Science.gov

Sample records for dnabindprot fluctuation-based predictor

  1. Spectral Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  2. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  3. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  4. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field. PMID:26987536

  5. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  6. Predictors of General Chemistry Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsogomonyan, Ardas; Loftus, Drew

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry pretest scores, high school chemistry grades and, to a greater extent, math SAT scores were useful predictors of college general chemistry grades. Regression analysis of all these predictors combined was used to construct an expectancy table which is being used to identify and advise underprepared students. (BB)

  7. Performance of protein stability predictors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sofia; Vihinen, Mauno

    2010-06-01

    Stability is a fundamental property affecting function, activity, and regulation of biomolecules. Stability changes are often found for mutated proteins involved in diseases. Stability predictors computationally predict protein-stability changes caused by mutations. We performed a systematic analysis of 11 online stability predictors' performances. These predictors are CUPSAT, Dmutant, FoldX, I-Mutant2.0, two versions of I-Mutant3.0 (sequence and structure versions), MultiMutate, MUpro, SCide, Scpred, and SRide. As input, 1,784 single mutations found in 80 proteins were used, and these mutations did not include those used for training. The programs' performances were also assessed according to where the mutations were found in the proteins, that is, in secondary structures and on the surface or in the core of a protein, and according to protein structure type. The extents to which the mutations altered the occupied volumes at the residue sites and the charge interactions were also characterized. The predictions of all programs were in line with the experimental data. I-Mutant3.0 (utilizing structural information), Dmutant, and FoldX were the most reliable predictors. The stability-center predictors performed with similar accuracy. However, at best, the predictions were only moderately accurate ( approximately 60%) and significantly better tools would be needed for routine analysis of mutation effects. PMID:20232415

  8. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  9. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  10. The Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor.

    PubMed

    McLaren, William; Gil, Laurent; Hunt, Sarah E; Riat, Harpreet Singh; Ritchie, Graham R S; Thormann, Anja; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor is a powerful toolset for the analysis, annotation, and prioritization of genomic variants in coding and non-coding regions. It provides access to an extensive collection of genomic annotation, with a variety of interfaces to suit different requirements, and simple options for configuring and extending analysis. It is open source, free to use, and supports full reproducibility of results. The Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor can simplify and accelerate variant interpretation in a wide range of study designs. PMID:27268795

  11. Infant Predictors of Behavioural Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehler, Eva; Kagan, Jerome; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Brunner, Romuald; Poustka, Luise; Haffner, Johann; Resch, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural inhibition in the second year of life is a hypothesized predictor for shyness, social anxiety and depression in later childhood, adolescence and even adulthood. To search for the earliest indicators of this fundamental temperamental trait, this study examined whether behavioural characteristics in early infancy can predict behavioural…

  12. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  13. [PREDICTORS OF RESISTANT ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Lazutkina, A Y; Gorbunov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of 6 year prospective observation of 7959 members of locomotive crews engaged at the Transbaikal Railways. The study aimed to estimate the probability and time of development of resistant arterial hypertension under effect of predictors of this disease. The data obtained are of value for diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic practice. PMID:27522725

  14. Predictors of Rural Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes toward the urban environment and place of origin were found to be the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. Findings of this study imply that optometry students most likely to enter rural practice can be objectively identified early in their training and that the predictive equation presented may be useful in the…

  15. Predictors of Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makar, Kathryn K.

    2013-01-01

    Research conclusions concerning predictors of academic success have been, at best, less than convincing. In fact, these conclusions are more conflicting or mixed when emotional constructs are used. As a result, modern curriculum developers as well as classroom instructors seem to deemphasize, if not ignore, the role of the affective domain in…

  16. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  17. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  18. Predictors of returning to work.

