keim; E. Jill Roth; K. G. Lark

1988-01-01

65

Correlation of restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping with internal transcribed spacer sequence, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and multilocus sequence groupings for Candida parapsilosis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies of Candida parapsilosis have been performed by molecular methods. To compare two prominent methods, 29 isolates, typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Of the 19 proposed Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates [group I by internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequence], the most commonly encountered species, 17 were RFLP type VII-1. The species Candida orthopsilosis (eight isolates) and Candida metapsilosis (two isolates) consisted of five and one other RFLP types, respectively; none were VII-1. None of the non-VII-1 types were in more than one ITS group. VII-1 is the most common RFLP type (176/203 in continuing studies), and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto is similarly dominant in other studies, and cannot be subtyped by RFLP or MLST. RFLP subtype VII-1 and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto appear to be nearly identical; C. orthopsilosis, which can be subtyped by MLST, can also be subtyped by RFLP. C. metapsilosis appears rarely. PMID:19207835

van Asbeck, Eveline C; Clemons, Karl V; Markham, Angela N; Stevens, David A

2009-11-01

66

The control region of the F sex factor DNA transfer cistrons: Restriction mapping and DNA cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A restriction endonuclease map of EcoRI fragment f6 of F sex factor DNA was constructed and aligned with pre-existing physical and genetic maps. Results of genetic complementation tests and analysis of proteins synthesized in minicells from PstI and BglI1 sub-fragment clones, or from a specific BglII fragment deletion, have allowed mapping of the locations of the origin of DNA transfer

Russell Thompson; Mark Achtman

1978-01-01

67

REPK: an analytical web server to select restriction endonucleases for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widespread technique for rapidly fingerprinting microbial communities. Users of T-RFLP frequently overlook the resolving power of well-chosen restriction endonucleases and often fail to report how they chose their enzymes. REPK (Restriction Endonuclease Picker) assists in the rational choice of restriction endonucleases for T-RFLP by finding sets of four restriction endonu- cleases

Roy Eric Collins; Gabrielle Rocap

2007-01-01

68

Population genetics of the yellow fever mosquito in Trinidad: comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of DNA markers provides powerful tools for population genetic analyses. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers result from a poly- merase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting technique that can detect multiple restriction fragments in a single polyacrylamide gel, and thus are potentially useful for population genetic studies. Because AFLP markers have to be analysed as dominant loci in

G. Yan; J. Romero-Severson; M. Walton; D. D. CHADEEand; D. W. Severson

1999-01-01

69

Typing of rhizobia by PCR DNA fingerprinting and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of chromosomal and symbiotic gene regions: application to Rhizobium leguminosarum and its different biovars.  

PubMed Central

Characterization of 43 strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars viciae, trifolii, and phaseoli was performed by two methodologies based on PCR amplification, i.e., PCR DNA fingerprinting of interrepeat sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR -amplified chromosomal and symbiotic gene regions. Groupings generated by PCR DNA fingerprinting with either extragenic palindromic repetitive primers or two different single random primers were correlated with similar levels of resolution. Although less discriminating, PCR-RFLP analysis of intergenic spacer between genes coding for 16S and 23S rRNA (16S and 23S rDNA) yielded intraspecific polymorphisms. The classification of strains was independent of the biovar status and was in agreement with those obtained by PCR DNA fingerprinting. Intrabiovar variation within symbiotic gene regions was detected by PCR-RFLP analysis of nifDK and nodD gene regions, but the strains were grouped according to the biovar. The rDNA intergenic spacer and nif primers were verified to be universal for rhizobial species by testing of various reference strains, whereas the nod primers designed in this study were biovar or species specific for R. leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli. Classifications of R. leguminosarum strains by the PCR-based methods were correlated with those previously obtained by conventional total DNA restriction profile comparisons and RFLP analysis using chromosomal and symbiotic gene probes. Ranges of discriminating powers were also equivalent between the two approaches. However, the PCR-based methods are much less time-consuming and are therefore more convenient.

Laguerre, G; Mavingui, P; Allard, M R; Charnay, M P; Louvrier, P; Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N

1996-01-01

70

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

71

Detection of single lambda DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

The authors have demonstrated flow cytometric detection and sizing of single pieces of fluorescently stained lambda DNA (48.5 kb) and individual Kpn I restriction fragments of lambda DNA at 17.05 kb and 29.95 kb. DNA fragments were stained stoichiometrically with an intercalating dye such that the fluorescence from each fragment was directly proportional to fragment length. Laser powers range from 10 to 100 mW and transit times through the focused laser beam were several milliseconds. Measurements were made using time-resolved single photon counting of the detected fluorescence emission from individual stained DNA fragments. Samples were analyzed at rates of about 50 fragments per second. The measured fluorescence intensities are linearly correlated with DNA fragment length over the range measured. Detection sensitivity and resolution needed for analysis of small pieces of DNA are discussed and a comparison of single photon counting measurements of DNA fragments to measurements using more conventional flow cytometers is made. Applications of this methodology to DNA sizing and DNA fingerprinting are discussed.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Keller, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

72

DNA fragmentation in microorganisms assessed in situ.  

PubMed

Chromosomal DNA fragmentation may be a direct or indirect outcome of cell death. Unlike DNA fragmentation in higher eukaryotic cells, DNA fragmentation in microorganisms is rarely studied. We report an adaptation of a diffusion-based assay, developed as a kit, which allows for simple and rapid discrimination of bacteria with fragmented DNA. Intact cells were embedded in an agarose microgel on a slide, incubated in a lysis buffer to partially remove the cell walls, membranes, and proteins, and then stained with a DNA fluorochrome, SYBR Gold. Identifying cells with fragmented DNA uses peripheral diffusion of DNA fragments. Cells without DNA fragmentation show only limited spreading of DNA fiber loops. These results have been seen in several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as in yeasts. Detection of DNA fragmentation was confirmed by fluoroquinolone treatment and by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization. Proteus mirabilis with spontaneously fragmented DNA during exponential and stationary growth or Escherichia coli with DNA damaged after exposure to hydrogen peroxide or antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or ampicillin, was clearly detected. Similarly, fragmented DNA was detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after amphotericin B treatment. Our assay may be useful for the simple and rapid evaluation of DNA damage and repair as well as cell death, either spontaneous or induced by exogenous stimuli, including antimicrobial agents or environmental conditions. PMID:18689511

Fernández, José Luis; Cartelle, Mónica; Muriel, Lourdes; Santiso, Rebeca; Tamayo, María; Goyanes, Vicente; Gosálvez, Jaime; Bou, Germán

2008-10-01

73

Genotyping by mass spectrometric analysis of short DNA fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to produce small DNA fragments from PCR products for analysis of defined DNA variations by mass spectrometry. The genomic region to be analyzed is PCR-amplified with primers containing a sequence for the type IIS restriction endonuclease BpmI. BpmI digestion of the resultant PCR products yields fragments as small as seven bases, which are then analyzed

Steven J. Laken; Peta E. Jackson; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Paul T. Strickland; John D. Groopman; Marlin D. Friesen; Bert Vogelstein

1998-01-01

74

Taxonomy and phylogeny of some Eimeria (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) species of rodents as determined by polymerase chain reaction/restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of 18S rDNA.  

PubMed

The 18S rDNA genes of 10 Eimeria species from rodents (E. albigulae, E. arizonensis, E. falciformis, E. langebarteli, E. nieschulzi, E. onychomysis, E. papillata, E. reedi, E. separata, E. sevilletensis) were polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-amplified, digested with 12 restriction endonucleases, and electophoresed in agarose gels. The resulting fragment patterns (riboprints) distinguished all species except E. sevilletensis from E. falciformis, and E. arizonensis from E. albigulae; the sporulated oocysts of the latter two species and of E. onychomysis are often indistinguishable morphologically. When the restriction fragment data were analyzed using distance and parsimony phylogenetic methods a clade was found consistently, which contained E. arizonensis, E. albigulae, E. onychomysis, E. reedi, and E. papillata. This finding and other results of the phylogenetic analyses agreed and supplemented previous phylogenetic work on the Eimeria of rodents. Riboprinting appears to provide useful data for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on the genus Eimeria and may be especially practical when samples do not contain enough oocysts for other molecular-based methods. PMID:10540948

Hnida, J A; Duszynski, D W

1999-11-01

75

Direct cloning of a long restriction fragment aided with a jumping clone.  

PubMed

Long-range physical mapping with rare-cutting restriction enzymes (rare cutters) is an important step for structural analysis of complex genomes. Combination of two types of DNA clones bearing the rare-cutter sites, linking clones and jumping clones (Fig. 1a), facilitates the physical mapping [Poustka et al., Nature 325 (1987) 353-355]. A step followed by the physical mapping is the cloning of the large (rare-cutter-generated) restriction fragment of interest. For facilitating this step, we devised a method to directly clone a long restriction fragment without constructing the whole genomic DNA library using the jumping clone as starting material. The short DNA segments of a jumping clone, which are derived from the 5' and 3' terminal regions of the large restriction fragment, are inserted into the yeast artificial chromosome plasmid (pYAC) vector, and then converted into single strands with T7 gene 6-encoded 5'----3' exonuclease. The total genomic DNA digested with the restriction enzyme is also treated with the exonuclease to convert the terminal regions of the restriction fragments into single strands. In the resulting products, only the fragment corresponding to the jumping clone can form hybrids with the just-mentioned, single-stranded DNAs, which are connected to the pYAC, and only this fragment is cloned in yeast. We describe the protocol of this method with Escherichia coli DNA as a model experiment. Judging from the cloning efficiency, this method could be applied to cloning single-copy regions of the human genome, provided a jumping clone is available. The instability of inserts in the pYAC vector is also discussed. PMID:1660429

Matsuoka, T; Kato, H; Hashimoto, K; Kurosawa, Y

1991-10-30

76

Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

2014-03-01

77

Novel restriction fragment length polymorphism of the growth hormone gene in inbred rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel restriction fragment length polymorphism in inbred rats was detected by Southern blot analysis with rat growth hormone cDNA as a probe. Four alleles, characterized byPstI fragments of 1.2, 1.1, 0.9, and 0.7 kb, respectively, were detected in 27 strains examined. The same distribution of polymorphisms was observed on digestion of DNAs of these strains with three other enzymes,PvuII,HindIII,

Tetsuo Kunieda; Hiroshi Ikadai; Minami Matsui; Nobuo Nomura; Tomonori Imamichi; Ryotaro Ishizaki

1989-01-01

78

AP Investigative labs: An inquiry-base Approach Lab 9: Biotechnology: Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based investigation, students will learn how to use restriction enzymes and gelelectrophoresis to create genetic profiles. They will use restriction endonucleases and gel electrophoresis to analyze DNA sequences by creating genetic âÂÂfingerprintsâ andl apply mathematical routines to determine the approximate sizes of DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes.

The College Board The College Board (The College Board;)

2012-10-23

79

DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients in Kampala, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The identification and differentiation of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by DNA fingerprinting has provided a better understanding of the epidemiology and tracing the transmission of tuberculosis. We set out to determine if there was a relationship between the risk of belonging to a group of tuberculosis patients with identical mycobacterial DNA fingerprint patterns and the HIV sero-status of the

Benon B Asiimwe; Moses L Joloba; Solomon Ghebremichael; Tuija Koivula; David P Kateete; Fred A Katabazi; Alexander Pennhag; Ramona Petersson; Gunilla Kallenius

2009-01-01

80

Molecular typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by restriction fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To characterise Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in ribosomal RNA genes. DESIGN--Generation of RFLP patterns by HincII restriction of rRNA genes followed by hybridisation with a non-radioactive labelled broad spectrum 16 + 23S rRNA gene probe. This typing method was developed and compared with MAb based serotyping. SPECIMENS--Forty three randomly collected isolates from Bangkok (27 isolates)

C L Poh; H P Khng; C K Lim; G K Loh

1992-01-01

81

Brassica taxonomy based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of nuclear DNAs have been used to explore the origin and evolution of the six cultivated Brassica species. Extensive RFLP variation was found at the species, subspecies and variety levels. Based on RFLP data from Brassica and related genera, a detailed phylogenetic tree was generated using the PAUP microcomputer program, which permits a quantitative analysis

K. M. Song; T. C. Osborn; P. H. Williams

1988-01-01

82

Soil Microbial Community Analysis using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a polymerase chain reac- tion (PCR)-fi ngerprinting method that is commonly used for comparative microbial community analysis. The method can be used to analyze communities of bacteria, archaea, fungi, other phylo- genetic groups or subgroups, as well as functional genes. The method is rapid, highly reproducible, and often yields a higher number

Janice E. Thies

2007-01-01

83

Evaluation of restriction fragment length polymorphism in Cucumis melo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to assess the degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in Cucumis melo and to determine interrelationships among cultivated varieties. Initial screening of a genomic PstI library revealed that approximately 40% of the clones were repetitive. A total of 162 unique and low-copy sequence clones were hybridized to seven diverse accesions of C. melo

S. L. Neuhausen

1992-01-01

84

Rapid Identification of Listeria Species by Using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of PCR-Amplified 23S rRNA Gene Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular method based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of PCR-amplified frag- ments of the 23S rRNA gene was designed to rapidly identify Listeria strains to the species level. Two fragments (S1, 460 bp, and S2, 890 bp) were amplified from boiled DNA. S2 was cut with the restriction enzymes XmnI or CfoI and, if needed, S1 was digested

Delphine Paillard; Veronique Dubois; Robert Duran; Fany Nathier; Catherine Guittet; Pierre Caumette; Claudine Quentin

2003-01-01

85

A Stochastic Model of DNA Fragments Rejoining  

PubMed Central

When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, DNA damages in the form of single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs), base damage or their combinations are frequent events. It is known that the complexity and severity of DNA damage depends on the quality of radiation, and the microscopic dose deposited in small segments of DNA, which is often related to the linear transfer energy (LET) of the radiation. Experimental studies have suggested that under the same dose, high LET radiation induces more small DNA fragments than low-LET radiation, which affects Ku efficiently binding with DNA end and might be a main reason for high-LET radiation induced RBE [1] since DNA DSB is a major cause for radiation-induced cell death. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model of DNA fragments rejoining according to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mechanism. By conducting Gillespie's stochastic simulation, we found several factors that impact the efficiency of DNA fragments rejoining. Our results demonstrated that aberrant DNA damage repair can result predominantly from the occurrence of a spatial distribution of DSBs leading to short DNA fragments. Because of the low efficiency that short DNA fragments recruit repair protein and release the protein residue after fragments rejoining, Ku-dependent NHEJ is significantly interfered with short fragments. Overall, our work suggests that inhibiting the Ku-dependent NHEJ may significantly contribute to the increased efficiency for cell death and mutation observed for high LET radiation.

Li, Yongfeng; Qian, Hong; Wang, Ya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2012-01-01

86

Haplotypes of the human immunoglobulin lambda IGLV7SI and IGLVISI genes defined by restriction-site polymorphism and insertion/deletion of a 6-kb DNA fragment  

SciTech Connect

Haplotypes were defined in the human immunoglobulin lambda locus by using three probes - V[lambda]VII, V[lambda]A, and V[lambda]I - hybridized to BamHI, KpnI, EcoRI, and HindIII digests. Four Kpnl alleles were described. Two of them, 13 kb and 16 kb, detected with both the V[lambda]VII and V[lambda]A probes, were correlated with 4.6-kb and 10.5-kb KpnI fragments, respectively, which hybridize to the V[lambda]I probe. The two others (17 kb and 24 kb) were detected with the three probes V[lambda]VII, V[lambda]A, and V[lambda]I. Moreover, the authors show that two of those haplotypes may reflect an insertion of 6 kb between V[lambda]A and V[lambda]1S1. Familial studies were performed to demonstrate the Mendelian inheritance. These results demonstrate the absence of association between the C[lambda] alleles and V[lambda] haplotypes. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chuchana, P.; Frippiat, J.P.; Blancher, A.; Lefranc, G.; Lefranc, M.P. (Universite Montpellier II (France))

1993-08-01

87

Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

1993-01-01

88

Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

1993-02-01

89

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism monitoring of genes amplified directly from bacterial communities in soils and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) or Fluorescent Polymerase Chain Reaction\\/Restriction Fragment Length\\u000a Polymorphism (FluRFLP) have made a significant impact on the way in which PCR products amplified from mixed community DNA\\u000a extracts have been assessed. Technically, these approaches are essentially the same. PCR products are generated that contain\\u000a at one 5? end label, typically a fluorescent moiety, that will

Kenneth D. Bruce; Mark R. Hughes

2000-01-01

90

Differentiation of medicinal Codonopsis species from adulterants by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

DNA sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were exploited for their applications in differentiating medicinal species Codonopsis pilosula, C. tangshen, C. modesta, and C. nervosa var. macrantha, from two related adulterants Campanumoea javania and Platycodon grandiflorus. The data demonstrated that the rDNA ITSI and ITSII sequences of the four Codonopsis are highly homologous but not identical, and are significantly different from those of the two adulterants. The sequence difference allows effective and reliable differentiation of Codonopsis from the adulterants by PCR-RFLP. PMID:10575378

Fu, R Z; Wang, J; Zhang, Y B; Wang, Z T; But, P P; Li, N; Shaw, P C

1999-10-01

91

Fragmentation of Genomic DNA using Microwave Irradiation  

PubMed Central

An unconventional approach for DNA fragmentation was investigated to explore its feasibility as an alternative to the existing DNA fragmentation techniques for next-generation DNA sequencing application. Current methods are based on strong-force liquid shearing or specialized enzymatic treatments. There are shortcomings for these platforms yet to be addressed, including aerosolization of genomic materials, which may result in the cross-contamination and biohazards; the difficulty in multiplexing; and the potential sequence biases. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the microwave irradiation as a simple, unbiased, and easy-to-multiplex way to fragment genomic DNA randomly. In addition, heating DNA at high temperature was attempted for the same purpose and for comparison. Adaptive focused acoustic sonication was used as the control. The yield and functionality for the DNA fragments and DNA fragment libraries were analyzed to assess the feasibility and use of the proposed approach. Both microwave irradiation and thermal heating can fragment genomic DNA to the size ranges suitable for next-generation sequencing (NGS) shotgun library preparation. However, both treatments caused severe reduction in PCR amplification efficiency, which led to low production in emulsion PCR (emPCR). The result was improved by amplification prior to emPCR. Further improvements, such as DNA strand repairing, are needed for the method to be applied practically in NGS.

Yang, Yu; Hang, Jun

2013-01-01

92

A linkage map of Brassica rapa (syn. campestris) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A detailed linkage map ofB. rapa (syn.campestris) was constructed based on segregation of 280 restriction fragment length polymorphism loci, detected by using 188 genomic DNA clones as probes on DNAs from a F2 population of Chinese cabbage ‘MichihilF’בSpring broccoli.’ These genetic markers covered 1,850 centiMorgans (cM) and defined ten linkage groups, which equals the haploid chromosome number of this

K. M. Song; J. Y. Suzuki; M. K. Slocum; P. M. Williams; T. C. Osborn

1991-01-01

93

Restriction fragment variation in the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six accessions of cultivated and wild sorghum were surveyed for genetic diversity using 50 low-copy-number nuclear DNA sequence probes to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). These probes revealed greater genetic diversity in wild sorghum than in cultivated sorghum, including a larger number of alleles per locus and a greater portion of polymorphic loci in wild sorghum. In comparison to

P. R. Aldrich; J. Doebley

1992-01-01

94

Discrimination between Bifidobacterium species from human and animal origin by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Bifidobacteria are normal intestinal flora in humans and animals. The genus Bifidobacterium includes 31 species of significant host specificity. Taking into account their properties, we proposed to use bifidobacteria as fecal contamination indicators. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism on the 16S rDNA gene was used to distinguish the different Bifidobacterium species. Sixty-four strains belonging to 13 different species were differentiated from animal or human origin using one or two restriction enzymes. Moreover, the primers used were specifics of the Bifidobacterium genus. Therefore, this method made it possible to determine both the presence of bifidobacteria in a sample and its origin of contamination. PMID:15222566

Delcenserie, V; Bechoux, N; Léonard, T; China, B; Daube, G

2004-06-01

95

Diffusion of the restriction nuclease EcoRI along DNA.  

PubMed

Many specific sequence DNA binding proteins locate their target sequence by first binding to DNA nonspecifically, then by linearly diffusing or hopping along DNA until either the protein dissociates from the DNA or it finds the recognition sequence. We have devised a method for measuring one-dimensional diffusion along DNA based on the ratio of the dissociation rate of protein from DNA fragments containing one specific binding site to the dissociation rate from DNA fragments containing two specific binding sites. Our extensive measurements of dissociation rates and specific-nonspecific relative binding constants of the restriction nuclease EcoRI enable us to determine the diffusion rate of nonspecifically bound protein along the DNA. By varying the distance between the two binding sites, we confirm a linear diffusion mechanism. The sliding rate is relatively insensitive to salt concentration and osmotic pressure, indicating that the protein moves smoothly along the DNA probably following the helical phosphate-sugar backbone of DNA. We calculate a diffusion coefficient for EcoRI of 3 x 10(4) bp(2) s(-)(1) EcoRI is able to diffuse approximately 150 bp, on average, along the DNA in 1 s. This diffusion rate is about 2000-fold slower than the diffusion of free protein in solution. A factor of 40-50 can be accounted for by rotational friction resulting from following the helical path of the DNA backbone. Two possibilities could account for the remaining activation energy: salt bridges between the DNA and the protein are transiently broken, or the water structure at the protein-DNA interface is disrupted as the two surfaces move past each other. PMID:19874828

Rau, Donald C; Sidorova, Nina Y

2010-01-15

96

Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of transferring fragments of DNA from agarose gels to cellulose nitrate filters. The fragments can then be hybridized to radioactive RNA and hybrids detected by radioautography or fluorography. The method is illustrated by analyses of restriction fragments complementary to ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Xenopus laevis, and from several mammals.

E. M. Southern

1975-01-01

97

Comparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and restricted fragment length polymorphism among fenugreek accessions.  

PubMed

Protein and DNA polymorphismswere surveyed among seven accessions of wild fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.) to estimate their genetic diversity and relationships. Samples were obtained from diverse ecogeographical areas in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of seed storage protein showed genetic variations among fenugreek germplasms, both quantitatively and qualitatively, generating a total of 168 polypeptide bands with different molecular weights ranging from 4.5 to 300 kDa. Twenty-six of these bands were polymorphic, with a considerable polymorphism value (80.00%). Furthermore, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was also employed, which was based on the ability of four restriction enzymes (EagI, EcoRI, FspI, and HindIII) to cleave genomic DNA of the plant materials at specific target nucleotide sequences into different numbers of DNA fragments. RFLP analysis revealed 166 fragments with known sequences and variable lengths ranging from 80 to 4000 bp with a highly degree of polymorphism (88.71%). Data derived from SDS-PAGE or RFLP analyses were used to produce dendrograms, which clustered the studied fenugreek accessions into different groups based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The resulting relationships indicated that these two marker techniques were nearly equivalent, but not identical, with respect to phylogenetic information. In conclusion, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed proteins should be augmented with RFLP analysis of DNA for reliable estimates of genetic diversity among fenugreek germplasms. PMID:24338424

Haliem, E A; Al-Huqail, A A

2013-01-01

98

Acclimatization of Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the European North: mtDNA Restriction Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5\\/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. It was found that mtDNA variation

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov

2004-01-01

99

Identification of cagA Tyrosine Phosphorylation DNA Motifs in Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Peptic Ulcer Patients by Novel PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Real-Time Fluorescence PCR Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cag pathogenicity island-containing Helicobacter pylori (type I) induces signal transduction pathways re- sulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins adjacent to the site of bacterial adhesion on host gastric epithelial cells. Conventional block PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and real-time LightCycler (LC) PCR hybridization assays, validated by direct sequencing, were designed to test for the presence of three nucleotide sequences corresponding

Robert J. Owen; Sally I. Sharp; Stephanie A. Chisholm; Sjoerd Rijpkema

2003-01-01

100

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

101

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism method to distinguish Liriomyza huidobrensis from L. Langei (Diptera: Agromyzidae) applied to three recent leafminer invasions.  

PubMed

A molecular method is presented for differentiating the morphologically cryptic leafminers Liriomyza langei Frick and L. huidobrensis (Blanchard). This method requires polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 1031-bp region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase DNA followed by restriction fragment analysis using the restriction enzymes SpeI and EcoRV. Spel cuts the mitochondrial fragment of L. langei into two fragments, but does not cut the L. huidobrensis fragment. EcoRV cuts the L. huidobrensis fragment into two fragments, but does not cut the L. langei fragment. This PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) method is faster and less costly than DNA sequencing,which is currently the only other way to differentiate these two species. We apply the method to samples from recently introduced leafminer populations in Sri Lanka, Canada, and South Africa and find that the invasive leafminer in all three locations is L. huidobrensis. PMID:11681681

Scheffer, S J; Wijesekara, A; Visser, D; Hallett, R H

2001-10-01

102

Ligation-mediated PCR amplification of specific fragments from a class-II restriction endonuclease total digest.  

PubMed Central

A method is described which permits the ligation- mediated PCR amplification of specific fragments from a Class-II restriction endonuclease total digest. Feasibility was tested using Bcl I and phage lambda DNA as a model enzyme and amplicon system, respectively. Bcl I is one of many widely used restriction enzymes which cleave at palindromic recognition sequences and leave 5'-protruding ends of defined sequence. Using a single pair of universal primers, a given fragment can be specifically amplified after joining the fragments to adaptors consisting of a duplex primer region and a 9-nucleotide protruding single-stranded 5'-end containing the sequence complementary to the cleaved restriction site and a 4-nucleotide 'indexing sequence.' The protruding strand anneals to a restriction fragment by displacing its corresponding strand in the same fragment-specific indexing sequence located juxtaposed to the restriction site. The adaptor is covalently linked to the restriction fragment by T4 DNA ligase, and amplification is carried out under conditions for long-distance PCR using the M13 forward and reverse primers. The technique discriminated robustly between mismatches and perfect matches for the 16 indexing sequences tested to allow individual lambda Bcl I fragments to be amplified from their respective adaptor pairs. A strategy is proposed enabling a non-cloning approach to the accession, physical mapping and sequencing of genomic DNA. The method could also have application in high-throughput genetic mapping and fingerprinting and should expand the enzyme base for ligation- mediated indexing technology which has previously been limited to the Class-IIS and IP restriction endonucleases.

Guilfoyle, R A; Leeck, C L; Kroening, K D; Smith, L M; Guo, Z

1997-01-01

103

Ligation-mediated PCR amplification of specific fragments from a class-II restriction endonuclease total digest.  

PubMed

A method is described which permits the ligation- mediated PCR amplification of specific fragments from a Class-II restriction endonuclease total digest. Feasibility was tested using Bcl I and phage lambda DNA as a model enzyme and amplicon system, respectively. Bcl I is one of many widely used restriction enzymes which cleave at palindromic recognition sequences and leave 5'-protruding ends of defined sequence. Using a single pair of universal primers, a given fragment can be specifically amplified after joining the fragments to adaptors consisting of a duplex primer region and a 9-nucleotide protruding single-stranded 5'-end containing the sequence complementary to the cleaved restriction site and a 4-nucleotide 'indexing sequence.' The protruding strand anneals to a restriction fragment by displacing its corresponding strand in the same fragment-specific indexing sequence located juxtaposed to the restriction site. The adaptor is covalently linked to the restriction fragment by T4 DNA ligase, and amplification is carried out under conditions for long-distance PCR using the M13 forward and reverse primers. The technique discriminated robustly between mismatches and perfect matches for the 16 indexing sequences tested to allow individual lambda Bcl I fragments to be amplified from their respective adaptor pairs. A strategy is proposed enabling a non-cloning approach to the accession, physical mapping and sequencing of genomic DNA. The method could also have application in high-throughput genetic mapping and fingerprinting and should expand the enzyme base for ligation- mediated indexing technology which has previously been limited to the Class-IIS and IP restriction endonucleases. PMID:9108171

Guilfoyle, R A; Leeck, C L; Kroening, K D; Smith, L M; Guo, Z

1997-05-01

104

Detection of Rickettsia japonica in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR product.  

PubMed

PCR was applied to the detection of Rickettsia japonica, the causative agent of Oriental spotted fever (OSF), in ticks collected at two sites of the Muroto area on Shikoku Island, a major area in Japan where OSF is endemic. Primer pair Rr190.70p and Rr190.602n of the R. rickettsii 190-kDa antigen gene sequence of Regnery and others (R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, and B.D. Plikaytis, J. Bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991) primed the DNA extracted from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks but not those extracted from Haemaphysalis formosensis, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis hystricis, or Amblyomma testudinarium ticks. Digestion of the amplification product with the restriction endonucleases PstI and AluI produced the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern specific to R. japonica. The HindIII and MspI digests gave restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns identical to those of the PCR product from R. japonica DNA. Hemolymph preparations of H. longicornis ticks were demonstrated to contain rod-shaped organisms that were detected by immunofluorescence with the monoclonal antibody specific to R. japonica species. The primer pair did not amplify the DNA of a laboratory colony of H. longicornis ticks originally collected at an area where OSF is not endemic. Our results provided evidence that H. longicornis ticks might be an arthropod reservoir for R. japonica and a vector of OSF. PMID:7790445

Uchida, T; Yan, Y; Kitaoka, S

1995-04-01

105

Detection of Rickettsia japonica in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR product.  

PubMed Central

PCR was applied to the detection of Rickettsia japonica, the causative agent of Oriental spotted fever (OSF), in ticks collected at two sites of the Muroto area on Shikoku Island, a major area in Japan where OSF is endemic. Primer pair Rr190.70p and Rr190.602n of the R. rickettsii 190-kDa antigen gene sequence of Regnery and others (R.L. Regnery, C.L. Spruill, and B.D. Plikaytis, J. Bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991) primed the DNA extracted from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks but not those extracted from Haemaphysalis formosensis, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis hystricis, or Amblyomma testudinarium ticks. Digestion of the amplification product with the restriction endonucleases PstI and AluI produced the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern specific to R. japonica. The HindIII and MspI digests gave restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns identical to those of the PCR product from R. japonica DNA. Hemolymph preparations of H. longicornis ticks were demonstrated to contain rod-shaped organisms that were detected by immunofluorescence with the monoclonal antibody specific to R. japonica species. The primer pair did not amplify the DNA of a laboratory colony of H. longicornis ticks originally collected at an area where OSF is not endemic. Our results provided evidence that H. longicornis ticks might be an arthropod reservoir for R. japonica and a vector of OSF.

Uchida, T; Yan, Y; Kitaoka, S

1995-01-01

106

Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the periplasmic flagellar flaA1 gene of Serpulina species.  

PubMed Central

Forty-one reference and field isolates of intestinal spirochetes representing Serpulina hyodysenteriae, Serpulina innocens, Serpulina pilosicoli, Brachyspira aalborgi, and nonclassified weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes were compared by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the periplasmic flagellar (PF) flaA1 gene. Six genetically distinct groups (I through VI), each with a unique RFLP fingerprint pattern, were identified by Southern blotting analysis of EcoRV chromosomal DNA digests with a PCR-amplified digoxigenin-labeled 1-kb fragment of the S. hyodysenteriae isolate B78 PF flaA1 gene. The RFLP fingerprint patterns corresponded to known DNA homology differences between Serpulina species and to provisionally designated species described previously by using phenotypic and genotypic classification schemes. RFLP fingerprinting of the PF flaA1 gene provides a relatively simple genotypic method for identification of intestinal spirochetes without the use of radioisotopes.

Fisher, L N; Mathiesen, M R; Duhamel, G E

1997-01-01

107

Diffusion of the Restriction Nuclease EcoRI along DNA  

PubMed Central

Many specific sequence DNA binding proteins locate their target sequence by first binding to DNA nonspecifically, then linearly diffusing or hopping along DNA until either the protein dissociates from the DNA or it finds the recognition sequence. We have devised a method for measuring 1-dimensional diffusion along DNA based on the ratio of the dissociation rates of EcoRI from DNA fragments containing one and two specific binding sites. Our extensive measurements of dissociation rates and specific-nonspecific relative binding constants of the restriction nuclease EcoRI enable us to determine the diffusion rate of nonspecifically bound protein along the DNA. By varying the distance between the two binding sites we confirm a linear diffusion mechanism. The sliding rate is relatively insensitive to salt concentration and osmotic pressure indicating the protein moves smoothly along the DNA probably following the helical phosphate-sugar backbone of DNA. We calculate a diffusion coefficient for EcoRI of 3 × 104 bp2sec?1. EcoRI is able to diffuse ~150 base pairs on average along DNA in 1 second. This diffusion rate is about 2000-fold slower than the diffusion of the free protein in solution. A factor of 40–50 can be accounted for by a rotational friction resulting from following the helical path of the DNA backbone. Two possibilities could account for remaining activation energy: the salt bridges between the DNA and protein are transiently broken or the water structure at the protein-DNA interface is disrupted as the two surfaces move past one another.

Sidorova, Nina Y

2009-01-01

108

RNA-Linked DNA Fragments In Vitro*  

PubMed Central

RNA-linked DNA fragments are intermediates in DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells made permeable to nucleoside triphosphates by treatment with toluene. Covalent linkage of a short RNA stretch to the 5? end of the DNA is proved by transfer of 32P from [?-32P]dNTP to ribonucleotides upon digestion with alkali or pancreatic RNase, and by a small decrease in the molecular size upon alkaline hydrolysis. The 32P transfer experiments reveal a unique structure...p(rPy)p(rA)p(rU or rC)p(dC)p... at the RNA-DNA junction.

Sugino, Akio; Okazaki, Reiji

1973-01-01

109

Identification of Infectious Agents in Onychomycoses by PCR-Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

A fast and reliable assay for the identification of dermatophyte fungi and nondermatophyte fungi (NDF) in onychomycosis is essential, since NDF are especially difficult to cure using standard treatment. Diagnosis is usually based on both direct microscopic examination of nail scrapings and macroscopic and microscopic identification of the infectious fungus in culture assays. In the last decade, PCR assays have been developed for the direct detection of fungi in nail samples. In this study, we describe a PCR-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) assay to directly and routinely identify the infecting fungi in nails. Fungal DNA was easily extracted using a commercial kit after dissolving nail fragments in an Na2S solution. Trichophyton spp., as well as 12 NDF, could be unambiguously identified by the specific restriction fragment size of 5?-end-labeled amplified 28S DNA. This assay enables the distinction of different fungal infectious agents and their identification in mixed infections. Infectious agents could be identified in 74% (162/219) of cases in which the culture results were negative. The PCR-TRFLP assay described here is simple and reliable. Furthermore, it has the possibility to be automated and thus routinely applied to the rapid diagnosis of a large number of clinical specimens in dermatology laboratories.

Verrier, Julie; Pronina, Marina; Peter, Corinne; Bontems, Olympia; Fratti, Marina; Salamin, Karine; Schurch, Stephanie; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Harshman, Keith

2012-01-01

110

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the human insulin receptor gene in Japanese: its possible usefulness as a genetic marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the human insulin receptor gene was analyzed with a 4.2 Kb cDNA probe in Japanese normal subjects and Type 2 (nonsulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Restriction endonuclease Rsa I digestion showed polymorphism of the human insulin receptor gene, with a band at 6.7 Kb, 6.2 Kb or 3.6 Kb. The frequency of the 6.7 Kb band was

J. Takeda; Y. Seinoz; Y. Yoshimasa; H. Fukumoto; G. Kohl; H. Kuzuya; H. Imura; S. Seino

1986-01-01

111

DNA fingerprinting of human cell lines using PCR amplification of fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methods for monitoring cell line identification and authentication include species-specific immunofluorescence, isoenzyme\\u000a phenotyping, chromosome analysis, and DNA fingerprinting. Most previous studies of DNA fingerprinting of cell lines have used\\u000a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In this study, we examined the utility of an alternative and simpler method\\u000a of cell line DNA fingerprinting—polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of fragment length polymorphisms.

Rui Yan; Mark Ottenbreit; Bharati Hukku; Michael Mally; Sharong Chou; Joseph Kaplan

1996-01-01

112

Structural insight into the specificity of the B3 DNA-binding domains provided by the co-crystal structure of the C-terminal fragment of BfiI restriction enzyme  

PubMed Central

The B3 DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of plant transcription factors (TF) and DBDs of EcoRII and BfiI restriction endonucleases (EcoRII-N and BfiI-C) share a common structural fold, classified as the DNA-binding pseudobarrel. The B3 DBDs in the plant TFs recognize a diverse set of target sequences. The only available co-crystal structure of the B3-like DBD is that of EcoRII-N (recognition sequence 5?-CCTGG-3?). In order to understand the structural and molecular mechanisms of specificity of B3 DBDs, we have solved the crystal structure of BfiI-C (recognition sequence 5?-ACTGGG-3?) complexed with 12-bp cognate oligoduplex. Structural comparison of BfiI-C–DNA and EcoRII-N–DNA complexes reveals a conserved DNA-binding mode and a conserved pattern of interactions with the phosphodiester backbone. The determinants of the target specificity are located in the loops that emanate from the conserved structural core. The BfiI-C–DNA structure presented here expands a range of templates for modeling of the DNA-bound complexes of the B3 family of plant TFs.

Golovenko, Dmitrij; Manakova, Elena; Zakrys, Linas; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Grazulis, Saulius; Siksnys, Virginijus

2014-01-01

113

Structural insight into the specificity of the B3 DNA-binding domains provided by the co-crystal structure of the C-terminal fragment of BfiI restriction enzyme.  

PubMed

The B3 DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of plant transcription factors (TF) and DBDs of EcoRII and BfiI restriction endonucleases (EcoRII-N and BfiI-C) share a common structural fold, classified as the DNA-binding pseudobarrel. The B3 DBDs in the plant TFs recognize a diverse set of target sequences. The only available co-crystal structure of the B3-like DBD is that of EcoRII-N (recognition sequence 5'-CCTGG-3'). In order to understand the structural and molecular mechanisms of specificity of B3 DBDs, we have solved the crystal structure of BfiI-C (recognition sequence 5'-ACTGGG-3') complexed with 12-bp cognate oligoduplex. Structural comparison of BfiI-C-DNA and EcoRII-N-DNA complexes reveals a conserved DNA-binding mode and a conserved pattern of interactions with the phosphodiester backbone. The determinants of the target specificity are located in the loops that emanate from the conserved structural core. The BfiI-C-DNA structure presented here expands a range of templates for modeling of the DNA-bound complexes of the B3 family of plant TFs. PMID:24423868

Golovenko, Dmitrij; Manakova, Elena; Zakrys, Linas; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Gražulis, Saulius; Siksnys, Virginijus

2014-04-01

114

Feline adult beta-globin polymorphism reflected in restriction fragment length patterns.  