    PubMed

    Ash, P; Goldstein, S I

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of predictors of returning to work in a sample of physically injured persons who are receiving workers' compensation benefits and vocational rehabilitation is presented. One hundred fourteen injured subjects (86 with back injury; 28, other injury) undergoing vocational rehabilitation and receiving workers' compensation benefits were assessed on demographic, emotional, cognitive, financial incentive, and miscellaneous variables. Predictors for returning to work were identified using stepwise logistic regression. Patients with moderate or severe depression, defined as a score greater than 16 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), were significantly less likely to return to work following vocational rehabilitation efforts than patients with less severe depression (for back-injured patients, odds ratio (OR) = 31, 95% CI [8.8, 108]). BDI scores correctly classified 84 percent of the back-injury and 86% of the other-injury groups with respect to their return to work. The level of workers' compensation benefit was the only variable that added (marginally) to the predictive power of the BDI. In a physically injured population receiving workers' compensation benefits, who are judged to be not clearly permanently disabled, level of depressive symptoms is a strong predictor of returning to work. Caution is warranted in using the BDI as the sole determinant in a forensic situation for making a real-world prediction, as BDI responses are easy to fake. Treatment of concurrent depression is an important component of helping physically injured workers resume gainful employment. PMID:8605404

  19. [PREDICTORS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS: NEW DEVELOPMENTS].

    PubMed

    Gozhenko, A I; Kotyuzhinskaya, S G; Kovalevskaya, L A

    2014-12-01

    The article describes known atherosclerosis predictors of endothelial origin, which are diagnostic criteria for identifying's early stages of atherosclerosis, and can prevent the development of this disease and are used to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy The authors analyzed the possibility of using heparin as an early marker of atherosclerosis, based on the fact that the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity due hyperheparinemia resulting from depletion of mast cells due to endothelial dysfunction, leads to the disorders of lipid transporting system in the form of the resistant hyperlipidemia with the phenomena of dyslipidemia. PMID:26638463

  20. Predictors of spoken language learning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We found those who were successful to have higher activation in bilateral auditory cortex, larger volume in Heschl’s Gyrus, and more accurate pitch pattern perception. All of these measures were performed before training began. In the second set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned a phonological grammatical system governing the formation of words of an artificial language. Again, neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, and cognitive factors predicted to an extent how well these adults learned. Taken together, these experiments suggest that neural and behavioral factors can be used to predict spoken language learning. These predictors can inform the redesign of existing training paradigms to maximize learning for learners with different learning profiles. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (a) understand the linguistic concepts of lexical tone and phonological grammar, (b) identify the brain regions associated with learning lexical tone and phonological grammar, and (c) identify the cognitive predictors for successful learning of a tone language and phonological rules. PMID:21601868

  1. Electrocardiographic predictors of peripartum cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Karaye, Kamilu M; Karaye, Kamilu M; Lindmark, Krister; Henein, Michael Y; Lindmark, Krister; Henein, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective To identify potential electrocardiographic predictors of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Methods: This was a case–control study carried out in three hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. Logistic regression models and a risk score were developed to determine electrocardiographic predictors of PPCM. Results: A total of 54 PPCM and 77 controls were consecutively recruited after satisfying the inclusion criteria. After controlling for confounding variables, a rise in heart rate of one beat/minute increased the risk of PPCM by 6.4% (p = 0.001), while the presence of ST–T-wave changes increased the odds of PPCM 12.06-fold (p < 0.001). In the patients, QRS duration modestly correlated (r = 0.4; p < 0.003) with left ventricular dimensions and end-systolic volume index, and was responsible for 19.9% of the variability of the latter (R2 = 0.199; p = 0.003). A risk score of ≥ 2, developed by scoring 1 for each of the three ECG disturbances (tachycardia, ST–T-wave abnormalities and QRS duration), had a sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 64.9%, negative predictive value of 86.2% and area under the curve of 83.8% (p < 0.0001) for potentially predicting PPCM. Conclusion In postpartum women, using the risk score could help to streamline the diagnosis of PPCM with significant accuracy, prior to confirmatory investigations PMID:27213852

  2. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  3. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  4. Predictors of Sustainability of Social Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a large scale study that tested a comprehensive model of predictors of three manifestations of sustainability: continuation, institutionalization, and duration. Based on the literature the predictors were arrayed in four groups: variables pertaining to the project, the auspice organization, the community, and…