PubMed

Adult domestic cats (Felis catus) appear to have the most polymorphic beta-globin system of any species. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed one alpha-chain and six different beta-globin chains. Each cat may have one to four different beta-globins, and a total of 17 different beta-globin patterns were identified. Based on family studies, a beta-globin gene region with two linked beta-globin gene loci and two to five alleles was proposed. In order to further define the molecular basis of this polymorphism we performed Southern blot analysis of the beta-globin gene region from 25 cats with 13 different HPLC patterns. Genomic DNA was digested with five restriction endonucleases (BamHI, BglII, EcoRI, HindIII, and PstI) and blots were hybridized with a human beta-globin probe. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) with one to five fragments of 2.2-23 kb in size were found with BglII, EcoRI, HindIII, and PstI. Cats with specific HPLC beta-globin patterns had a unique DNA restriction pattern. The similarly sized BamHI and HindIII fragments of 4.6 kb suggest the presence of two closely linked genes. Furthermore, family studies suggest an autosomal codominant mode of inheritance of the beta-globin chains with seven haplotypes. Thus the RFLP data analyzed in the context of the HPLC haplotypes provide evidence at the DNA level for a feline beta-globin gene region with two closely linked gene loci and two to five alleles. PMID:9987927

Kohn, B; Henthorn, P S; Rajpurohit, Y; Reilly, M P; Asakura, T; Giger, U

1999-01-01

115

Restriction fragment length polymorphism evidence for genetic homology within a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 hrp sequences were used as hybridization probes in a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 24 P. syringae pv. tabaci strains as a means to evaluate the genetic and taxonomic relationship of pathovars of P. syringae. Southern blot analyses of genomic restriction digests, with hrpA-S sequences as hybridization probes, and restriction analyses of PCR-amplified DNA of regions within hrpD were conducted. The resulting RFLP patterns were uniform for 23 of the 24 isolates tested, with strain BR2R having a unique pattern. BR2R is a pathogen of bean which was classified as pathovar tabaci because of its ability to produce tabtoxin, but unlike the other 23 tabaci strains in this study, it does not incite disease symptoms on tobacco. When a DNA fragment containing hrpM sequences was used as a hybridization probe, the tabaci isolates could be divided into three groups on the basis of the RFLP patterns : BR2R, Pt11528R and Pt113R, and the remaining strains. For all of the above analyses, BR2R shared identical RFLP patterns with P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121, also a bean pathogen which does not cause disease on tobacco. However, BR2R AND NPS3121 could be differentiated from each other on the basis of the RFLP patterns from restriction analysis of PCR-amplified DNA of argF, while the remaining tabaci strains had a third pattern. These studies indicate that hrp genes and argF are conserved in strains of P. syringae pathogenic to tobacco, suggesting that P. syringae strains pathogenic to specific hosts may have a high level of genetic similarity. We believe that these analyses have shown that distinct identifiable genetic differences may be correlated with host range and suggest that such information may be useful for assigning pathovar designations. Images

Scholz, B K; Jakobek, J L; Lindgren, P B

1994-01-01

116

Polimorfismo dos Fragmentos de Restricao do DNA Ribossomal em Taxonomia Molecular de Leveduras: Estudo de um Genero (Restriction Fragment Polymorphism of Ribosomal DNA in Yeasts Molecular Taxonomy: Study of a Genus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study explored the possibility of obtaining species-specific probes based on cloned spacer sequences of rDNA using the type strain of the yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii as a model. The study isolated, cloned and mapped its rDNA. Subsequently sub-clones...

M. O. I. Henriques

1990-01-01

117

Using DNA fragments as probes.  

PubMed

All hybridization methods depend upon the ability of denatured DNA to reanneal when complementary strands are present in an environment near but below their Tm (melting temperature). A detailed procedure is described in which bacteriophage plaques or bacterial colonies bound to a filter membrane are detected by hybridization with a radioactive probe. Hybridization proceeds on prewet filters placed in a sealable plastic bag. After hybridization the filters are removed from the sealed bag, excess probe is washed off, and the filters are autoradiographed to identify the clones that have hybridized with the probe. An Alternate Protocol differs mainly in that formamide is not used in the hybridization solution. PMID:18265258

Strauss, W M

2001-05-01

118

Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

Tiquia, Sonia M.

119

Plasmid profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and O-serotypes among Vibrio anguillarum isolates.  

PubMed Central

A total of 279 Vibrio anguillarum strains were serotyped and examined for plasmid content. Plasmids were subjected to digestion with restriction enzymes. Most strains belonged to serogroup O1 (39%) and O2 (16%). In total 164 strains (53%) carried plasmids. Of the O1 and O2 isolates, 92% and 30%, respectively, carried one or more plasmids. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of plasmid DNA indicated that plasmids belonged to several groups. Each group seemed to be restricted to a single O-serovar. The largest group was the pJM1-like plasmids among most serovar O1 strains. Most of these plasmids were about 67 kb like the pJM1 plasmid, but various derivatives ranged from 26-77 kb. RFLP studies of the 67 kb plasmids revealed 17 different restriction patterns. Some patterns were dominant among European strains whereas others were dominant among North American strains. The results confirmed the applicability of O-serotyping together with plasmid profile and restriction analysis of plasmids for typing of V. anguillarum. They also indicated that plasmids among strains which belonged to the traditional fish pathogenic serogroups, O1 and O2, showed more homology than did strains from most other serogroups, that were usually non-pathogenic, environmental bacteria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Pedersen, K.; Tiainen, T.; Larsen, J. L.

1996-01-01

120

Bacterial Species Determination from DNA-DNA Hybridization by Using Genome Fragments and DNA Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole genomic DNA-DNA hybridization has been a cornerstone of bacterial species determination but is not widely used because it is not easily implemented. We have developed a method based on random genome fragments and DNA microarray technology that overcomes the disadvantages of whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization. Reference genomes of four fluorescent Pseudomonas species were fragmented, and 60 to 96 genome fragments

JAE-CHANG CHO; JAMES M. TIEDJE

2001-01-01

121

Formation of Pseudo-Terminal Restriction Fragments, a PCR-Related Bias Affecting Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Microbial Community Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in molecular microbial ecology. In this study, we show that besides expected terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs), additional secondary T-RFs occur in T-RFLP analysis of amplicons from cloned 16S rRNA genes at high frequency. A total of 50% of 109 bacterial and 78% of 68

Markus Egert; Michael W. Friedrich

2003-01-01

122

Identification of Dermatophytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Metalloproteinase-1  

PubMed Central

Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms in the metalloproteinase-1 gene (MEP1). Methods From each fungal strain, we isolated genomic DNA and performed PCR to amplify the region coding for metalloproteinase-1. Primers for the metalloproteinase-1 gene were designed based on the sequence in NCBI GenBank. Subsequently, we purified the amplified PCR product and performed RFLP analysis. After restriction enzyme digestion, BsrDI (NEB, England), the samples were subjected to electrophoresis. Four different patterns of DNA fragments were observed among 6 fungal species. Results The DNA fragments for T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans showed similar patterns on electrophoresis and were not distinguishable, whereas T. rubrum, M. canis, and M. gypseum showed different patterns. Conclusion To our knowledge, it is the first study to introduce the analysis of the nucleotide sequence of metalloproteinase-1 enzyme to study differentiation in dermatophytes. Based on our results, more accurate differentiation and subtyping of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale might be possible. This might contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dermatophyte.

Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

2014-01-01

123

Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to investigate strain variation within Neisseria meningitidis  

SciTech Connect

Similarity within bacterial populations is difficult to assess due to the limited number of characters available for evaluation and the heterogeneity of bacterial species. Currently, the preferred method used to evaluate the structure of bacterial populations is multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. However, this method is extremely cumbersome and only offers an indirect measure of genetic similarities. The development of a more direct and less cumbersome method for this purpose is warranted. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was evaluated as a tool for use in the study of bacterial population structures and in the epidemiology and surveillance of infectious disease. A collection of Neisseria meningitidis was available for use in the investigation of this technique. Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and septicemia as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. Each isolate in the collection was defined in terms of serogroup specificity, clinical history, geographic source, and date of isolation. Forty-six strains were chosen for this study. The DNA from each strain was restricted with Pst1 and EcoR1 and electrophoresed on agarose gels. The DNA was transferred to nylon filters and hybridized with P{sup 32} labeled DNA probes. Two randomly generated probes and a gene-specific probe were used to estimate the genetic similarities between and among the strains in the study population. A total of 28 different restriction fragment migration types were detected by the probes used. Data obtained from the RFLP analysis was analyzed by cluster analysis and multivariate statistical methods. A total of 7 clones groups were detected. Two of these appear to be major clones that comprise 35% of the population.

Williams, S.D.

1989-01-01

124

Use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms to Investigate Strain Variation Within Neisseria Meningitidis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similarity within bacterial populations is difficult to assess due to the limited number of characters available for evaluation and the heterogeneity of bacterial species. Currently, the preferred method used to evaluate the structure of bacterial populations is multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. However, this method is extremely cumbersome and only offers an indirect measure of genetic similarities. The development of a more direct and less cumbersome method for this purpose is warranted. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was evaluated as a tool for use in the study of bacterial population structures and in the epidemiology and surveillance of infectious disease. A collection of Neisseria meningitidis was available for use in the investigation of this technique. Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis and septicemia as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. Each isolate in the collection was defined in terms of serogroup specificity, clinical history, geographic source, and date of isolation. Forty -six strains were chosen for this study. The DNA from each strain was restricted with Pst1 and EcoR1 and electrophoresed on agarose gels. The DNA was transferred to nylon filters and hybridized with P ^{32} labeled DNA probes. Two randomly generated probes and a gene-specific probe were used to estimate the genetic similarities between and among the strains in the study population. A total of 28 different restriction fragment migration types were detected by the probes used. Data obtained from the RFLP analysis was analysed by cluster analysis and multivariate statistical methods. A total of 7 clones groups were detected. Two of these appear to be major clones that comprise 35% of the population. This analysis demonstrates the lack of structure within Neisseria meningitidis due primarily to a heterogenous population and the lack of geographic segregation. The potential utility of this technique as a tool in epidemiologic surveillance is addressed. Further work is needed in the evaluation of RFLP analysis in the taxonomy bacteria.

Williams, Shelley Diane

125

Combination of native and denaturing PAGE for the detection of protein binding regions in long fragments of genomic DNA.  

PubMed

In traditional electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) a single (32)P-labeled double-stranded DNA oligonucleotide or a restriction fragment bound to a protein is separated from the unbound DNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under nondenaturing conditions. An extension of this method uses a population of DNA restriction fragments derived from long genomic regions for the identification of fragments containing protein binding regions. Although the method allows simultaneous analysis of large fragments, it is relatively laborious and can be used to detect only fragments containing high affinity protein binding sites. Here we describe an alternative and straightforward strategy which is based on a combination of native and denaturing PAGE. With this strategy restriction fragments, derived from genomic DNA (<10 kb), containing high as well as low affinity protein binding regions may be easily identified. PMID:23436361

Kaer, Kristel; Speek, Mart

2013-01-01

126

Babesia canis: evidence for genetic diversity among isolates revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of B. canis was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. For this purpose, we identified a Babesia canis specific DNA probe named pS8. This 1.2 kbp probe can detect as low as 20 pg of B. canis DNA. Results suggest that the pS8 probe is distributed in multiple copies throughout the genome though is probably not itself internally repetitious, i.e. not structured into blocks of tandem units. This probe reveals discrete hybridizing fragments in B. canis enzyme-digested genomic DNA. RFLP patterns obtained with the pS8 probe revealed a large genetic diversity between various isolates and led us to distinguish several clones derived from a single isolate. Results suggest that for a single isolate, the fingerprints obtained reflect those of a few quantitatively dominant clones. This technique can now be routinely applied and provides a convenient tool for the characterization and the identification of B. canis isolates, strains and clones. PMID:8533020

Citard, T; Mähl, P; Boulouis, H J; Chavigny, C; Druilhe, P

1995-09-01

127

Comparison of the Restriction Endonuclease Digestion Patterns of Mitochondrial DNA from Normal and Male Sterile Cytoplasms of ZEA MAYS L  

PubMed Central

High resolution gel electrophoresis has allowed the assignment of fragment number and molecular weight to EcoRI, SalI and PstI restriction fragments of mitochondrial DNA from B37 normal (N) and B37 T, C and S male sterile cytoplasmic types of maize. A minimum complexity of 450-475 kb has been established. Hybridization of cloned EcoRI fragments to restriction digests of total mitochondrial DNA suggests that at least 80% of the genome is composed of unique sequences. Restriction fragments of identical size in N, T, C and S contain similar sequence information as evidenced by their hybridization behavior.—The total SalI digest and the larger PstI fragments representing 80% of the total complexity were used to calculate the fraction of shared fragments of each pairwise combination of cytoplasmic types. The C type mtDNA is most closely allied with the other mtDNAs and shares 67% of fragments with S, 65% with N, and 60% with T. The S type mtDNA is quite divergent from N (53% shared fragments) and T (56% shared fragments). N and T share 59% of the fragments. These results are discussed in terms of the origin of mtDNA diversity in maize.

Borck, Kathleen S.; Walbot, Virginia

1982-01-01

128

Structure of Marek's disease virus DNA: detailed restriction enzyme map.  

PubMed Central

Purified virion DNA (120 X 10(6) molecular weight [MW]) of Marek's disease virus strain GA was cleaved with BamHI restriction endonuclease, and 27 out of the 29 fragments were cloned into bacterial plasmids. Restriction maps for BamHI, BglI, and SmaI endonucleases were constructed. The genomic structure of Marek's disease virus DNA was found to be similar to that of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. A long unique region (75 X 10(6) MW, located at 10 X 10(6) to 85 X 10(6) MW [10-85] from the left end of the genome), which was subdivided into segment 1 (22 X 10(6) MW, located at 10-32) and segment 2 (51 X 10(6) MW, located at 34-85) by direct repeats (32-34), was flanked by a long terminal region (10 X 10(6) MW, located at 0-10) and a long inverted region (10 X 10(6) MW, located at 85-95). A short unique region (8 X 10(6) MW, located at 103-111) was flanked by a short terminal region (8 X 10(6) MW, located at 111-119) and a short inverted region (8 X 10(6) MW, located at 95-103). The direct repeat fragments (0.9 X 10(6) could be isolated by cleavage with SmaI. The right terminal end was found to be heterogenous . Images

Fukuchi, K; Sudo, M; Lee, Y S; Tanaka, A; Nonoyama, M

1984-01-01

129

Structure of Marek's disease virus DNA: detailed restriction enzyme map.  

PubMed

Purified virion DNA (120 X 10(6) molecular weight [MW]) of Marek's disease virus strain GA was cleaved with BamHI restriction endonuclease, and 27 out of the 29 fragments were cloned into bacterial plasmids. Restriction maps for BamHI, BglI, and SmaI endonucleases were constructed. The genomic structure of Marek's disease virus DNA was found to be similar to that of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. A long unique region (75 X 10(6) MW, located at 10 X 10(6) to 85 X 10(6) MW [10-85] from the left end of the genome), which was subdivided into segment 1 (22 X 10(6) MW, located at 10-32) and segment 2 (51 X 10(6) MW, located at 34-85) by direct repeats (32-34), was flanked by a long terminal region (10 X 10(6) MW, located at 0-10) and a long inverted region (10 X 10(6) MW, located at 85-95). A short unique region (8 X 10(6) MW, located at 103-111) was flanked by a short terminal region (8 X 10(6) MW, located at 111-119) and a short inverted region (8 X 10(6) MW, located at 95-103). The direct repeat fragments (0.9 X 10(6) could be isolated by cleavage with SmaI. The right terminal end was found to be heterogenous . PMID:6328029

Fukuchi, K; Sudo, M; Lee, Y S; Tanaka, A; Nonoyama, M

1984-07-01

130

Mitochondrial restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence variation among closely related avian species and the genetic characterization of hybrid Dendroica warblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address several interconnected goals, we used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences to explore evolutionary relationships among four potentially hybridizing taxa in a North American avian superspecies ( Dendroica occidentalis , D. townsendi , D. virens , and D. nigrescens ). We first compared the results of a previous restriction fragment length poly- morphism (RFLP)-based study with 1453 nucleotides from the

Irby J. Lovette; Eldredge Bermingham; Chris Wood

1999-01-01

131

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments  

DOEpatents

Optical selection and collection of DNA fragments. The present invention includes the optical selection and collection of large (>.mu.g) quantities of clonable, chromosome-specific DNA from a sample of chromosomes. Chromosome selection is based on selective, irreversible photoinactivation of unwanted chromosomal DNA. Although more general procedures may be envisioned, the invention is demonstrated by processing chromosomes in a conventional flow cytometry apparatus, but where no droplets are generated. All chromosomes in the sample are first stained with at least one fluorescent analytic dye and bonded to a photochemically active species which can render chromosomal DNA unclonable if activated. After passing through analyzing light beam(s), unwanted chromosomes are irradiated using light which is absorbed by the photochemically active species, thereby causing photoinactivation. As desired chromosomes pass this photoinactivation point, the inactivating light source is deflected by an optical modulator; hence, desired chromosomes are not photoinactivated and remain clonable. The selection and photoinactivation processes take place on a microsecond timescale. By eliminating droplet formation, chromosome selection rates 50 times greater than those possible with conventional chromosome sorters may be obtained. Thus, usable quantities of clonable DNA from any source thereof may be collected.

Roslaniec, Mary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Cram, L. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

132

Species-specific, nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism detection of single Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.  

PubMed

Concurrent with recent advances seen with Cryptosporidium parvum detection in both treated and untreated water is the need to properly evaluate these advances. A micromanipulation method by which known numbers of C. parvum oocysts, even a single oocyst, can be delivered to a test matrix for detection sensitivity is presented. Using newly developed nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism primers, PCR sensitivity was evaluated with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, or 10 oocysts. PCR detection rates (50 samples for each number of oocysts) ranged from 38% for single oocysts to 92% for 5 oocysts, while 10 oocysts were needed to achieve 100% detection. The nested PCR conditions amplified products from C. parvum, Cryptosporidium baileyi, and Cryptosporidium serpentis but no other Cryptosporidium sp. or protozoan tested. Restriction enzyme digestion with VspI distinguished between C. parvum genotypes 1 and 2. Restriction enzyme digestion with DraII distinguished C. parvum from C. baileyi and C. serpentis. Use of known numbers of whole oocysts encompasses the difficulty of liberating DNA from the oocyst and eliminates the standard deviation inherent within a dilution series. To our knowledge this is the first report in which singly isolated C. parvum oocysts were used to evaluate PCR sensitivity. This achievement illustrates that PCR amplification of a single oocyst is feasible, yet sensitivity remains an issue, thereby illustrating the difficulty of dealing with low oocyst numbers when working with environmental water samples. PMID:11375178

Sturbaum, G D; Reed, C; Hoover, P J; Jost, B H; Marshall, M M; Sterling, C R

2001-06-01

133

Technicalities and Glitches of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP).  

PubMed

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a rapid, robust, inexpensive and simple tool for microbial community profiling. Methods used for DNA extraction, PCR amplification and digestion of amplified products have a considerable impact on the results of T-RFLP. Pitfalls of the method skew the similarity analysis and compromise its high throughput ability. Despite a high throughput method of data generation, data analysis is still in its infancy and needs more attention. Current article highlights the limitations of the methods used for data generation and analysis. It also provides an overview of the recent methodological developments in T-RFLP which will assist the readers in obtaining real and authentic profiles of the microbial communities under consideration while eluding the inherent biases and technical difficulties. PMID:24891731

Prakash, Om; Pandey, Prashant K; Kulkarni, Girish J; Mahale, Kiran N; Shouche, Yogesh S

2014-09-01

134

Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair  

SciTech Connect

DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

1989-03-01

135

Distribution of two DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) corresponding to Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) of the apo B gene in the Orang Asli (aborigines) of West Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and ninety five subjects of the Semai group of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia were examined for the distribution of Ag(c/g) and Ag(al/d) RFLPs of the apoB gene. Regions of apoB gene corresponding to nt 421 and 1981 representing these two Ags were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers of published sequences. Thr{sub 71} to Ile (Ag c/g) was detected as an ApaL I RFLP and Val{sub 591} to Ala (Ag al/d) by Alu I RFLP. DNA fragments were separated by 4% agarose gel electrophoresis and photographed over a UV transilluminator. The frequencies of Ag(d) (absence of ApaL I site) and Ag(d) (presence of Alu I site) were found to be 0.13 and 0.14, respectively, in the Orang Asli compared to frequencies of 0.30 and 0.45 in the Caucasian population. Distribution of the genotypes of these two polymorphisms was at Hardy-Weinberg equiilibrium.

Candlish, J.K.; Gajra, B; Saha, N. [National Univ. of Singapore, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)] [and others

1994-09-01

136

Directional cloning of DNA fragments using deoxyinosine-containing oligonucleotides and endonuclease V  

PubMed Central

Background DNA fragments carrying internal recognition sites for the restriction endonucleases intended for cloning into a target plasmid pose a challenge for conventional cloning. Results A method for directional insertion of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors has been developed. The target sequence is amplified from a template DNA sample by PCR using two oligonucleotides each containing a single deoxyinosine base at the third position from the 5? end. Treatment of such PCR products with endonuclease V generates 3? protruding ends suitable for ligation with vector fragments created by conventional restriction endonuclease reactions. Conclusions The developed approach generates terminal cohesive ends without the use of Type II restriction endonucleases, and is thus independent from the DNA sequence. Due to PCR amplification, minimal amounts of template DNA are required. Using the robust Taq enzyme or a proofreading Pfu DNA polymerase mutant, the method is applicable to a broad range of insert sequences. Appropriate primer design enables direct incorporation of terminal DNA sequence modifications such as tag addition, insertions, deletions and mutations into the cloning strategy. Further, the restriction sites of the target plasmid can be either retained or removed.

2013-01-01

137

Genetic Identification of the Main Opportunistic Mucorales by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Mucormycosis is a rare and opportunistic infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of mucormycosis, which is frequently lethal, especially in patients suffering from severe underlying conditions such as immunodeficiency. In addition, even though conventional mycology and histopathology assays allow for the identification of Mucorales, they often fail in offering a species-specific diagnosis. Due to the lack of other laboratory tests, a precise identification of these molds is thus notoriously difficult. In this study we aimed to develop a molecular biology tool to identify the main Mucorales involved in human pathology. A PCR strategy selectively amplifies genomic DNA from molds belonging to the genera Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Rhizomucor, excluding human DNA and DNA from other filamentous fungi and yeasts. A subsequent digestion step identified the Mucorales at genus and species level. This technique was validated using both fungal cultures and retrospective analyses of clinical samples. By enabling a rapid and precise identification of Mucorales strains in infected patients, this PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method should help clinicians to decide on the appropriate treatment, consequently decreasing the mortality of mucormycosis.

Machouart, M.; Larche, J.; Burton, K.; Collomb, J.; Maurer, P.; Cintrat, A.; Biava, M. F.; Greciano, S.; Kuijpers, A. F. A.; Contet-Audonneau, N.; de Hoog, G. S.; Gerard, A.; Fortier, B.

2006-01-01

138

The leftward promoter of bacteriophage lambda. Isolation on a small restriction fragment and deletion of adjacent regions.  

PubMed

As part of our investigations on the relationship between DNA structure and gene regulation, a 352-base pair Hae III fragment was cloned containing the leftward operator-promoter (PL) region of bacteriophage lambda. This was accomplished without the aid of a phenotypic assay for the cloned fragment. A Hae III digest of a segment of the lambda genome was first fractionated by RPC-5 column chromatography. The partially purified PL fragment was then ligated into the Eco RI site of the pBR322 plasmid vector and cloned into the recBC+ Escherichia coli host C600(R-M-) using a technique that converts the Hae III ends of the fragment into Eco RI sites. Similar cloning attempts into a recBC- host (C600-SF8) were unsuccessful. The cloned fragment has the PL promoter oriented toward the tetracycline resistance genes of the vector, and is isolated from the plasmid (pRW601) by digestion with Eco RI followed by sucrose gradient sedimentation. The fragment was identified as PL by restriction mapping, repressor binding, sequencing, and promoter location. The now complete sequence of this fragment, part of which was known previously, reveals a large A/T-rich region immediately adjacent to the PL promoter. We have generated deletions in this region in order to study the influence of this sequence on promoter function. PMID:6257696

Horn, G T; Wells, R D

1981-02-25

139

Characterization of microbial diversity by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes encoding 16S rRNA.  

PubMed Central

A quantitative molecular technique was developed for rapid analysis of microbial community diversity in various environments. The technique employed PCR in which one of the two primers used was fluorescently labeled at the 5' end and was used to amplify a selected region of bacterial genes encoding 16S rRNA from total community DNA. The PCR product was digested with restriction enzymes, and the fluorescently labeled terminal restriction fragment was precisely measured by using an automated DNA sequencer. Computer-simulated analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) for 1,002 eubacterial sequences showed that with proper selection of PCR primers and restriction enzymes, 686 sequences could be PCR amplified and classified into 233 unique terminal restriction fragment lengths or "ribotypes." Using T-RFLP, we were able to distinguish all bacterial strains in a model bacterial community, and the pattern was consistent with the predicted outcome. Analysis of complex bacterial communities with T-RFLP revealed high species diversity in activated sludge, bioreactor sludge, aquifer sand, and termite guts; as many as 72 unique ribotypes were found in these communities, with 36 ribotypes observed in the termite guts. The community T-RFLP patterns were numerically analyzed and hierarchically clustered. The pattern derived from termite guts was found to be distinctly different from the patterns derived from the other three communities. Overall, our results demonstrated that T-RFLP is a powerful tool for assessing the diversity of complex bacterial communities and for rapidly comparing the community structure and diversity of different ecosystems.

Liu, W T; Marsh, T L; Cheng, H; Forney, L J

1997-01-01

140

Genetic analyses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe dna2(+) reveal that dna2 plays an essential role in Okazaki fragment metabolism.  

PubMed

In this report, we investigated the phenotypes caused by temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant alleles of dna2(+) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a homologue of DNA2 of budding yeast, in an attempt to further define its function in vivo with respect to lagging-strand synthesis during the S-phase of the cell cycle. At the restrictive temperature, dna2 (ts) cells arrested at late S-phase but were unaffected in bulk DNA synthesis. Moreover, they exhibited aberrant mitosis when combined with checkpoint mutations, in keeping with a role for Dna2 in Okazaki fragment maturation. Similarly, spores in which dna2(+) was disrupted duplicated their DNA content during germination and also arrested at late S-phase. Inactivation of dna2(+) led to chromosome fragmentation strikingly similar to that seen when cdc17(+), the DNA ligase I gene, is inactivated. The temperature-dependent lethality of dna2 (ts) mutants was suppressed by overexpression of genes encoding subunits of polymerase delta (cdc1(+) and cdc27(+)), DNA ligase I (cdc17(+)), and Fen-1 (rad2(+)). Each of these gene products plays a role in the elongation or maturation of Okazaki fragments. Moreover, they all interacted with S. pombe Dna2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay, albeit to different extents. On the basis of these results, we conclude that dna2(+) plays a direct role in the Okazaki fragment elongation and maturation. We propose that dna2(+) acts as a central protein to form a complex with other proteins required to coordinate the multienzyme process for Okazaki fragment elongation and maturation. PMID:10880469

Kang, H Y; Choi, E; Bae, S H; Lee, K H; Gim, B S; Kim, H D; Park, C; MacNeill, S A; Seo, Y S

2000-07-01

141

HLA class II DR, DQ, and DP restriction fragment length polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

HLA class II restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were studied in 43 individuals with established seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in a group of healthy controls. All patients and controls were tissue typed for HLA-A, B, and DR antigens. Rapid, initial screening for RA associated RFLPs was conducted by pooling DNA samples from 11 HLA-DR4 positive patients with RA and comparing the RFLP patterns with those seen in a pool of DNA samples drawn from 11 HLA-DR4 positive healthy controls. Candidate RA associated RFLPs were examined in our full panel of patients with RA and controls. In most cases the RFLPs detected showed no significant association with RA. An exception was a 13.0 kb DraI DQ beta associated RFLP, which, when HLA-DR4 positive patients with RA and controls were considered alone, showed a weak positive association with susceptibility to RA. This RFLP was not associated with known DR, DQ, or Dw specificities. These results show a distinct paucity of class II RA associated RFLPs but may indicate a role for DQ beta genetic variation in the aetiology of RA. Images

Howell, W M; Evans, P R; Wilson, P J; Cawley, M I; Smith, J L

1989-01-01

142

DNA fragmentation induced by ionizing radiation - Atomic Force Microscopy study .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA as a carrier of genetic information is considered to be the critical target for radiation induced damage Especially severe are DNA double-strand breaks DSBs formed when breaks occur in both strands of the molecule The DSBs production is determined by the spatial distribution of ionization events dependent on the physical properties of the energy deposition and the chemical environment of the DNA According to theoretical predictions high LET charged particle radiation induces lesions in close proximity forming so called clustered damage in the DNA Atomic Force Microscopy AFM was newly established as a technique allowing the direct visualization of DNA fragments resulting from DSBs induced in small DNA molecules plasmids by ionizing radiation We have used AFM to visualize the DNA fragmentation induced by heavy ions high LET radiation and to compare it to the fragmentation pattern obtained after X-rays low LET radiation Plasmid supercoiled DNA was irradiated in vitro with X-rays and 3 9 MeV u Ni ions within a dose range 0 -- 3000 Gy Afterwards the samples were analyzed using AFM which allowed the detection and length measurement of individual fragments with a nanometer resolution Recording of the length of the induced fragments allowed to distinguish between molecules broken by a single DSB or by multiple DSBs The fragment length distributions were derived for different doses and different radiation qualities The first results of the measurement of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation show an influence of radiation quality on

Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Psonka, K.; Elsaesser, Th.; Brons, S.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

143

Separation of random fragments of DNA according to properties of their sequences.  

PubMed Central

The separation of DNA fragments by electrophoresis at high temperature in a denaturing gradient is independent of the length of the fragments. We have suggested that the basis of fragment separation is that each DNA molecule undergoes partial melting as it encounters a concentration of denaturants sufficient to melt its least stable sequence, while other sequences remain double stranded; in the partially melted configuration, DNA can continue migration only slowly. This model is consistent with the observation that fragments of lambda phage DNA cleaved by different restriction endonucleases reach the same final depth in the gel if they contain the same least-stable sequence. A unique set of bands is produced from the electrophoresis of randomly fragmented DNA; this would be expected if there were a limited number of melting centers occupying discrete genetic loci. An intact DNA molecule penetrates about as deeply into the gel as the uppermost band after fragmentation; this would be expected only if the least-stable sequence controls the final depth of the whole molecule. Images

Fischer, S G; Lerman, L S

1980-01-01

144

Heterothallic species of neurospora are distinguishable by restriction analysis of their nuclear rDNA sequences  

SciTech Connect

Restriction analysis of rDNAs was used to distinguish nuclear rDNA's of three different reference strains of heterothallic species of the genus Neurospora: N. crassa 74A (FGSC number987), N. intermedia P420 (FGSC number2316), and N. sitophila 10B (FGSC number580). Two approaches were adopted: (1) Nuclear DNA's of these three Neurospora species were treated with various restriction enzymes. Against the streaks of nuclear DNAs on the 0.7% agarose gels background bands were visible. These background bands are visible because rDNA sequences of Neurospora species exist in multiple copies within the nuclear DNA's. (2) The second approach was comparison of auto-radiographs of hybrid molecules of Southern blot transfers of restricted nuclear DNAs and /sup 32/P-labelled nick translated rDNA's (referred to as rDNA probe) isolated from N. crassa slime mutant (FGSC number1118), rDNA cloned into pBR322. A summary of restricted fragment sizes as seen in the gels and in autoradiographs of Southern blots of the respective gels is presented.

Chambers, C.; Dutta, S.K.

1983-01-01

145

A restriction fragment length polymorphism results in a nonconservative amino acid substitution encoded within the first exon of the human lysyl oxidase gene.  

PubMed

A cDNA covering most of the coding sequence for human lysyl oxidase was used to screen, by Southern blot analysis, genomic DNA from circulating lymphocytes obtained from unrelated, apparently normal individuals. A heritable restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) within a PstI restriction site was detected in 36% of individuals screened (a total of 72 chromosomes were analyzed). The major allele was represented as a 1.7-kb PstI restriction fragment. The minor allele was detected as 1.4 and 0.3kb restriction fragments. Lambda phage-DNA recombinants were isolated from a human lung fibroblast genomic DNA library using the human lysyl oxidase cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis of several selected phage recombinants revealed that 83% of the coding sequence of lysyl oxidase was localized in four separate exons. Analysis of the coding sequence within exon 1, the most 5' exon within the lysyl oxidase gene, revealed that the PstI RFLP was due to a G-->A transition resulting in a nonconservative arginine to glutamine substitution proximal to a propeptide cleavage domain encoded by exon 1 of the lysyl oxidase gene. PMID:8100215

Csiszar, K; Mariani, T J; Gosin, J S; Deak, S B; Boyd, C D

1993-05-01

146

Detection of Disease-Specific Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms in Pemphigus Vulgaris Linked to the DQw1 and DQw3 Alleles of the HLA-D Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pemphigus vulgaris in Israeli Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews and in Austrian non-Jewish patients is strongly associated with the DR4 and DRw6 alleles of the HLA-D region class II genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was undertaken with DQbeta , DQalpha , and DRbeta cDNA probes. Hybridization with the DQbeta probe identifies Pvu II, BamHI, and EcoRV fragments that absolutely discriminate

Fanny Szafer; Chaim Brautbar; Eli Tzfoni; Gad Frankel; Lenny Sherman; Itzhak Cohen; Shoshana Hacham-Zadeh; Werner Aberer; Gerhard Tappeiner; Karl Holubar; Lawrence Steinman; Adam Friedmann

1987-01-01

147

Prolonged incubation of processed human spermatozoa will increase DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

One of the causes of failure in ART is sperm DNA fragmentation which may be associated with long period of spermatozoa incubation at 37 °C. The objective was to evaluate the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test after swim-up at different time intervals prior to use. In this prospective study, 21 normozoospermic specimens were analysed. The samples were incubated at 37 °C after preparation by direct swim-up. DNA fragmentation was assessed at different time intervals (0, 1, 2 and 3 h) using SCD test. Spermatozoa with no DNA fragmentation showed large- or medium-sized halos, and sperm cells with DNA fragmentation showed either a small halo or no halo. The rates of normal morphology and progressive motility after sperm processing were 72.33 ± 2.53% and 90 ± 1.02%, respectively. The rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after 2 h (8.81 ± 0.93%, P = 0.004) and 3 h (10.76 ± 0.89%, P < 0.0001) of incubation compared to 0 h (4.38 ± 0.8%). A positive correlation was found between the incubation time and sperm DNA damage (P < 0.0001). Prolonged incubation of prepared normozoospermic samples at 37 °C is associated with higher rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Therefore, sperm samples intended for ART procedures should be used within 2 h of incubation at 37 °C. PMID:24689689

Nabi, A; Khalili, M A; Halvaei, I; Roodbari, F

2014-05-01

148

Multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the GLUT2 locus: GLUT2 haplotypes for genetic analysis of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The liver\\/islet glucose transporter (GLUT2) is expressed in the liver and in the Beta cells of pancreatic islets and is a candidate gene for the inherited defect in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. A series of restriction fragment length polymorphisms have been identified using a GLUT2 cDNA probe with five restriction enzymes in a British white Caucasian population. Five independent

P. Patel; G. I. Bell; J. T. E. Cook; R. C. Turner; J. S. Wainscoat

1991-01-01

149

DNA Hybridization Probe for Use in Determining Restricted Nodulation among Bradyrhizobium japonicum Serocluster 123 Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

Several soybean plant introduction (PI) genotypes have recently been described which restrict nodulation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum serocluster 123 in an apparently serogroup-specific manner. While PI 371607 restricts nodulation of strains in serogroup 123 and some in serogroup 127, those in serogroup 129 are not restricted. When DNA regions within and around the B. japonicum I-110 common nodulation genes were used as probes to genomic DNA from the serogroup strains USDA 123, USDA 127, and USDA 129, several of the probes differentially hybridized to the nodulation-restricted and -unrestricted strains. One of the gene regions, cloned in plasmid pMJS12, was subsequently shown to hybridize to 4.6-kilobase EcoRI fragments from DNAs from nodulation-restricted strains and to larger fragments in nodulation-unrestricted strains. To determine if the different hybridization patterns could be used to predict nodulation restriction, we hybridized pMJS12 to EcoRI-digested genomic DNAs from uncharacterized serocluster 123 field isolates. Of the 36 strains examined, 15 were found to have single, major, 4.6-kilobase hybridizing EcoRI fragments. When tested for nodulation, 80% (12 of 15) of the strains were correctly predicted to be restricted for nodulation of the PI genotypes. In addition, hybridization patterns obtained with pMJS12 and nodulation phenotypes on PI 371607 indicated that there are at least three types of serogroup 127 strains. Our results suggest that the pMJS12 gene probe may be useful in selecting compatible host-strain combinations and in determining the suitability of field sites for the placement of soybean genotypes containing restrictive nodulation alleles. Images

Sadowsky, Michael J.; Cregan, Perry B.; Keyser, Harold H.

1990-01-01

150

Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Compared to IS6110Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis for Investigation of Apparently Clustered Cases of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the utility of IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing compared to a combination of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) typing was undertaken. A total of 53 patient isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from four presumed episodes of cross-infection were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates by a cetyl

Peter M. Hawkey; E. Grace Smith; Jason T. Evans; Philip Monk; Gerry Bryan; Huda H. Mohamed; Madhu Bardhan; R. Nicholas Pugh

2003-01-01

151

Use of Multiplex Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Rapid and Simultaneous Analysis of Different Components of the Soil Microbial Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (M-TRFLP) fingerprinting method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the diversity and community structure of two or more microbial taxa (up to four taxa). The reproducibility and robustness of the method were examined using soil samples collected from different habitats. DNA was PCR amplified separately from soil samples using indi- vidual

Brajesh K. Singh; Loic Nazaries; Stacey Munro; Ian C. Anderson; Colin D. Campbell

2006-01-01

152

Identification of blood meal sources of Lutzomyia longipalpis using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cytochrome B gene.  

PubMed

An analysis of the dietary content of haematophagous insects can provide important information about the transmission networks of certain zoonoses. The present study evaluated the potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome B (cytb) gene to differentiate between vertebrate species that were identified as possible sources of sandfly meals. The complete cytb gene sequences of 11 vertebrate species available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database were digested with Aci I, Alu I, Hae III and Rsa I restriction enzymes in silico using Restriction Mapper software. The cytb gene fragment (358 bp) was amplified from tissue samples of vertebrate species and the dietary contents of sandflies and digested with restriction enzymes. Vertebrate species presented a restriction fragment profile that differed from that of other species, with the exception of Canis familiaris and Cerdocyon thous. The 358 bp fragment was identified in 76 sandflies. Of these, 10 were evaluated using the restriction enzymes and the food sources were predicted for four: Homo sapiens (1), Bos taurus (1) and Equus caballus (2). Thus, the PCR-RFLP technique could be a potential method for identifying the food sources of arthropods. However, some points must be clarified regarding the applicability of the method, such as the extent of DNA degradation through intestinal digestion, the potential for multiple sources of blood meals and the need for greater knowledge regarding intraspecific variations in mtDNA. PMID:24821056

Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Silva, Jailthon Carlos da; Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Alonso, Diego Peres; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

2014-06-01

153

A Mechanism of Gene Amplification Driven by Small DNA Fragments  

PubMed Central

DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s). Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA) occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB) external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation in nature.

Mukherjee, Kuntal; Storici, Francesca

2012-01-01

154

Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested

Adriana M. Alippi; Ana Claudia Lopez; O. Mario Aguilar

2002-01-01

155

Analysis of mer Gene Subclasses within Bacterial Communities in Soils and Sediments Resolved by Fluorescent-PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial mer (mercury resistance) gene subclasses in mercury-polluted and pristine natural environments have been profiled by Fluorescent-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (FluRFLP). For FluRFLP, PCR products were amplified from individual mer operons in mercury-resistant bacteria and from DNA isolated directly from bacteria in soil and sediment samples. The primers used to amplify DNA were designed from consensus sequences of the major

KENNETH D. BRUCE

1997-01-01

156

Development of a polymerase chain reaction\\/restriction fragment length polymorphism method for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus identification in enology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several yeast strains of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus and S. paradoxus, first identified by hybridization experiments and measurements of DNA\\/DNA homology, were characterized using polymerase chain reaction\\/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR\\/RFLP) analysis of the MET2 gene. There was no exception to the agreement between this method and classical genetic analyses for any of the strains examined, so PCR\\/RFLP

Isabelle Masneuf; Michel Aigle; Denis Dubourdieu

1996-01-01

157

Comparison of Chlamydia psittaci isolates by restriction endonuclease and DNA probe analyses.  