  5. Predictors of Burnout Among Nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen; Fetzer, Susan; Chien, Tsair Wei

    2015-08-01

    Nurse burnout is a crucial issue for health care professionals and impacts nurse turnover and nursing shortages. Individual and situational factors are related to nurse burnout with predictors of burnout differing among cultures and health care systems. The predictors of nurse burnout in Asia, particularly Taiwan, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of burnout among a national sample of nurses in Taiwan. A secondary data analysis of a nationwide database investigated the predictors of burnout among 1,846 nurses in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between predictors and burnout. Predictors of Taiwanese nurse burnout were age, physical/psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, work engagement, and work environment. The most significant predictors were physical/psychological symptoms and work engagement. The variables explained 35, 39, and 18 % of the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization variance for 54 % of the total variance of burnout. Individual characteristics and nurse self-awareness, especially work, engagement can impact Taiwanese nurses' burnout. Nurse burnout predictors provide administrators with information to develop strategies including education programs and support services to reduce nurse burnout. PMID:25536942

  6. Personality predictors of driver vengeance.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Roseborough, James E W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality and individual difference measures related to driver vengeance, as measured by the Driver Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ; Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Gibson, 2000). There were 170 undergraduate students who completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the DVQ and measures of narcissism, impulsivity, and trait driver stress. A hierarchical linear regressidn predicting DVQ score revealed that being male (β = .25), narcissism (β = .19), and trait driver stress (β = .41) were significantly associated with vengeance. Impulsivity was significant in the third block of the regression but was not a significant predictor of vengeance in the final block. Interactions between gender and the individual difference measures were not significant. The final model accounted for 34% of the variance. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774420

  7. Interpersonal predictors of stress generation.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L

    2009-05-01

    Hammen (1991) provided evidence for a stress generation process in which individuals with a history of depression contributed to the occurrence of stressors, especially interpersonal and conflict events. However, few studies have examined the factors contributing to stress generation. This study examines aspects of individuals' interpersonal style, operationalized as attachment, dependency, and reassurance seeking, as predictors of conflict stress generation within romantic relationships. These effects were examined both prospectively over a 4-week period and cross-sectionally using a 14-day daily diary in a sample of female college students. Overall, there was significant evidence that interpersonal style contributes to the occurrence of interpersonal stressors. Specifically, anxious attachment and reassurance seeking prospectively predicted romantic conflict stress over a 4-week period, and a variety of interpersonal behaviors were associated with romantic conflict stressors on a daily basis. These results are interpreted in relation to previous literature, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19171775

  8. Dosimetric Predictors of Laryngeal Edema

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Adapala, Prashanth; Endres, Eugene J. C; Brack, Collin; Fiorino, Claudio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Parker, Brent

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric predictors of laryngeal edema after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 66 patients were selected who had squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with grossly uninvolved larynx at the time of RT, no prior major surgical operation except for neck dissection and tonsillectomy, treatment planning data available for analysis, and at least one fiberoptic examination of the larynx within 2 years from RT performed by a single observer. Both the biologically equivalent mean dose at 2 Gy per fraction and the cumulative biologic dose-volume histogram of the larynx were extracted for each patient. Laryngeal edema was prospectively scored after treatment. Time to endpoint, moderate or worse laryngeal edema (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2+), was calculated with log rank test from the date of treatment end. Results: At a median follow-up of 17.1 months (range, 0.4- 50.0 months), the risk of Grade 2+ edema was 58.9% {+-} 7%. Mean dose to the larynx, V30, V40, V50, V60, and V70 were significantly correlated with Grade 2+ edema at univariate analysis. At multivariate analysis, mean laryngeal dose (continuum, hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001), and positive neck stage at RT (N0-x vs. N +, hazard ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-9.58; p = 0.008) were the only independent predictors. Further stratification showed that, to minimize the risk of Grade 2+ edema, the mean dose to the larynx has to be kept {<=}43.5 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Conclusion: Laryngeal edema is strictly correlated with various dosimetric parameters; mean dose to the larynx should be kept {<=}43.5 Gy.