PubMed Central

DNAs from eight Chlamydia psittaci isolates (koala conjunctivitis, avian psittacosis, avian ornithosis, ovine abortion, ovine polyarthritis, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, and feline conjunctivitis) and one Chlamydia trachomatis isolate (lymphogranuloma venereum) were compared by restriction endonuclease and DNA probe analyses. Digestion with HindIII yielded a series of discrete fragments which allowed the differentiation of most isolates. A gene probe, pFEN207, which encodes the chlamydia-specific component of the lipopolysaccharide group antigen was used in Southern hybridizations. The probe was chlamydia specific and hybridized to a single BamHI fragment and multiple HindIII fragments in each isolate. The variation in size of the hybridizing fragments allowed easy differentiation of the isolates and may eventually lead to a meaningful subgrouping of the diverse group of disease agents presently included in the species C. psittaci. Images

Timms, P; Eaves, F W; Girjes, A A; Lavin, M F

1988-01-01

158

Diversity of uncultured microorganisms associated with the seagrass Halophila stipulacea estimated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes.  

PubMed Central

The diversity of microorganisms associated with the leaves of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea in the northern Gulf of Elat was examined by culture-independent analysis. Microorganisms were harvested by a sonication treatment for total-community genomic DNA isolation. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) of bacteria were used for PCR amplification. The 16S rDNA PCR products were subcloned and further characterized by a restriction fragment length analysis termed ARDRA (amplified rDNA restriction analysis). These analyses were carried out after reamplifying the cloned fragments with two primers binding symmetrically to the plasmid immediately on both sides of the cloned insert. Computer-aided clustering was performed after separate restriction analysis with enzymes HinfI and HpaII. By this method, 103 cloned 16S rDNA fragments were clustered into a total of 58 different groups. Sequence analysis of clones with an identical ARDRA pattern confirmed that members of an ARDRA group were closely related to each other. The sequenced clones were found to be affiliated with a marine snow-associated plastid-like rRNA clone and with a marine Hyphomonas strain, respectively. The method applied in this study could be useful for the routine study of other microbial communities of interest.

Weidner, S; Arnold, W; Puhler, A

1996-01-01

159

Restriction fragment length polymorphism maps and the concept of graphical genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of high density restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) maps, it has become possible to determine the genotype of an individual at many genetic loci simultaneously. Often, such RFLP data are expressed as long strings of numbers or letters indicating the genotype for each locus analyzed. In this form, RFLP data can be difficult to interpret or utilize

N. D. Young; S. D. Tanksley

1989-01-01

160

Restriction patterns of mitochondrial DNA in European wild boar and German Landrace.  

PubMed

For eight European wild boars and eight animals of the domestic breed German Landrace cleavage patterns of mtDNA by 10 restriction endonucleases (BamHI, HindIII, EcoRV, EcoRI, BglII, ScaI, SacI, StuI, XbaI and AvaI) were obtained. The restriction digests yielded either one fragment (EcoRV), 2 (Aval and SacI), 3 (BglII, EcoRI and XbaI), 4 (HindIII), 5 (BamHI); 8 (StuI) or 9 fragments (ScaI). The mean total size of mtDNA was calculated to be 16.43 +/- 0.15 kb. The restriction sites of mtDNA in wild boar and German Landrace are completely identical. Neither intra- nor interracial polymorphism could be detected. MtDNA cleavage patterns were found to belong to the European A type. It was concluded that the German Landrace originated from European wild boar and that there is no evidence in its breeding history that the female Asian B type was ever used. PMID:7749623

Chen, H; Leibenguth, F

1995-04-01

161

X chromosome restriction fragment length polymorphisms in five racial groups: rare variant detected with the RC8 (DXS9) probe in the Marathi population, India.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were investigated in five racial groups using the X chromosome probes DXS9 and DXS7. The allele frequencies of these polymorphisms showed significant differences and both DNA fragments were found to be highly polymorphic in the populations of south and southeast Asia. In the Marathi population of India, a rare allele B*3 (3 kilobases; kb) and an altered 7-kb fragment instead of the 6.6-kb constant band were found with DXS9. This is the first time that the rare B*3 allele is found in a non-European population. PMID:2575595

Wadhwa, R; Papiha, S; Lester, D; Ray, V; Saha, N; Bhattacharya, S

1989-01-01

162

DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by 56Fe ions: experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations.  

PubMed

We studied the DNA fragmentation induced in human fibroblasts by iron-ion beams of two different energies: 115 MeV/nucleon and 414 MeV/nucleon. Experimental data were obtained in the fragment size range 1-5700 kbp; Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the PARTRAC code; data analysis was also performed through the Generalized Broken Stick (GBS) model. The comparison between experimental and simulated data for the number of fragments produced in two different size ranges, 1-23 kbp and 23-5700 kbp, gives a satisfactory agreement for both radiation qualities. The Monte Carlo simulations also allow the counting of fragments outside the experimental range: The number of fragments smaller than 1 kbp is large for both beams, although with a strong difference between the two cases. As a consequence, we can compute different RBEs depending on the size range considered for the fragment counting. The PARTRAC evaluation takes into account fragments of all sizes, while the evaluation from the experimental data considers only the fragments in the range of 1-5700 kbp. When the PARTRAC evaluation is restricted to this range, the agreement between experimental and computed RBE values is again good. When fragments smaller than 1 kbp are also considered, the RBE increases considerably, since gamma rays produce a small number of such fragments. The analysis performed with the GBS model proved to be quite sensitive to showing, with a phenomenological single parameter, variations in double-strand break (DSB) correlation. PMID:19397444

Campa, A; Alloni, D; Antonelli, F; Ballarini, F; Belli, M; Dini, V; Esposito, G; Facoetti, A; Friedland, W; Furusawa, Y; Liotta, M; Ottolenghi, A; Paretzke, H G; Simone, G; Sorrentino, E; Tabocchini, M A

2009-04-01

163

Detection and Differentiation of Old World Orthopoxviruses: Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of the crmB Gene Region  

PubMed Central

A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed to identify and differentiate Old World, African-Eurasian orthopoxviruses (OPV): variola, vaccinia, cowpox, monkeypox, camelpox, ectromelia, and taterapox viruses. The test uses amplicons produced from virus genome DNA by PCR with a consensus primer pair designed from sequences determined for the cytokine response modifier B (crmB) gene of 43 different OPV strains of known taxonomic origin. The primer pair amplified a single specific product from each of the 115 OPV samples tested. Size-specific amplicons identified and differentiated ectromelia and vaccinia virus strains, which contain a truncated crmB gene, and enabled their differentiation from other OPV species. Restriction digests of amplified products allowed the identification and differentiation of variola, monkeypox, camelpox, vaccinia, and cowpox virus species and strains.

Loparev, Vladimir N.; Massung, Robert F.; Esposito, Joseph J.; Meyer, Hermann

2001-01-01

164

Restriction mapping of DNA stretched in nanofluidic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present sequence-specific restriction mapping of single DNA molecules in nanofabricated channels. In these channels, DNA is linearized and stretched to up to 3/4 of its contour length, permitting attribution of the cutting sites to specific regions in the genetic code. In order to extract the highest amount of information from a single molecule, the restriction activity has to be localized to the nanochannel region of macroscopic devices comprising nanofluidic and microfluidic components. This regulation of digestion activity is provided by management of magnesium ions, a necessary co-factor for most restriction enzymes. The magnesium is released from a photosensitive chelator by UV photolysis. We will discuss the possibility of applying this technique to yeast DNA as a step in genome mapping.

Riehn, Robert; Wang, Yan Mei; Austin, Robert H.; Lu, Manchun; Cox, Edward C.

2004-03-01

165

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Identification to the Species Level by Nested PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging protozoan disease associated with large waterborne outbreaks. Diagnosis relies on microscopic examination of stools, but this method cannot identify the infecting species of Cryptosporidium. We have developed a test based on nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) that offers simple identification of Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and most other human infective species in stool samples. Purified C. parvum oocysts were used for PCR development. Extracted DNA was amplified by nested PCR targeting a 214-bp fragment of the 18S RNA gene. Enzymatic restriction sites were identified by bioinformatic analysis of all published Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA sequences. Experiments with spiked stool samples gave an estimated PCR detection limit of one oocyst. Specificity was assessed by testing 68 stool samples from patients with microscopically proven cryptosporidiosis and 31 Cryptosporidium-negative stools. Sixty-seven (98.5%) of the 68 stool samples from patients with microscopically proven cryptosporidiosis and 2 of the other stool samples were positive by PCR and could be genotyped. RFLP analysis identified 36 C. hominis, 19 C. parvum, 8 Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and 6 Cryptosporidium felis or Cryptosporidium canis samples. Species determination in 26 PCR-positive cases was in full agreement with DNA sequencing of the 18S rRNA hypervariable region. The excellent sensitivity of PCR, coupled with the accuracy of RFLP for species identification, make this method a suitable tool for routine diagnosis and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in stools.

Coupe, Stephane; Sarfati, Claudine; Hamane, Samia; Derouin, Francis

2005-01-01

166

Detection of Methanotroph Diversity on Roots of Submerged Rice Plants by Molecular Retrieval of pmoA, mmoX, mxaF, and 16S rRNA and Ribosomal DNA, Including pmoA-Based Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profiling  

PubMed Central

The diversity of methanotrophic bacteria associated with roots of submerged rice plants was assessed using cultivation-independent techniques. The research focused mainly on the retrieval of pmoA, which encodes the ? subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase. A novel methanotroph-specific community-profiling method was established using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique. The T-RFLP profiles clearly revealed a more complex root-associated methanotrophic community than did banding patterns obtained by pmoA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The comparison of pmoA-based T-RFLP profiles obtained from rice roots and bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms suggested that there was a substantially higher abundance of type I methanotrophs on rice roots than in the bulk soil. These were affiliated to the genera Methylomonas, Methylobacter, Methylococcus, and to a novel type I methanotroph sublineage. By contrast, type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group could be detected with high relative signal intensity in both soil and root compartments. Phylogenetic treeing analyses and a set of substrate-diagnostic amino acid residues provided evidence that a novel pmoA lineage was detected. This branched distinctly from all currently known methanotrophs. To examine whether the retrieval of pmoA provided a complete view of root-associated methanotroph diversity, we also assessed the diversity detectable by recovery of genes coding for subunits of soluble methane monooxygenase (mmoX) and methanol dehydrogenase (mxaF). In addition, both 16S rRNA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were retrieved using a PCR primer set specific to type I methanotrophs. The overall methanotroph diversity detected by recovery of mmoX, mxaF, and 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA corresponded well to the diversity detectable by retrieval of pmoA.

Horz, Hans-Peter; Yimga, Merlin Tchawa; Liesack, Werner

2001-01-01

167

Cleavage of Epstein-Barr virus DNA by restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII and BamI.  

PubMed

The cleavage of the DNAs of the B95-8 and P3HR-1 virus strains of Epstein-Barr virus by the restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII and BamI was investigated using a new technique for quantitative evaluation of the fluorescence of ethidium stained DNA fragments separated on agarose gels. The results obtained with B95-8 DNA showed that in addition to the limited repetitions of nucleotide sequences observed in the EcoRI and HindIII cleavage patterns, the molecule contained a BamI fragment with a molecular mass of 2.0 megadaltons which was present in a total of about 11 copies and localized to a limited part of the DNA molecule. The same sequences were also present in the P3HR-1 DNA albeit in a lower molar ratio. P3HR-1 DNA yielded restriction enzyme cleavage patterns suggesting DNA sequence heterogeneity of P3HR-1 virus. No fragment was present in more than about 4 copies per molecule of P3HR-1 DNA. Comparison of the restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of P3HR-1 and B95-8 DNA revealed a high degree of structural homology emphasized by nucleic acid hybridization experiments with EBV complementary RNA synthesized in vitro. PMID:206875

Rymo, L; Forsblom, S

1978-04-01

168

Cleavage of Epstein-Barr virus DNA by restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII and BamI.  

PubMed Central

The cleavage of the DNAs of the B95-8 and P3HR-1 virus strains of Epstein-Barr virus by the restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII and BamI was investigated using a new technique for quantitative evaluation of the fluorescence of ethidium stained DNA fragments separated on agarose gels. The results obtained with B95-8 DNA showed that in addition to the limited repetitions of nucleotide sequences observed in the EcoRI and HindIII cleavage patterns, the molecule contained a BamI fragment with a molecular mass of 2.0 megadaltons which was present in a total of about 11 copies and localized to a limited part of the DNA molecule. The same sequences were also present in the P3HR-1 DNA albeit in a lower molar ratio. P3HR-1 DNA yielded restriction enzyme cleavage patterns suggesting DNA sequence heterogeneity of P3HR-1 virus. No fragment was present in more than about 4 copies per molecule of P3HR-1 DNA. Comparison of the restriction enzyme cleavage patterns of P3HR-1 and B95-8 DNA revealed a high degree of structural homology emphasized by nucleic acid hybridization experiments with EBV complementary RNA synthesized in vitro. Images

Rymo, L; Forsblom, S

1978-01-01

169

Advantages of using the QIAshredder instead of restriction digestion to prepare DNA for droplet digital PCR.  

PubMed

The viscosity of genomic DNA can interfere with digital PCR systems that partition samples into oil droplets or microfluidic wells. Restriction digestion may reduce the viscosity, but the process is labor-intensive, and the buffer can alter the conditions for PCR. DNA fragmentation using the QIAshredder (a biopolymer spin column) is faster, may result in more predictable and uniformly-sized fragments, and avoids the need for restriction buffers that can inhibit downstream PCR. In 10 separate head-to-head experiments comparing aliquots of DNA processed using the QIAshredder to those digested with RsaI or BsaJI prior to droplet digital PCR, we found that the copy numbers measured from the QIAshredded DNA tended to be greater than those measured from the digested DNA (average of 1.35-fold compared with BsaJI; P < 0.0001), even for inputs as high as 1.8 ?g or dilution down to the single copy level. PMID:24724845

Yukl, Steven A; Kaiser, Philipp; Kim, Peggy; Li, Peilin; Wong, Joseph K

2014-01-01

170

Agarose gel electrophoresis for the separation of DNA fragments.  

PubMed

Agarose gel electrophoresis is the most effective way of separating DNA fragments of varying sizes ranging from 100 bp to 25 kb(1). Agarose is isolated from the seaweed genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, and consists of repeated agarobiose (L- and D-galactose) subunits(2). During gelation, agarose polymers associate non-covalently and form a network of bundles whose pore sizes determine a gel's molecular sieving properties. The use of agarose gel electrophoresis revolutionized the separation of DNA. Prior to the adoption of agarose gels, DNA was primarily separated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation, which only provided an approximation of size. To separate DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis, the DNA is loaded into pre-cast wells in the gel and a current applied. The phosphate backbone of the DNA (and RNA) molecule is negatively charged, therefore when placed in an electric field, DNA fragments will migrate to the positively charged anode. Because DNA has a uniform mass/charge ratio, DNA molecules are separated by size within an agarose gel in a pattern such that the distance traveled is inversely proportional to the log of its molecular weight(3). The leading model for DNA movement through an agarose gel is "biased reptation", whereby the leading edge moves forward and pulls the rest of the molecule along(4). The rate of migration of a DNA molecule through a gel is determined by the following: 1) size of DNA molecule; 2) agarose concentration; 3) DNA conformation(5); 4) voltage applied, 5) presence of ethidium bromide, 6) type of agarose and 7) electrophoresis buffer. After separation, the DNA molecules can be visualized under uv light after staining with an appropriate dye. By following this protocol, students should be able to: Understand the mechanism by which DNA fragments are separated within a gel matrix Understand how conformation of the DNA molecule will determine its mobility through a gel matrix Identify an agarose solution of appropriate concentration for their needs Prepare an agarose gel for electrophoresis of DNA samples Set up the gel electrophoresis apparatus and power supply Select an appropriate voltage for the separation of DNA fragments Understand the mechanism by which ethidium bromide allows for the visualization of DNA bands Determine the sizes of separated DNA fragments. PMID:22546956

Lee, Pei Yun; Costumbrado, John; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Kim, Yong Hoon

2012-01-01

171

The Flp double cross system a simple efficient procedure for cloning DNA fragments  

PubMed Central

Background While conventional cloning methods using restriction enzymes and polynucleotide ligase are adequate for most DNAs, fragments made by the polymerase chain reaction are difficult to clone because the amplifying DNA polymerase tends to add untemplated nucleotides to the 3'-termini of the amplified strands. Conservative site-specific recombinases offer an efficient alternative to conventional cloning methods. Results In this paper I describe the use of the Flp site-specific recombinase for cloning PCR-amplified fragments. A DNA fragment is amplified with primers that contain at their ends inverted target sequences for Flp. Flp readily recombines these fragments in vitro into a vector that also contains two inverted Flp target sequences surrounding the ?-complementing region of the lacZ gene of E. coli. The recombinants are conveniently detected as white colonies by the familiar blue/white screening test for lacZ activity. A useful feature of the system is that both orientations of the inserted DNA are usually obtained. If the recipient vector is cut between the two inverted Flp targets, Flp "heals" the double-strand break by inserting a linear fragment flanked by Flp targets. Conclusion This system ("The Flp Double Cross System") should be useful for cloning multiple PCR fragments into many sites in several vectors. It has certain advantages over other available recombinase-based cloning procedures.

Sadowski, Paul D

2003-01-01

172

A novel DNA restriction technology based on laser pulse energy conversion on sequence-specific bound metal nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA restriction is a basic method in today"s molecular biology. Besides application for DNA manipulation, this method is used in DNA analytics for 'restriction analysis'. Thereby DNA is digested by sequence specific restriction enzymes, and the length distribution of the resulting fragments is detected by gel electrophoresis. Differences in the sequence lead to different restriction patterns. A disadvantage of this standard method is the limitation to a small set of fixed sequences, so that the assay can not be adapted to any sequence of interest (e.g. SNP). We designed a scheme for DNA restriction in order to provide access to any desired sequence, based on laser light conversion on sequence-specific positioned metal nanoparticles. Especially gold nanoparticles are known for their interesting optical properties caused by plasmon resonance. The resulting absorption can be used to convert laser light pulses into heat, resulting in nanoparticle destruction. We work on the combination of this principle with DNA-modification of nanoparticles and the sequence-specific binding (hybridization) of these DNA-nanoparticle complexes along DNA molecules. Different mechanisms of light-conversion were studied, and the destructive effect of laser light on the nanoparticles and DNA is demonstrated.

Csaki, Andrea; Maubach, Gunter; Garwe, Frank; Steinbrueck, Andrea; Koenig, Karsten; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

2005-03-01

173

Distribution of DNA fragment sizes after irradiation with ions.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is responsible for production of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a DNA structure. In contrast to sparsely ionizing radiation, densely ionizing radiation produces DSBs that are non-randomly distributed along the DNA molecule and can form clusters of various size. The paper discusses minimalistic models that describe observable patterns of fragment length in DNA segments irradiated with heavy ions and applies the formalism to interpret the recent experimental data collected by use of atomic force microscope (AFM). PMID:19823885

Gudowska-Nowak, E; Psonka-Anto?czyk, K; Weron, K; Elsässer, T; Taucher-Scholz, G

2009-11-01

174

Selective binding of anti-DNA antibodies to native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence.  

PubMed

Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of autoantibodies directed against a limited subset of nuclear antigens, including DNA. DNA-specific B cells take up mammalian DNA through their B cell receptor, and this DNA is subsequently transported to an endosomal compartment where it can potentially engage TLR9. We have previously shown that ssDNA-specific B cells preferentially bind to particular DNA sequences, and antibody specificity for short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Since CpG-rich DNA, the ligand for TLR9 is found in low abundance in mammalian DNA, we sought to determine whether antibodies derived from DNA-reactive B cells showed binding preference for CpG-rich native dsDNA, and thereby select immunostimulatory DNA for delivery to TLR9. We examined a panel of anti-DNA antibodies for binding to CpG-rich and CpG-poor DNA fragments. We show that a number of anti-DNA antibodies do show preference for binding to certain native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence, but this does not correlate directly with the presence of CpG dinucleotides. An antibody with preference for binding to a fragment containing optimal CpG motifs was able to promote B cell proliferation to this fragment at 10-fold lower antibody concentrations than an antibody that did not selectively bind to this fragment, indicating that antibody binding preference can influence autoreactive B cell responses. PMID:22285306

Uccellini, Melissa B; Busto, Patricia; Debatis, Michelle; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Viglianti, Gregory A

2012-03-30

175

DNA fragments assembly based on nicking enzyme system.  

PubMed

A couple of DNA ligation-independent cloning (LIC) methods have been reported to meet various requirements in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The principle of LIC is the assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments by single-stranded (ss) DNA overlaps annealing. Here we present a method to generate single-stranded DNA overlaps based on Nicking Endonucleases (NEases) for LIC, the method was termed NE-LIC. Factors related to cloning efficiency were optimized in this study. This NE-LIC allows generating 3'-end or 5'-end ss DNA overlaps of various lengths for fragments assembly. We demonstrated that the 10 bp/15 bp overlaps had the highest DNA fragments assembling efficiency, while 5 bp/10 bp overlaps showed the highest efficiency when T4 DNA ligase was added. Its advantage over Sequence and Ligation Independent Cloning (SLIC) and Uracil-Specific Excision Reagent (USER) was obvious. The mechanism can be applied to many other LIC strategies. Finally, the NEases based LIC (NE-LIC) was successfully applied to assemble a pathway of six gene fragments responsible for synthesizing microbial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). PMID:23483947

Wang, Rui-Yan; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Ying-Ying; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2013-01-01

176

Increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in fibromyalgic muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether there is evidence of increased DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes in muscle tissue of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Methods: Muscle tissues from 10 community residents with FM and 10 age and sex matched healthy controls were examined "blindly" for the presence of DNA fragmentation by two different methods: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) staining (TUNEL) and the FragEL-Klenow DNA fragmentation detection kit. Ultrastructural analysis of tissue was performed by electron microscopy. Results: DNA fragmentation was detected by both methods in 55.4 (SEM 2.5)% of the nuclei in muscle tissue of patients with FM compared with 16.1 (4.1)% (p<0.001) of the nuclei in healthy controls. Contrary to expectation, no typical features of apoptosis could be detected by electron microscopy. The myofibres and actin filaments were disorganised and lipofuscin bodies were seen; glycogen and lipid accumulation were also found. The number of mitochondria was significantly lower in patients with FM than in controls and seemed to be morphologically altered. Conclusion: The ultrastructural changes described suggest that patients with FM are characterised by abnormalities in muscle tissue that include increased DNA fragmentation and changes in the number and size of mitochondria. These cellular changes are not signs of apoptosis. Persistent focal contractions in muscle may contribute to ultrastructural tissue abnormalities as well as to the induction and/or chronicity of nociceptive transmission from muscle to the central nervous system.

Sprott, H; Salemi, S; Gay, R; Bradley, L; Alarcon, G; Oh, S; Michel, B; Gay, S

2004-01-01

177

Restriction fragment length polymorphism and allozyme linkage map of Cuphea lanceolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuphea lanceolata Ait. has had a significant role in the domestication of Cuphea and is a useful experimental organism for investigating how medium-chain lipids are synthesized in developing seeds. To expand the genetics of this species, a linkage map of the C. lanceolata genome was constructed using five allozyme and 32 restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) marker loci. These loci were assigned to

D. M. Webb; S. J. Knapp; L. A. Tagliani

1992-01-01

178

Determination of genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Venezuela by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Venezuela were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the 5' noncoding region. The absence of BstUI digestion was found to be a useful marker for genotype 2 specimens. From 122 serum samples, 66, 20, and 2.5% were classified as genotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively; 0.8% were classified as genotype 4; and 10% appeared to be mixed infections.

Pujol, F H; Loureiro, C L; Devesa, M; Blitz, L; Parra, K; Beker, S; Liprandi, F

1997-01-01

179

Appearance in Europe of Naegleria fowleri displaying the Australian type of restriction-fragment-length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time the isolation in Europe ofNaegleria fowleri showing a type of restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) usually found in Australia. The presence of this type as well as the European type fluctuated with time in the cooling waters of the nuclear power station investigated. Two possible explanations for the appearance of the AustralianN. fowleri type in Europe

Pierre Pernin; Johan F. De Jonckheere

1992-01-01

180

Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and variation in electrophoretic karyotype in Naegleria fowleri from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains ofNaegleria fowleri isolated in Japan from two different places were found to differ in electro-phoretic karyotype and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) both from each other and from strains isolated on other continents. Using the Wagmer parsimony method on the RFLP, we found that the Japanese isolates are most closely related to the Australian isolates and most distinct from the European

Johan F. De Jonckheere; Kenji Yagita; Takuro Endo

1992-01-01

181

Differentiation ofMycobacterium tuberculosisIsolates by Spoligotyping and IS6110Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacteriumtuberculosisisolatesfrom167patientsattendingthreeLondonhospitalswereanalyzedbytwo techniques for strain differentiation. A significant number of isolates that appeared identical with the recently developed spoligotyping system could be distinguished from each other by IS6110restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, with the latter technique demonstrating a generally higher level of discrimination. Spoligotyping,ontheotherhand,wasparticularlyusefulforanalysisofisolateswithlowIS6110copynumbers, and use of the two techniques in tandem provided an optimal approach to the identification of clusters

M. GOYAL; N. A. SAUNDERS; J. D. A. VANEMBDEN; D. B. YOUNG; J. SHAW

182

Computerized Analysis of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Patterns: Comparative Evaluation of Two Commercial Software Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two computerized restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern analysis systems, the BioImage system and the GelCompar system (Molecular Analyst Fingerprinting Plus in the United States), were compared. The two systems use different approaches to compare patterns from different gels. In GelCompar, a standard reference pattern in one gel is used to normalize subsequent gels containing lanes with the same reference pattern.

P. GERNER-SMIDT; L. M. GRAVES; SUSAN HUNTER; B. SWAMINATHAN

1998-01-01

183

Molecular characterisation by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of TEM ?-lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To rapidly characterise TEM-derived extended-spectrum ?-lactamases a fast and easy method using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed. This method was validated with ten reference TEM-type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases. The mutations involved in TEM-20 and TEM-21, which were previously reported only with biochemical analysis, were then characterised. TEM-20 differed from TEM-19 by a silent mutation at position 925 (A

G. Arlet; G. Brami; D. Deere; A. Flippo; O. Gaillot; P. H. Lagrange; A. Philippon

1995-01-01

184

Genetic Relationships of Some Common Arkansas Freshwater Sunfishes (Centrarchidae: Lepomis)Inferred From Restriction Endonuclease Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic isolation and habitat specialization has aided in the evolution and maintenance of genetic integrity of the lepomid sunfishes{Lepomis: Centrarchidae) of North America.Our goal was to measure genetic distancesbetween four of the eleven extant sunfish species by using mitochondrial DNA analysis.Mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)were examinedin bluegill (L.macrochirus), redear sunfish(L. microlophus), longear sunfish(L.megalotis), and green sunfish(L. cyanellus) using

Ronald L. Johnson; K. Ashlei Williams

185

Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA  

PubMed Central

A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources.

Alippi, Adriana M.; Lopez, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario

2002-01-01

186

Differentiation of Porcine Brachyspira Species by a Novel nox PCR-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the Brachyspira nox gene was developed. The restriction patterns for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, and B. innocens were highly distinct with two restriction endonucleases only. The assay proved to be user-friendly and robust. The porcine intestinal tract is frequently colonized by dif- ferent Brachyspira species. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Judith Rohde; Anja Rothkamp; Gerald F. Gerlach

2002-01-01

187

Molecular typing of Pseudomonas pseudomallei: restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rRNA genes.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a typing scheme for Pseudomonas pseudomallei by comparison of patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in rRNA genes (ribotyping). BamHI restriction digests of 100 isolates from various animal (34), human (58), and environmental (6) sources, including six reference strains, were hybridized to Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNAs. A chemiluminescent labelling and detection system was used to visualize bands. On the basis of patterns, the strains were classified into 22 different groups, with the largest containing 29 isolates. While most of the ribotypes were not exclusive to a particular source, some ribotypes were restricted to a particular geographic area or to either a human or a particular animal species. Application of the typing scheme to isolates of four independent outbreaks among animals showed that certain ribotypes predominated. The study demonstrated ribotyping to be a useful tool in epidemiological investigations of melioidosis. Images

Lew, A E; Desmarchelier, P M

1993-01-01

188

IS 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Madras, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: Madras, India.Objective: To explore the utility of a standardized IS6110\\/PvuII deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing method for distinguishing between isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to assess the potential for distinguishing between relapse versus reinfection rates.Design: To assess RFLP heterogeneity in the population, initial isolates, obtained from the sputum of tuberculous 98 patients on diagnosis

S. Das; C. N. Paramasivan; D. B. Lowrie; R. Prabhakar; P. R. Narayanan

1995-01-01

189

Detection of Oxazolidinone-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Strains by Real-Time PCR and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time PCR assay identified linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates with a G2576U rRNA mutation. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA amplicons with NheI also detected this mutation. Both assays detected isolates heterozygous at this position. Recognition of isolates with what is presently the most frequent oxazolidinone resistance mutation may aid surveillance and individual case management.

Neil Woodford; Luke Tysall; Cressida Auckland; Mark W. Stockdale; Andrew J. Lawson; Rachel A. Walker; David M. Livermore

2002-01-01

190

Distinguishing Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cyst morphology.  

PubMed

The cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera filipjevi and H. avenae impede wheat production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Accurate identification of cyst nematode species and awareness of high population density in affected fields are essential for designing effective control measures. Morphological methods for differentiating these species are laborious. These species were differentiated using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-ribosomal (r)DNA with up to six restriction endonucleases (TaqI, HinfI, PstI, HaeIII, RsaI, and AluI). The method was validated by inspecting underbridge structures of cyst vulval cones. Grid soil sampling of an Oregon field infested by both species revealed that H. filipjevi was present at most of the infested grid sites but mixtures of H. avenae and H. filipjevi also occurred. These procedures also detected and differentiated H. filipjevi and H. avenae in soil samples from nearby fields in Oregon and H. avenae in samples from Idaho and Washington. Intraspecific polymorphism was not observed within H. filipjevi or PNW H. avenae populations based on the ITS-rDNA. However, intraspecific variation was observed between H. avenae populations occurring in the PNW and France. Methods described here will improve detection and identification efficiencies for cereal cyst nematodes in wheat fields. PMID:20128694

Yan, Guiping; Smiley, Richard W

2010-03-01

191

Lactic acid bacterial population dynamics during fermentation and storage of Thai fermented sausage according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

This study applied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "mum" Thai fermented sausages during fermentation and storage. A total of 630 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the sausages prepared using 2 methods. In Method 1, after stuffing, the sausages were stored at 30°C for 14days. In Method 2, after stuffing and storage at 30°C for 3days, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at 4°C until Day 28. The sausages were sampled on Days 0, 3, 14, and 28 for analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Of the restriction enzymes evaluated, Dde I displayed the highest discrimination capacity. The LAB were classified and 7 species were identified For Methods 1 and 2, during fermentation, the Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum species were dominant. For Method 2, the proportion of Leuconostoc mesenteroides markedly increased during storage, until L. sakei and Ln. mesenteroides represented the dominant species. The identification of LAB in the sausage samples could facilitate the selection of appropriate microorganisms for candidate starter cultures for future controlled mum production. PMID:25005265

Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Jindaprasert, Aphacha; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chumnqoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

2014-09-01

192

DNA fingerprinting by infrequent-restriction-site amplification.  

PubMed Central

Identification of bacterial strains by DNA fingerprinting facilitates epidemiologic studies and improves disease control. For some species of organisms, no typing method is available; for others, typing methods are tedious. We developed a method of amplifying DNA sequences flanking infrequent restriction sites by PCR and used the method to produce strain-specific electrophoretic patterns from crude bacterial lysates. This method of fingerprinting is rapid, sensitive, and widely applicable. Identical enzymes, adaptors, primers, and PCR conditions were used to characterize 32 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare isolates, 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, and 4 Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

Mazurek, G H; Reddy, V; Marston, B J; Haas, W H; Crawford, J T

1996-01-01

193

Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of the Aspergillus flavus group: A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms were identified that clearly distinguish Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. Mitochondrial DNAs of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were found to be circular, and their size was estimated size to be 32 kilobases. A restriction map was constructed for the mitochondrial genome of an A. parasiticus isolate by using four restriction endonucleases. Four genes tested were found to have the same order as in the mitochondrial genome of A. nidulans. The mitochondrial genome of A. nomius was estimated to be 33 kilobases. Images

Moody, S F; Tyler, B M

1990-01-01

194

Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA.  

PubMed Central

Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites was assayed. The following PNAs were used: T10-LysNH2, T5CT4-LysNH2 and T2CT2CT4-LysNH2 and the corresponding targets cloned into pUC 19 were flanked by BamH1, Sal1 or Pstl sites, respectively. In all cases it was found that complete inhibition of restriction enzyme cleavage was obtained with the complementary PNA, a significantly reduced effect was seen with a PNA having one mismatch, and no effect was seen with a PNA having two mismatches. These results show that PNA can be used as sequence specific blockers of DNA recognizing proteins. Images

Nielsen, P E; Egholm, M; Berg, R H; Buchardt, O

1993-01-01

195

Characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi by pectinolytic isozyme polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR-amplified fragments of pel genes.  

PubMed Central

Conserved regions about 420 bp long of the pelADE cluster specific to Erwinia chrysanthemi were amplified by PCR and used to differentiate 78 strains of E. chrysanthemi that were obtained from different hosts and geographical areas. No PCR products were obtained from DNA samples extracted from other pectinolytic and nonpectinolytic species and genera. The pel fragments amplified from the E. chrysanthemi strains studied were compared by performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. On the basis of similarity coefficients derived from the RFLP analysis, the strains were separated into 16 PCR RFLP patterns grouped in six clusters, These clusters appeared to be correlated with other infraspecific levels of E. chrysanthemi classification, such as pathovar and biovar, and occasionally with geographical origin. Moreover, the clusters correlated well with the polymorphism of pectate lyase and pectin methylesterase isoenzymes. While the pectin methylesterase profiles correlated with host monocot-dicot classification, the pectate lyase polymorphism might reflect the cell wall microdomains of the plants belonging to these classes.

Nassar, A; Darrasse, A; Lemattre, M; Kotoujansky, A; Dervin, C; Vedel, R; Bertheau, Y

1996-01-01

196

Detection of disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms in pemphigus vulgaris linked to the DQwl and DQw3 alleles of the HLA-D region  

SciTech Connect

Pemphigus vulgaris in Israeli Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews and in Austrian non-Jewish patients is strongly associated with the DR4 and DRw6 alleles of the HLA-D region class II genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was undertaken with DQ..beta.., DQ..cap alpha.., and DR..beta.. cDNA probes. Hybridization with the DQ..beta.. probe identifies Pvu II, BamHI, and EcoRV fragments that absolutely discriminate pemphigus vulgaris patients from healthy DR-, DQ-, and ethnic-matched controls. In contrast the DQ..cap alpha.. and DR..beta.. probes failed to identify disease-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism fragments. These studies indicate that DQw1 and DQw3 polymorphisms carried by pemphigus vulgaris patients may be directly involved in predisposition to the disease or may be tightly linked to the susceptibility gene itself. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an HLA restriction fragment length polymorphism that is highly associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

Szafer, F.; Brautbar, C.; Tzfoni, E.; Frankel, G.; Sherman, L.; Cohen, I.; Hacham-Zadeh, S.; Aberer, W.; Tappeiner, G.; Holubar, K.; Steinman, L.

1987-09-01

197

Removing PCR for the elimination of undesired DNA fragments cycle by cycle.  

PubMed

A novel removing polymerase chain reaction (R-PCR) technique was developed, which can eliminate undesired genes, cycle by cycle, with efficiencies of 60.9% (cDNAs), 73.6% (genomic DNAs), and ~ 100% (four DNA fragments were tested). Major components of the R-PCR include drivers, a thermostable restriction enzyme - ApeKI, and a poly(dA) adapter with mismatched restriction enzyme recognition sites. Drivers were generated from the undesired genes. In each cycle of R-PCR, drivers anneal to complementary sequences and allow extension by Taq DNA polymerase. Thus, ApeKI restriction sites in the undesired genes are recovered, and adapters of these undesired DNA fragments are removed. Using R-PCR, we isolated maize upregulated defense-responsive genes and Blumeria graminis specialized genes, including key pathogenesis-related effectors. Our results show that after the R-PCR reaction, most undesired genes, including very abundant genes, became undetectable. The R-PCR is an easy and cost-efficient method to eliminate undesired genes and clone desired genes. PMID:23892515

Huan, Jiaojiao; Wan, Kangkang; Liu, Yunjun; Dong, Wubei; Wang, Guoying

2013-01-01

198

Removing PCR for the elimination of undesired DNA fragments cycle by cycle  

PubMed Central

A novel removing polymerase chain reaction (R-PCR) technique was developed, which can eliminate undesired genes, cycle by cycle, with efficiencies of 60.9% (cDNAs), 73.6% (genomic DNAs), and ~ 100% (four DNA fragments were tested). Major components of the R-PCR include drivers, a thermostable restriction enzyme - ApeKI, and a poly(dA) adapter with mismatched restriction enzyme recognition sites. Drivers were generated from the undesired genes. In each cycle of R-PCR, drivers anneal to complementary sequences and allow extension by Taq DNA polymerase. Thus, ApeKI restriction sites in the undesired genes are recovered, and adapters of these undesired DNA fragments are removed. Using R-PCR, we isolated maize upregulated defense-responsive genes and Blumeria graminis specialized genes, including key pathogenesis-related effectors. Our results show that after the R-PCR reaction, most undesired genes, including very abundant genes, became undetectable. The R-PCR is an easy and cost-efficient method to eliminate undesired genes and clone desired genes.

Huan, Jiaojiao; Wan, Kangkang; Liu, Yunjun; Dong, Wubei; Wang, Guoying

2013-01-01

199

Carborundum-dependent entrance of EcoRI restriction enzyme into plant cells and specific cleavage of genomic DNA.  

PubMed

In a basic research to determine the morpho-molecular interactions of plant tissues with EcoRI DNA restriction enzyme, it was demonstrated that this protein is capable of entering the sunflower and maize leaf cells using a plant tissue-abrading material and cleaving the genomic DNA at specific sites. This was inferred from the analysis of morphological patterns of EcoRI-treated leaf areas as well as using some molecular tests, including the cleavage pattern analysis of genomic DNA isolated from treated locations followed by ligation of cleaved fragments into EcoRI site of a DNA cloning vector system. The overall results indicated that the specific restriction of genomic DNA may happen following the entrance of EcoRI protein most likely into the nucleus of plant cells. PMID:19775076

Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Kohnehrouz, B Baghban

2009-08-01

200

Beta 2 adrenergic receptor gene restriction fragment length polymorphism and bronchial asthma.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Beta 2 adrenergic dysfunction may be one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for atopy and bronchial asthma. The gene encoding the human beta 2 adrenergic receptor (beta 2ADR) has recently been isolated and sequenced. In addition, a two allele polymorphism of this receptor gene has been identified in white people. A study was carried out to determine whether this polymorphism is functionally important and has any relation to airways responsiveness, atopy, or asthma. METHODS--The subjects studied were 58 family members of four patients with atopic asthma. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with Ban-I digestion of the beta 2ADR gene was detected by a specific DNA probe with Southern blot analysis. Airways responses to inhaled methacholine and the beta 2 agonist salbutamol, the skin prick test, and serum IgE levels were also examined and correlated to the beta 2ADR gene RFLP. In addition, measurements of cAMP responses to isoproterenol in peripheral mononuclear cells were performed in 22 healthy subjects whose genotype for beta 2ADR was known. RESULTS--A two allele polymorphism (2.3 kb and 2.1 kb) of the beta 2ADR gene was detected in the Japanese population. Family members without allele 2.3 kb (homozygote of allele 2.1 kb) had lower airways responses to inhaled salbutamol than those with allele 2.3 kb. The incidence of asthma was higher in those without allele 2.3 kb than in those with allele 2.3 kb. The beta 2ADR gene RFLP had no relation to airways responses to methacholine and atopic status. cAMP responses in peripheral mononuclear cells of the subjects without allele 2.3 kb tended to be lower than those of the subjects with allele 2.3 kb. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that Ban-I RFLP of the beta 2ADR gene may have some association with the airways responses to beta 2 agonists and the incidence of bronchial asthma. Images

Ohe, M.; Munakata, M.; Hizawa, N.; Itoh, A.; Doi, I.; Yamaguchi, E.; Homma, Y.; Kawakami, Y.

1995-01-01

201

In situ labelling of fragmented DNA in cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a biochemically and morphologically gene-regulated distinctive form of cell death playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostatis, viral infections and clearance of damaged cells. The process is initiated by a cascade of intercellular and intracellular signals through an intrinsic cell suicide program resulting in early DNA fragmentation characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation. Recently some authors have reported

S Barduagni; A Frezzolini; G Ferranti; M Papi; O De Pità

1998-01-01

202

Electrophoretic migration behavior of DNA fragments in polymer solution.  

PubMed

A newly developed polymer coil shrinking theory is described and compared with the existing entangled solution theory to explain electrophoretic migration behaviour of DNA in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymer solution in buffer containing 100 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane 100 mM boric acid, 2 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at pH 8.3. The polymer coil shrinking theory gave a better model to explain the results obtained. The polymer coil shrinking concentration, Cs, was found to be 0.305% and the uniform entangled concentration, C+, 0.806%. The existence of three regions (the dilute, semidilute, and concentrated solution) at different polymer concentrations enables a better understanding of the system to guide the selection of the best conditions to separate DNA fragments. For separating large fragments (700/ 800 bp), dilute solutions (HPMC < 0.3%) should be used to achieve a short migration time (10 min). For small fragments (200/300 bp), concentrated solutions are preferred to obtain constant resolution and uniform separation. The best resolution is 0.6% HPMC due to a combined interaction of the polymer coils and the entangled structure. The possibility of DNA separation in semidilute solution is often neglected and the present results indicate that this region has a promising potential for analytical separation of DNA fragments. PMID:11504046

Jin, Y; Lin, B; Fung, Y S

2001-07-01

203

Large restriction fragments containing poly-TG are highly polymorphic in a variety of vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

Southern blots of genomic DNA from a variety of species digested by restriction endonucleases having a four-bp specificity, were probed with a bovine genomic clone consisting of seven tandem poly-TG stretches separated by a 29bp linker sequence. Highly variable DNA 'fingerprint' patterns were obtained in chicken, sheep, and horse, moderately variable DNA 'fingerprints' in mouse and man, and a monomorphic pattern in Drosophila. In chicken, horse and man a (TG)10 synthetic oligonucleotide probe gave results identical to those given by the bovine probe. Furthermore, in chicken the DNA fingerprint variation showed typical Mendelian inheritance and differed from the fingerprints obtained with Jeffreys 33.6 and M13 minisatellite probes. Thus, for a variety of vertebrate species, poly-TG-containing probes can uncover useful genetic variation. Images

Kashi, Y; Tikochinsky, Y; Genislav, E; Iraqi, F; Nave, A; Beckmann, J S; Gruenbaum, Y; Soller, M

1990-01-01

204

Phylogeny and relationships in Daucus based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) restriction site analysis of nine species of Daucus (covering four of five sections) and nine carrot\\u000a accessions was done using 14 Petunia cpDNA clones as probes and 10 restriction enzymes. Cladistic analysis yielded a phylogeny\\u000a generally concordant with a recent morphological classification. A cpDNA insertion-deletion mutation was found in the cultivated\\u000a carrots (probe P10– Bgl II digest).

B. S. Vivek; Philipp W. Simon

1999-01-01

205

Evaluation of Microbial Diversity in Wetland through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diversity of microbial communities in wetlands has not been fully measured. These communities may offer tools to naturally remediate sites polluted with chlorinated compounds. Polmerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism...

G. K. Joseph

2006-01-01

206

Adaptive DNA Computing Algorithm by Using PCR and Restriction Enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce an adaptive DNA computing algorithm by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme. The adaptive algorithm is designed based on Adleman-Lipton paradigm[3] of DNA computing. In this work, however, unlike the Adleman- Lipton architecture a cutting operation has been introduced to the algorithm and the mechanism in which the molecules used by computation were feedback to the next cycle devised. Moreover, the amplification by PCR is performed in the molecule used by feedback and the difference concentration arisen in the base sequence can be used again. By this operation the molecules which serve as a solution candidate can be reduced down and the optimal solution is carried out in the shortest path problem. The validity of the proposed adaptive algorithm is considered with the logical simulation and finally we go on to propose applying adaptive algorithm to the chemical experiment which used the actual DNA molecules for solving an optimal network problem.

Kon, Yuji; Yabe, Kaoru; Rajaee, Nordiana; Ono, Osamu

207

Repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous DNA fragments during transfer of DNA into mouse L cells.  

PubMed

To test the validity of various models for recombination between extrachromosomal DNAs in mammalian cells, we measured recombination between a plasmid containing a herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) gene with an internal BamHI linker insertion mutation (ptkB8) and a tk gene deleted at both ends (tk delta 3' delta 5'). The two DNAs shared 885 base pairs of perfect tk homology except for the interruption at the linker insertion site. Recombination events that restored the mutated insertion site to wild type were monitored by the generation of hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine-resistant colonies after cotransformation of Ltk- cells with the two DNAs. We found that cleavage of the ptkB8 DNA at the linker insertion site was essential for gene restoration. If the tk delta 3' delta 5' DNA was ligated into mp10 vector DNA, then recombination with the cleaved ptkB8 DNA was inefficient. In contrast, if it was excised from that vector by cleavage at flanking restriction sites, then recombination was stimulated about 150-fold. Using restriction site polymorphisms, we showed that most of the recombination events leading to restoration of the tk gene with the excised tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment involved three double-strand duplexes: two ptkB8 DNAs and one tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment. These results are much more readily explained by the single-strand annealing model of recombination than by the double-strand break repair model, and they suggest that the deficiency of the latter pathway for extrachromosomal mammalian recombination may be due, at least in part, to the obligate tripartite nature of the reaction. Finally, we measured the effect of DNA homology on the efficiency of the ptkB8-tk delta 3' delta 5' reaction. Our results showed a near-linear relationship between the efficiency of recombination and the amount of homology flanking either side of the linker insertion site. Moreover, we could detect thymidine kinase-positive transformants with as little as 10 base pairs of homology. PMID:2294397

Lin, F L; Sperle, K; Sternberg, N

1990-01-01

208

Repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous DNA fragments during transfer of DNA into mouse L cells.  

PubMed Central

To test the validity of various models for recombination between extrachromosomal DNAs in mammalian cells, we measured recombination between a plasmid containing a herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) gene with an internal BamHI linker insertion mutation (ptkB8) and a tk gene deleted at both ends (tk delta 3' delta 5'). The two DNAs shared 885 base pairs of perfect tk homology except for the interruption at the linker insertion site. Recombination events that restored the mutated insertion site to wild type were monitored by the generation of hypoxanthine-aminopterine-thymidine-resistant colonies after cotransformation of Ltk- cells with the two DNAs. We found that cleavage of the ptkB8 DNA at the linker insertion site was essential for gene restoration. If the tk delta 3' delta 5' DNA was ligated into mp10 vector DNA, then recombination with the cleaved ptkB8 DNA was inefficient. In contrast, if it was excised from that vector by cleavage at flanking restriction sites, then recombination was stimulated about 150-fold. Using restriction site polymorphisms, we showed that most of the recombination events leading to restoration of the tk gene with the excised tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment involved three double-strand duplexes: two ptkB8 DNAs and one tk delta 3' delta 5' fragment. These results are much more readily explained by the single-strand annealing model of recombination than by the double-strand break repair model, and they suggest that the deficiency of the latter pathway for extrachromosomal mammalian recombination may be due, at least in part, to the obligate tripartite nature of the reaction. Finally, we measured the effect of DNA homology on the efficiency of the ptkB8-tk delta 3' delta 5' reaction. Our results showed a near-linear relationship between the efficiency of recombination and the amount of homology flanking either side of the linker insertion site. Moreover, we could detect thymidine kinase-positive transformants with as little as 10 base pairs of homology. Images

Lin, F L; Sperle, K; Sternberg, N

1990-01-01

209

Enzymatic multiplication of a chemically synthesized DNA fragment.  

PubMed Central

A synthetic DNA fragment of 19 residues was enlarged by the enzymatic addition of deoxyadenylate residues to its 3'-end with calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. The 3'-terminus of this elongated DNA strand was blocked with 2', 3'-dideoxyadenylate to prevent hydrolysis by the 3'-exonuclease function of E. coli DNA polymerase I. This elongated and 3'-blocked fragment was annealed to an oligomeric primer and used as a template for the synthesis of a complementary copy of the synthetic 19-mer. The product of such a repair synthesis was separated by gel filtration and analyzed by nearest neighbor techniques. All template strands were copied with complete repair in over 90% of the chains. Facile recovery of the elongated template by virtue of its size permitted repetition of the copy process, thus allowing accumulation of the desired strand.

Olson, K; Gabriel, T; Michalewsky, J; Harvey, C

1975-01-01

210

Major DNA fragmentation is a late event in apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis, the terminal morphological and biochemical events of programmed cell death, is characterized by specific changes in cell surface and nuclear morphology. In addition, DNA fragmentation in an internucleosomal pattern is detectable in mass cultures of apoptotic cells. However, DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological changes may not necessarily be associated events. In this study, we examined OVCAR-3 and KB human carcinoma cells using time-lapse video phase-contrast microscopy to characterize the surface and nuclear morphological features of apoptosis in response to treatment with either taxol or ricin. The surface morphological features of apoptosis were the same in both cell types and with both drugs. Using an in situ nick-translation histochemical assay, these single cells were also examined for DNA strand breaks during apoptosis. Surface morphological changes demonstrated discrete stages of cell rounding, surface blebbing, followed by cessation of movement and the extension of thin surface microspikes, followed much later by surface blistering and cell lysis. Nuclear features examined by DAPI cytochemistry demonstrated apoptotic nuclear condensation very early in this sequence, usually at the time of initial surface blebbing. The nick-translation assay, however, demonstrated DNA strand breaks at a much later time, only after the formation of separated apoptotic bodies or after final cell lysis. This study points out the differences between surface and nuclear morphological changes in apoptosis, and the large temporal separation between nuclear morphological changes and major DNA fragmentation detectable by this in situ technique. This result suggests caution in using in situ nick-translation as a direct correlate of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in apoptosis. PMID:9212818

Collins, J A; Schandi, C A; Young, K K; Vesely, J; Willingham, M C

1997-07-01

211

Intrauterine calorie restriction affects placental DNA methylation and gene expression.  

PubMed

Maternal nutrient restriction causes the development of adult onset chronic diseases in the intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetus. Investigations in mice have shown that either protein or calorie restriction during pregnancy leads to glucose intolerance, increased fat mass, and hypercholesterolemia in adult male offspring. Some of these phenotypes are shown to persist in successive generations. The molecular mechanisms underlying IUGR remain unclear. The placenta is a critical organ for mediating changes in the environment and the development of embryos. To shed light on molecular mechanisms that might affect placental responses to differing environments we examined placentas from mice that had been exposed to different diets. We measured gene expression and whole genome DNA methylation in both male and female placentas of mice exposed to either caloric restriction or ad libitum diets. We observed several differentially expressed pathways associated with IUGR phenotypes and, most importantly, a significant decrease in the overall methylation between these groups as well as sex-specific effects that are more pronounced in males. In addition, a set of significantly differentially methylated genes that are enriched for known imprinted genes were identified, suggesting that imprinted loci may be particularly susceptible to diet effects. Lastly, we identified several differentially methylated microRNAs that target genes associated with immunological, metabolic, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological chronic diseases, as well as genes responsible for transplacental nutrient transfer and fetal development. PMID:23695884

Chen, Pao-Yang; Ganguly, Amit; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Orozco, Luz D; Morselli, Marco; Ashraf, Davin; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Feng, Suhua; Jacobsen, Steve E; Nakano, Atsushi; Devaskar, Sherin U; Pellegrini, Matteo

2013-07-15

212

Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to study the genetic origin of complete hydatidiform mole.  

PubMed

To determine the genetic origin of the complete hydatidiform mole, 20 abnormal pregnancies were studied with restriction fragment length polymorphism with five genomic probes: EJ 6.6, beta-globin gene, 3'alpha-hypervariable region, J-Bir, and St14. In the 12 cases of molar pregnancy, pure paternal origin was proved in 11 cases, but both maternal and paternal inheritance were shown in only one case. In the cases with pure paternal origin, all of the restriction fragment length polymorphisms were homozygous, although those of the fathers were heterozygous at 15 loci. In the four cases that mimicked hydatidiform mole but were diagnosed as hydropic change of villi, both paternal and maternal inheritance were noted. In the four pregnancies with blighted ovum, both paternal and maternal inheritance were shown in three cases; and in one case with a balanced translocation between chromosomes 13 and 14, only paternal inheritance was noted. This study showed that most of the complete hydatidiform moles were caused by fertilization of an empty egg by a duplicated haploid sperm, but rare exceptions may exist. PMID:1672240

Ko, T M; Hsieh, C Y; Ho, H N; Hsieh, F J; Lee, T Y

1991-03-01

213

Sizing Highly Fragmented DNA in Individual Apoptotic Cells Using the Comet Assay and a DNA Crosslinking Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

TK6 human B lymphoblast cells exposed to ionizing radiation undergo apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner. The resulting highly fragmented DNA is easily detected using the comet assay, a sensitive microscopic gel electrophoresis method capable of measuring DNA strand breaks in individual cells. The degree of DNA fragmentation may be indicative of different stages in the fragmentation process, responses

Peggy L. Olive; Judit P. Banáth

1995-01-01

214

Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation properties of butylated hydroxyanisole.  

PubMed

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic food additive that is used to prevent oils, fats, and shortenings from oxidative deterioration and rancidity. It was tested for potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity upon A549 lung cancer cells. MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis were used for cytotoxicity assessment, whereas genotoxicity was evaluated in vitro by DAPI staining, alkaline comet, and DNA fragmentation assays. BHA dose- and time-dependently decreased the growth of A549 cells with an IC50 of ?0.55, 0.4, and 0.3?mM BHA at 24, 48, and 72?h, respectively. Primary and late apoptosis in the treated cells was determined using the flow cytometry analyses. In addition, single-strand DNA breakage has been observed through the comet assay technique. In addition, the morphology of DAPI-stained cells and DNA fragmentation assay using gel electrophoresis showed clear fragmentation in the chromatin and DNA rings within the nucleus of cells treated with BHA. PMID:23413972

Vandghanooni, Somayeh; Forouharmehr, Ali; Eskandani, Morteza; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Kafil, Vala; Kashanian, Soheila; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

2013-03-01

215

Use of primer selection and restriction enzymes to assess bacterial community diversity in an agricultural soil used for potato production via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) can be used to assess how land use management changes the dominant\\u000a members of bacterial communities. We compared T-RFLP profiles obtained via amplification with forward primers (27, 63F) each\\u000a coupled with the fluorescently labeled reverse primer (1392R) and multiple restriction enzymes to determine the best combination\\u000a for interrogating soil bacterial populations in an agricultural

Ann-Marie Fortuna; Terence L. Marsh; C. Wayne Honeycutt; William A. Halteman

216

Diversity analysis of magnetotactic bacteria in Lake Miyun, northern China, by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize intracellular nano-scale crystals of magnetite or greigite within magnetosomes. MTB are ubiquitous in limnic and marine environments. In order to understand the diversity of MTB better, sediment samples were examined from Lake Miyun near Beijing by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). First, in silico analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 sets of restriction endonucleases for distinguishing MTB sequences retrieved from the GenBank database. It was found that the tested restriction endonucleases had different power in the ability to differentiate the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of MTB. Specifically, of the 12 sets of enzymes, MspI plus RsaI was found to be the most effective for correctly differentiating the OTUs of selected MTB sequences and it could detect 16 OTUs with appropriate OTUmin and OTUmax values (96.7% and 97.7%, respectively). The MspI plus RsaI RFLP analysis was then utilized to investigate the diversity of MTB in Lake Miyun sediment and it identified 8 OTUs (74.5% of the whole library) as MTB. Among these, 5 were affiliated to Alphaproteobacteria, while the rest belonged to the Nitrospira phylum. Interestingly, OTUs C, D and I displayed 91.8-98.4% similarity to "Magnetobacterium bavaricum". Together, these results demonstrated that the MspI plus RsaI RFLP analysis was useful for studying the diversity and change in community composition of uncultivated MTB from environmental samples. PMID:19168303

Lin, Wei; Li, Jinhua; Schüler, Dirk; Jogler, Christian; Pan, Yongxin

2009-08-01

217

'Interactive' recognition in EcoRI restriction enzyme-DNA complex.  

PubMed

A solution study of interaction between DNA and EcoRI restriction enzyme shows that there is a definite distortion of DNA in the specific recognition complexes but no measurable DNA distortion in the non-specific interaction. PMID:6093038

Kim, R; Modrich, P; Kim, S H

1984-10-11

218

Novel and de novo PKD1 mutations identified by multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP)  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously developed a long RT-PCR method for selective amplification of full-length PKD1 transcripts (13.6 kb) and a long-range PCR for amplification in the reiterated region (18 kb) covering exons 14 and 34 of the PKD1 gene. These have provided us with an opportunity to study PKD1 mutations especially in its reiterated region which is difficult to examine. In this report, we have further developed the method of multiple restriction fragment-single strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP) for analysis of PKD1 mutations in the patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Novel and de novo PKD1 mutations are identified and reported. Methods Full-length PKD1 cDNA isolated from the patients with ADPKD was fractionated into nine overlapping segments by nested-PCR. Each segment was digested with sets of combined restriction endonucleases before the SSCP analysis. The fragments with aberrant migration were mapped, isolated, and sequenced. The presence of mutation was confirmed by the long-range genomic DNA amplification in the PKD1 region, sequencing, direct mutation detection, and segregation analysis in the affected family. Results Five PKD1 mutations identified are two frameshift mutations caused by two di-nucleotide (c. 5225_5226delAG and c.9451_9452delAT) deletions, a nonsense (Q1828X, c.5693C>T) mutation, a splicing defect attributable to 31 nucleotide deletion (g.33184_33214del31), and an in-frame deletion (L3287del, c.10070_10072delCTC). All mutations occurred within the reiterated region of the gene involving exons 15, 26, 15, 19 and 29, respectively. Three mutations (one frameshift, splicing defect, and in-frame deletion) are novel and two (one frameshift and nonsense) known. In addition, two mutations (nonsense and splicing defect) are possibly de novo. Conclusion The MRF-SSCP method has been developed to analyze PCR products generated by the long RT-PCR and nested-PCR technique for screening PKD1 mutations in the full-length cDNA. Five mutations identified were all in the reiterated region of this gene, three of which were novel. The presence of de novo PKD1 mutations indicates that this gene is prone to mutations.

Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Limwongse, Chanin; Vareesangthip, Kriengsak; Sirinavin, Chintana; Bunditworapoom, Duangkamon; Rungroj, Nanyawan; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2004-01-01

219

Comparison of 23S polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism techniques as typing systems for thermophilic campylobacters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the combination of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular typing techniques for the analysis of thermophilic campylobacter species isolated from clinical and poultry samples. 23S PCR–RFLP analysis performed to fingerprint 69 strains exhibited an excellent level of typability. Eleven different types were defined at 100% linkage level

Yolanda Moreno; Mar??a A. Ferrús; Alicia Vanoostende; Manuel Hernández; Rosa M. Montes; Javier Hernández

2002-01-01

220

Cloning and characterization of a highly reiterated 5.8-kilobase pair nucleolar EcoRI DNA fragment found in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells.  

PubMed

The DNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells was found to contain a 3.6-megadalton EcoRI restriction fragment, referred to as EcoRI fragment A (Parker et al., 1979). C0t analyses demonstrated an enrichment of fragment A sequences in Novikoff hepatoma genome relative to normal rat liver DNA. This fragment was cloned in lambda gtWES to determine its molecular structure and sequence organization. The DNA from a positive clone was labeled by nick translation and hybridized to a Southern blot of EcoRI digested Novikoff DNA. Distinct hybrids formed with the region corresponding to fragment A. The greater degree of hybridization to the nucleolar fraction suggested a nucleolar enrichment of fragment A. Fragment A has a PstI site approximately 300 base pairs from one terminus which was used to generate mono-5'-32P-labeled fragments. The larger PStI subfragment, 5500 base pairs, labeled at a single terminus, was used to evolve a restriction enzyme map. The 300 base pair fragment was partially sequenced, revealing the presence of a repetitive sequence "island", TT(GTCT)8(GAAT)5G-. C0t analysis, utilizing the purified clone as a probe, confirmed the enrichment of fragment A sequences in the tumor relative to the normal rat liver control. PMID:6260140

Parker, D L; Busch, H; Rothblum, L I

1981-02-17

221

DNA flexibility studied by covalent closure of short fragments into circles.  

PubMed Central

The ring closure probability, or j factor, has been measured for DNA restriction fragments of defined sequence bearing EcoRI cohesive ends and ranging in size from 126 to 4361 base pairs (bp). The j factor is defined as the ratio of the equilibrium constants for cyclization and for bimolecular association via the cohesive ends. The end-joining reactions are fast compared to covalent closure of the cohesive ends by T4 DNA ligase. The rate of ligase closure is shown to be proportional to the equilibrium fraction of DNA molecules with joined cohesive ends, both in cyclization and in bimolecular association reactions. The j factor changes by less than 10-fold between 242 and 4361 bp, whereas it decreases by more than 100-fold between 242 and 126 bp as the DNA reaches the size range of the persistence length (150 bp). As regards ring closure, short DNA fragments are surprisingly flexible. These data are in good agreement with predictions by others for the ring closure probability of a wormlike chain. Images

Shore, D; Langowski, J; Baldwin, R L

1981-01-01

222

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and physical mapping of large DNA fragments in the Tm2a region of chromosome 9 in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed which allows the isolation of very high molecular weight DNA (>2 million bp) from leaf protoplasts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The DNA isolated in this manner was digested in agarose with rare-cutting restriction enzymes and separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The size range of the reslting fragments was determined by hybridization to a number

Martin W. Ganal; Nevin D. Young; Steven D. Tanksley

1989-01-01

223

Controlling DNA fragmentation in MALDI-MS by chemical modification  

SciTech Connect

Fragmentation has proven to be a major factor limiting accessible mass range, sensitivity, and mass resolution in the analysis of DNA by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Previous work has shown that this DNA fragmentation is strongly dependent on both the MALDI matrix and the nucleic acid sequence employed. Fragmentation is initiated by nucleobase protonation, leading to cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond with base loss, followed by cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone. In this study, asymmetric oligonucleotides incorporating cytidine and cytidine analogs such as 5-methyl-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, 5-bromo-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, aracytidine, and 2{prime}-fluorodeoxycytidine nucleosides were used to systematically investigate the influence of the structural changes on the stability of the N-glycosidic bond. Modifications of the deoxyribose sugar ring by replacing the 2{prime}-hydrogen with more electron-withdrawing groups such as the hydroxyl or fluoro group stabilize the N-glycosidic bond to a greater extent than the C5 nucleobase modifications. 2{prime}-Hydroxyl and 2{prime}-fluoro groups respectively are shown to partially or completely block fragmentation at the modified nucleosides. Mixtures of oligonucleotides incorporating such modifications demonstrate remarkably extended accessible mass range, as well as increased sensitivity and mass resolution. 39 refs., 11 figs.

Tang, W.; Zhu, L.; Smith, L.M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1997-02-01

224

TeloTool: a new tool for telomere length measurement from terminal restriction fragment analysis with improved probe intensity correction  

PubMed Central

Telomeres comprise the protective caps of natural chromosome ends and function in the suppression of DNA damage signaling and cellular senescence. Therefore, techniques used to determine telomere length are important in a number of studies, ranging from those investigating telomeric structure to effects on human disease. Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis has for a long time shown to be one of the most accurate methods for quantification of absolute telomere length and range from a number of species. As this technique centers on standard Southern blotting, telomeric DNA is observed on resulting autoradiograms as a heterogeneous smear. Methods to accurately determine telomere length from telomeric smears have proven problematic, and no reliable technique has been suggested to obtain mean telomere length values. Here, we present TeloTool, a new program allowing thorough statistical analysis of TRF data. Using this new method, a number of methodical biases are removed from previously stated techniques, including assumptions based on probe intensity corrections. This program provides a standardized mean for quick and reliable extraction of quantitative data from TRF autoradiograms; its wide application will allow accurate comparison between datasets generated in different laboratories.

Gohring, Janett; Fulcher, Nick; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Riha, Karel

2014-01-01

225

TeloTool: a new tool for telomere length measurement from terminal restriction fragment analysis with improved probe intensity correction.  

PubMed

Telomeres comprise the protective caps of natural chromosome ends and function in the suppression of DNA damage signaling and cellular senescence. Therefore, techniques used to determine telomere length are important in a number of studies, ranging from those investigating telomeric structure to effects on human disease. Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis has for a long time shown to be one of the most accurate methods for quantification of absolute telomere length and range from a number of species. As this technique centers on standard Southern blotting, telomeric DNA is observed on resulting autoradiograms as a heterogeneous smear. Methods to accurately determine telomere length from telomeric smears have proven problematic, and no reliable technique has been suggested to obtain mean telomere length values. Here, we present TeloTool, a new program allowing thorough statistical analysis of TRF data. Using this new method, a number of methodical biases are removed from previously stated techniques, including assumptions based on probe intensity corrections. This program provides a standardized mean for quick and reliable extraction of quantitative data from TRF autoradiograms; its wide application will allow accurate comparison between datasets generated in different laboratories. PMID:24366880

Göhring, Janett; Fulcher, Nick; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Riha, Karel

2014-02-01

226

Rapid detection of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori strains in Spanish patients by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to characterize the mutations types present in the 23S rRNA gene related to H. pylori clarithromycin-resistance strains in Spain and evaluate a novel PCR-RFLP method for detection of the most frequent point mutation in our population. Methods Gastric biopsies were obtained by endoscopy from patients with gastric symptoms. H. pylori was cultured according to standard microbiological procedures and clarithromycin resistance was determined by E-test. DNA extraction was performed by NucliSens platform with the NucliSens magnetic extraction reagents (bioMérieux) according to the manufacturer instructions. Analyses for point mutations in 23S rRNA gene strains were performed by sequence analysis of amplified polymerase chain reaction products. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed using BsaI enzyme to detect restriction sites that correspond to the mutation (A2143G). Result We found 42 out of 118 (35.6%) strains resistant to clarithromycin by E-test. E-test results were confirmed for the presence of point mutation in 34 (88.1%) of these strains. Mutation A2143G was found in 85.3% of the strains. Analyses with the restriction enzyme BsaI was able to confirm the presence of A2143G mutation. There were 8 H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin by E-test but without any point mutation in the 23 rRNA gene. Conclusion We conclude that PCR-RFLP is a reliable method to detect clarithromycin-resistance H. pylori strains in countries with a high prevalence of clarithromycin-resistance as Spain It may be useful before choosing regimens of H. pylori eradication.

Agudo, Sonia; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Alarcon, Teresa; Lopez-Brea, Manuel

2014-01-01

227

Detection of Irradiated Food: DNA Fragmentation in Grapefruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing the simple microgel electrophoresis of single cells - `comet assay' - on grapefruit seeds enabled a rapid identification of irradiated fruits. Fruits were exposed to radiation doses of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy covering the range of potential commercial irradiation for insect disinfestation and quarantine purposes. Seeds were isolated, crushed, and the cells embedded in an agarose layer. After lysis of the cells, they were subjected to microgel electrophoresis for 2.5 minutes, and then stained. Fruits irradiated with 0.2 kGy and higher doses showed typical DNA fragmentation, the DNA fragments stretching or migrating out of the cells forming a tail towards the anode, giving the damaged cells an appearance of a comet. With increasing dose a longer extension of the DNA from the nucleus towards the anode is observed. Undamaged cells will appear as intact nuclei without tails. The DNA comet assay is thus a rapid and inexpensive screening technique to detect irradiated grapefruits. Suspected samples may subsequently be analysed by officially validated methods for detection of irradiated foods.

Delincée, Henry

1998-06-01

228

Secuencia parcial de un fragmento de ADN de patos silvestres homólogo al complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad de Gallus gallus Partial sequence of a DNA fragment from wild ducks homologous to the Gallus gallus major histocompatibility complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a genomic DNA fragment from domestic duck (Anas domesticus) was amplified by PCR. Such fragment shared 93 % identity to the chicken (Gallus gallus) MHC class II, which correspond to DAB1- (Disabled 1)-like sequence. The DAB1 sequence was also amplified from nine wild duck species of the Anas genus, which after performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism

Sofía González-Guzmán; Elizabeth Loza-Rubio; Virginia León-Régagnonc; Gary García-Espinosa

229

[Acclimatization of salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum) in the European north: data from restriction analysis of mtDNA].  

PubMed

Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the control region. It was found that mtDNA variation and diversity at the earlier examined nuclear allozyme genes significantly decreased in the odd broodline of pink salmon 8 years after the introduction. The haplotype diversity in the even broodline was considerably lower than in the odd broodline exhibiting virtually no change two generations after the introduction. Based on the results obtained, a possible role of these changes in adaptation of White Sea pink salmon from the odd broodline to the new environment is discussed. PMID:15125255

Gordeeva, N V; Salmenkova, E A; Altukhov, Iu P

2004-03-01

230

Physical map and strand polarity of specific fragments of adenovirus-associated virus DNA produced by endonuclease R-EcoRI.  

PubMed Central

Cleavage of adenovirus-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) DNA linear duplex monomers with the restriction endonuclease R-EcoRI yielded three fragments, A, B, and C, having approximate mol wt of 1.6 X 10(6), 1.1 X 10(6), and 1.3 X 10(5), respectively. Radioactive labeling the 5' termini of AAV DNA before cleavage with R-EcoRI showed that A and B were terminal fragments and C was internal. Separation of the complementary strands of fragments A and B showed that A contained the 5' terminus of the minus strand and the 3' terminus of the plus strand, and conversely for fragment B. The physical map of the AAV R-EcoRI fragments can thus be unambiguously determined and is drawn with B at the left-hand and A at the right-hand end. On this map, transcription of stable AAV mRNA from the minus strand proceeds from left to right, beginning in fragment B and terminating in fragment A. The asymmetry in distribution of thymidine between the AAV DNA plus and minus strands is preferentially located in fragment A, which represents the right-hand half of the duplex molecule. These experiments enable preparative separation of all four single-strand termini of AAV DNA and provide a basis for orientation of fragment maps derived by cleavage with other restriction enzymes.

Carter, B J; Khoury, G; Denhardt, D T

1975-01-01

231

Genetic identification of cloned fragments of bacteriophage T4 DNA and complementation by some clones containing early T4 genes.  

PubMed

Bacteriophage T4 DNA containing cytosine has been obtained from cells infected with phage mutant in genes 42, 56, denA and denB. This DNA can be cut by a number of restriction endonucleases. Fragments obtained by digestion of this DNA with EcoRI have been cloned using the vector plasmid pCR1. Clones containing T4 DNA were identified by hybridization with radioactive early and late T4 RNA. A simple marker rescue technique is described for the genetic identification of the cloned T4 fragments. Some of the T4-hybrid plasmids which contain entire T4 genes can complement temperature sensitive and amber mutants of T4. PMID:927440

Mattson, T; Van Houwe, G; Bolle, A; Selzer, G; Epstein, R

1977-09-01

232

Establishment and characterization of hamster cell lines transformed by restriction endonuclease fragments of adenovirus 5.  

PubMed Central

We have established a library of hamster cells transformed by adenovirus 5 DNA fragments comprising all (XhoI-C, 0 to 16 map units) or only a part (HindIII-G, 0 to 7.8 map units) of early region 1 (E1: 0 to 11.2 map units). These lines have been analyzed in terms of content of viral DNA, expression of E1 antigens, and capacity to induce tumors in hamsters. All cells tested were found to express up to eight proteins encoded within E1A (0 to 4.5 map units) with apparent molecular weights between 52,000 (52K) and 25K. Both G and C fragment-transformed lines expressed a 19K antigen encoded within E1B (4.5 to 11.2 map units), whereas an E1B 58K protein was detected in C fragment-transformed, but not G-fragment-transformed, lines. No clear distinction could be drawn between cells transformed by HindIII-G and by XhoI-C in terms of morphology or tumorigenicity, suggesting that the E1B 58K antigen plays no major role in the maintenance of oncogenic transformation, although possible involvement of truncated forms of 58K cannot be ruled out. Sera were collected from tumor-bearing animals and examined for ability to immunoprecipitate proteins from infected cells. The relative avidity of sera for different proteins was characteristic of the cell line used for tumor induction, and the specificity generally reflected the array of viral proteins expressed by the corresponding transformed cells. However, one notable observation was that even though all transformed lines examined expressed antigens encoded by both the 1.1- and 0.9-kilobase mRNAs transcribed from E1A, tumor sera made against these lines only precipitated products of the 1.1-kilobase message. Thus, two families of E1A proteins, highly related in terms of primary amino acid sequence, appear to be immunologically quite distinct. Images

Rowe, D T; Branton, P E; Yee, S P; Bacchetti, S; Graham, F L

1984-01-01

233

Solving large double digestion problems for DNA restriction mapping by using branch-and-bound integer linear programming.  

PubMed

The double digestion problem for DNA restriction mapping has been proved to be NP-complete and intractable if the numbers of the DNA fragments become large. Several approaches to the problem have been tested and proved to be effective only for small problems. In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MIP) by following (Waterman, 1995) in a slightly different form. With this formulation and using state-of-the-art integer programming techniques, we can solve randomly generated problems whose search space sizes are many-magnitude larger than previously reported testing sizes. PMID:19008180

Wu, Z; Zhang, Y

2008-01-01

234

Use of multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for rapid and simultaneous analysis of different components of the soil microbial community.  

PubMed

A multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (M-TRFLP) fingerprinting method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the diversity and community structure of two or more microbial taxa (up to four taxa). The reproducibility and robustness of the method were examined using soil samples collected from different habitats. DNA was PCR amplified separately from soil samples using individual taxon-specific primers for bacteria, archaea, and fungi. The same samples were also subjected to a multiplex PCR with the primers for all three taxa. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles generated for the two sets of PCR products were almost identical not only in terms of the presence of peaks but also in terms of the relative peak intensity. The M-TRFLP method was then used to investigate rhizosphere bacterial, fungal, and rhizobial/agrobacterial communities associated with the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris growing in either open moorland, a mature pine forest, or a transition zone between these two habitats containing naturally regenerating pine trees. Rhizosphere microbial communities associated with Vaccinium myrtillus collected from the native pine forest were also investigated. In this study, individual PCR products from the three taxa were also pooled before restriction digestion and fragment size analysis. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles obtained with PCR products amplified individually and with multiplexed and pooled PCR products were found to be consistent with each other in terms of the number, position, and relative intensity of peaks. The results presented here confirm that M-TRFLP analysis is a highly reproducible and robust molecular tool for simultaneous investigation of multiple taxa, which allows more complete and higher resolution of microbial communities to be obtained more rapidly and economically. PMID:16936053

Singh, Brajesh K; Nazaries, Loic; Munro, Stacey; Anderson, Ian C; Campbell, Colin D

2006-11-01

235

Efficient combination of large DNA in vitro: in gel site specific recombination (IGSSR) of PAC fragments containing alpha satellite DNA and the human HPRT gene locus.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to combine a cloned genomic copy of a selectable gene with different cloned centromeric sequences to develop mammalian artificial chromosomes (MAC) we used site specific recombination mediated by purified Cre recombinase acting on the loxP sequence in PAC vector DNA. A new method was required to purify highly concentrated, virtually 100% intact PAC DNA which could be stored for a long period. Here we show the efficient linking of linearized PACs containing alpha satellite DNA from chromosomes X and 17 with sizes of 125 and 140 kb, respectively, to a 95 kb restriction fragment derived from a 175 kb PAC containing the intact human HPRT gene locus.

Schindelhauer, D; Cooke, H J

1997-01-01

236

PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method for Detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Environmental Waters without Microscopic Confirmation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an alternative nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) protocol for the detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in environmental samples that obviates the need for microscopic exami- nation. The RFLP method, with the restriction enzyme AluI, differentiates the amplified target sequence from C. cayetanensis from those that may cross-react. This new protocol was used to reexamine a subset (121 of 180)

Joan M. Shields; Betty H. Olson

2003-01-01

237

SURVEY AND SUMMARY: Diversity of Type II restriction endonucleases that require two DNA recognition sites  

PubMed Central

Orthodox Type IIP restriction endonucleases, which are commonly used in molecular biological work, recognize a single palindromic DNA recognition sequence and cleave within or near this sequence. Several new studies have reported on structural and biochemical peculiarities of restriction endonucleases that differ from the orthodox in that they require two copies of a particular DNA recognition sequence to cleave the DNA. These two sites requiring restriction endonucleases belong to different subtypes of Type II restriction endonucleases, namely Types IIE, IIF and IIS. We compare enzymes of these three types with regard to their DNA recognition and cleavage properties. The simultaneous recognition of two identical DNA sites by these restriction endonucleases ensures that single unmethylated recognition sites do not lead to chromosomal DNA cleavage, and might reflect evolutionary connections to other DNA processing proteins that specifically function with two sites.

Mucke, Merlind; Kruger, Detlev H.; Reuter, Monika

2003-01-01

238

Characterization of cytomegalovirus isolates from patients with AIDS by DNA restriction analysis.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-seven isolates of cytomegalovirus (CMV) were obtained from a group of 20 promiscuous homosexual men, either suffering from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the time of CMV isolation, or who developed AIDS subsequently. The isolates of CMV were characterized by the method of DNA restriction analysis. All epidemiologically unrelated strains of CMV exhibited different fragment migration patterns and no one strain appeared to be associated with AIDS or any particular disease pattern in these patients. Sequential isolates of CMV were obtained from nine patients in the study group either from different sites at the same time or from the same site on different dates. In the case of seven of the men, viruses with minor differences in restriction profile were obtained, possibly representing sub-populations of an endogenous strain of CMV. In two of the patients, reinfection with different strains was apparent. We conclude that reinfections with CMV in AIDS patients can occur, but the isolation of strains exhibiting major differences in genome structure seen by restriction enzyme analysis was uncommon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Taylor, D. L.; Taylor-Robinson, D.; Jeffries, D. J.; Tyms, A. S.