  9. Optimized Predictors For Data Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniok, F.; Smith, L. A.

    An algorithm for optimizing local predictors constructed from data streams is dis- cussed, focusing on questions of efficiency, accuracy, and the duration of observations required for profitable application. Our approach considers the real-time selection of a learning set, extracted from a data source where the sampling rate is so large that re- taining and processing all observations is impractical (i.e. a data stream). Our refined learning set selectively covers those regions of state space which contribute most to the accurate prediction of the underlying dynamical system. The approach of Smith (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 348, 371-381, 1994) is extended to better include noisy observations and the internal consistency of the estimated model. Our approach is contrasted with the traditional algorithms in which the learning set is uniformly dis- tributed with respect to the invariant measure of the system (i.e. 'uniform on the at- tractor', if such a thing exists); the refined data set is adapted to the local curvature and the local data density on the attractor. The method is discussed in the context of local polynomial prediction as well as analogue prediction. It is illustrated on low di- mensional analytical examples; potential geophysical applications (and restrictions) are discussed.

  10. Echocardiographic Predictors of Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, John N; Makaryus, John N; Makaryus, Amgad N; Sison, Cristina; Vavasis, Christos; Fan, Dali; Jadonath, Ram

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with structural heart disease are prone to ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF), which account for the majority of sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs). We sought to examine echocardiographic parameters that can predict VT as documented by implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) appropriate discharge. We examine echocardiographic parameters other than ejection fraction that may predict VT as recorded via rates of ICD discharge. METHODS Analysis of 586 patients (469 males; mean age = 68 ± 3 years; mean follow-up time of 11 ± 14 months) was undertaken. Echo parameters assessed included left ventricular (LV) internal end diastolic/systolic dimension (LVIDd, LVIDs), relative wall thickness (RWT), and left atrial (LA) size. RESULTS The incidence of VT was 0.22 (114 VT episodes per 528 person-years of follow-up time). Median time-to-first VT was 3.8 years. VT was documented in 79 patients (59 first VT incidence, 20 multiple). The echocardiographic parameter associated with first VT was LVIDs >4 cm (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION The main echocardiographic predictor associated with the first occurrence of VT was LVIDs >4 cm. Patients with an LVIDs >4 cm were 2.5 times more likely to have an episode of VT. Changes in these echocardiographic parameters may warrant aggressive pharmacologic therapy and implantation of an ICD. PMID:25861227

  11. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    PubMed

    Wettenschwiler, Patrick D; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Stämpfli, Rolf; Rossi, René M; Ferguson, Stephen J; Annaheim, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports). It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001) predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low back pain or injury

  12. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Wettenschwiler, Patrick D.; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Stämpfli, Rolf; Rossi, René M.; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Annaheim, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports). It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001) predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low back pain or injury

  13. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  14. AIDS: Predictors of Safer Sex Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, John R.; And Others

    This study was conducted to assess the predictors of safe sex practices among a group of college students. Subjects were 261 students attending the evening division of a large urban university campus, 68% of whom were female and 94% of whom reported being heterosexual. The average age of respondents was 26 years. Subjects responded to questions…

  15. Longitudinal Predictors of High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Reschly, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined predictors of dropout assessed in elementary school. Student demographic data, achievement, attendance, and ratings of behavior from the Behavior Assessment System for Children were used to predict dropout and completion. Two models, which varied on student sex and race, predicted dropout at rates ranging from 75%…

  16. Predictors of Academic Success for Optometry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Optometry school admissions are very competitive. With more applicants than available slots, admission committees must choose those students whom they feel will be successful graduates. Previous studies in the health profession schools have demonstrated that the predictors of academic achievement are preadmission science grade point average (GPA),…