1988-01-01

239

IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing of Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains from Northeast South Africa  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a deadly infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide; 95% of TB cases, with 98% of death occur in developing countries. The situation in South Africa merits special attention. A total of 21,913 sputum specimens of suspected TB patients from three provinces of South Africa routinely submitted to the TB laboratory of Dr. George Mukhari (DGM) Hospital were assayed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) growth and antibiotic susceptibility. The genetic diversity of 338 resistant strains were also studied. DNA isolated from the strains were restricted with Pvu II, transferred on to a nylon membrane and hybridized with a PCR-amplified horseradish peroxidase 245 bp IS6110 probe. Of the 338 resistant strains, 2.09% had less than 5 bands of IS6110, and 98% had 5 or more bands. Unique restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns were observed in 84.3% of the strains, showing their epidemiological independence, and 15.7% were grouped into 22 clusters. Thirty-two strains (61.5%) from the 52 that clustered were from Mpumalanga, 16/52 (30.8%) from Gauteng, and 4/52 (9.6%) from Limpopo province. Clustering was not associated with age. However, strains from male patients in Mpumalanga were more likely to be clustered than strains from male patients in Limpopo and/or Gauteng province. The minimum estimate for the proportion of resistant TB that was due to transmission is 9.06% (52-22=30/331). Our results indicate that transmission of drug-resistant strains may contribute substantially to the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.

Green, Ezekiel; Obi, Lawrence C.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Villiers, Babsie E. De; Letsoalo, Tomas; Hoosen, Anwar A.; Bessong, Pascal O.

2013-01-01

240

Genetic Diversity among Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii Strains Revealed by Allozyme and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses  

PubMed Central

Allozyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were used to examine the genetic diversity of a collection of 18 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, 1 R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, and 2 R. meliloti strains. Allozyme analysis at 28 loci revealed 16 electrophoretic types. The mean genetic distance between electrophoretic types of R. leguminosarum and R. meliloti was 0.83. Within R. leguminosarum, the single strain of bv. viciae differed at an average of 0.65 from strains of bv. trifolii, while electrophoretic types of bv. trifolii differed at a range of 0.23 to 0.62. Analysis of RFLPs around two chromosomal DNA probes also delineated 16 unique RFLP patterns and yielded genetic diversity similar to that revealed by the allozyme data. Analysis of RFLPs around three Sym (symbiotic) plasmid-derived probes demonstrated that the Sym plasmids reflect genetic divergence similar to that of their bacterial hosts. The large genetic distances between many strains precluded reliable estimates of their genetic relationships.

Demezas, David H.; Reardon, Terry B.; Watson, John M.; Gibson, Alan H.

1991-01-01

241

A computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial small-subunit rRNA genes: efficacy of selected tetrameric restriction enzymes for studies of microbial diversity in nature.  

PubMed Central

An assessment of 10 tetrameric restriction enzymes (TREs) was conducted by using a computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for over 100 proximally and distally related bacterial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences. Screening SSU rDNA clone libraries with TREs has become an effective strategy because of logistic simplicity, commercial availability, and economy. However, the rationale for selecting the type and number of TREs has not been systematically evaluated. Our objective was to identify the optimal combination of TREs for RFLP screening of cloned SSU rRNA genes from undefined bacterial clone libraries. After computer-simulated TRE digestion, the resultant fragments were categorized on the basis of the frequency of different restriction fragment size classes. Three groups of distribution patterns for the TREs were determined and further examined via graphical exploratory data analysis. The RFLP size-frequency distribution data for each group of enzymes were then used to infer phylogenetic relationships via the neighbor-joining method. The resulting bootstrap values and the correct placement of node bifurcations were used as additional criteria to evaluate the efficacy of the selected TREs. These RFLP data were compared with known phylogenetic relationships based on SSU rRNA sequence analysis as defined by the Ribosomal Database Project. A heuristic approach testing random combinations of TREs showed that three or more TRE combinations detected > 99% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the model data set. OTUs that remained undetected after three TRE treatments had a median sequence similarity of 96.1%. Of the 10 restriction enzymes examined, HhaI, RsaI, and BstUI (group 3) were the most efficacious at detecting and differentiating bacterial SSU rRNA genes on the basis of their ability to correctly classify OTUs. Group 3 TREs are therefore recommended for screening in studies using bacterial SSU rRNA genes as descriptors of in situ microbial diversity.

Moyer, C L; Tiedje, J M; Dobbs, F C; Karl, D M

1996-01-01

242

Restriction fragment length polymorphism within the class I gene loci of the equine major histocompatibility complex  

SciTech Connect

Fourteen standard bred horses were serotyped as homozygous for 1 of 6 Equine Leukocyte Antigen (ELA) specificities. DNA was purified from peripheral leukocytes and digested with Hind III or Pvu II. Southern blot hybridization analysis was carried out using a /sup 32/P-labeled mouse cDNA probe (PH2IIa) specific for class I MHC genes. Both enzymes generated blots that contained a large number of bands (23 to 30) per horse. Significant polymorphism existed among most fragment sizes, while a dozen highly conserved band sizes suggested the presence of Qa/tla - like genes. Only 2 animals (both W6's) showed identical band patterns. Polymorphism was greatest between horses of different serotypes and was significantly decreased within serotypes. Unique bands were present on both blots for both W1's and W6's and may account for the serologic specificity seen in ELA W1 and W6 horses. This study is consistent with the findings in other higher vertebrates and implies that the MHC of the horse includes a highly polymorphic class I multigene family.

Alexander, A.J.; Bailey, E.; Woodward, J.G.

1986-03-05

243

Molecular fingerprinting of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from India by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty mycobacterial strains comprising clinical Indian isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28 field isolates + 1H37 Rv) and Mycobacterium bovis (10 field isolates + 1 AN5) were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using IS6110 and IS1081 probes. Most of these strains originated from dairy cattle herd and human patients from Indian Veterinary research Institute (IVRI) campus isolated from

Sandeep Kumar Singh; Devendra H. Shah

244

Restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction products applied to the differentiation of poultry campylobacters for epidemiological investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for subtyping Campylobacter jejuni isolates has been developed by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the flaA and flaB genes. The technique was validated by using strains representing 28 serotypes of C jejuni and it may also be applied to C coli. From these strains 12 distinct RFLP profiles were

R. D Ayling; M. J Woodward; S Evans; D. G Newell

1996-01-01

245

Application of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Typing to Manitoba Tuberculosis Cases: Can Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Be Forgotten?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1993, all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered in the province of Manitoba, Canada, have been genotyped by the standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for routine surveillance, prevention, and control purposes. To date, our laboratory has collected 1,290 isolates, from which we have identified approximately 390 unique fingerprint patterns or \\

K. S. Blackwood; J. N. Wolfe; A. M. Kabani

2004-01-01

246

Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from environmental (pigeon excreta) and clinical sources in New York City.  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of environmental (pigeon excreta) and clinical Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans isolates in a limited geographic area distinguished 6 strains among 8 environmental isolates and 12 strains among 17 clinical isolates. Clusters of patients with three strains types accounted for 47% of clinical isolates. Despite this diversity, two strains were shared by environmental and clinical isolates. Images

Currie, B P; Freundlich, L F; Casadevall, A

1994-01-01

247

Use of a Multiple Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method for Detecting Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the announcement of the WHO program for the global eradication of poliomyelitis and the establishment of epidemiological and virological surveillance, the emergence and circulation of pathogenic vaccine-derived polio- viruses (VDPV) presenting >1% nucleotide divergence from the sequence of the original vaccine strain have been demonstrated in certain regions. We developed and used a multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

Natalia I. Romanenkova; Sophie Guillot; Nadejda R. Rozaeva; Radu Crainic; Maina A. Bichurina; Francis Delpeyroux

248

Use of a Multiple Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method for Detecting Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Clinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the announcement of the WHO program for the global eradication of poliomyelitis and the establishment of epidemiological and virological surveillance, the emergence and circulation of pathogenic vaccine-derived polio- viruses (VDPV) presenting >1% nucleotide divergence from the sequence of the original vaccine strain have been demonstrated in certain regions. We developed and used a multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)

Natalia I. Romanenkova; Sophie Guillot; Nadejda R. Rozaeva; Radu Crainic; Maina A. Bichurina; Francis Delpeyroux

2006-01-01

249

[Characteristics of the restriction profile of chromosomal DNA in strains of Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans, adapted to various oxidation substrates].  

PubMed

Restriction profiles of chromosomal DNA were studied in different Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains grown on medium with Fe2+ and further adapted to another oxidation substrate (S0, FeS2, or sulfide ore concentrates). The restriction endonuclease XbaI digested the chromosomal DNA from different strains into different numbers of fragments of various sizes. Adaptation of two strains (TFBk and TFN-d) to new oxidation substrates resulted in structural changes in XbaI-restriction patterns of their chromosomal DNA. Such changes in the DNA restriction patterns occurred in strain TFBk after the adaptation to precyanidated gravitational pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrate (no. 1) from the Nezhdaninskoe deposit or to copper-containing ore from the Udokanskoe deposit and also in strain TFN-d adapted to untreated pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrate (no. 2) from the Nezhdaninskoe deposit. No changes in the number or size of the XbaI-restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA were revealed in either strain TFBk cultivated on media with pyrite from the Angren and Tulun deposits or in strains TFN-d and TFO grown on media with S0 and pyrite. Neither were changes observed in the XbaI-restriction patterns of the DNA from strain TFV-1, isolated from the copper ore of the Volkovskoe deposit, when Fe2+ was substituted with alternative substrates--S0, pyrite or concentrate no. 2 from the ore of Nezhdaninskoe deposit. In strain TFO, no differences in the XbaI-restriction patterns of the chromosomal DNA were revealed between the culture grown on medium containing concentrate no. 2 or the concentrate of surface-lying ore from Olimpiadinskoe deposit and the culture grown on medium with Fe2+. When strain TFO was cultivated on the ore concentrate from deeper horizons of the Olimpiadinskoe deposit, which are characterized by lower oxidation degree and high antimony content, mutant TFO-2 differing from the parent strain in the chromosomal DNA structure was isolated. The correlation between the lability of chromosomal DNA structure in A. ferrooxidans strains and the physical and chemical peculiarities of the isolation substrate and habitat is discussed. PMID:12244722

Kondrat'eva, T F; Ageeva, S N; Pivovarova, T A; Karava?ko, G I

2002-01-01

250

Ca2 antagonists inhibit DNA fragmentation and toxic cell death induced by acetaminophen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca2 accumulates in the nucleus and DNA undergoes enzymatic cleavage into internucleosome- length fragments before acetaminophen and dimethyl- nitrosamine produce hepatic necrosis in vivo and toxic cell death in vitro. However, Ca2-endonudease fragmen- tation of DNA is characteristic of apoptosis, a type of cell death considered biochemically and functionally distinct from toxic cell death. The present studies investigate DNA fragmentation

SIDHARTHA D. RAY; LISA M KAMENDULIS; MARK W. GURULE; ROBERT D. YORKIN; GEORGE B. CORCORAN

1993-01-01

251

Presence of an allelic EcoRI restriction fragment of the c-mos locus in leukocyte and tumor cell DNAs of breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Structure of the human c-mos protooncogene in DNAs from breast tumors, leukemic cells, and lymphocytes from normal individuals was analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blot. In 6 of 75 breast tumor DNAs, we found an EcoRI 5-kilobase extra band hybridizing with a human c-mos probe containing all of the sequences homologous to v-mos oncogene. This band was also found in lymphocyte DNA from 3 of these patients, indicating a restriction fragment length polymorphism. This polymorphism was not found in a series of 69 lymphocyte DNAs from the unaffected population. Moreover, 1 of 73 leukemic cell DNAs exhibited the 5-kilobase band. These results indicate that this rare polymorphism is significantly more frequently found in patients with breast cancer than in the rest of the population (P less than 0.05, by a chi 2 test with Yates correction. PMID:2996003

Lidereau, R; Mathieu-Mahul, D; Theillet, C; Renaud, M; Mauchauffé, M; Gest, J; Larsen, C J

1985-10-01

252

Presence of an allelic EcoRI restriction fragment of the c-mos locus in leukocyte and tumor cell DNAs of breast cancer patients.  

PubMed Central

Structure of the human c-mos protooncogene in DNAs from breast tumors, leukemic cells, and lymphocytes from normal individuals was analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blot. In 6 of 75 breast tumor DNAs, we found an EcoRI 5-kilobase extra band hybridizing with a human c-mos probe containing all of the sequences homologous to v-mos oncogene. This band was also found in lymphocyte DNA from 3 of these patients, indicating a restriction fragment length polymorphism. This polymorphism was not found in a series of 69 lymphocyte DNAs from the unaffected population. Moreover, 1 of 73 leukemic cell DNAs exhibited the 5-kilobase band. These results indicate that this rare polymorphism is significantly more frequently found in patients with breast cancer than in the rest of the population (P less than 0.05, by a chi 2 test with Yates correction. Images

Lidereau, R; Mathieu-Mahul, D; Theillet, C; Renaud, M; Mauchauffe, M; Gest, J; Larsen, C J

1985-01-01

253

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing. PMID:19253611

Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

2009-02-01

254

Okazaki fragment processing-independent role for human Dna2 enzyme during DNA replication.  

PubMed

Dna2 is an essential helicase/nuclease that is postulated to cleave long DNA flaps that escape FEN1 activity during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation in yeast. We previously demonstrated that the human Dna2 orthologue (hDna2) localizes to the nucleus and contributes to genomic stability. Here we investigated the role hDna2 plays in DNA replication. We show that Dna2 associates with the replisome protein And-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Depletion of hDna2 resulted in S/G(2) phase-specific DNA damage as evidenced by increased ?-H2AX, replication protein A foci, and Chk1 kinase phosphorylation, a readout for activation of the ATR-mediated S phase checkpoint. In addition, we observed reduced origin firing in hDna2-depleted cells consistent with Chk1 activation. We next examined the impact of hDna2 on OF maturation and replication fork progression in human cells. As expected, FEN1 depletion led to a significant reduction in OF maturation. Strikingly, the reduction in OF maturation had no impact on replication fork progression, indicating that fork movement is not tightly coupled to lagging strand maturation. Analysis of hDna2-depleted cells failed to reveal a defect in OF maturation or replication fork progression. Prior work in yeast demonstrated that ectopic expression of FEN1 rescues Dna2 defects. In contrast, we found that FEN1 expression in hDna2-depleted cells failed to rescue genomic instability. These findings suggest that the genomic instability observed in hDna2-depleted cells does not arise from defective OF maturation and that hDna2 plays a role in DNA replication that is distinct from FEN1 and OF maturation. PMID:22570476

Duxin, Julien P; Moore, Hayley R; Sidorova, Julia; Karanja, Kenneth; Honaker, Yuchi; Dao, Benjamin; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Campbell, Judith L; Monnat, Raymond J; Stewart, Sheila A

2012-06-22

255

Half tetrad analysis in alfalfa using multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism markers.  

PubMed Central

A maximum likelihood approach of half tetrad analysis (HTA) based on multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers was developed. This procedure estimates the relative frequencies of 2n gametes produced by mechanisms genetically equivalent to first division restitution (FDR) or second division restitution and simultaneously locates the centromere within a linkage group of RFLP marker loci. The method was applied to the diploid alfalfa clone PG-F9 (2n = 2x = 16) previously selected because of its high frequency of 2n egg production. HTA was based on four RFLP loci for which PG-F9 was heterozygous with codominant alleles that were absent in the tetraploid tester. Models including three linked and one unlinked RFLP loci were developed and tested. Results of the HTA showed that PG-F9 produced 6% FDR and 94% second division restitution 2n eggs. Information from a marker locus belonging to one linkage group was used to more precisely locate the centromere on a different linkage group. HTA, together with previous cytological analysis, indicated that in PG-F9, FDR 2n eggs are likely produced by diplospory, a mechanism common among apomictic species. The occurrence of FDR 2n eggs in plant species and their importance for crop evolution and breeding is discussed together with the potential applicability of multilocus HTA in the study of reproductive mutants. Images Fig. 1

Tavoletti, S; Bingham, E T; Yandell, B S; Veronesi, F; Osborn, T C

1996-01-01

256

Short-fragment DNA-mediated in vivo DNA electroporation delivery.  

PubMed

Electroporation is an effective physical delivery method. A variety of factors have been shown to affect the electroporation-mediated gene delivery efficiency. Here we report the usefulness of noncoding short-fragment DNA (sf-DNA) for facilitating electroporation-mediated gene transfer. The plasmid pGL3-control encoding firefly luciferase was injected into tissue together with or without sf-DNA in different length or dose. Immediately after injection, the tissues were electroporated and the level of luciferase activity was assessed 24 h later. The results showed that plasmid DNA formulated with sf-DNA resulted in significant improvement in electroporation-mediated gene transfer efficiency. The effect is dose and length dependent, and also found in low-voltage electroporation. These results indicated that sf-DNA can be used as a helper molecule to improve the electroporation-mediated gene transfection efficiency. PMID:24510812

Peng, Jinliang; Zhao, Yonggang; Xu, Yuhong

2014-01-01

257

High-resolution liquid chromatography of DNA fragments on non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles.  

PubMed Central

DNA restriction fragments and PCR products were separated by means of ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on alkylated non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles with a mean diameter of 2.1 microns. Optimum resolution was obtained by using an acetonitrile gradient in 100 mM of triethylammonium acetate and a column temperature of 50 degrees C. This allowed the separation of DNA fragments differing in chain length by 1-5% up to a size of 500 base pairs. PCR products could be analyzed directly in less than two minutes with a concentration sensitivity of at least 300 ng/ml. Compared with anion-exchange chromatography or gel electrophoresis no desaltation of the purified DNA molecules is required because the volatile buffer system can be readily evaporated. Subsequently, the method was used for the semiquantitative evaluation of the expression of multidrug resistance genes in mononuclear white blood cells. Images

Huber, C G; Oefner, P J; Preuss, E; Bonn, G K

1993-01-01

258

Dynamics and consequences of DNA looping by the FokI restriction endonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic events often require proteins to be acti- vated by interacting with two DNA sites, trapping the intervening DNA in a loop. While much is known about looping equilibria, only a few studies have examined DNA-looping dynamics experimentally. The restriction enzymes that cut DNA after interact- ing with two recognition sites, such as FokI, can be used to exemplify looping

Lucy E. Catto; Stuart R. W. Bellamy; Susan E. Retter; Stephen E. Halford

2008-01-01

259

Tension-dependent DNA cleavage by restriction endonucleases: Two-site enzymes are  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA looping occurs in many important protein-DNA interactions, including those regulating replication, transcription, and recombination. Recent theoretical studies predict that tension of only a few piconewtons acting on DNA would almost completely inhibit DNA looping. Here, we study restriction endonucleases that require interaction at two separated sites for efficient cleavage. Using optical tweezers we measured the dependence of cleavage activity

Gregory J. Gemmen; Rachel Millin; Douglas E. Smith

2006-01-01

260

Sequence variation of chloroplast DNA that involves EcoRI and ClaI restriction site polymorphisms in soybean.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of EcoRI-and ClaI-digested chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) within the genus Glycine subgenus Soja were characterized. Two mutations were found to be responsible for the EcoRI and ClaI restriction site polymorphisms, and both were located in a region in which many ribosomal protein genes are clustered. This region is within the large single copy region of cpDNA and is located close to an inverted repeat. The locations of restriction sites of EcoRI and ClaI in the cpDNA region were analyzed by DNA gel-blot analyses and PCR amplification, which were followed by sequencing analyses. The EcoRI site polymorphism was found to have occurred in the intergenic spacer between rps11 and rpl36, while the ClaI site polymorphism was located within the 3' part of the coding region of rps3. The mutations that cause EcoRI and ClaI polymorphisms were both found to be single base substitutions. In addition to these polymorphisms, novel sequence variations in soybean cpDNA were detected near the sites of these mutations. Previously, it was shown that cultivated soybeans could be classified into three groups (I, II, and III) based on their cpDNA RFLPs. A comparison of the cpDNA sequences of soybeans in the present study was consistent with the notion that the cpDNA of group II soybeans is an intermediate between the cpDNAs of groups I and II. PMID:9718676

Kanazawa, A; Tozuka, A; Shimamoto, Y

1998-04-01

261

Genetic Interrelatedness among Clover Proliferation Mycoplasmalike Organisms (MLOs) and Other MLOs Investigated by Nucleic Acid Hybridization and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses  

PubMed Central

DNA was isolated from clover proliferation (CP) mycoplasmalike organism (MLO)-diseased periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.) and cloned into pSP6 plasmid vectors. CP MLO-specific recombinant DNA clones were biotin labeled and used as probes in dot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to study the genetic interrelatedness among CP MLO and other MLOs, including potato witches'-broom (PWB) MLO. Results from dot hybridization analyses indicated that both a Maryland strain of aster yellows and a California strain of aster yellows are distantly related to CP MLO. Elm yellows, paulownia witches'-broom, peanut witches'-broom, loofah witches'-broom, and sweet potato witches'-broom may be very distantly related, if at all, to CP MLO. A new Jersey strain of aster yellows MLO, tomato big bud MLO, clover phyllody MLO, beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence MLO, and ash yellows MLO are related to CP MLO, but PWB MLO is the most closely related. Similarity coefficients derived from restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed that PWB and CP MLOs are closely related strains and thus provided direct evidence of their relatedness in contrast to reliance solely on biological characterization. Images

Lee, Ing-Ming; Davis, Robert E.; Hiruki, Chuji

1991-01-01

262

Genetic Interrelatedness among Clover Proliferation Mycoplasmalike Organisms (MLOs) and Other MLOs Investigated by Nucleic Acid Hybridization and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analyses.  

PubMed

DNA was isolated from clover proliferation (CP) mycoplasmalike organism (MLO)-diseased periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.) and cloned into pSP6 plasmid vectors. CP MLO-specific recombinant DNA clones were biotin labeled and used as probes in dot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses to study the genetic interrelatedness among CP MLO and other MLOs, including potato witches'-broom (PWB) MLO. Results from dot hybridization analyses indicated that both a Maryland strain of aster yellows and a California strain of aster yellows are distantly related to CP MLO. Elm yellows, paulownia witches'-broom, peanut witches'-broom, loofah witches'-broom, and sweet potato witches'-broom may be very distantly related, if at all, to CP MLO. A new Jersey strain of aster yellows MLO, tomato big bud MLO, clover phyllody MLO, beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence MLO, and ash yellows MLO are related to CP MLO, but PWB MLO is the most closely related. Similarity coefficients derived from restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed that PWB and CP MLOs are closely related strains and thus provided direct evidence of their relatedness in contrast to reliance solely on biological characterization. PMID:16348604

Lee, I M; Davis, R E; Hiruki, C

1991-12-01

263

Novel application of PhastSystem polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using restriction fragment length polymorphism--internal transcribed spacer patterns of individuals for molecular identification of entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

différences! [editorial] [editorial]onomic way of identifying and assigning nematodes to taxons, which had already been determined either by comparative sequence analysis of nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region or by other methods of molecular or conventional taxonomy, is provided. Molecular identification of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can be upgraded by basing it on PhastSystem polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA derived from single nematodes of Steinernema or Heterorhabditis spp. Although analysis from single worms has previously been made on agarose gel, the resolution on PhastSystem PAGE gel is much higher. The DNA sequences selected for analysis were those constituting the internal transcribed spacer region between the 18S and 26S rDNA genes within the rRNA operon. RFLP analysis was carried out by gel electrophoresis on the PhastSystem (Pharmacia) as detailed elsewhere (Triga et al., Electrophoresis 1999, 20, 1272-1277. The downscaling from conventional agarose to PhastSystem gels resulted in pattern of DNA fragments differing from those obtained with agarose gel electrophoresis under conventional conditions by increasing the number of detected fragments. The approach supported previous species identifications and was able to identify several unclassified isolates, such as those from Hungary and Ireland, and provides a method for identification of previously unclassified strains. We confirmed that Heterorhabditis "Irish Type", represented by two strains of different geographical origin, comprise a species different from H. megidis. We also confirmed that strain IS5 belongs to the species H. indicus rather than to H. bacteriophora, as had been suggested previously. PMID:10380767

Pamjav, H; Triga, D; Buzás, Z; Vellai, T; Lucskai, A; Adams, B; Reid, A P; Burnell, A; Griffin, C; Glazer, I; Klein, M G; Fodor, A

1999-06-01

264

Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR): sequence-specific modification of genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells by small DNA fragments.  

PubMed

The sequence-specific correction of a mutated gene (e.g., point mutation) by the Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR) method is a highly attractive approach for gene therapy. Small DNA fragments (SDFs) were used in SFHR to modify endogenous genomic DNA in both human and murine cells. The advantage of this gene targeting approach is to maintain the physiologic expression pattern of targeted genes without altering the regulatory sequences (e.g., promoter, enhancer), but the application of this technique requires the knowledge of the sequence to be targeted. In our recent study, an optimized SFHR protocol was used to replace the eGFP mutant sequence in SV-40-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF-SV40), with the wild-type eGFP sequence. Nevertheless in the past, SFHR has been used to correct several mutant genes, each related to a specific genetic disease (e.g., spinal muscular atrophy, cystic fibrosis, severe combined immune deficiency). Several parameters can be modified to optimize the gene modification efficiency, as described in our recent study. In this chapter we describe the main guidelines that should be followed in SFHR application, in order to increase technique efficiency. PMID:24557898

Luchetti, Andrea; Malgieri, Arianna; Sangiuolo, Federica

2014-01-01

265

Analyzing the forces binding a restriction endonuclease to DNA using a synthetic nanopore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction endonucleases are used prevalently in recombinant DNA technology because they bind so stably to a specific target sequence and, in the presence of cofactors, cleave double-helical DNA specifically at a target sequence at a high rate. Using synthetic nanopores along with molecular dynamics (MD), we have analyzed with atomic res- olution how a prototypical restriction endonuclease, EcoRI, binds to

B. Dorvel; G. Sigalov; Q. Zhao; J. Comer; V. Dimitrov; U. Mirsaidov; A. Aksimentiev; G. Timp

2009-01-01

266

Polymerase Synthesis of Photocaged DNA Resistant against Cleavage by Restriction Endonucleases.  

PubMed

5-[(2-Nitrobenzyl)oxymethyl]-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-O-triphosphate was used for polymerase (primer extension or PCR) synthesis of photocaged DNA that is resistant to the cleavage by restriction endonucleases. Photodeprotection of the caged DNA released 5-hydroxymethyluracil-modified nucleic acids, which were fully recognized and cleaved by restriction enzymes. PMID:24850380

Vaníková, Zuzana; Hocek, Michal

2014-06-23

267

Diversity of Type II restriction endonucleases that require two DNA recognition sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodox Type IIP restriction endonucleases, which are commonly used in molecular biological work, recognize a single palindromic DNA recognition sequence and cleave within or near this sequence. Several new studies have reported on structural and biochemical peculiarities of restriction endo- nucleases that differ from the orthodox in that they require two copies of a particular DNA recognition sequence to cleave

Merlind Mucke; Detlev H. Kruger; Monika Reuter

2003-01-01

268

Protein Restriction Without Strong Caloric Restriction Decreases Mitochondrial Oxygen Radical Production and Oxidative DNA Damage in Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that caloric restriction decreases mitochondrial oxygen radical production and oxidative DNA damage in rat organs, which can be linked to the slowing of aging rate induced by this regime. These two characteristics are also typical of long-lived animals. However, it has never been investigated if those decreases are linked to the decrease in the intake of

Alberto Sanz; Pilar Caro; Gustavo Barja

2004-01-01

269

An algorithm for assembly of ordered restriction maps from single DNA molecules  

PubMed Central

The restriction mapping of a massive number of individual DNA molecules by optical mapping enables assembly of physical maps spanning mammalian and plant genomes; however, not through computational means permitting completely de novo assembly. Existing algorithms are not practical for genomes larger than lower eukaryotes due to their high time and space complexity. In many ways, sequence assembly parallels map assembly, so that the overlap–layout–consensus strategy, recently shown effective in assembling very large genomes in feasible time, sheds new light on solving map construction issues associated with single molecule substrates. Accordingly, we report an adaptation of this approach as the formal basis for de novo optical map assembly and demonstrate its computational feasibility for assembly of very large genomes. As such, we discuss assembly results for a series of genomes: human, plant, lower eukaryote and bacterial. Unlike sequence assembly, the optical map assembly problem is actually more complex because restriction maps from single molecules are constructed, manifesting errors stemming from: missing cuts, false cuts, and high variance of estimated fragment sizes; chimeric maps resulting from artifactually merged molecules; and true overlap scores that are “in the noise” or “slightly above the noise.” We address these problems, fundamental to many single molecule measurements, by an effective error correction method using global overlap information to eliminate spurious overlaps and chimeric maps that are otherwise difficult to identify.

Valouev, Anton; Schwartz, David C.; Zhou, Shiguo; Waterman, Michael S.

2006-01-01

270

DNA fragmentation, gliosis and histological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The extent of DNA fragmentation analysed using the TUNEL technique was evaluated in post-mortem human brain tissue. Twenty-four patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a short post-mortem delay were analysed. We report an increase in the count of TUNEL-labelled cells as the pathology of AD intensifies. Our results point out a significant correlation between neurofibrillary tangle and senile/neuritic plaque score and TUNEL-labelled cells. Patients with two copies of apolipoprotein (Apo) Eepsilon4 allele had highest number of histopathological hallmarks lesions of AD, whereas the ApoE genotype did not significantly influence the density of TUNEL-positive cells. No significant correlation was found between beta-amyloid protein load and TUNEL-labelled cells. There was no relationship between the age at death, age at onset, extent of astrogliosis or microgliosis and TUNEL-labelled cells in our material. PMID:11078220

Overmyer, M; Kraszpulski, M; Helisalmi, S; Soininen, H; Alafuzoff, I

2000-12-01

271

Typing and Clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Isolates by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Using Insertion Sequences.  

PubMed

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species. PMID:24671793

Voskresenskaya, E; Savin, C; Leclercq, A; Tseneva, G; Carniel, E

2014-06-01

272

DNA fragmentation in human substantia nigra: apoptosis or perimortem effect?  

PubMed

DNA fragmentation was examined in situ in flash-frozen human postmortem midbrain as a marker for programmed cell death. A large series of cases comprising 16 pathologically confirmed idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) cases, 14 control cases without brain pathology, and a group of 6 patients with other parkinsonian movement disorders were examined using TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin 3' end-labeling histology. Labeling of neurons and glia was seen in the substantia nigra of control and IPD cases and in other movement disorder cases. Labeled nuclei were seen in melanized nigral neurons; apoptotic bodies were also found but were more commonly associated with nigral glia. In the control group, labeling of neurons and glia was strongly associated with poor agonal status, assessed by tissue pH, a marker for antemortem hypoxia. The mean tissue pH of the control group with neuronal labeling was 6.28 (SEM .057), which was significantly different from that of the unlabeled group 6.55 (SEM .055). Mean tissue pH for all cases was 6.38. There was no association of nigral neuronal labeling with poor agonal status in the IPD cases, which showed labeling throughout the range of pH values. However, extranigral labeling, seen in the mesencephalon, red nucleus, superior colliculus, rostral pons, and periaqueductal gray matter, in all three subject groups was associated with tissue pH values of less than 6.3. These findings suggest that DNA fragmentation is influenced by antemortem hypoxia and that apoptosis-like changes seen in the postmortem nigra may parallel those seen in experimental ischemia in the animal brain. The likely influence of perimortem factors on these changes indicates that results from postmortem studies of apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative disease should be treated with caution and underlines the importance of determining postmortem markers for agonal status in human brain. PMID:9827610

Kingsbury, A E; Mardsen, C D; Foster, O J

1998-11-01

273

Restriction Analysis Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In this online activityâÂÂwhich illustrates that genes can be precisely manipulatedâÂÂstudents learn how to use restriction enzymes to cut DNA and analyze the resulting DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis.

Dolan DNA Learning Center * (Dolan DNA Learning Center;)

2010-06-17

274

DNA Fragmentation Simulation Method (FSM) and Fragment Size Matching Improve aCGH Performance of FFPE Tissues  

PubMed Central

Whole-genome copy number analysis platforms, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, are transformative research discovery tools. In cancer, the identification of genomic aberrations with these approaches has generated important diagnostic and prognostic markers, and critical therapeutic targets. While robust for basic research studies, reliable whole-genome copy number analysis has been unsuccessful in routine clinical practice due to a number of technical limitations. Most important, aCGH results have been suboptimal because of the poor integrity of DNA derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Using self-hybridizations of a single DNA sample we observed that aCGH performance is significantly improved by accurate DNA size determination and the matching of test and reference DNA samples so that both possess similar fragment sizes. Based on this observation, we developed a novel DNA fragmentation simulation method (FSM) that allows customized tailoring of the fragment sizes of test and reference samples, thereby lowering array failure rates. To validate our methods, we combined FSM with Universal Linkage System (ULS) labeling to study a cohort of 200 tumor samples using Agilent 1 M feature arrays. Results from FFPE samples were equivalent to results from fresh samples and those available through the glioblastoma Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This study demonstrates that rigorous control of DNA fragment size improves aCGH performance. This methodological advance will permit the routine analysis of FFPE tumor samples for clinical trials and in daily clinical practice.

Craig, Justin M.; Vena, Natalie; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Idbaih, Ahmed; Fouse, Shaun D.; Ozek, Memet; Sav, Aydin; Hill, D. Ashley; Margraf, Linda R.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Kieran, Mark W.; Norden, Andrew D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Loda, Massimo; Santagata, Sandro; Ligon, Keith L.; Ligon, Azra H.

2012-01-01

275

Autonomous replication of human chromosomal DNA fragments in human cells.  

PubMed Central

We have examined whether a human chromosome has distinct segments that can replicate autonomously as extrachromosomal elements. Human 293S cells were transfected with a set of human chromosomal DNA fragments of 8-15 kilobase pairs that were cloned on an Escherichia coli plasmid vector. The transfected cells were subsequently cultured in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine during two cell generations, and several plasmid clones labeled in both of the daughter DNA strands were isolated. Efficiency of replication of these clones, as determined from the ratios of heavy-heavy and one-half of heavy-light molecules to total molecules recovered from density-labeled cells, was 9.4% per cell generation on the average. Replication efficiency of control clones excluded during the selection was about 2.2% and that of the vector plasmid alone was 0.3%. A representative clone p1W1 replicated in a semiconservative manner only one round during the S phase of the cell cycle. It replicated extrachromosomally without integration into chromosome. The human segment of the clone was composed of several subsegments that promoted autonomous replication at different efficiencies. Our results suggest that certain specific nucleotide sequences are involved in autonomous replication of human segments. Images

Masukata, H; Satoh, H; Obuse, C; Okazaki, T

1993-01-01

276

A program for selecting DNA fragments to detect mutations by denaturing gel electrophoresis methods.  

PubMed Central

A computer program was developed to automate the selection of DNA fragments for detecting mutations within a long DNA sequence by denaturing gel electrophoresis methods. The program, MELTSCAN, scans through a user specified DNA sequence calculating the melting behavior of overlapping DNA fragments covering the sequence. Melting characteristics of the fragments are analyzed to determine the best fragment for detecting mutations at each base pair position in the sequence. The calculation also determines the optimal fragment for detecting mutations within a user specified mutational hot spot region. The program is built around the statistical mechanical model of the DNA melting transition. The optimal fragment for a given position is selected using the criteria that its melting curve has at least two steps, the base pair position is in the fragment's lowest melting domain, and the melting domain has the smallest number of base pairs among fragments that meet the first two criteria. The program predicted fragments for detecting mutations in the cDNA and genomic DNA of the human p53 gene.

Brossette, S; Wartell, R M

1994-01-01

277

Rates of intercalator-driven platination of DNA determined by a restriction enzyme cleavage inhibition assay.  

PubMed

A restriction enzyme cleavage inhibition assay was designed to determine the rates of DNA platination by four non-cross-linking platinum-acridine agents represented by the formula [Pt(am(2))LCl](NO(3))(2), where am is a diamine nonleaving group and L is an acridine derived from the intercalator 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea (ACRAMTU). The formation of monofunctional adducts in the target sequence 5'-CGA was studied in a 40-base-pair probe containing the EcoRI restriction site GAATTC. The time dependence of endonuclease inhibition was quantitatively analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The formation of monoadducts is approximately 3 times faster with double-stranded DNA than with simple nucleic acid fragments. Compound 1 (am(2) is ethane-1,2-diamine, L is ACRAMTU) reacts with a first-order rate constant of k (obs) = 1.4 ± 0.37 × 10(-4) s(-1) (t (1/2) = 83 ± 22 min). Replacement of the thiourea group in ACRAMTU with an amidine group (compound 2) accelerates the rate by fourfold (k (obs) = 5.7 ± 0.58 × 10(-4) s(-1), t (1/2) = 21 ± 2 min), and introduction of a propane-1,3-diamine nonleaving group results in a 1.5-fold enhancement in reactivity (compound 3, k (obs) = 2.1 ± 0.40 × 10(-4) s(-1), t (1/2) = 55 ± 10 min) compared with the prototype. Derivative 4, containing a 4,9-disubstituted acridine threading intercalator, was the least reactive compound in the series (k (obs) = 1.1 ± 0.40 × 10(-4) s(-1), t (1/2) = 104 ± 38 min). The data suggest a correlation may exist between the binding rates and the biological activity of the compounds. Potential pharmacological advantages of rapid formation of cytotoxic monofunctional adducts over the common purine-purine cross-links are discussed. PMID:21086002

Choudhury, Jayati Roy; Rao, Lu; Bierbach, Ulrich

2011-03-01

278

Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.

Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

2014-01-01

279

Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.  

PubMed

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham's F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice. PMID:25031574

Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

2014-05-01

280

Phosphorylation of Okazaki-like DNA fragments in mammalian cells and role of polyamines in the processing of this DNA.  

PubMed Central

In mammalian cells DNA synthesis is more complicated than in prokaryotes and less well understood. Here we incubated intact mammalian cells (polyamine auxotrophic Chinese hamster ovary cells and primary human fibroblasts) with [32P]orthophosphate and found that, besides high molecular weight DNA, a species of low molecular weight DNA, approximately 450 bp in size, became efficiently labeled. The short DNA was labeled first, and in pulse-chase experiments the labeling was transient. The isolated small DNA fragments (RNase A-treated) were phosphorylated by T4 polynucleotide kinase specific for polynucleotides with 5'-OH ends. A polynucleotide kinase phosphorylating these DNA pieces was also detected in nuclear extracts of the cells. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase removed most of the 32P label incorporated into the small DNA in vivo. Labeling with deoxyribonucleosides did not reveal these fragments. We hypothesize that the low molecular weight DNA represents Okazaki fragments and that the mammalian DNA replication machinery includes a polynucleotide kinase phosphorylating the 5'-termini of Okazaki fragments. This would imply a novel step in DNA synthesis. We also show that depriving cells of polyamines reversibly blocks synthesis of high molecular weight DNA and leads to accumulation of the short DNA pieces, suggesting a role for polyamines in joining the Okazaki fragments. Images

Pohjanpelto, P; Holtta, E

1996-01-01

281

Application of New Primer-Enzyme Combinations to Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profiling of Bacterial Populations in Human Feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

New primer-enzyme combinations for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) target- ing of the 16S rRNA gene were constructed by using the T-RFLP analysis program (designated TAP T-RFLP) located at the Ribosomal Database Project website, and their performance was examined empirically. By using the fluorescently labeled 516f primer (Escherichia coli positions 516 to 532) and 1510r primer (positions 1510 to

Koji Nagashima; Takayoshi Hisada; Maremi Sato; Jun Mochizuki

2003-01-01

282

Routine Use of PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis for Identification of Mycobacteria Growing in Liquid Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure capable of rapidly identifying 28 species of clinically encountered mycobacteria was evaluated for use in the routine identification of acid-fast isolates growing in BACTEC 12B and 13A liquid media. PCR-RFLP identified 100 of 103 acid-fast isolates recovered from 610 patient specimens submitted for culture during the study. The three isolates unidentifiable by PCR-RFLP

THERESA B. TAYLOR; CANDY PATTERSON; YVONNE HALE; ANDWILLIAM W. SAFRANEK

1997-01-01

283

A standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for typing Mycobacterium avium isolates links IS 901 with virulence for birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardised method for PvuII–PstI–IS901 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing was developed and evaluated against 173 isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. silvaticum originating from birds (N=46) and their aviaries (N=5), pigs (N=85), cattle (N=18), reference serotype strains (N=9), humans (N=7), a horse (N=1), a nutria (N=1), and strain M. avium subsp. avium ST 18

Lenka Dvorska; Tim John Bull; Milan Bartos; Ludmila Matlova; Petra Svastova; Ross Tim Weston; Jaromir Kintr; Ilona Parmova; Dick Van Soolingen; Ivo Pavlik

2003-01-01

284

Whole-Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism: A Simplified Method by Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, quick and cheap method to process whole-blood samples for the molecular techniques polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) without the use of expensive reagents or sophisticated machines. Materials and Methods: Venous whole-blood samples were collected from 40 individuals. The samples were frozen at –80°C,

Mehrez M. Jadaon; Ali A. Dashti; Hend L. Lewis; Fatema M. Habeeb

2009-01-01

285

Molecular Typing ofBorrelia burgdorferifrom Lyme Disease Patients by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-threeBorrelia burgdorferiisolates obtained from erythema migrans lesions or blood of Lyme disease patients in Westchester County, N.Y., between 1991 and 1994 were characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer. All isolates could be classified into three distinct RFLP types. Among the 82 skin biopsy isolates studied, 21 (25.6%) were type 1, 37 (45.1%)

DIONYSIOS LIVERIS; GARY P. WORMSER; JOHN NOWAKOWSKI; ROBERT NADELMAN; SUSAN BITTKER; DENISE COOPER; SHOBHA VARDE; FRED H. MOY; GILDA FORSETER; CHARLES S. PAVIA; ANDIRA SCHWARTZ

1996-01-01

286

Rapid Discrimination among Dermatophytes, Scytalidium spp., and Other Fungi with a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Ribotyping Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatomycoses are very common infections caused mainly by dermatophytes. Scytalidiosis is a differential mycological diagnosis, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Since a culture-based diagnosis takes 2 to 3 weeks, we set up a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for rapid discrimination of these fungi in clinical samples. The hypervariable V4 domain of the small ribosomal subunit 18S gene

MARIE MACHOUART-DUBACH; CLAIRE LACROIX; MARTINE FEUILHADE DE CHAUVIN; ISABELLE LE GALL; CATHERINE GIUDICELLI; FREDERIC LORENZO; FRANCIS DEROUIN

2001-01-01

287

Novel PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis for Rapid Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism test for the ccrB gene by using HinfI and BsmI for rapid typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). When tested with reference strains and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the method proved to be valid and useful for rapid identification of four SCCmec types, especially type IV. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has

Jin Ah Yang; Dae Won Park; Jang Wook Sohn; Min Ja Kim

2006-01-01

288

Cerebral Ischemia Produces Laddered DNA Fragments Distinct From Cardiac Ischemia and Archetypal Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrophoretic pattern of laddered DNA fragments which has been observed after cerebral ischemia is considered to indicate that neurons are dying by apoptosis. Herein the authors directly demonstrate using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction methods that 99% of the DNA fragments produced after either global or focal ischemia in adult rats, or produced after hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats, have staggered

John P. MacManus; Henry Fliss; Edward Preston; Ingrid Rasquinha; Ursula Tuor

1999-01-01

289

A Mini-Library of Sequenced Human DNA Fragments: Linking Bench Experiments with Informatics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the development of a mini-library of human DNA fragments for use in an enquiry-based learning (EBL) undergraduate practical incorporating "wet-lab" and bioinformatics tasks. In spite of the widespread emergence of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the cloning and analysis of DNA fragments in "Escherichia coli" remains a fundamental…

Dalgleish, Raymond; Shanks, Morag E.; Monger, Karen; Butler, Nicola J.

2012-01-01

290

Sequence-specific modification of a beta-thalassemia locus by small DNA fragments in human erythroid progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Gene therapy has been proposed as a definitive cure of beta-thalassemia. We applied a gene targeting approach, based on the introduction of small DNA fragments (SDF) into erythroid progenitor cells, to specifically modify the beta-globin gene sequence at codon 39. The strategy was first tested in normal individuals by delivering mutant SDF that were able to produce the beta-39 (C->T) mutation. Secondly, wild-type SDF were electroporated into target cells of beta-3i9/beta-39 b-thalassemic patients to correct the endogenous mutation. In both cases, gene modification was assayed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction of DNA and mRNA, by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by direct sequencing. PMID:17229648

Colosimo, Alessia; Guida, Valentina; Antonucci, Ivana; Bonfini, Tiziana; Stuppia, Liborio; Dallapiccola, Bruno

2007-01-01

291

Rapid Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Profile Analysis of the 16S rRNA Gene  

PubMed Central

Bacteremia results in significant morbidity and mortality, especially among patient populations that are immunocompromised. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are administered to patients suspected to have bloodstream infections that are awaiting diagnosis that depends on blood culture analysis. Significant delays in identification of pathogens can result, primarily due to the dependence on growth-based identification systems. To address these limitations, we took advantage of terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) due to 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence diversity to rapidly identify bacterial pathogens directly from positive blood culture. TRF profiles for each organism were determined by sizing fragments from restriction digests of PCR products derived from two sets of 16S rDNA-specific fluorescent dye-labeled primers. In addition, we created a TRF profile database (TRFPD) with 5,899 predicted TRF profiles from sequence information representing 2,860 different bacterial species. TRF profiles were experimentally determined for 69 reference organisms and 32 clinical isolates and then compared against the predicted profiles in the TRFPD. The predictive value of the profiles was found to be accurate to the species level with most organisms tested. In addition, identification of 10 different genera was possible with profiles comprising two or three TRFs. Although it was possible to identify Enterobacteriaceae by using a profile of three TRFs, the similarity of the TRF profiles of these organisms makes differentiation of species less reliable with the current method. The ability to rapidly (i.e., within ?8 h) identify bacteria from blood cultures has potential for reducing unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and promoting more timely prescription of appropriate antibiotics.

Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Stencil, Jennifer A.; Reed, Kurt D.

2003-01-01

292

Molecular analysis of Leptospira spp. isolated from humans by restriction fragment length polymorphism, real-time PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A total of 17 Leptospira clinical strains isolated from humans in Croatia were serologically and genetically analysed. For serovar identification, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used. To identify isolates on genomic species level, PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and real-time PCR were performed. MAT revealed the following serogroup affinities: Grippotyphosa (seven isolates), Icterohaemorrhagiae (eight isolates) and Javanica (two isolates). RFLP of PCR products from a 331-bp-long fragment of rrs (16S rRNA gene) digested with endonucleases MnlI and DdeI and real-time PCR revealed three Leptospira genomic species. Grippotyphosa isolates belonged to Leptospira kirschneri, Icterohaemorrhagiae isolates to Leptospira interrogans and Javanica isolates to Leptospira borgpetersenii. Genomic DNA from 17 leptospiral isolates was digested with NotI and SgrAI restriction enzymes and analysed by PFGE. Results showed that seven isolates have the same binding pattern to serovar Grippotyphosa, eight isolates to serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two isolates to serovar Poi. Results demonstrate the diversity of leptospires circulating in Croatia. We point out the usefulness of a combination of PFGE, RFLP and real-time PCR as appropriate molecular methods in molecular analysis of leptospires. PMID:19780841

Turk, Nenad; Milas, Zoran; Mojcec, Vesna; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; Staresina, Vilim; Stritof, Zrinka; Habus, Josipa; Postic, Daniele

2009-11-01

293

Cloning of a DNA fragment from Streptomyces griseus which directs streptomycin phosphotransferase activity.  

PubMed

DNA from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12475 was partially digested with Sau3A and fragments were ligated into BglII-cleaved pIJ702. When the ligation mixture was used to transform protoplasts of Streptomyces lividans TK54, two transformants resistant to both thiostrepton and streptomycin were isolated. The hybrid plasmids pBV3 and pBV4 which they contained, carrying inserts of sizes 4.45 and 11.55 kbp respectively, each retransformed S. lividans to streptomycin resistance at high efficiency. Both plasmids hybridized to restriction digests of S. griseus chromosomal DNA in Southern blot experiments. In vitro deletion and sub-cloning experiments showed the sequence conferring streptomycin resistance to lie within a segment of 1.95 kbp. Extracts of TK54(pBV3) and TK54(pBV4) contained a streptomycin phosphotransferase similar to that in extracts of S. griseus. Streptomycin phosphotransferase activity appeared in extracts of S. griseus, TK54(pBV3) and TK54(pBV4) within 2 d of inoculation. When pBV3 and pBV4 were retransformed into S. griseus with selection for thiostrepton resistance, plasmid DNA of sizes corresponding to the incoming plasmids was found in the transformants. In these transformants the phosphotransferase appeared at 1.5 rather than 2 d, and reached a level over twice that of the original S. griseus strain. PMID:2995548

Vallins, W J; Baumberg, S

1985-07-01

294

Relative stability of transgene DNA fragments from GM rapeseed in mixed ruminal cultures.  

PubMed

The use of transgenic crops as feeds for ruminant animals has prompted study of the possible uptake of transgene fragments by ruminal micro-organisms and/or intestinal absorption of fragments surviving passage through the rumen. The persistence in buffered ruminal contents of seven different recombinant DNA fragments from GM rapeseed expressing the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) transgene was tracked using PCR. Parental and transgenic (i.e. glyphosphate-tolerant; Roundup Ready, Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO, USA) rapeseed were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h as whole seeds, cracked seeds, rapeseed meal, and as pelleted, barley-based diets containing 65 g rapeseed meal/kg. The seven transgene fragments ranged from 179 to 527 bp and spanned the entire 1363 bp EPSPS transgene. A 180 bp ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit fragment and a 466 bp 16S rDNA fragment were used as controls for endogenous rapeseed DNA and bacterial DNA respectively. The limit of detection of the PCR assay, established using negative controls spiked with known quantities of DNA, was 12.5 pg. Production of gas and NH3 was monitored throughout the incubation and confirmed active in vitro fermentation. Bacterial DNA was detected in all sample types at all time points. Persistence patterns of endogenous (Rubisco) and recombinant (EPSPS) rapeseed DNA were inversely related to substrate digestibility (amplifiable for 48, 8 and 4 h in whole or cracked seeds, meal and diets respectively), but did not differ between parental and GM rapeseed, nor among fragments. Detection of fragments was representative of persistence of the whole transgene. No EPSPS fragments were amplifiable in microbial DNA, suggesting that transformation had not occurred during the 48 h incubation. Uptake of transgenic DNA fragments by ruminal bacteria is probably precluded or time-limited by rapid degradation of plant DNA upon plant cell lysis. PMID:15137918

Sharma, Ranjana; Alexander, Trevor W; John, S Jacob; Forster, Robert J; McAllister, Tim A

2004-05-01

295

qPCR-based mitochondrial DNA quantification: Influence of template DNA fragmentation on accuracy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR accurately determines fragmentation state of any given DNA sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR demonstrates different preservation of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR provides a diagnostic tool to validate the integrity of bioptic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Serial qPCR excludes degradation-induced erroneous quantification. -- Abstract: Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by relative comparison of a nuclear to a mitochondrial locus. Quantitative abnormal mtDNA content is indicative of mitochondrial disorders and mostly confines in a tissue-specific manner. Thus handling of degradation-prone bioptic material is inevitable. We established a serial qPCR assay based on increasing amplicon size to measure degradation status of any DNA sample. Using this approach we can exclude erroneous mtDNA quantification due to degraded samples (e.g. long post-exicision time, autolytic processus, freeze-thaw cycles) and ensure abnormal DNA content measurements (e.g. depletion) in non-degraded patient material. By preparation of degraded DNA under controlled conditions using sonification and DNaseI digestion we show that erroneous quantification is due to the different preservation qualities of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. This disparate degradation of the two genomes results in over- or underestimation of mtDNA copy number in degraded samples. Moreover, as analysis of defined archival tissue would allow to precise the molecular pathomechanism of mitochondrial disorders presenting with abnormal mtDNA content, we compared fresh frozen (FF) with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skeletal muscle tissue of the same sample. By extrapolation of measured decay constants for nuclear DNA ({lambda}{sub nDNA}) and mtDNA ({lambda}{sub mtDNA}) we present an approach to possibly correct measurements in degraded samples in the future. To our knowledge this is the first time different degradation impact of the two genomes is demonstrated and which evaluates systematically the impact of DNA degradation on quantification of mtDNA copy number.

Jackson, Christopher B., E-mail: Christopher.jackson@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Gallati, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.gallati@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland); Schaller, Andre, E-mail: andre.schaller@insel.ch [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)] [Division of Human Genetics, Departements of Pediatrics and Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Berne, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Berne (Switzerland)

2012-07-06

296

Development of a fast and efficient ultrasonic-based strategy for DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

Several ultrasound-based platforms for DNA sample preparation were evaluated in terms of effective fragmentation of DNA (plasmid and genomic DNA)-ultrasonic probe, sonoreactor, ultrasonic bath and the newest Vialtweeter device. The sonoreactor showed the best efficiency of DNA fragmentation while simultaneously assuring no cross-contamination of samples, and was considered the best ultrasonic tool to achieve effective fragmentation of DNA at high-throughput and avoid sample overheating. Several operation variables were studied-ultrasonication time and amplitude, DNA concentration, sample volume and sample pre-treatment-that allowed optimisation of a sonoreactor-based strategy for effective DNA fragmentation. Optimal operating conditions to achieve DNA fragmentation were set to 100% ultrasonic amplitude, 100microL sample volume, 8min ultrasonic treatment (2min/sample) for a DNA concentration of 100microgmL(-1). The proposed ultrasonication strategy can be easily implemented in any laboratory setup, providing fast, simple and reliable means for effective DNA sample preparation when fragmentation is critical for downstream molecular detection and diagnostics protocols. PMID:20298868

Larguinho, Miguel; Santos, Hugo M; Doria, Gonçalo; Scholz, H; Baptista, Pedro V; Capelo, José L

2010-05-15

297

Rapid assessment of the effect of ciprofloxacin on chromosomal DNA from Escherichia coli using an in situ DNA fragmentation assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are extensively used antibiotics that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by trapping DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA. This effect is usually evaluated using biochemical or molecular procedures, but these are not effective at the single-cell level. We assessed ciprofloxacin (CIP)-induced chromosomal DNA breakage in single-cell Escherichia coli by direct visualization of the DNA fragments that diffused

María Tamayo; Rebeca Santiso; Jaime Gosalvez; Germán Bou; José Luis Fernández

2009-01-01

298

A simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for the differentiation of cephalopod mollusc families Loliginidae from Ommastrephidae, to avoid substitutions in fishery field  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide a tool for the prevention of commercial frauds in fish products, a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method has been developed.This method allows to clearly differentiate molluscs belonging to the family Loliginidae from those belonging to the family Ommastrephidae.Cephalopods' 16S r-DNA was amplified with PCR using a “universal” primer pair, and the amplification

Fabio Colombo; Monica Cerioli; Marco Maria Colombo; Eliana Marchisio; Renato Malandra; Pietro Renon

2002-01-01

299

A simple and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay to identify Candida albicans and its closely related Candida dubliniensis  

PubMed Central

Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogen capable of causing superficial as well as systemic infections. Due to its close similarity to C. albcians, conventional methods based on phenotypic traits are not always reliable in identification of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to identify and discriminate between the two closely related species. The D1/D2 region of 28S rDNA was amplified by PCR and enzymatically digested by ApaI and BsiEI respectively. PCR products of both species were digested into two fragments by ApaI, but those of other yeast species were undigested. BsiEI cut the PCR products of C. albicans into two fragments but not those of C. dubliniensis. Thus two species were differentiated. We evaluated 10 reference strains representing 10 yeast species, among which C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were successfully identified. A total of 56 phenotypically characterized clinical isolates (42 C. albicans isolates and 14 C. dubliniensis isolates) were also investigated for intra-species variability. All tested isolates produced identical RFLP patterns to their respective reference strains except one initially misidentified isolate. Our method offers a simple, rapid and reliable molecular method for the identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

Ge, Yi Ping; Wang, Le; Lu, Gui Xia; Shen, Yong Nian; Liu, Wei Da

2012-01-01

300

CpG Methylation of DNA Restricts Prereplication Complex Assembly in Xenopus Egg Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Xenopus egg replication system, the origin recognition complex (ORC) does not bind to CpG methylated DNA and DNA replication is inhibited. Insertion of low density CpG DNA of at least 1.2 kb into methylated plasmids rescues both replication and ORC binding. Using this pseudo-origin, we find that ORC binding is restricted to low-CpG-density DNA; however, MCM is loaded

Kevin J. Harvey; John Newport

2003-01-01

301

DNA Amplification-Restricted Transcription-Translation: Rapid Analysis of Rhesus Rotavirus Neutralization Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA amplification-restricted transcription-translation (DARTT), is based on DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and uses PCR to truncate protein-encoding DNA while adding transcriptional and translational initiation signals to the segment. The amplified DNA segments are transcribed into RNA and translated into protein in vitro and the synthesized proteins are used to define functional sites. DARTT was applied to

Erich R. Mackow; Mark Y. Yamanaka; Minh N. Dang; Harry B. Greenberg

1990-01-01

302

Detection and Identification of Decay Fungi in Spruce Wood by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Amplified Genes Encoding rRNA†  

PubMed Central

We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and organic extractions, was amplified by the PCR using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We surveyed 14 species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes (brown-rot and white-rot fungi), as well as 25 species of wood-inhabiting ascomycetes (pathogens, endophytes, and saprophytes). DNA was isolated from pure cultures of these fungi and also from spruce wood blocks colonized by individual isolates of wood decay basidiomycetes or wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4 (universal primer) amplified the internal transcribed spacer region from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes from both pure culture and wood, as expected. The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4-B (specific for basidiomycetes) was shown to reliably detect the presence of wood decay basidiomycetes in both pure culture and wood; ascomycetes were not detected by this primer pair. We detected the presence of decay fungi in wood by PCR before measurable weight loss had occurred to the wood. Basidiomycetes were identified to the species level by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the internal transcribed spacer region.

Jasalavich, Claudia A.; Ostrofsky, Andrea; Jellison, Jody

2000-01-01

303

Guanine-plus-cytosine content, hybridization percentages, and EcoRI restriction enzyme profiles of spiroplasmal DNA.  

PubMed

The guanine-plus-cytosine (G + C) content of spiroplasmal DNA was calculated from the melting temperature determined spectrophotometrically and the buoyant density determined by equilibrium density gradient centrifugation in CsCl. Only two ranges of G + C values were found: 25-27 mol% and 29-32 mol%. The DNA of the following spiroplasmas has 25-27 mol% G + C: Spiroplasma citri (serogroup I-1); the spiroplasmas pathogenic to the honeybee (KC3, BC3, and B63; serogroup I-2); the corn stunt strain (E275; serogroup I-3); the tick strain 277F (serogroup I-4); the drosophila strain (serogroup II); and one group of flower spiroplasmas (serogroup III). The DNA of a second group of flower spiroplasmas (serogroup IV) and the SMCA strain (serogroup V) has a G + C content of 29-31 mol/. The classification of flower spiroplasmas into two groups on the basis of G + C content agrees well with the groupings based on serologic and protein analysis. Spiroplasmas isolated from honeybees in Morocco (B13) or froghoppers in Corsica (L89) have 29-31 mol% G + C, a value that corroborates the relatedness of these strains and the flower spiroplasmas of serogroup IV found by serologic analysis. Reannealing experiments between the vivo-labeled DNA of S. citri and unlabeled DNA of other spiroplasmas gave the following percentages of hybridization: 64% with honeybee spiroplasma DNA, 49% with corn stunt spiroplasma DNA, and 19% with tick spiroplasma 277F DNA; no significant hybridization was observed with DNA of any other spiroplasma. The taxonomic position of the tick spiroplasma 277F within serogroup I was confirmed by hybridization experiments involving [3H]DNA of this strain. The value of polyacrylamide gel analysis of DNA fragments produced by the action of EcoRI restriction enzyme on DNAs from various spiroplasmas is also discussed. PMID:6289407

Bové, J M; Saillard, C; Junca, P; DeGorce-Dumas, J R; Ricard, B; Nhami, A; Whitcomb, R F; Williamson, D; Tully, J G

1982-01-01

304

Length and restriction site heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial DNA of american shad (alosa sapidissima).  

PubMed

Restriction endonuclease analysis was used to assess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in American shad (Alosa sapidissima) collected from 14 rivers ranging from Florida to Quebec. Two types of heteroplasmy were observed, one involving a major length polymorphism and the other a single restriction site. Shad mtDNA occurred in two principal size classes, 18.3 and 19.8 kb. Of 244 shad examined, 30 were heteroplasmic and carried both size classes of mtDNA in varying proportions; the remainder were homoplasmic for the smaller size class of mtDNA. The large mtDNA variant occurred most frequently at the southern end of the range, and except for two individuals from Nova Scotia, was not detected among shad from rivers north of the Delaware. In contrast, ten shad heteroplasmic for a SalI restriction site originated from rivers ranging from South Carolina to Nova Scotia. DNA mapping and hybridization experiments indicated that the length polymorphism is in the D-loop-containing region and consists of a tandemly repeated 1.5-kb DNA sequence occurring in two and three copies, respectively, in the two major size classes of shad mtDNA. Continuous length variation up to approximately 40 bp occurs among copies of the repeat both within and among individuals. Restriction site data support the conclusion that both forms of heteroplasmy in shad mtDNA have originated more than once. PMID:17246419

Bentzen, P; Leggett, W C; Brown, G G

1988-03-01

305

Length and Restriction Site Heteroplasmy in the Mitochondrial DNA of American Shad (Alosa Sapidissima)  

PubMed Central

Restriction endonuclease analysis was used to assess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in American shad (Alosa sapidissima) collected from 14 rivers ranging from Florida to Quebec. Two types of heteroplasmy were observed, one involving a major length polymorphism and the other a single restriction site. Shad mtDNA occurred in two principal size classes, 18.3 and 19.8 kb. Of 244 shad examined, 30 were heteroplasmic and carried both size classes of mtDNA in varying proportions; the remainder were homoplasmic for the smaller size class of mtDNA. The large mtDNA variant occurred most frequently at the southern end of the range, and except for two individuals from Nova Scotia, was not detected among shad from rivers north of the Delaware. In contrast, ten shad heteroplasmic for a SalI restriction site originated from rivers ranging from South Carolina to Nova Scotia. DNA mapping and hybridization experiments indicated that the length polymorphism is in the D-loop-containing region and consists of a tandemly repeated 1.5-kb DNA sequence occurring in two and three copies, respectively, in the two major size classes of shad mtDNA. Continuous length variation up to approximately 40 bp occurs among copies of the repeat both within and among individuals. Restriction site data support the conclusion that both forms of heteroplasmy in shad mtDNA have originated more than once.

Bentzen, P.; Leggett, W. C.; Brown, G. G.

1988-01-01

306

Clusters of DNA induced by ionizing radiation: formation of short DNA fragments. I. Theoretical modeling.  

PubMed

We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the chromatin fibers in mammalian DNA. PMID:8606929

Holley, W R; Chatterjee, A

1996-02-01

307

DFF, a Heterodimeric Protein That Functions Downstream of Caspase3 to Trigger DNA Fragmentation during Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified and purified from HeLa cytosol a protein that induces DNA fragmentation in coincubated nuclei after it is activated by caspase-3. This protein, designated DNA Fragmentation Factor (DFF), is a heterodimer of 40 kDa and 45 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 45 kDa subunit, determined from its cDNA sequence, reveals it to be a novel

Xuesong Liu; Hua Zou; Clive Slaughter; Xiaodong Wang

1997-01-01

308

cDNA selection: efficient PCR approach for the selection of cDNAs encoded in large chromosomal DNA fragments.  

PubMed Central

Identification of coding segments in large fragments of genomic DNA is a recurrent problem in genome mapping and positional cloning studies. We have developed a rapid and efficient protocol to achieve this goal, based on hybridization of cDNA fragments to immobilized DNA and recovery of the selected cDNAs by the PCR. The procedure permits rapid cloning of cDNA fragments encoded by large genomic DNA fragments, groups of yeast artificial chromosomes, or cosmids and has the potential to directly enrich cDNAs encoded in chromosome segments. By this approach we have been able to identify several non-major histocompatibility complex class I clones from a yeast artificial chromosome that includes the HLA-A locus. Images

Parimoo, S; Patanjali, S R; Shukla, H; Chaplin, D D; Weissman, S M

1991-01-01

309

Cleavage maps for human cytomegalovirus DNA strain AD169 for restriction endonucleases EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII.  

PubMed Central

We have used cloned EcoRI fragments of the human CMV (HCMV) genome, strain AD169, to prepare restriction endonuclease maps of the DNA. Individual 32P-labeled cloned fragments were hybridized to Southern blots of HCMV DNA cleaved to completion with the restriction endonucleases BglII and HindIII and cleaved partially with EcoRI. By determining which EcoRI fragments hybridized to the same band on a Southern blot, we were able to establish linkage groups. This information coupled with the data derived from digestion of the cloned fragments with the enzymes BglII and HindIII (Tamashiro et al., J. Virol. 42:547-557, 1982) provided the basis for the construction of detailed maps for the enzymes EcoRI, BglII, and HindIII. We also identified the EcoRI fragments derived from the termini of this genome and mapped them with respect to the BglII and HindIII terminal fragments. From our mapping data, we conclude that the genome of HCMV is approximately 240 kilobases in length and is divided into long (198 kilobases) and short (42 kilobases) regions. Both regions consist of a unique sequence bounded by inverted repeats (11 to 12 kilobases for the long region and 2 to 3 kilobases for the short region). Furthermore, the long and short regions can invert relative to each other. Images

Spector, D H; Hock, L; Tamashiro, J C

1982-01-01

310

A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students  

PubMed Central

Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers.

DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

2011-01-01

311

DNA restriction-modification systems in the ethanologen, Zymomonas mobilis ZM4  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the DNA restriction-modification (R-M) systems for more amenable strain development of the alternative\\u000a industrial ethanologen, Zymomonas mobilis, three gene knockout mutants were constructed. The gene knockout mutants were tested for their DNA restriction activities\\u000a by the determination of transformation efficiency using methylated and unmethylated foreign plasmid DNAs. Inactivation of\\u000a a putative mrr gene encoded by ZMO0028 (zmrr)

Aidan L. Kerr; Young Jae Jeon; Charles J. Svenson; Peter L. Rogers; Brett A. Neilan

2011-01-01

312

Specific cloning of DNA fragments unique to the dog Y chromosome.  

PubMed

A novel technique that enabled the specific cloning of a DNA fragment unique to the dog Y chromosome is described. The method involves competitive hybridization of DNA prepared from male dog lymphocytes with biotin-labeled DNA prepared from female dog lymphocytes. The biotinylated female-female and male-female hybrid DNA fragments were removed by capture with streptavidin-coated paramagnetic particles. Full-length double-stranded DNA was generated from the remaining fragments by using the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, followed by direct cloning using a low-background ligation technique. Analysis of putative recombinant clones derived by this method has led to the identification of a fragment that hybridizes specifically to male dog DNA. The clones were selected initially on the basis of a differential signal obtained when hybridized to dilutions of male and female dog DNA immobilized on neural nylon membrane. To evaluate its suitability as a probe for trans-sexually grafted cells in transplantation studies, the fragment was labeled with digoxigenin and hybridized in situ to male and female dog tissue sections. The clone designated number 6.2 hybridized strongly to male dog nuclei. The cloning strategy employed could be extended to other studies in which competitive reassociation can be used to identify unique DNA sequences. PMID:8110481

Fletcher, S; Darragh, D; Fan, Y; Grounds, M D; Fisher, C J; Beilharz, M W

1993-01-01

313

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF SUBTRIBE ECLIPTINAE (ASTERACEAE :H ELIANTHEAE) BASED ON CHLOROPLAST DNA RESTRICTION SITE DATA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA restriction site data for 76 of the 302 genera of Heliantheae sensu lato using 16 restriction endonucleases reveals that subtribe Ecliptinae is polyphyletic and that its genera are distributed in four different lineages. The ecliptinous genera Squamopappus, Podachaenium, Verbesina , and Tetrachyron (of the Neurolaeninae), along with other members of subtribe Neurolaeninae are the basalmost

JOSE L. PANERO; ROBERT K. JANSEN; JENNIFER A. CLEVINGER

314

Definition of restriction, Paul BergSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Paul Berg DNAi Location:Manipulation>Techniques>Cutting & Pasting>On the phenomenon of restriction On the phenomenon of restriction Paul Berg speaks about Herbert Boyer's research into the process by which an organism, such as a bacterium, can recognize and destroy foreign DNA.

2008-03-26

315

Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates determined by EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphism of heat-shock protein 70 genes.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using a multilocus heat-inducible cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) hybridization probe with EcoRI-digested genomic DNA was used in molecular typing of 129 Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. Results indicate that Trichomonas organisms exhibit considerable polymorphism in their Hsp70 RFLP patterns. Analysis of seven American Type Culture Collection reference strains and 122 clinical isolates, including 84 isolates from Jackson, Mississippi, 18 isolates from Atlanta, Georgia, and 20 isolates from throughout the United States, showed 105 distinct Hsp70 RFLP pattern subtypes for Trichomonas. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hsp70 RFLP data showed that the T. vaginalis isolates were organized into two clonal lineages. These results illustrate the substantial genomic diversity present in T. vaginalis and indicate that a large number of genetically distinct Trichomonas isolates may be responsible for human trichomoniasis in the United States. PMID:19190222

Meade, John C; de Mestral, Jacqueline; Stiles, Jonathan K; Secor, W Evan; Finley, Richard W; Cleary, John D; Lushbaugh, William B

2009-02-01

316

Genetic Diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis Clinical Isolates Determined by EcoRI Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of Heat-Shock Protein 70 Genes  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using a multilocus heat-inducible cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) hybridization probe with EcoRI-digested genomic DNA was used in molecular typing of 129 Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. Results indicate that Trichomonas organisms exhibit considerable polymorphism in their Hsp70 RFLP patterns. Analysis of seven American Type Culture Collection reference strains and 122 clinical isolates, including 84 isolates from Jackson, Mississippi, 18 isolates from Atlanta, Georgia, and 20 isolates from throughout the United States, showed 105 distinct Hsp70 RFLP pattern subtypes for Trichomonas. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hsp70 RFLP data showed that the T. vaginalis isolates were organized into two clonal lineages. These results illustrate the substantial genomic diversity present in T. vaginalis and indicate that a large number of genetically distinct Trichomonas isolates may be responsible for human trichomoniasis in the United States.

Meade, John C.; de Mestral, Jacqueline; Stiles, Jonathan K.; Secor, W. Evan; Finley, Richard W.; Cleary, John D.; Lushbaugh, William B.

2009-01-01

317

HLA-DO polymorphism associated with resistance to type I diabetes detected with monoclonal antibodies, isoelectric point differences, and restriction fragment length polymorphism  

PubMed Central

A new HLA-DQ-related genetic system with two alleles, 2B3 and TA10, defined serologically by MAbs and alloantisera, showed an almost perfect correlation with charge differences on DQ beta molecules, as well as with two polymorphic DNA fragments hybridizing with a DQ beta probe and various restriction enzymes on a panel of 14 DR4+ homozygous typing cells. It was therefore concluded that the serologically defined alleles 2B3 and TA10 are coded by the DQ beta gene and situated on the HLA-DQ beta chain. This 2B3/TA10 polymorphism is independent of HLA-D and segregates with HLA in families. The TA10 allele appears to be a new marker for resistance to type I diabetes, which is independent from the known resistance marker DR2, whereas no association was observed between this DQ beta polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis.

1986-01-01

318

Characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains isolated in Shandong Province, China by immunofluorescence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses.  

PubMed

In order to identify the characteristics of the Sta56 gene of the 23 isolates of Orientia (O.) tsutsugamushi isolated in Shandong Province, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used to identify the gene type of 23 strains O. tsutsugamushi isolated from scrub typhus patients, chigger mites, and rodents. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was also used to analyze the restriction profiles of the Sta56 gene PCR amplification products of the 23 isolated strains of the O. tsutsugamushi; the results were compared with those acquired by nested PCR. By IFA, 21 of the 23 isolates belonged to the Gilliam type, and 2 to the Karp type. Using RFLP analysis, 21 strains had similar restriction profiles to the Japan Kawasaki strain, but they had no restriction site Hha I, and thus had some difference in gene sequence compared with the Japan Kawasaki strain. The other 2 strains had similar restriction profiles to Karp. These results were identical to that acquired by nested-PCR. In Shandong Province, the gene types of epidemic O. tsutsugamushi strains were similar to the Japan Kawasaki type, but had some differences in gene sequence. In addition, Karp also existed. PMID:15691135

Liu, Yun-xi; Zhao, Zhong-tang; Gao, Yuan; Jia, Chong-qi; Zhang, Jing-lan; Yang, Zhan-qing; Wang, Shu-mei; Jiang, Bao-fa

2004-06-01

319

DNA Gyrase: Purification and Catalytic Properties of a Fragment of Gyrase B Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein isolated from Escherichia coli complements the DNA gyrase A (NalA) protein to generate an activity that relaxes supercoiled DNA. Oxolinic acid, a known inhibitor of DNA gyrase, blocks this activity and causes double-strand cleavage of DNA at the same sites as are attacked by DNA gyrase. The protein, of molecular weight 50,000, appears to be a fragment of

Martin Gellert; L. Mark Fisher; Mary H. O'Dea

1979-01-01

320

Selective digestion of mouse chromosomes with restriction endonucleases. Oligonucleotide priming of single-stranded DNA produced with exonuclease III.  

PubMed

L-929 mouse chromosomes prepared for electron microscopy have been treated with MspI, EcoRI, and HaeIII restriction endonucleases (REs). RE-induced nicks were amplified with exonuclease III to obtain single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) motifs. The ss-DNA produced was enough to permit hybridization of a series of random oligonucleotides. These can be used as primers, which are extended by the Klenow fragment using non-isotopic labelled dUTP. The incorporation of biotinylated dUTP is detected with a gold-tagged streptoavidin as the reporter molecule. This allows, in mouse chromosomes, the detection of different rates of sensitivity to the digestion with specific REs in distinct intraheterochromatic DNA subsets. In addition, these results show that enzymatic production of ss-DNA seems to be adequate for electron microscopy work since the chromatin fiber is preserved better than in denatured DNA produced with heat, NaOH, or formamide. PMID:8390384

Gosálvez, J; López-Fernández, C; García de la Vega, C; Mezzanotte, R; Fernández, J L; Goyanes, V

1993-04-01

321

Ribosomal DNA repeat unit polymorphism in 49 Vicia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA restriction endonuclease fragment analysis was used to obtain new information on the genomic organization of Vicia ribosomal DNA (rDNA), more particularly among V. faba and its close relatives and the taxa within three (Narbonensis, Villosa, Sativa) species' complexes. Total genomic DNA of 90 accessions representing 49 Vicia species was restricted with 11 enzymes, and the restriction fragments were probed

S. N. Raina; Y. Ogihara

1995-01-01

322

A unique role of the DNA fragmentation factor in maintaining genomic stability  

PubMed Central

DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of apoptosis (programmed cell death). However, the biological function of apoptotic DNA fragmentation remains unclear. Here, we show that DNA fragmentation factor plays an important role for maintaining genomic stability. Inhibition or loss of the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF)/caspase-activated DNase (CAD), whose nuclease activity is responsible for digesting genomic DNA during apoptosis, led to significant increases in spontaneous or induced gene mutations, gene amplifications, and chromosomal instability in primary mouse cells and transformed human cell lines. The mechanism underlying genetic instability in DFF/CAD-deficient cells, at least in part, involves a small but significant elevation in the survival of cells exposed to ionizing radiation, suggesting that apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor contributes to genomic stability by ensuring the removal of cells that have suffered DNA damage. In support of this hypothesis are the observations of increased cellular transformation of mouse embryonic cells from the DFF/CAD-null mice and significantly enhanced susceptibility to radiation-induced carcinogenesis in these mice. These data, in combination with published reports on the existence of tumor-specific gene mutations/deletions in the DFF/CAD genes in human cancer samples, suggest that apoptotic DNA fragmentation factor is required for the maintenance of genetic stability and may play a role in tumor suppression.

Yan, Bin; Wang, Huili; Peng, Yuanlin; Hu, Ye; Wang, He; Zhang, Xiuwu; Chen, Qi; Bedford, Joel S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Li, Chuan-Yuan

2006-01-01

323

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in native Philippine cattle based on restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of patterns of cleavage of mtDNA by restriction endonucleases was performed for nine individuals from the Philippine\\u000a population of native cattle. MtDNA polymorphisms were detected in the restriction patterns generated by the following six\\u000a enzymes,BamHI,BglII,EcoRV,HindIII,PstI, andScaI. The restriction patterns showing polymorphisms were distributed nonrandomly among the nine individuals examined from the\\u000a Philippine population of native cattle, indicating the

Tomomasa Watanabe; Joseph S. Masangkay; Shigeharu Wakana; Naruya Saitou; Takeshi Tomita

1989-01-01

324

Activity of DNA modification and restriction enzymes in KGB, a potassium glutamate buffer.  

PubMed

A single buffer consisting primarily of potassium and glutamate is shown to be suitable for activity of almost all restriction endonucleases, DNA methylases, and many other DNA-modifying enzymes. The composition of this buffer differs substantially from buffers currently in use for these enzymes. PMID:2903843

Hanish, J; McClelland, M

1988-01-01

325

A new method for straightening DNA molecules for optical restriction mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an improved method of straighten- ing DNA molecules for use in optical restriction mapping. The DNA was straightened on 3-aminopropyl- triethoxysilane-coated glass slides using surface tension generated by a moving meniscus. In our method the meniscus motion was controlled mechan- ically, which provides advantages of speed and uniformity of the straightened molecules. Variation in the affinity of

Hiroki Yokota; Hongbo Lu; R. Maxwell Robinson; Anna M. Belu; Michael D. Garrison; Buddy D. Ratner; Barbara J. Trask; David L. Miller

1997-01-01

326

SAMHD1 restricts herpes simplex virus 1 in macrophages by limiting DNA replication.  

PubMed

Macrophages play important roles in host immune defense against virus infection. During infection by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), macrophages acquire enhanced antiviral potential. Restriction of HSV-1 replication and progeny production is important to prevent viral spread, but the cellular mechanisms that inhibit the DNA virus in macrophages are unknown. SAMHD1 was recently identified as a retrovirus restriction factor highly expressed in macrophages. The SAMHD1 protein is expressed in both undifferentiated monocytes and differentiated macrophages, but retroviral restriction is limited to differentiated cells by modulation of SAMHD1 phosphorylation. It is proposed to block reverse transcription of retroviral RNA into DNA by depleting cellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). Viruses with DNA genomes do not employ reverse transcription during infection, but replication of their viral genomes is also dependent on intracellular dNTP concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 restricts replication of the HSV-1 DNA genome in differentiated macrophage cell lines. Depleting SAMHD1 in THP-1 cells enhanced HSV-1 replication, while ectopic overexpression of SAMHD1 in U937 cells repressed HSV-1 replication. SAMHD1 did not impact viral gene expression from incoming HSV-1 viral genomes. HSV-1 restriction involved the dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity of SAMHD1 and was partially overcome by addition of exogenous deoxynucleosides. Unlike retroviruses, restriction of HSV-1 was not affected by SAMHD1 phosphorylation status. Our results suggest that SAMHD1 functions broadly to inhibit replication of DNA viruses in nondividing macrophages. PMID:24067963

Kim, Eui Tae; White, Tommy E; Brandariz-Núñez, Alberto; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Weitzman, Matthew D

2013-12-01

327

SAMHD1 Restricts Herpes Simplex Virus 1 in Macrophages by Limiting DNA Replication  

PubMed Central

Macrophages play important roles in host immune defense against virus infection. During infection by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), macrophages acquire enhanced antiviral potential. Restriction of HSV-1 replication and progeny production is important to prevent viral spread, but the cellular mechanisms that inhibit the DNA virus in macrophages are unknown. SAMHD1 was recently identified as a retrovirus restriction factor highly expressed in macrophages. The SAMHD1 protein is expressed in both undifferentiated monocytes and differentiated macrophages, but retroviral restriction is limited to differentiated cells by modulation of SAMHD1 phosphorylation. It is proposed to block reverse transcription of retroviral RNA into DNA by depleting cellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). Viruses with DNA genomes do not employ reverse transcription during infection, but replication of their viral genomes is also dependent on intracellular dNTP concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 restricts replication of the HSV-1 DNA genome in differentiated macrophage cell lines. Depleting SAMHD1 in THP-1 cells enhanced HSV-1 replication, while ectopic overexpression of SAMHD1 in U937 cells repressed HSV-1 replication. SAMHD1 did not impact viral gene expression from incoming HSV-1 viral genomes. HSV-1 restriction involved the dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity of SAMHD1 and was partially overcome by addition of exogenous deoxynucleosides. Unlike retroviruses, restriction of HSV-1 was not affected by SAMHD1 phosphorylation status. Our results suggest that SAMHD1 functions broadly to inhibit replication of DNA viruses in nondividing macrophages.