  17. Predictors of Lithium Response in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Sarah K.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    While lithium is generally regarded as the first-line agent for patients with bipolar disorder, it does not work for everyone, which raises the question: can we predict who will be most likely to respond? In this paper, we review the most compelling clinical, biologic, and genetic predictors of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Among clinical factors, the strongest predictors of good response are fewer hospitalizations preceding treatment, an episodic course characterized by an illness pattern of mania followed by depression, and a later age at onset of bipolar disorder. While several biologic predictors have been studied, the results are preliminary and require replication with studies of larger patient samples over longer observation periods. Neuroimaging is a particularly promising method given that it might concurrently illuminate pathophysiologic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of lithium, and potential predictors of lithium response. The first genome-wide association study of lithium response was recently completed. No definitive results emerged, perhaps because the study was underpowered. With major new initiatives in progress aiming to identify genes and genetic variations associated with lithium response, there is much reason to be hopeful that clinically useful information might be generated within the next several years. This could ultimately translate into tests that could guide the choice of mood-stabilizing medication for patients. In addition, it might facilitate pharmacologic research aimed at developing newer, more effective medications that might act more quickly and yield fewer side effects. PMID:23251751

  18. Predictors of Learning from Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hsiu-hui

    A study focused on predictors of people's learning from public service announcements (PSAs) seen on television. Telephone interviews were conducted with 480 adults randomly selected from residents in Dane County, Wisconsin, in October 1987. Typical demographic information was obtained: sex, age, income, occupation and education. Commercial slogans…

  19. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  20. Verbal and Nonverbal Predictors of Spelling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…

  1. Predictors of Success for Allied Health Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Steven C.

    1989-01-01

    A study of 424 allied health students (259 dental hygiene, 104 radiologic technology, and 61 respiratory therapy) found that the greater predictors of their academic success were the natural science subscore on the American College Test (ACT), high school grade point average, and class rank, age, and composite ACT score. (SK)

  2. Predictors of Undergraduate Student Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strano, Donald A.; Cuomo, Michael J.; Venable, Riley H.

    2004-01-01

    The relative importance of a number of predictors of binge drinking and of high- versus low-frequency binge drinking among undergraduate students was studied. Findings demonstrated that race, class, fraternity or sorority membership, use of other drugs in the past 30 days, positive alcohol expectancies, perception of minimal risk, perception that…

  3. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide for the Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP) computer program is presented. The ASOP is based on mathematical methods that represent a new state-of-the-art for rapid orbit computation techniques. It is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle/orbiter and its payloads.

  4. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  5. Predictors of Success in an Anesthesiology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, Shirley S.; Crumrine, Robert S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that contributed to successful residency performance by anesthesiology residents were examined in order to assist the program's selection committee in developing selection criteria. The best predictor of a resident's academic average in the anethesiology program was the number of years the resident had spent in other specialities.…

  6. Trait predictors of placebo responses in itch.

    PubMed

    Darragh, Margot; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated trait predictors of placebo responses in the context of inflammatory skin reactions. This was a randomized, cross-over, experimental study using a deceptive placebo protocol. A healthy sample of volunteers (N = 48) completed online personality measures, then attended two laboratory sessions in which short-term inflammatory skin reactions were induced. One was a control session and the other the 'treatment' session in which a placebo cream was administered with the suggestion of a reduced skin reaction. A placebo response was defined as smaller skin reactions in control vs. treatment sessions. The traits ego resiliency and neuroticism were selected as possible predictors of placebo responses. Traits were selected in consideration of the two-faceted transactional model of placebo responsiveness and in light of empirical and psychometric considerations ego resiliency emerged as a consistent predictor of placebo responses in itch (p < .05). This is the first study to identify trait predictors of placebo responses in inflammatory skin reactions. Ego resiliency may typify greater placebo responsiveness; however, this may only be in certain contexts. Matching treatment approaches to bio-behavioural response tendencies may be useful clinically if the placebo component of traditional treatments can be enhanced. PMID:26610165

  7. Exploring the Psychological Predictors of Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Aydin, Emin; Kabaca, Tolga

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the predictors of programming achievement. With this aim in mind, the students' success in the programming courses is specified as the dependent variable and creativity, problem solving, general aptitudes, computer attitudes and mathematics achievement are specified as the independent variables. A…