Kim, Eui Tae; White, Tommy E.; Brandariz-Nunez, Alberto; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

2013-01-01

328

Exceptionally High Levels of Restriction Site Polymorphism in DNA near the Maize Adh1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Restriction maps have been prepared for the chromosomal region near seven biochemically and genetically distinct maize alcohol dehydrogenase-1 (Adh1) alleles using a small cDNA probe for Adh1. Five restriction sites spanning about 4 kb in and near the Adh1 transcription unit appear identical in all seven alleles. Outside this conserved region, variation in restriction site position is the rule. Six of the seven alleles are distinguishable, and the alleles appear to fall into four groups. The DNA flanking the 1S-type alleles seems to share no restriction site homology with the DNA near the 1F-type alleles. Several hypotheses are put forward to explain how such high levels of polymorphism could have arisen in a species that has been domesticated for only about 10,000 years.

Johns, Mitrick A.; Strommer, Judith N.; Freeling, Michael

1983-01-01

329

Cloning and expression of a Clostridium thermocellum DNA fragment that encodes a protein related to cellulosome component SL.  

PubMed

Antibodies raised against the SL subunit of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome were used to screen a library of C. thermocellum chromosomal DNA fragments constructed in the vector lambda gt11. A DNA fragment that encoded a polypeptide that crossreacted with the anti-SL antibodies was isolated and its restriction map elucidated. No similarity with other previously cloned DNA fragments has been found. The anti-SL crossreacting polypeptide was isolated from recombinant Escherichia coli and found to have a mol mass of 37,000 Da and to possess low levels of CMCase and Avicelase activity. Using CMC as the substrate, a temperature optimum of 55 degrees C and a pH optimum of 6.6 were observed. These properties were compared to those of C. thermocellum SL isolated by electroelution from an SDS gel, which was also found to possess low levels of CMCase and Avicelase activities. In addition, the SL proteins produced in C. thermocellum and E. coli were able to interact positively against Avicel with an endoglucanase (Ss) purified from the C. thermocellum crude cellulase preparation, and with a recombinant protein that crossreacted with anti-Ss antibodies. PMID:1799288

Romaniec, M P; Kobayashi, T; Fauth, U; Gerngross, U T; Demain, A L

1991-11-01

330

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF PCR-AMPLIFIED NIFH SEQUENCES FROM WETLAND PLANT RHIZOSPHERE COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

We describe a method to assess the community structure of N2-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Total DNA was extracted from Spartina alterniflora and Sesbania macrocarpa root zones by bead-beating and purified by CsCl-EtBr gradient centrifugation. The average DNA yield was 5.5 ...

331

Mutation of H-ras Is Infrequent in Bladder Cancer: Confirmation by Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis, Designed Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms, and Direct Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 152 human bladder tumors, 14 bladder tumor cell lines, and 1 immortal urothelial cell line were examined by single-strand conforma tion polymorphism (SSCP) and designed restriction fragment length poly morphism analyses for mutations in exons I and 2 of the H-ra.vgene. Nine tumors (6%) contained mutations. There was complete concordance be tween SSCP and restriction fragment length

Margaret A. Knowles; Magali Williamson

332

Estimation of diversity and community structure through restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from a microbial mat at an active, hydrothermal vent system, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii.  

PubMed Central

PCR was used to amplify (eu)bacterial small-subunit (16S) rRNA genes from total-community genomic DNA. The source of total-community genomic DNA used for this culture-independent analysis was the microbial mats from a deep-sea, hydrothermal vent system, Pele's Vents, located at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rRNA-encoding DNA (rDNA) of bacteria were used to direct the synthesis of PCR products, which were then subcloned by blunt-end ligation into phagemid vector pBluescript II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns, created by using tandem tetrameric restriction endonucleases, revealed the presence of 12 groups of 16S rRNA genes representing discrete operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The rank order abundance of these putative OTUs was measured, and the two most abundant OTUs accounted for 72.9% of all of the 16S rDNA clones. Among the remaining 27.1% of the 16S rDNA clones, none of the 10 OTUs was represented by more than three individual clones. The cumulative OTU distribution for 48 bacterial 16S rDNA clones demonstrated that the majority of taxa represented in the clone library were detected, a result which we assume to be an estimate of the diversity of bacteria in the native hydrothermal vent habitat. 16S rDNA fingerprinting of individual clones belonging to particular OTUs by using an oligonucleotide probe that binds to a universally conserved region of the 16S rDNA fragments was conducted to confirm OTU specificity and 16S rDNA identity. Images

Moyer, C L; Dobbs, F C; Karl, D M

1994-01-01

333

Comparison of DNA fragmentation and color thresholding for objective quantitation of apoptotic cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apoptosis is a process of cell death characterized by distinctive morphological changes and fragmentation of cellular DNA. Using video imaging and color thresholding techniques, we objectively quantitated the number of cultured CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cells (HUT78 cells, RH9 subclone) displaying morphological signs of apoptosis before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The numbers of apoptotic cells measured by objective video imaging techniques were compared to numbers of apoptotic cells measured in the same samples by sensitive apoptotic assays that quantitate DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation assays gave consistently higher values compared with the video imaging assays that measured morphological changes associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that substantial DNA fragmentation can precede or occur in the absence of the morphological changes which are associated with apoptosis in gamma-irradiated RH9 cells.

Plymale, D. R.; Ng Tang, D. S.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Martin, D. S.; Garry, R. F.

1995-01-01

334

Nuclear-localized plastid DNA fragments in protozoa, metazoa and fungi.  

PubMed

We analyzed nuclear-localized plastid-like DNA (nupDNA) fragments in protozoa, metazoa and fungi. Most eukaryotes that do not have plastids contain 40-5000 bp nupDNAs in their nuclear genomes. These nupDNA fragments are mainly derived from repeated regions of plastids and distribute through the whole genomes. A majority of nupDNA fragments is located on coding regions with very important functions. Similar to plastids, these nupDNAs most possibly originate from cyanobacteria. Analysis of them suggests that through millions of years of universal endosymbiosis and gene transfer they may have occurred in ancient protists before divergence of plants and animals/fungi, and some transferred fragments have been reserved till now even in modern mammals. PMID:17425117

Yuan, Shu; Sun, Xin; Mu, Lin-Chun; Lei, Tao; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Jian-Hui; Du, Jun-Bo; Lin, Hong-Hui

2007-01-01

335

Isolation of a specific DNA fragment and development of a PCR-based method for the detection of Mycobacterium genavense.  

PubMed

The rise of Mycobacterium genavense infections is making identification ever more important for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, isolation and identification of M. genavense are made difficult by the lack of growth on solid media and by its low generation rate in BACTEC liquid media. Thus, amplification by PCR or similar techniques represents the only possibility of detecting and identifying M. genavense from tissue samples. In order to set up a simple and species-specific method based on the use of PCR and non-radioactive hybridization technique, we decided to search for and clone a specific DNA fragment of this bacterial species. In the present study, a 1734-bp fragment was isolated. This fragment was found to be highly specific for M. genavense strains. A species-specific pair of primers (MG22 and MG23) and two oligonucleotide probes (MG18 and MG19) were selected. They were successfully used to amplify and detect a 155-bp DNA fragment from the 13 available strains of M. genavense which were isolated from clinical specimens or from birds. Conversely, the primers and probes did not hybridize with DNA from any of the 20 other mycobacterial species tested. It is worth noting that the chosen primers and probes did not hybridize with DNA of M. simiae, although it is closely related to M. genavense. The present PCR technique uses species-specific primers for M. genavense. Followed by a non-radioactive hybridization technique on microplates it is able to distinguish M. genavense from other mycobacteria in one step, without sequencing or restriction analysis. On the basis of the Southern blot hybridization, PCR and sandwich hybridization results, we concluded that the isolated 1.7-kb sequence was specific for the M. genavense chromosome. The method developed here for M. genavense identification uses a simple methodology and commonly available reagents. Furthermore it can be easily automated. PMID:10219597

Chevrier, D; Oprisan, G; Maresca, A; Matsiota-Bernard, P; Guesdon, J L

1999-03-01

336

Cloning of a DNA fragment from the left-hand terminus of the adenovirus type 2 genome and its use in site-directed mutagenesis.  

PubMed Central

The HpaI E fragment (0-4.5 map units) of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) DNA was cloned in the plasmid vector pBR322. Excision of the viral insert with PstI and XbaI generated a fragment which comigrated with Ad2 XbaI-E (0-3.8 map units), and this fragment was ligated to the 3.8-100 fragment generated by XbaI cleavage of the DNA of the Ad5 mutant, dl309 (N. Jones and T. Shenk, Cell 17:683-689, 1979). Transfection with the ligation products resulted in the production of progeny virus which was able to replicate on both HeLa and line 293 cells, demonstrating the biological activity of the sequences rescued from the plasmid. Small deletions were introduced around the SmaI site (map position 2.8) within the cloned viral insert, and the altered DNA sequences were reintroduced into progeny virus as described above. The mutant viruses grew well on line 293 cells but plaqued with greatly reduced efficiency on HeLa cells, exhibiting a host range phenotype similar to previously described mutants with lesions located within this region of the genome. When plasmid-derived left-end fragments containing pBR322 DNA sequences to the left of map position 0 were ligated to the 3.8-100 fragment of dl309 DNA, the infectivity of the ligation products was not reduced. However, all progeny viruses examined yielded normal-size restriction enzyme fragments from their left-hand ends, indicating that the bulk of the pBR322 DNA sequences are removed either prior to or as a consequence of the replication of the transfecting DNA molecules. Images

Stow, N D

1981-01-01

337

Comparison of PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis and PCR-Direct Sequencing Methods for Differentiating Helicobacter pylori ureB Gene Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method utilizing PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the Helicobacter pylori genes is widely used to differentiate strains. However, with this typing method only a single base change at a specific restriction site can be detected. In addition, it is unclear whether the nucleotide base change recognized by RFLP is related to a substitution of encoded amino acid. To

TOSHIHITO TANAHASHI; MASAKAZU KITA; TADASHI KODAMA; NAOKI SAWAI; YOSHIO YAMAOKA; SHOJI MITSUFUJI; FUMITAKA KATOH; JIRO IMANISHI

2000-01-01

338

PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA)-algorithm targeting 644 bp Heat Shock Protein 65 ( hsp65) gene for differentiation of Mycobacterium spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) using a novel region of the hsp65 gene was developed for the rapid and exact identification of mycobacteria to the species level. A 644 bp region of hsp65 in 62 mycobacteria reference strains, and 4 related bacterial strains were amplified, and the amplified DNAs were subsequently digested with restriction enzymes,

Hong Kim; Sun-Hyun Kim; Tae-Sun Shim; Mi-na Kim; Gill-Han Bai; Young-Gil Park; Sueng-Hyun Lee; Chang-Yong Cha; Yoon-Hoh Kook; Bum-Joon Kim

2005-01-01

339

The release of high mobility group box 1 in apoptosis is triggered by nucleosomal DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) initially identified as a non-histone chromosomal protein, which mainly functions as chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, has been recently reported to be secreted into extracellular milieu in necrosis and apoptosis, and act as a proinflammatory mediator. However, the mechanism by which apoptotic cells release HMGB1 is not clear. In this study, we found that staurosporine (apoptosis-inducer)-induced HMGB1 release was associated with nucleosomal DNA fragmentation catalyzed by caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in WEHI-231 cells. Importantly, this event was effectively attenuated by the treatment of a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, and by the inhibition of CAD-mediated DNA fragmentation by the expression of caspase-resistant inhibitor of CAD (ICAD-CR). In WEHI-231/ICAD-CR and WEHI-231/Puro cells, DNase ?-catalyzed nucleosomal DNA fragmentation occurred by anti-IgM antibody treatment was critical for HMGB1 release. Furthermore, in DNase ? stably-expressing HeLa S3 cells (HeLa S3/?), the release of HMGB1 accompanied with nucleosomal DNA fragmentation was more apparent than that in parental HeLa S3 cells in which DNA fragmentation was scarcely observed. Taken together, these date suggest that nucleosomal DNA fragmentation catalyzed by CAD or DNase ? plays a pivotal role in HMGB1 release. PMID:21093407

Yamada, Yoichiro; Fujii, Taku; Ishijima, Rei; Tachibana, Haruki; Yokoue, Natsuki; Takasawa, Ryoko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

2011-02-15

340

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays to distinguish Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from associated species on lettuce cropping systems in Italy.  

PubMed

The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a serious insect pest infesting open field lettuce plantings in northern Italy. In these cropping systems, it coexists with several other agromyzid species that have negligible economic importance on open field vegetables. The rapid detection of L. huidobrensis is crucial for effective management strategies, but the identification of agromyzids to species can be very difficult at adult as well at immature stages. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay is proposed to separate L. huidobrensis from Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), and Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau), which usually occur in the same lettuce plantings. An approximately 1,031-bp region of the mitochondrial genome encompassing the 3' region of cytochrome oxidase I, the whole leucine tRNA, and all of the cytochrome oxidase II was amplified by PCR and digested using the enzymes PvuII and SnaBI separately. Both endonucleases cut the amplicons of L. huidobrensis in two fragments, whereas the original band was not cleaved in the other analyzed species. The presence of Dacnusa spp. DNA does not bias the assay, because the PCR conditions and the primer set here described do not amplify any tract of this endoparasitic wasp genome. PMID:16937681

Masetti, Antonio; Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara; Burgio, Giovanni

2006-08-01

341

Genotyping of Madurella mycetomatis by Selective Amplification of Restriction Fragments (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) and Subtype Correlation with Geographical Origin and Lesion Size  

PubMed Central

One of the causative organisms of mycetoma is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Previously, extensive molecular typing studies identified Sudanese isolates of this fungus as clonal, but polymorphic genetic markers have not yet been identified. Here, we report on the selective amplification of restriction fragment (AFLP) analysis of 37 Sudanese clinical isolates of M. mycetomatis. Of 93 AFLP fragments generated, 25 were polymorphic, and 12 of these 25 polymorphic fragments were found in a large fraction of the strains. Comparative analysis resulted into a tree, composed of two main (clusters I and II) and one minor cluster (cluster III). Seventy-five percent of the strains found in cluster I originated from central Sudan, while the origin of the strains in cluster II was more heterogeneous. Furthermore, the strains found in cluster I were generally obtained from lesions larger than those from which the strains found in cluster II were obtained (chi-square test for trend, P = 0.03). Among the 12 more commonly found polymorphisms, 4 showed sequence homology with known genes. Marker A7 was homologous to an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase from Aspergillus oryzae, 97% identical markers A12 and B3 matched a hypothetical protein from Gibberella zeae, and marker B4 was homologous to casein kinase I from Danio rerio. The last marker seemed to be associated with strains originating from central Sudan (P = 0.001). This is the first report on a genotypic study where genetic markers which may be used to study pathogenicity in M. mycetomatis were obtained.

van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Gorkink, Roy; Simons, Guus; Ott, Alewijn; Ahmed, Abdalla O. A.; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex

2005-01-01

342

Investigations of Bacterial Inactivation and DNA Fragmentation Induced by Flowing Humid Argon Post-discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bio-contaminated surfaces were exposed to an atmospheric pressure flowing post-discharge, i.e. without direct contact of the plasma with the surface. The non-thermal plasma source was a dielectric barrier discharge. Using humid argon as a feed gas, a reduction of six orders of magnitude of survivors could be obtained for Escherichia coli. An investigation of bacterial inactivation mechanisms during the plasma induced treatment was conducted. For this purpose, DNA (plasmid and genomic DNA in aqueous solution) degradation by the plasma process was studied, assuming that the bacterial inactivation is obtained when the bacterial DNA is fragmented. According to the operating conditions (feed gas, reactor geometry and discharge input power), DNA fragmentation was evaluated in correlation with aqueous phase hydrogen peroxide concentration measurements. It appears that hydrogen peroxide is not the only factor responsible for DNA fragmentation and that short-lived species produced by water dissociation are major contributors.

Odic, Emmanuel; Limam, S.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Dodet, B.; Salamitou, S.; DuBow, M. S.

343

Analysis of the promoter-distal region of the tra operon of the F sex factor of Escherichia coli K-12 encoded by EcoRI restriction fragments f17, f19, and f2.  

PubMed Central

The promoter-distal region of the tra operon of the F sex factor Escherichia coli K-12 was analyzed, using the chimeric plasmid pRS31, which contains the F EcoRI restriction fragments f17, f19, and f2 cloned into the EcoRI site of pSC101. A series of deletion plasmids of pRS31, extending increasing distances from a site in f17 through f19 and ending in f2, were isolated. These plasmids were examined by heteroduplex analysis with the parent DNA, and a restriction map of this region of DNA was constructed. A series of Tn5 insertion derivatives of pRS31 were also isolated and mapped, using both heteroduplex analysis and restriction mapping. Both the insertion and deletion mutants were tested in minicells for the synthesis of radioactively labeled proteins. This allowed the identification of the individual gene products and mapping of the genes. The result is a saturated physical map of this region of DNA from fragment f17 through to the IS3 insertion sequence near the promoter-distal end of f2. Images

Manning, P A; Kusecek, B; Morelli, G; Fisseau, C; Achtman, M

1982-01-01

344

Direct cleavage of the human DNA fragmentation factor-45 by granzyme B induces caspase-activated DNase release and DNA fragmentation  

PubMed Central

The protease granzyme B (GrB) plays a key role in the cytocidal activity during cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated programmed cell death. Multiple caspases have been identified as direct substrates for GrB, suggesting that the activation of caspases constitutes an important event during CTL-induced cell death. However, recent studies have provided evidence for caspase-independent pathway(s) during CTL-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate caspase-independent and direct cleavage of the 45 kDa unit of DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45) by GrB both in vitro and in vivo. Using a novel and selective caspase-3 inhibitor, we show the ability of GrB to process DFF45 directly and mediate DNA fragmentation in the absence of caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, studies with DFF45 mutants reveal that both caspase-3 and GrB share a common cleavage site, which is necessary and sufficient to induce DNA fragmentation in target cells during apoptosis. Together, our data suggest that CTLs possess alternative mechanism(s) for inducing DNA fragmentation without the requirement for caspases.

Sharif-Askari, Ehsan; Alam, Antoine; Rheaume, Eric; Beresford, Paul J.; Scotto, Christian; Sharma, Kamal; Lee, Dennis; DeWolf, Walter E.; Nuttall, Mark E.; Lieberman, Judy; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre

2001-01-01

345

DNA synthesis and fragmentation in bacteroids during Astragalus sinicus root nodule development.  

PubMed

Histo- and cytochemical techniques were used to study the DNA replication and fragmentation patterns in bacteroids formed by Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei in nodules of Astragalus sinicus. DNA replication was detected by the incorporation of 5-bromo deoxy-uridine. Signals denoting DNA synthesis were observed in plant nuclei within the nodule meristem and in bacteroids near the meristem. The TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) assay was used to measure DNA fragmentation. In nutrient-depleted 1-mpi (month(s) post inoculation) nodule sections, some bacteroids were in vacuoles, and DNA fragmentation signals were observed only in such bacteroids. In contrast, 1-mpi nodule sections without nutrient depletion showed neither bacteroid localization in vacuoles nor DNA fragmentation signals. The bacteroid translocation into vacuoles upon nutrient starvation might results from autophagy of the plant. In 2-mpi nodule sections, bacteroids with DNA fragmentation signals appeared within the cytoplasm of some nodule cells in the senescence zone. PMID:11330661

Kobayashi, H; Sunako, M; Hayashi, M; Murooka, Y

2001-03-01

346

Identification and sequence characterization of a 1.3 Kb EcoRI repeat fragment that harbors a DNA repair site of rat pachytene spermatocytes.  

PubMed

Introduction of well-programmed nicks and gaps and the associated DNA repair activity in the genome at the pachytene interval is a characteristic feature of the meiotic prophase in organisms as varied as lilium and mouse. In the present study we have shown that the DNA synthetic activity in rat pachytene spermatocytes is insensitive to aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, delta and epsilon, suggesting DNA beta-polymerase-mediated repair synthesis in these cells. We have developed a novel approach for the isolation of the DNA repair sites by combining two independent techniques. Following incorporation of BrdUrd into pachytene spermatocytes in the presence of aphidicolin, the repair sites were released as ssDNA fragments by treatment of nuclei with 30 mM NaOH. Subsequently, the BrdUrd containing ssDNA fragments were specifically isolated using polyclonal anti-BrdUrd antibodies. The DNA fragments released were of two size classes, namely 4-7S (major) and 9-12S (minor) and constituted approximately 1.75% of the pachytene genomic DNA. These DNA repair fragments were distinct from Okazaki fragments and other replicative intermediates isolated from rat bone marrow cells as evidenced by (a) their different size distribution and (b) little cross-hybridization. Southern hybridization of restriction enzyme digests of rat genomic DNA with probes made against BrdUrd-ssDNA fragments revealed that although the repair sites were distributed throughout the genome, strong hybridization signals were observed in EcoRI. (1.3 kb and 2.4 kb), BamH1 (9 kb) and HindIII (5 kb) repetetive DNA fragments. The EcoRI 1.3 kb family were cloned into M13 mp19, and a repair positive (1.3 A) and a repair negative (1.3 B) were identified and sequenced. The repair positive clone contained (a) (CA)22 repeat, (b) a (CAGA)6 repeat and (c) 4 sequences sharing high homology with various hypervariable minisatellite (HVMS) sequences. One of the HVMS sequence contained a GGCAGG motif known to be responsible for germline instability. The repair negative clone had (a) (CA)6 repeat and (b) a HVMS like sequence without GGCAGG. The significance of these motifs and their relevance to the events of DNA metabolism at pachytene interval have been discussed. PMID:7720415

Ramachandra, L; Rao, M R

1994-12-01

347

Highlights of the DNA cutters: a short history of the restriction enzymes  

PubMed Central

In the early 1950’s, ‘host-controlled variation in bacterial viruses’ was reported as a non-hereditary phenomenon: one cycle of viral growth on certain bacterial hosts affected the ability of progeny virus to grow on other hosts by either restricting or enlarging their host range. Unlike mutation, this change was reversible, and one cycle of growth in the previous host returned the virus to its original form. These simple observations heralded the discovery of the endonuclease and methyltransferase activities of what are now termed Type I, II, III and IV DNA restriction-modification systems. The Type II restriction enzymes (e.g. EcoRI) gave rise to recombinant DNA technology that has transformed molecular biology and medicine. This review traces the discovery of restriction enzymes and their continuing impact on molecular biology and medicine.

Loenen, Wil A. M.; Dryden, David T. F.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Murray, Noreen E.

2014-01-01

348

Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms to identify sea turtle eggs and cooked meats to species  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many threats to sea turtlepopulations is the take of turtles and theireggs for consumption and sale. Improved speciesidentification methods for sea turtle eggs andcooked meats would facilitate prosecution ofthose involved. Fatty acid-based methods toidentify eggs cannot resolve loggerheads andthe two ridley species. Protein-based methodsare not applicable to eggs or cooked meat. Wepresent methods to extract DNA from

M. Katherine Moore; John A. Bemiss; Susan M. Rice; Joseph M. Quattro; Cheryl M. Woodley

2003-01-01

349

Restriction endonuclease from Haemophilus gallinarum (HgaI) cleaves polyoma DNA at four locations.  

PubMed Central

A restriction endonuclease obtained from Haemophilus gallinarum (hgaI) cleaves polyoma DNA at four specific sites. Using the EcoRI, HindIII, and HpaII endonuclease restriction sites as reference, the four HgaI cleavage sites were mapped at 0.02, 0.14, 0.27, and 0.48 fractional lengths, clockwise, from the single EcoRI cleavage site. Images

Shishido, K; Berg, P

1976-01-01

350

Probing of unusual DNA structures in topologically constrained form V DNA: use of restriction enzymes as structural probe.  

PubMed Central

The ability of DNA sequences to adopt unusual structures under the superhelical torsional stress has been studied. Sequences that are forced to adopt unusual conformation in topologically constrained pBR322 form V DNA (Lk = 0) were mapped using restriction enzymes as probes. Restriction enzymes such as BamHI, PstI, AvaI and HindIII could not cleave their recognition sequences. The removal of topological constraint relieved this inhibition. The influence of neighbouring sequences on the ability of a given sequence to adopt unusual DNA structure, presumably left handed Z conformation, was studied through single hit analysis. Using multiple cut restriction enzymes such as NarI and FspI, it could be shown that under identical topological strain, the extent of structural alteration is greatly influenced by the neighbouring sequences. In the light of the variety of sequences and locations that could be mapped to adopt non-B conformation in pBR322 form V DNA, restriction enzymes appear as potential structural probes for natural DNA sequences. Images

Shouche, Y S; Ramesh, N; Brahmachari, S K

1990-01-01

351

Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae is able to use hemoglobin as a sole source of heme, and heme-repressible hemoglobin binding to the cell surface has been demonstrated. Using an affinity purification methodology, a hemoglobin-binding protein of approximately 120 kDa was isolated from H. influenzae type b strain HI689 grown in heme-restricted but not in heme-replete conditions. The isolated protein was subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and the derived amino acid sequence was used to design corresponding oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides were used to probe a Southern blot of EcoRI-digested HI689 genomic DNA. A hybridizing band of approximately 4.2 kb was successfully cloned into pUC19. Using a 1.9-kb internal BglII fragment of the 4.2-kb clone as a probe, hybridization was seen in both typeable and nontypeable H. influenzae but not in other bacterial species tested. Following partial nucleotide sequencing of the 4.2-kb insert, a putative open reading frame was subcloned into an expression vector. The host Escherichia coli strain in which the cloned fragment was expressed bound biotinylated human hemoglobin, whereas binding of hemoglobin was not detected in E. coli with the vector alone. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the DNA fragment encoding an approximately 120-kDa heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding protein mediates one step in the acquisition of hemoglobin by H. influenzae in vivo.

Jin, H; Ren, Z; Pozsgay, J M; Elkins, C; Whitby, P W; Morton, D J; Stull, T L

1996-01-01

352

Dna2 on the road to Okazaki fragment processing and genome stability in eukaryotes.  

PubMed

DNA replication is a primary mechanism for maintaining genome integrity, but it serves this purpose best by cooperating with other proteins involved in DNA repair and recombination. Unlike leading strand synthesis, lagging strand synthesis has a greater risk of faulty replication for several reasons: First, a significant part of DNA is synthesized by polymerase alpha, which lacks a proofreading function. Second, a great number of Okazaki fragments are synthesized, processed and ligated per cell division. Third, the principal mechanism of Okazaki fragment processing is via generation of flaps, which have the potential to form a variety of structures in their sequence context. Finally, many proteins for the lagging strand interact with factors involved in repair and recombination. Thus, lagging strand DNA synthesis could be the best example of a converging place of both replication and repair proteins. To achieve the risky task with extraordinary fidelity, Okazaki fragment processing may depend on multiple layers of redundant, but connected pathways. An essential Dna2 endonuclease/helicase plays a pivotal role in processing common structural intermediates that occur during diverse DNA metabolisms (e.g. lagging strand synthesis and telomere maintenance). Many roles of Dna2 suggest that the preemptive removal of long or structured flaps ultimately contributes to genome maintenance in eukaryotes. In this review, we describe the function of Dna2 in Okazaki fragment processing, and discuss its role in the maintenance of genome integrity with an emphasis on its functional interactions with other factors required for genome maintenance. PMID:20131965

Kang, Young-Hoon; Lee, Chul-Hwan; Seo, Yeon-Soo

2010-04-01

353

Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in developmental biology and in maintenance of the steady state in continuously renewing tissues. Cur- rently, its existence is inferred mainly from gel elec- trophoresis of a pooled DNA extract as PCD was shown to be associated with DNA fragmentation. Based on this observation, we describe here the devel- opment of a

Yael Gavrieli; Yoav Sherman; Shmuel A. Ben-Sasson

1992-01-01

354

Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Enhanced Detection of Circulating Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma  

PubMed Central

A universal method confirming the presence of circulating cell-free fetal (ccff) DNA in maternal plasma is important in the field of noninvasive prenatal diagnostics. Restriction endonuclease digestion of one allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was used to allow detection of paternal alleles in maternal plasma DNA. Multiplexed genotyping of 92 panethnic high-frequency SNPs predicted >0.99 probability of detecting at least four informative loci per sample. Child-maternal paired DNA samples were used to confirm detection of 2% child's heterozygous DNA in a background of maternal DNA homozygous for the digestible allele. By restriction endonuclease digestion of DNA in a PCR cocktail before thermal cycling, 10 genomic copies of a paternal SNP allele were detectable in a background of 990 maternal SNP alleles. A comparison of 154 pregnant and nonpregnant female plasma DNA samples demonstrated enhanced detection of nondigestible SNP alleles in maternal plasma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an optimal detection threshold of four nondigestible SNP alleles in plasma for the confirmation of ccff DNA and 98% sensitivity and 96% specificity at a 95% confidence level. Our study demonstrates the ability of this technique to confirm the presence of paternal alleles from ccff DNA in maternal plasma.

Tynan, John A.; Mahboubi, Payam; Cagasan, Lesley L.; van den Boom, Dirk; Ehrich, Mathias; Oeth, Paul

2011-01-01

355

Structure, restriction map and infectivity of the genomic and replicative forms of AaPV DNA.  

PubMed

We have characterized the genomic and replicative form (RF) DNA of the Aedes albopictus Parvovirus (AaPV), a virus isolated from a chronically infected C6/36 clone of Aedes albopictus cell line [22]. The genome of AaPV virions is a single-stranded linear DNA molecule approximately 4.2 kb in length, essentially (about 90%) encapsidated as minus strand. A restriction map of the RF DNA isolated from infected C6/36 cells was established. Among the 23 restriction enzymes tested, 14 cleaved the AaPV RF DNA and 30 restriction sites were mapped and oriented with respect to the viral genomic DNA. Both viral and RF DNAs were found infectious when transfected to virus-free C6/36 cells. The asymmetrical encapsidation of the viral genome is a property common to most vertebrate autonomous parvoviruses but rather unusual among densoviruses. Both by its small size, the asymmetrical mode of encapsidation and the restriction map, the AaPV genome resembles that of the Aedes Densonucleosis virus [1]. PMID:7944946

Boublik, Y; Jousset, F X; Bergoin, M

1994-01-01

356

Host Factor SAMHD1 Restricts DNA Viruses in Non-Dividing Myeloid Cells  

PubMed Central

SAMHD1 is a newly identified anti-HIV host factor that has a dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity and depletes intracellular dNTP pools in non-dividing myeloid cells. Since DNA viruses utilize cellular dNTPs, we investigated whether SAMHD1 limits the replication of DNA viruses in non-dividing myeloid target cells. Indeed, two double stranded DNA viruses, vaccinia and herpes simplex virus type 1, are subject to SAMHD1 restriction in non-dividing target cells in a dNTP dependent manner. Using a thymidine kinase deficient strain of vaccinia virus, we demonstrate a greater restriction of viral replication in non-dividing cells expressing SAMHD1. Therefore, this study suggests that SAMHD1 is a potential innate anti-viral player that suppresses the replication of a wide range of DNA viruses, as well as retroviruses, which infect non-dividing myeloid cells.

Baker, Jonathon; Daly, Michele B.; Amie, Sarah M.; Tate, Jessica; Kasai, Natsumi; Kanemura, Yuka; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ward, Brian M.; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Kim, Baek

2013-01-01

357

Relaxed circular SV40 DNA as cleavage intermediate of two restriction endonucleases.  

PubMed Central

We have determined the mode of cleavage of superhelical SV40 DNA (Form I) by restriction endonucleases EcoRI and HpaII at 37 degrees C. By analysis with agarose gel electrophoresis and direct examination with dark field electron microscopy, we found that a large amount of the single-nicked circular DNA (Form II) was produced before the linear SV40 DNA (Form III) appeared. Thus, both restriction enzymes cleave only one strand of the superhelical DNA first. The second cleavage on the complementary strand occurred after a lag period. The first order rate constant for the second cleavage by EcoRI endonuclease was determined and a kinetic reaction scheme for both enzymes is proposed. Images

Ruben, G; Spielman, P; Tu, C D; Jay, E; Siegel, B; Wu, R

1977-01-01

358

Genetic Analyses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe dna21 Reveal That Dna2 Plays an Essential Role in Okazaki Fragment Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we investigated the phenotypes caused by temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant alleles of dna21 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a homologue of DNA2 of budding yeast, in an attempt to further define its function in vivo with respect to lagging-strand synthesis during the S-phase of the cell cycle. At the restrictive temperature, dna2 (ts) cells arrested at late S-phase but were

Ho-Young Kang; Eunjoo Choi; Sung-Ho Bae; Kyoung-Hwa Lee; Byung-Soo Gim; Hee-Dai Kim; Stuart A. MacNeill; Yeon-Soo Seo

359

Early-replicating DNA from mosquito cells is associated with a distinct EcoRI fragment.  

PubMed

In an effort to define an origin of bi-directional DNA replication (OBR) in mosquito genomic DNA, we applied methods that take advantage of characteristic features of single-stranded DNA to methotrexate-resistant Aedes albopictus cells. The Mtx-5011-256 cells contained approximately 1000 copies of a 200 kb amplicon containing the dihydrofolate reductase locus, which likely contained one or more replication origins. When Mtx-5011-256 cells were synchronized by treatment with hydroxyurea, released into the S phase of the cell cycle, and labeled in vivo with tritiated DNA precursors, a 1.9 kb EcoRI fragment was preferentially labeled in EcoRI-digested genomic DNA. Similarly, we detected a 1.9 kb EcoRI fragment in DNA from wild type cells after cell cycle synchronization and in vivo labeling. In a complementary method, unlabeled single-stranded DNA was isolated from Mtx-5011-256 cells, labeled in vitro, and hybridized to EcoRI-digested genomic DNA from mosquito cells. The labeled probe hybridized preferentially to a 1.9 kb fragment. Finally, a 1.9 kb EcoRI fragment was detected when nascent DNA was recovered from unsynchronized cells, made double-stranded by in vitro labeling, and digested with EcoRI. Taken together, these results suggest that in Aedes albopictus mosquito cells, many replication origins used at different times during S are flanked by EcoRI sites that define a 1.9 kb fragment, which has become more abundant in Mtx-5011-256 cells because it occurs in the dhfr amplicon. Tentative mapping of this origin to amplicon DNA remains ambiguous, further suggesting that a repeated sequence element occurs at or near the origin of replication. PMID:10070745

Wang, Z H; Fallon, A M

1999-01-01

360

Strain differentiation of epidemic typhus rickettsiae ( Rickettsia prowazekii ) by DNA restriction endonuclease analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from five isolates ofRickettsia prowazekii of diverse origin were analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion followed by electrophoresis. Reliable differentiation between two human isolates was possible withSacI endonuclease digestion. DNA patterns from two strains ofR. prowazekii isolated from North American flying squirrels and one strain isolated from a cattle tick were remarkably similar to those from the human isolates, whereas

Russell L. Regnery; Theodore Tzianabos; Joseph J. Esposito; Joseph E. McDade

1983-01-01

361

Phylogenetic relationships among the subfamily Coregoninae as revealed by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria1 DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis was used to assess phylogenetic patterns among 2 1 taxa of the subfamily Coregoninae. The genus Prosopium formed a very distinct group differing by 10% (sequence divergence estimate) from other species. Coregonus and Stenodus species were closely related, diverging by sequence divergence estimates of less than 5.6%. These species split into two major sister groups.

L. Bernatchez; F. Colombani; J. J. Dodson

1991-01-01

362

Restriction endonuclease analysis of plastid DNA from tomato, potato and some of their somatic hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buoyant density and endonuclease restriction patterns of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) ptDNA were examined and compared with those of their somatic hybrids. The plastids from these plants, both of which belong to the family of Solanaceae, contain a single DNA species whose density of 1.697 gcm-3 and size of approximately 156 kbp are similar to

Barbara Schiller; R. G. Herrmann; G. Melchers

1982-01-01

363

Cleavage of Supercoiled Plasmid DNA by Autoantibody Fab Fragment: Application of the Flow Linear Dichroism Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly effective method consisting of two affinity chromatography steps and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography steps was developed for purification of autoantibodies from human sera with DNA-hydrolyzing activity. Antibody Fab fragment, which had been purified 130-fold, was shown to catalyze plasmid DNA cleavage. The flow linear dichroism technique was used for quantitative and qualitative studying of supercoiled plasmid DNA cleavage

Gennady V. Gololobov; Elena A. Chernova; Dmitry V. Schourov; Ivan V. Smirnov; Irina A. Kudelina; Alexander G. Gabibov

1995-01-01

364

Ribosomal RNA genes in Euglena gracilis mitochondrial DNA: fragmented genes in a seemingly fragmented genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because relatively little information is available about mtDNA in the euglenid protozoa, distant relatives of the kinetoplastid\\u000a protozoa, we investigated mitochondrial genome structure and expression in Euglena gracilis. We found that isolated E. gracilis mtDNA comprises a heterodisperse collection of short molecules (modal size ~4 kbp) and that the mitochondrial large subunit\\u000a (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) rRNAs are each split

David F. Spencer; Michael W. Gray

2011-01-01

365

Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi ospC genotypes in host tissue and feeding ticks by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms.  

PubMed

We developed a high-throughput method based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to identify ospC genotypes from field-collected samples of Borrelia burgdorferi. We first validated the method by analyzing B. burgdorferi ospC previously identified by sequencing. We then analyzed and compared ospC genotypes detected from ear biopsy tissue from natural populations of the white-footed mouse, a major B. burgdorferi reservoir host species in the eastern United States, and larval ticks feeding on those individual mice. The T-RFLP method enabled us to distinguish all 17 ospC genotypes tested, as well as mixed samples containing more than one genotype. Analysis costs compare favorably to those of alternative ospC identification methods. The T-RFLP method will facilitate large-scale field studies to advance our understanding of genotype-specific transmission patterns. PMID:23183976

Tsao, Kimberly; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland

2013-02-01

366

A glass fiber/diethylaminoethyl double filter binding assay that measures apoptotic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.  

PubMed

A filter binding assay that measures internucleosomal DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis is described. The assay is based on a novel principle that consists of using simultaneously two kinds of glass fiber filters to harvest [3H]thymidine-prelabeled cells following their incubation with inducers of apoptosis. One filter, which is neutral, traps intact chromatin and high-molecular-weight DNA. The other filter, which is positively charged with DEAE active groups, traps low-molecular-weight DNA fragments. DNA fragmentation is quantified by measuring the radioactivity retained by each of the filters. The assay was evaluated with the histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 and the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin, etoposide, and doxorubicin. These agents caused a dose-dependent decrease of radioactivity in the neutral filter and a parallel increase of radioactivity in the DEAE filter. Irradiation-induced single strand breaks and topoisomerase-mediated primary DNA damage were not detected by this method. Consistent with the detection of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, the effects measured by this assay were prevented by the endonuclease inhibitor zinc acetate and by the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide. Results obtained using this assay were validated by observation of DNA ladders on agarose gels and by morphologic examination of apoptotic features. Evaluation of the assay in a mock screen demonstrated that the introduction of the DEAE filter increases the assay sensitivity and eliminates false positives. Thus, this assay may be used in high-throughput screening approaches to discover novel modulators of apoptosis. PMID:8937561

Erusalimsky, J D; John, J; Hong, Y; Moore, M

1996-11-15

367

The Trans-autostimulatory Activity of Rad27 Suppresses dna2 Defects in Okazaki Fragment Processing*  

PubMed Central

Dna2 and Rad27 (yeast Fen1) are the two endonucleases critical for Okazaki fragment processing during lagging strand DNA synthesis that have been shown to interact genetically and physically. In this study, we addressed the functional consequences of these interactions by examining whether purified Rad27 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the enzymatic activity of Dna2 and vice versa. For this purpose, we constructed Rad27DA (catalytically defective enzyme with an Asp to Ala substitution at amino acid 179) and found that it significantly stimulated the endonuclease activity of wild type Dna2, but failed to do so with Dna2?405N that lacks the N-terminal 405 amino acids. This was an unexpected finding because dna2?405N cells were still partially suppressed by overexpression of rad27DA in vivo. Further analyses revealed that Rad27 is a trans-autostimulatory enzyme, providing an explanation why overexpression of Rad27, regardless of its catalytic activity, suppressed dna2 mutants as long as an endogenous wild type Rad27 is available. We found that the C-terminal 16-amino acid fragment of Rad27, a highly polybasic region due to the presence of multiple positively charged lysine and arginine residues, was sufficient and necessary for the stimulation of both Rad27 and Dna2. Our findings provide further insight into how Dna2 and Rad27 jointly affect the processing of Okazaki fragments in eukaryotes.

Munashingha, Palinda Ruvan; Lee, Chul-Hwan; Kang, Young-Hoon; Shin, Yong-Keol; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Seo, Yeon-Soo

2012-01-01

368

The Mechanism and Dynamics of Translesion DNA Synthesis Catalyzed by the Escherichia coli Klenow fragment  

PubMed Central

Translesion DNA synthesis represents the ability of a DNA polymerase to incorporate and extend beyond damaged DNA. In this report, the mechanism and dynamics by which the Escherichia coli Klenow fragment performs translesion DNA synthesis during the misreplication of an abasic site were investigated using a series of natural and non-natural nucleotides. Like most other high fidelity DNA polymerases, the Klenow fragment follows the “A-rule” of translesion DNA synthesis by preferentially incorporating dATP opposite the non-instructional lesion. However, several 5-substituted indolyl nucleotides lacking classical hydrogen-bonding groups are incorporated ~100-fold more efficiently than the natural nucleotide. In general, analogs that contain large substituent groups in conjunction with significant ?-electron density display the highest catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) forincorporation. While the measured Km values depend upon the size and ?-electron density of the incoming nucleotide, kcat values are surprisingly independent of both biophysical features. As expected, the efficiency by which these non-natural nucleotides are incorporated opposite templating nucleobases is significantly reduced. This reduction reflects minimal increases in Km values coupled with large decreases in kcat. The kinetic data obtained with the Klenow fragment are compared to that of the high fidelity bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase and reveal distinct differences in the dynamics by which these non-natural nucleotides are incorporated opposite an abasic site. These biophysical differences argue against a unified mechanism of translesion DNA synthesis and suggest that polymerases employ different catalytic strategies during the misreplication of damaged DNA.

Sheriff, Asim; Motea, Edward; Lee, Irene; Berdis, Anthony J.

2009-01-01

369

The trans-autostimulatory activity of Rad27 suppresses dna2 defects in Okazaki fragment processing.  

PubMed

Dna2 and Rad27 (yeast Fen1) are the two endonucleases critical for Okazaki fragment processing during lagging strand DNA synthesis that have been shown to interact genetically and physically. In this study, we addressed the functional consequences of these interactions by examining whether purified Rad27 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects the enzymatic activity of Dna2 and vice versa. For this purpose, we constructed Rad27DA (catalytically defective enzyme with an Asp to Ala substitution at amino acid 179) and found that it significantly stimulated the endonuclease activity of wild type Dna2, but failed to do so with Dna2?405N that lacks the N-terminal 405 amino acids. This was an unexpected finding because dna2?405N cells were still partially suppressed by overexpression of rad27DA in vivo. Further analyses revealed that Rad27 is a trans-autostimulatory enzyme, providing an explanation why overexpression of Rad27, regardless of its catalytic activity, suppressed dna2 mutants as long as an endogenous wild type Rad27 is available. We found that the C-terminal 16-amino acid fragment of Rad27, a highly polybasic region due to the presence of multiple positively charged lysine and arginine residues, was sufficient and necessary for the stimulation of both Rad27 and Dna2. Our findings provide further insight into how Dna2 and Rad27 jointly affect the processing of Okazaki fragments in eukaryotes. PMID:22235122

Munashingha, Palinda Ruvan; Lee, Chul-Hwan; Kang, Young-Hoon; Shin, Yong-Keol; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Seo, Yeon-Soo

2012-03-16

370

16S rRNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Characterization of the Nasopharyngeal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

A novel non-culture based 16S rRNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method using the restriction enzymes Tsp509I and Hpy166II was developed for the characterization of the nasopharyngeal microbiota and validated using recently published 454 pyrosequencing data. 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP for 153 clinical nasopharyngeal samples from infants with acute otitis media (AOM) revealed 5 Tsp509I and 6 Hpy166II terminal fragments (TFs) with a prevalence of >10%. Cloning and sequencing identified all TFs with a prevalence >6% allowing a sufficient description of bacterial community changes for the most important bacterial taxa. The conjugated 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV-7) and prior antibiotic exposure had significant effects on the bacterial composition in an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) in concordance with the 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing data. In addition, the presented T-RFLP method is able to discriminate S. pneumoniae from other members of the Mitis group of streptococci, which therefore allows the identification of one of the most important human respiratory tract pathogens. This is usually not achieved by current high throughput sequencing protocols. In conclusion, the presented 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP method is a highly robust, easy to handle and a cheap alternative to the computationally demanding next-generation sequencing analysis. In case a lot of nasopharyngeal samples have to be characterized, it is suggested to first perform 16S rRNA T-RFLP and only use next generation sequencing if the T-RFLP nasopharyngeal patterns differ or show unknown TFs.

Brugger, Silvio D.; Frei, Laurence; Frey, Pascal M.; Aebi, Suzanne; Muhlemann, Kathrin; Hilty, Markus

2012-01-01

371

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease, covalently closed DNA and ethidium bromide.  

PubMed Central

The reactions of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease on the covalently closed DNA of plasmid pMB9 were studied in the presence of ethidium bromide. At the concentrations of ethidium bromide tested, which covered the range over which the DNA is changed from negatively to positively supercoiled, the dye caused no alteration to the rate at which this enzyme cleaved the covalently closed DNA to yield the open-circle form, but the rate at which these open circles were cleaved to the linear product could be inhibited. The fluorescence change, caused by ethidium bromide binding with different stoichiometries to covalently closed and open-circle DNA, provided a direct and sensitive signal for monitoring the cleavage of DNA by this enzyme. This method was used for a steady-state kinetic analysis of the reaction catalysed by the EcoRI restriction enzyme. Reaction mechanisms where a complex between DNA and Mg2+ is the substrate for this enzyme were eliminated, and instead DNA and Mg2+ must bind to the enzyme in separate stages. The requisite controls for this fluorimetric assay in both steady-state and transient kinetics studies, and its application to other enzymes that alter the structure of covalently closed DNA, are described.

Halford, S E; Johnson, N P

1981-01-01

372

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease, covalently closed DNA and ethidium bromide.  

PubMed

The reactions of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease on the covalently closed DNA of plasmid pMB9 were studied in the presence of ethidium bromide. At the concentrations of ethidium bromide tested, which covered the range over which the DNA is changed from negatively to positively supercoiled, the dye caused no alteration to the rate at which this enzyme cleaved the covalently closed DNA to yield the open-circle form, but the rate at which these open circles were cleaved to the linear product could be inhibited. The fluorescence change, caused by ethidium bromide binding with different stoichiometries to covalently closed and open-circle DNA, provided a direct and sensitive signal for monitoring the cleavage of DNA by this enzyme. This method was used for a steady-state kinetic analysis of the reaction catalysed by the EcoRI restriction enzyme. Reaction mechanisms where a complex between DNA and Mg2+ is the substrate for this enzyme were eliminated, and instead DNA and Mg2+ must bind to the enzyme in separate stages. The requisite controls for this fluorimetric assay in both steady-state and transient kinetics studies, and its application to other enzymes that alter the structure of covalently closed DNA, are described. PMID:6280676

Halford, S E; Johnson, N P

1981-12-01

373

Multimerization-cyclization of DNA fragments as a method of conformational analysis.  

PubMed Central

Ligation of short DNA fragments results in the formation of linear and circular multimers of various lengths. The distribution of products in such a reaction is often used to evaluate fragment bending caused by specific chemical modification, by bound ligands or by the presence of irregular structural elements. We have developed a more rigorous quantitative approach to the analysis of such experimental data based on determination of j-factors for different multimers from the distribution of the reaction products. j-Factors define the effective concentration of one end of a linear chain in the vicinity of the other end. To extract j-factors we assumed that kinetics of the reaction is described by a system of differential equations where j-factors appear as coefficients. The assumption was confirmed by comparison with experimental data obtained here for DNA fragments containing A-tracts. At the second step of the analysis j-factors are used to determine conformational parameters of DNA fragments: the equilibrium bend angle, the bending rigidity of the fragment axis, and the total twist of the fragments. This procedure is based on empirical equations that connect the conformational parameters with the set of j-factors. To obtain the equations, we computed j-factors for a large array of conformational parameters that describe model fragments. The approach was tested on both simulated and actual experimental data for DNA fragments containing A-tracts. A-tract DNA bend angle determined here is in good agreement with previously published data. We have established a set of experimental conditions necessary for the data analysis to be successful.

Podtelezhnikov, A A; Mao, C; Seeman, N C; Vologodskii, A

2000-01-01

374

Detection of Low-Abundance KRAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer Using Microfluidic Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method with Optimized Assay Conditions  

PubMed Central

Constitutively active KRAS mutations have been found to be involved in various processes of cancer development, and render tumor cells resistant to EGFR-targeted therapies. Mutation detection methods with higher sensitivity will increase the possibility of choosing the correct individual therapy. Here, we established a highly sensitive and efficient microfluidic capillary electrophoresis-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (µCE-based RFLP) platform for low-abundance KRAS genotyping with the combination of µCE and RFLP techniques. By using our self-built sensitive laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detector and a new DNA intercalating dye YOYO-1, the separation conditions of µCE for ?X174 HaeIII DNA marker were first optimized. Then, a Mav I digested 107-bp KRAS gene fragment was directly introduced into the microfluidic device and analyzed by µCE, in which field amplified sample stacking (FASS) technique was employed to obtain the enrichment of the RFLP digestion products and extremely improved the sensitivity. The accurate analysis of KRAS statuses in HT29, LS174T, CCL187, SW480, Clone A, and CX-1 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by µCE-based RFLP were achieved in 5 min with picoliter-scale sample consumption, and as low as 0.01% of mutant KRAS could be identified from a large excess of wild-type genomic DNA (gDNA). In 98 paraffin-embedded CRC tissues, KRAS codon 12 mutations were discovered in 28 (28.6%), significantly higher than that obtained by direct sequencing (13, 13.3%). Clone sequencing confirmed these results and showed this system could detect at least 0.4% of the mutant KRAS in CRC tissue slides. Compared with direct sequencing, the new finding of the µCE-based RFLP platform was that KRAS mutations in codon 12 were correlated with the patient’s age. In conclusion, we established a sensitive, fast, and cost-effective screening method for KRAS mutations, and successfully detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in clinical samples, which will allow provision of more precise individualized cancer therapy.

Ren, Hui; Xu, Zhangrun; Wang, Xiaonan; Shan, Lianfeng; Fang, Jin

2013-01-01

375

Thermodynamic DNA Looping by a Two-Site Restriction Endonuclease Studied using Optical Tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many enzyme-DNA interactions involve multimeric protein complexes that bind at two distant sites such that the DNA is looped. An example is the type IIe restriction enzyme Sau3AI, which requires two recognition sites to cleave the DNA. Here we study this process at the single DNA level using force measuring optical tweezers. We characterize cleavage rates of single DNA molecules in the presence of Sau3AI as a function of enzyme concentration, incubation time, and the fractional extension of the DNA molecule. Activity is completely inhibited by tensions of a few picoNewtons. By replacing Mg^2+ with Ca^2+, the Sau3AI dimers form but do not cleave the DNA, thus trapping DNA loops. We are able to pull apart these loops, measuring the force needed and the length of DNA released for each. We also characterize the number and length distributions of these loops as a function of incubation time and DNA fractional extension. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of a Brownian dynamics model of DNA looping.

Gemmen, Gregory J.

2005-03-01

376

Large fragment Bst DNA polymerase for whole genome amplification of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent the largest source of archival biological material available for genomic studies of human cancer. Therefore, it is desirable to develop methods that enable whole genome amplification (WGA) using DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. Multiple-strand Displacement Amplification (MDA) is an isothermal method for WGA that uses the large fragment of Bst DNA polymerase. To date, MDA has been feasible only for genomic DNA isolated from fresh or snap-frozen tissue, and yields a representational distortion of less than threefold. Results We amplified genomic DNA of five FFPE samples of normal human lung tissue with the large fragment of Bst DNA polymerase. Using quantitative PCR, the copy number of 7 genes was evaluated in both amplified and original DNA samples. Four neuroblastoma xenograft samples derived from cell lines with known N-myc gene copy number were also evaluated, as were 7 samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors with known Skp2 gene amplification. In addition, we compared the array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based genome profiles of two NSCLC samples before and after Bst MDA. A median 990-fold amplification of DNA was achieved. The DNA amplification products had a very high molecular weight (> 23 Kb). When the gene content of the amplified samples was compared to that of the original samples, the representational distortion was limited to threefold. Array CGH genome profiles of amplified and non-amplified FFPE DNA were similar. Conclusion Large fragment Bst DNA polymerase is suitable for WGA of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues, with an expected maximal representational distortion of threefold. Amplified DNA may be used for the detection of gene copy number changes by quantitative realtime PCR and genome profiling by array CGH.

Aviel-Ronen, Sarit; Qi Zhu, Chang; Coe, Bradley P; Liu, Ni; Watson, Spencer K; Lam, Wan L; Tsao, Ming Sound

2006-01-01

377

SURVEY AND SUMMARY: A nomenclature for restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and their genes  

PubMed Central

A nomenclature is described for restriction endonucleases, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and related genes and gene products. It provides explicit categories for the many different Type II enzymes now identified and provides a system for naming the putative genes found by sequence analysis of microbial genomes.

Roberts, Richard J.; Belfort, Marlene; Bestor, Timothy; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Bickle, Thomas A.; Bitinaite, Jurate; Blumenthal, Robert M.; Degtyarev, Sergey Kh.; Dryden, David T. F.; Dybvig, Kevin; Firman, Keith; Gromova, Elizaveta S.; Gumport, Richard I.; Halford, Stephen E.; Hattman, Stanley; Heitman, Joseph; Hornby, David P.; Janulaitis, Arvydas; Jeltsch, Albert; Josephsen, Jytte; Kiss, Antal; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Kong, Huimin; Kruger, Detlev H.; Lacks, Sanford; Marinus, Martin G.; Miyahara, Michiko; Morgan, Richard D.; Murray, Noreen E.; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Piekarowicz, Andrzej; Pingoud, Alfred; Raleigh, Elisabeth; Rao, Desirazu N.; Reich, Norbert; Repin, Vladimir E.; Selker, Eric U.; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Stein, Daniel C.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Szybalski, Waclaw; Trautner, Thomas A.; Van Etten, James L.; Vitor, Jorge M. B.; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Xu, Shuang-yong

2003-01-01

378

[Identification of SHV-type extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and insertion site restriction-PCR].  

PubMed

We propose a simple and rapid method to discriminate SHV-type extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes in P. aeruginosa based on PCR techniques (PCR-RFLP and RSI-PCR). We studied 22 producing ESBL P. aeruginosa strains isolated from seven immunocompromised patients (19 isolates) and from environmental swabs (three isolates) at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of Tunis. Screening PCR with primer pairs designed to detect gene encoding TEM, SHV, OXA group I, OXA group II, OXA-18 and PER-1 ESBL was positive for bla(OXA18) and bla(SHV) genes in all isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis using SpeI endonuclease defined five genotypic groups. For at least one isolate corresponding to each genotype observed, restriction of PCR products by DdeI and BsrI revealed the same restriction pattern that the bla(SHV-1) negative control; in the same way, RSI-PCR products digestion by NruI, thus excluding 35, 238 and 240 mutations characterizing reported ESBL in P. aeruginosa (SHV-2a, SHV5 et SHV12), and suggesting that studied bla(SHV) genes were not ESBL ones. Genomic DNA hybridization by southern blot with probe consisting in bla(SHV-1) gene was positive in these isolates. Sequencing the full-length open reading frame revealed nucleotide sequence of the bla(SHV-1). PCR-RFLP and RSI-PCR results were then confirmed. This approach is effective for screening P. aeruginosa for ESBL genes carriage in epidemiological studies and for detecting new variants. PMID:18838231

Kalai Blagui, S; Achour, W; Abdeladhim, A; Ben Hassen, A

2009-07-01

379

Characterization of a Meiotic Crossover in Maize Identified by a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Based Method  

PubMed Central

Genetic map lengths do not correlate directly with genome size, suggesting that meiotic recombination is not uniform throughout the genome. Further, the abundance of repeated sequences in plant genomes requires that crossing over is restricted to particular genomic regions. We used a physical mapping approach to identify these regions without the bias introduced by phenotypic selection. This approach is based on the detection of nonparental polymorphisms formed by recombination between polymorphic alleles. In an F(2) population of 48 maize plants, we identified a crossover at two of the seven restriction fragment length polymorphism loci tested. Characterization of one recombination event revealed that the crossover mapped within a 534-bp region of perfect homology between the parental alleles embedded in a 2773-bp unique sequence. No transcripts from this region could be detected. Sequences immediately surrounding the crossover site were not detectably methylated, except for an SstI site probably methylated via non-CpG or CpXpG cytosine methylation. Parental methylation patterns at this SstI site and at the flanking repetitive sequences were faithfully inherited by the recombinant allele. Our observations suggest that meiotic recombination in maize occurs between perfectly homologous sequences, within unmethylated, nonrepetitive regions of the genome.

Timmermans, MCP.; Das, O. P.; Messing, J.

1996-01-01

380

Genetic variation of Cryphonectria hypoviruses (CHV1) in Europe, assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers.  

PubMed

A total of 72 hypovirus-infected isolates of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica were sampled from nine European countries between 1975 and 1997. The double-stranded RNA of the Cryphonectria hypoviruses (CHV1) was isolated and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products were obtained for two different regions of the viral genome (ORF A and ORF B) using primer sequences of the type species CHV1-EP713. Both PCR products of each viral isolate were digested with four restriction endonucleases recognizing sequences of four nucleotides. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed 41 genetically distinct RFLP types of CHV1 with 10 types occurring more than once. Identical RFLP types were detected nine times among viruses collected in the same location. Cluster analysis based on the RFLP banding patterns separated the viral isolates into five CHV1 clusters or subtypes. Most viral isolates (64 out of 72) grouped into one large cluster which comprised all viruses from Italy (including CHV1-EP747), Switzerland, Crotia, Bosnia, Hungary, Greece, and the French island Corsica, as well as five out of 11 isolates from continental France. Two additional subtypes of CHV1 were found in France (one related to CHV1-EP713) and one each in Spain and Germany. The Swiss samples collected over a period of 20 years showed that very little RFLP variation has evolved during this time. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis of multiple introductions of CHV1 into Europe. PMID:10368967

Allemann, C; Hoegger, P; Heiniger, U; Rigling, D

1999-05-01

381

Ionizing radiation-induced fragmentation of plasmid DNA Atomic force microscopy and biophysical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are closely correlated with radiation-induced cell killing and are the most critical lesions related to cellular endpoints like mutagenesis and transformation. High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation produces more severe and complex damage due to the fact that induced DSBs are not randomly distributed but clustered at different levels of DNA organization. In this paper, direct visualization of DSBs induced in a plasmid supercoiled DNA by low- and high-LET radiation is presented. Resulting DNA fragments distributions obtained by use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) are shown. Moreover, a biophysical model of spatially correlated DSBs formation in the framework of the Local Effect Model (LEM) is introduced and its predictions on DNA fragment formation are discussed.

Psonka, K.; Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Brons, S.; Elsässer, Th.; Heiss, M.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

382

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease with bacteriophage lambda DNA. Equilibrium binding studies.  

PubMed

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease was found by the filter binding technique to form stable complexes, in the absence of Mg2+, with the DNA from derivatives of bacteriophage lambda that either contain or lack EcoRI recognition sites. The amount of complex formed at different enzyme concentrations followed a hyperbolic equilibrium-binding curve with DNA molecules containing EcoRI recognition sites, but a sigmoidal equilibrium-binding curve was obtained with a DNA molecule lacking EcoRI recognition sites. The EcoRI enzyme displayed the same affinity for individual recognition sites on lambda DNA, even under conditions where it cleaves these sites at different rates. The binding of the enzyme to a DNA molecule lacking EcoRI sites was decreased by Mg2+. These observations indicate that (a) the EcoRI restriction enzyme binds preferentially to its recognition site on DNA, and that different reaction rates at different recognition sites are due to the rate of breakdown of this complex; (b) the enzyme also binds to other DNA sequences, but that two molecules of enzyme, in a different protein conformation, are involved in the formation of the complex at non-specific consequences; (c) the different affinities of the enzyme for the recognition site and for other sequences on DNA, coupled with the different protein conformations, account for the specificity of this enzyme for the cleavage of DNA at this recognition site; (d) the decrease in the affinity of the enzyme for DNA, caused by Mg2+, liberates binding energy from the DNA-protein complex that can be used in the catalytic reaction. PMID:6263250

Halford, S E; Johnson, N P

1980-11-01

383

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease with bacteriophage lambda DNA. Equilibrium binding studies.  

PubMed Central

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease was found by the filter binding technique to form stable complexes, in the absence of Mg2+, with the DNA from derivatives of bacteriophage lambda that either contain or lack EcoRI recognition sites. The amount of complex formed at different enzyme concentrations followed a hyperbolic equilibrium-binding curve with DNA molecules containing EcoRI recognition sites, but a sigmoidal equilibrium-binding curve was obtained with a DNA molecule lacking EcoRI recognition sites. The EcoRI enzyme displayed the same affinity for individual recognition sites on lambda DNA, even under conditions where it cleaves these sites at different rates. The binding of the enzyme to a DNA molecule lacking EcoRI sites was decreased by Mg2+. These observations indicate that (a) the EcoRI restriction enzyme binds preferentially to its recognition site on DNA, and that different reaction rates at different recognition sites are due to the rate of breakdown of this complex; (b) the enzyme also binds to other DNA sequences, but that two molecules of enzyme, in a different protein conformation, are involved in the formation of the complex at non-specific consequences; (c) the different affinities of the enzyme for the recognition site and for other sequences on DNA, coupled with the different protein conformations, account for the specificity of this enzyme for the cleavage of DNA at this recognition site; (d) the decrease in the affinity of the enzyme for DNA, caused by Mg2+, liberates binding energy from the DNA-protein complex that can be used in the catalytic reaction. Images Fig. 6.

Halford, S E; Johnson, N P

1980-01-01

384

Age- and calorie restriction-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial DNA and TFAM binding.  

PubMed

Aging markedly affects mitochondrial biogenesis and functions particularly in tissues highly dependent on the organelle's bioenergetics capability such as the brain's frontal cortex. Calorie restriction (CR) diet is, so far, the only intervention able to delay or prevent the onset of several age-related alterations in different organisms. We determined the contents of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the 4.8-kb mtDNA deletion in the frontal cortex from young (6-month-old) and aged (26-month-old), ad libitum-fed (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR), rats. We found a 70 % increase in TFAM amount, a 25 % loss in mtDNA content, and a 35 % increase in the 4.8-kb deletion content in the aged AL animals with respect to the young rats. TFAM-specific binding to six mtDNA regions was analyzed by mtDNA immunoprecipitation and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), showing a marked age-related decrease. Quantitative real-time PCR at two subregions involved in mtDNA replication demonstrated, in aged AL rats, a remarkable decrease (60-70 %) of TFAM-bound mtDNA. The decreased TFAM binding is a novel finding that may explain the mtDNA loss in spite of the compensatory TFAM increased amount. In aged CR rats, TFAM amount increased and mtDNA content decreased with respect to young rats' values, but the extent of the changes was smaller than in aged AL rats. Attenuation of the age-related effects due to the diet in the CR animals was further evidenced by the unchanged content of the 4.8-kb deletion with respect to that of young animals and by the partial prevention of the age-related decrease in TFAM binding to mtDNA. PMID:22945739

Picca, Anna; Fracasso, Flavio; Pesce, Vito; Cantatore, Palmiro; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Lezza, Angela Maria Serena

2013-10-01

385

DNA fragmentation in developing lung fibroblasts exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) toxins.  

PubMed

Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) is a toxic mold that grows on water-damaged cellulose-based materials. Research has revealed also that inhalation of S. chartarum spores caused marked changes in respiratory epithelium, especially to developing lungs. We analyzed the epigenetic potential of S. chartarum spore toxins on developing rat lung fibroblasts using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Isolated fetal lung fibroblasts were exposed to S. chartarum spore toxins for 15 min, 3, 14, or 24 hr and control cells were exposed to saline under the same conditions. Cells were embedded in agarose, electrophoresed under alkaline conditions and silver stained. DNA damage was assessed in terms of fragmentation as measured by comet tail length (DNA migration) and intensity (% DNA contained within head and tail). Upon visual inspection, control fibroblasts showed no DNA fragmentation whereas S. chartarum-treated cells had definable comets of various degrees depending upon the time-course. Analyses of the comets revealed that exposure to S. chartarum spore toxins for at least 15 min to 14 hr, induced increased DNA fragmentation in a time-dependent manner. The fact that exposure to toxins for 24 hr showed less damage suggested that developing lung fibroblasts may have the capability of repairing DNA fragmentation. PMID:17534970

McCrae, K C; Rand, T G; Shaw, R A; Mantsch, H H; Sowa, M G; Thliveris, J A; Scott, J E

2007-07-01

386

BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of efficient methods to transfer large DNA fragments into plants will greatly facilitate the map-based cloning of genes. The recently developed BIBAC and TAC vectors have shown potential to deliver large DNA fragments into plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Here we report that BIBAC and TAC clones containing potato genomic DNA fragments larger than 100 kb are not stable in Agrobacterium.

J. Song; J. M. Bradeen; S. K. Naess; J. P. Helgeson; J. Jiang

2003-01-01

387

Transport of fragmented DNA in apical dendrites of gerbil CA1 pyramidal neurons following transient forebrain ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of fragmented DNA in apical dendrites of the CA1 pyramidal neurons of gerbil hippocampus is observed in the apoptotic process following transient forebrain ischemia. The time-course of specific DNA fragmentation was examined after the ischemic insult by in situ nick-end-labeling method and fluorescence detection technique by DAPI. Although the role of the fragmented DNA movement is unclear, the transport

Akira Hara; Masayuki Niwa; Tomohiko Iwai; Masaya Nakashima; Hirohito Yano; Toshihiko Uematsu; Naoki Yoshimi; Hideki Mori

1998-01-01

388

The EcoRI restriction endonuclease with bacteriophage lambda DNA. Kinetic studies.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of the reactions of the EcoRI restriction endonuclease at individual recognition sites on the DNA from bacteriophage lambda were found to differ markedly from site to site. Under certain conditions of pH and ionic strength, the rates for the cleavage of the DNA were the same at each recognition site. But under altered experimental conditions, different reaction rates were observed at each recognition site. These results are consistent with a mechanism in which the kinetic stability of the complex between the enzyme and the recognition site on the DNA differs among the sites, due to the effect of interactions between the enzyme and DNA sequences surrounding each recognition site upon the transition state of the reaction. Reactions at individual sites on a DNA molecule containing more than one recognition site were found to be independent of each other, thus excluding the possibility of a processive mechanism for the EcoRI enzyme. The consequences of these observations are discussed with regard to both DNA-protein interactions and to the application of restriction enzymes in the study of the structure of DNA molecules. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5.

Halford, S E; Johnson, N P; Grinsted, J

1980-01-01

389

DNA restriction-modification systems in the ethanologen, Zymomonas mobilis ZM4.  

PubMed

To better understand the DNA restriction-modification (R-M) systems for more amenable strain development of the alternative industrial ethanologen, Zymomonas mobilis, three gene knockout mutants were constructed. The gene knockout mutants were tested for their DNA restriction activities by the determination of transformation efficiency using methylated and unmethylated foreign plasmid DNAs. Inactivation of a putative mrr gene encoded by ZMO0028 (zmrr) resulted in a 60-fold increase in the transformation efficiency when unmethylated plasmid DNA was used. This indicated that the putative mrr gene may serve as a type IV restriction-modification system in Z. mobilis ZM4. To assign the function of a putative type I DNA methyltransferase encoded by ZMO1933 (putative S subunit) and ZMO1934 (putative M subunit), the putative S subunit was inactivated. The gene inactivation of ZMO1933 resulted in a 30-fold increase in the transformation efficiency when methylated plasmid DNA was introduced, indicating that the putative S subunit possibly serves as a part of functional type I R-M system(s). Growth studies performed on the mutant strains indicate inactivation of the type I S subunit resulted in a lower maximum specific glucose consumption rate and biomass yield, while inactivation of the type IV Zmrr had the opposite effect, with an increase in the maximum specific growth rate and biomass yield. PMID:20957358

Kerr, Aidan L; Jeon, Young Jae; Svenson, Charles J; Rogers, Peter L; Neilan, Brett A

2011-02-01

390

DNA-Fragments Are Transcytosed across CaCo-2 Cells by Adsorptive Endocytosis and Vesicular Mediated Transport  

PubMed Central

Dietary DNA is degraded into shorter DNA-fragments and single nucleosides in the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary DNA is mainly taken up as single nucleosides and bases, but even dietary DNA-fragments of up to a few hundred bp are able to cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood stream. The molecular mechanisms behind transport of DNA-fragments across the intestine and the effects of this transport on the organism are currently unknown. Here we investigate the transport of DNA-fragments across the intestinal barrier, focusing on transport mechanisms and rates. The human intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 was used as a model. As DNA material a PCR-fragment of 633 bp was used and quantitative real time PCR was used as detection method. DNA-fragments were found to be transported across polarized CaCo-2 cells in the apical to basolateral direction (AB). After 90 min the difference in directionality AB vs. BA was >103 fold. Even undegraded DNA-fragments of 633 bp could be detected in the basolateral receiver compartment at this time point. Transport of DNA-fragments was sensitive to low temperature and inhibition of endosomal acidification. DNA-transport across CaCo-2 cells was not competed out with oligodeoxynucleotides, fucoidan, heparin, heparan sulphate and dextrane sulphate, while linearized plasmid DNA, on the other hand, reduced transcytosis of DNA-fragments by a factor of approximately 2. Our findings therefore suggest that vesicular transport is mediating transcytosis of dietary DNA-fragments across intestinal cells and that DNA binding proteins are involved in this process. If we extrapolate our findings to in vivo conditions it could be hypothesized that this transport mechanism has a function in the immune system.

Johannessen, Lene E.; Spilsberg, Bj?rn; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G.

2013-01-01

391

Restricting restriction.  

PubMed

Systems biology is a new, fashionable and well-funded discipline, which to quote from a recent review aims to 'examine the structure and dynamics of cellular and organismal function, rather than the characteristics of isolated parts of a cell or organism em leader ' (Kitano, H. (2002) Science 295:1662-1664). Systems biology will do this by profiting from the vast amounts of biological information that are available in the genomics era and make extensive use of computer modelling. But: 'many breakthroughs in experimental devices, advanced software and analytical methods are required before the achievements of system biology can live up to their much-touted potential'. This edition of Molecular Microbiology contains a paper that is the product of traditional experimental biology but which could serve as a test case for systems biology. The paper shows how bacteria integrate such disparate subsystems as DNA restriction, homologous recombination and regulated proteolysis to protect their chromosomes from degradation. When systems biology can predict this level of choreography, it will be a mature discipline. PMID:14651606

Bickle, Thomas A

2004-01-01

392

Fragmentation of DNA in a sub-microliter microfluidic sonication device.  

PubMed

Fragmentation of DNA is an essential step for many biological applications including the preparation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. As sequencing technologies push the limits towards single cell and single molecule resolution, it is of great interest to reduce the scale of this upstream fragmentation step. Here we describe a miniaturized DNA shearing device capable of processing sub-microliter samples based on acoustic shearing within a microfluidic chip. A strong acoustic field was generated by a Langevin-type piezo transducer and coupled into the microfluidic channel via the flexural lamb wave mode. Purified genomic DNA, as well as covalently cross-linked chromatin were sheared into various fragment sizes ranging from ?180 bp to 4 kb. With the use of standard PDMS soft lithography, our approach should facilitate the integration of additional microfluidic modules and ultimately allow miniaturized NGS workflows. PMID:23014736

Tseng, Qingzong; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Furlong, Eileen E M; Merten, Christoph A

2012-11-21

393

Localization of the coagulation factor XIII B subunit gene (F13B) to chromosome bands 1q31–32.1 and restriction fragment length polymorphism at the locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ hybridization of tritiated cDNA probes for the gene for the B subunit of coagulation factor XIII localized the F13B locus to bands q31–q32.1 on human chromosome 1 and perhaps more precisely to sub-bands 1q31.2 or 1q31.3. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were detected with BglII, EcoRI and XbaI. Because the RFLPs detected with each of the three enzymes

G. C. Webb; M. Coggan; A. Ichinose; P. g. Board

1989-01-01

394

Methionine restriction decreases mitochondrial oxygen radical generation and leak as well as oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have consistently shown that caloric restriction (CR) decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) (mitROS) generation and oxidative damage to mtDNA and mitochondrial proteins, and increases maximum longevity, although the mechanisms responsible for this are unknown. We recently found that protein restriction (PR) also pro- duces these changes independent of energy restriction. Various facts link methionine to aging, and

Alberto Sanz; Pilar Caro; Victoria Ayala; Manuel Portero-Otin; Reinald Pamplona; Gustavo Barja

2006-01-01

395

DNA assisted fragmentation of nickel nanoparticle clusters and their spectral properties.  

PubMed

Nickel nanoparticle (NiNP) clusters in the range of 60-70 nm size on interaction with herring-sperm DNA (B-DNA) form a self-assembled duplex helix DNA structure with fragmented NiNPs as small as 5-15 nm, as evident from atomic force microscopic studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images also corroborate the findings. The properties of these self-assembled NiNPs-DNA structures have been further investigated by UV-visible, emission and circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. PMID:20398942

Prabakaran, Natarajan; Athappan, Periakaruppan

2010-07-01

396

Sperm morphological abnormalities as indicators of DNA fragmentation and fertilization in ICSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the relationship between sperm morphological abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and fertilization rate in intracytoplasmic\\u000a sperm injection (ICSI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sperm samples from 20 ICSI cycles were analysed. Morphology was assessed according to strict criteria, and DNA fragmentation\\u000a was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) using flow\\u000a cytometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  A negative correlation was found between the percentage of

Barbara Dariš; Aleš Goropevšek; Nina Hojnik; Veljko Vlaisavljevi?

2010-01-01

397

A rapid RT-PCR based method to isolate complementary DNA fragments flanking retrovirus integration sites.  

PubMed Central

Proto-oncogenes in retrovirally induced myeloid mouse leukemias are frequently activated following retroviral insertion. The identification of common virus integration sites (VISs) and isolation of the transforming oncogene is laborious and time consuming. We established a rapid and simple PCR based procedure which facilitates the identification of VISs and novel proto-oncogenes. Complementary DNA fragments adjacent to retrovirus integration sites were selectively isolated by applying a reverse transcriptase (RT) reaction using an oligo(dT)-adaptor primer, followed by PCR using the adaptor sequence and a retrovirus long terminal repeat (LTR) specific primer. Multiple chimeric cDNA fragments suitable for Southern and northern blot analysis were isolated.

Valk, P J; Joosten, M; Vankan, Y; Lowenberg, B; Delwel, R

1997-01-01

398

A simple DNA extraction method for marijuana samples used in amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.  

PubMed

As a first step in developing a molecular method for the individualization of marijuana samples, we evaluated a plant DNA extraction kit. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method uses a spin column format for recovery of DNA and is effective for obtaining high molecular weight DNA from leaf, flower (bud), and seed samples of marijuana. The average DNA yield was 125-500 ng per 100 milligrams of fresh plant tissue. The recovered DNA was of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quality as measured by the ability to generate reproducible amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles. AFLP is a technique used to create a DNA profile for plant varieties and is being applied to marijuana samples by the authors to link growers and distributors of clonal material. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method was simple, efficient, and reproducible for processing small quantities of marijuana into DNA. PMID:12664992

Miller Coyle, Heather; Shutler, Gary; Abrams, Sharon; Hanniman, Janet; Neylon, Suzanne; Ladd, Carll; Palmbach, Timothy; Lee, Henry C

2003-03-01

399

Accurate phylogenetic classification of DNA fragments based onsequence composition  

SciTech Connect

Metagenome studies have retrieved vast amounts of sequenceout of a variety of environments, leading to novel discoveries and greatinsights into the uncultured microbial world. Except for very simplecommunities, diversity makes sequence assembly and analysis a verychallenging problem. To understand the structure a 5 nd function ofmicrobial communities, a taxonomic characterization of the obtainedsequence fragments is highly desirable, yet currently limited mostly tothose sequences that contain phylogenetic marker genes. We show that forclades at the rank of domain down to genus, sequence composition allowsthe very accurate phylogenetic 10 characterization of genomic sequence.We developed a composition-based classifier, PhyloPythia, for de novophylogenetic sequence characterization and have trained it on adata setof 340 genomes. By extensive evaluation experiments we show that themethodis accurate across all taxonomic ranks considered, even forsequences that originate fromnovel organisms and are as short as 1kb.Application to two metagenome datasets 15 obtained from samples ofphosphorus-removing sludge showed that the method allows the accurateclassification at genus level of most sequence fragments from thedominant populations, while at the same time correctly characterizingeven larger parts of the samples at higher taxonomic levels.

McHardy, Alice C.; Garcia Martin, Hector; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Hugenholtz, Philip; Rigoutsos, Isidore

2006-05-01

400

Tailoring the activity of restriction endonuclease PleI by PNA-induced DNA looping  

PubMed Central

DNA looping is one of the key factors allowing proteins bound to different DNA sites to signal one another via direct contacts. We demonstrate that DNA looping can be generated in an arbitrary chosen site by sequence-directed targeting of double-stranded DNA with pseudocomplementary peptide-nucleic acids (pcPNAs). We designed pcPNAs to mask the DNA from cleavage by type IIs restriction enzyme PleI while not preventing the enzyme from binding to its primary DNA recognition site. Direct interaction between two protein molecules (one bound to the original recognition site and the other