  8. Predictors of Homophobia in Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…

  9. Multivariate Regression with Block-structured Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Saier

    We study the problem of predicting multiple responses with a common set of predicting variables. Applying generalized Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) criterion on the responses altogether is practically equivalent to OLS estimation on the responses separately. Possible correlations between the response variables are overlooked. In order to take advantage of these interrelationships, Reduced-Rank Regression (RRR) imposes rank constraint on the coefficient matrix. RRR constructs latent factors from the original predicting variables, and the latent factors are the effective predictors. RRR reduces number of parameters to be estimated, and improves estimation efficiency. In the present work, we explore a novel regression model to incorporate "block-structured" predicting variables, where the predictors can be naturally partitioned into several groups or blocks. Variables in the same block share similar characteristics. It is reasonable to assume that in addition to an overall impact, predictors also have block-specific effects on the responses. Furthermore, we impose rank constraints on the coefficient matrices. In our framework, we construct two types of latent factors that drive the variation in the responses. We have joint factors, which are formed by all predictors across all blocks; and individual factors, which are formed by variables within individual blocks. The proposed method exceeds RRR in terms of prediction accuracy and ease of interpretation in the presence of block structure in the predicting variables.

  10. The Offspring of Alcoholics: Outcome Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    el-Guebaly, Nady

    1982-01-01

    Reviews risk of psychosocial problems related to drinking among "grown-up" children of alcoholics. Argues that genetic predisposition is best predictor available; this may be more influential near severe end of alcoholism spectrum, may be less influential in females, and may lead to differences in symptomatology and management. (Author/CMG)

  11. Predictor Variables in Computer Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Stephen K.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates several instruments measuring intelligence and prior conceptual knowledge/achievement to determine how well they predict outcomes in computer assisted language learning. Concludes that a non-verbal intelligence test was a significant predictor, but that prior conceptual knowledge of course content was low. Level of prior achievement…

  12. Violent Behavior in Female Inmates: Possible Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia M.; Davis, Joanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Research findings have been equivocal regarding the relationship between experiencing trauma and exhibiting violent behavior in women. This study seeks to determine predictors of violent behavior in female inmates utilizing various conceptualizations of traumatic experiences. Results indicate a significant univariate relationship between…

  13. Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth has gained growing attention in the recent years. Although a number of predictors for PTSD following childbirth have been identified (e.g., history of sexual trauma, emergency caesarean section, low social support), only very few studies have tested predictors derived from current theoretical models of the disorder. This study first aimed to replicate the association of PTSD symptoms after childbirth with predictors identified in earlier research. Second, cognitive predictors derived from Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) model of PTSD were examined. Methods N = 224 women who had recently given birth completed an online survey. In addition to computing single correlations between PTSD symptom severities and variables of interest, in a hierarchical multiple regression analyses posttraumatic stress symptoms were predicted by (1) prenatal variables, (2) birth-related variables, (3) postnatal social support, and (4) cognitive variables. Results Wellbeing during pregnancy and age were the only prenatal variables contributing significantly to the explanation of PTSD symptoms in the first step of the regression analysis. In the second step, the birth-related variables peritraumatic emotions and wellbeing during childbed significantly increased the explanation of variance. Despite showing significant bivariate correlations, social support entered in the third step did not predict PTSD symptom severities over and above the variables included in the first two steps. However, with the exception of peritraumatic dissociation all cognitive variables emerged as powerful predictors and increased the amount of variance explained from 43% to a total amount of 68%. Conclusions The findings suggest that the prediction of PTSD following childbirth can be improved by focusing on variables derived from a current theoretical model of the disorder. PMID:25026966

  14. Age Differences in Demographic Predictors of Retirement Investment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Guyla D.; Chen, Yiwei

    2008-01-01

    Increased longevity coupled with inadequate savings makes retirement savings and investment research increasingly important. A policy-capturing method was used to examine the relative importance of 6 demographic predictors on the retirement investment decisions of 64 working adults. All predictors were significant predictors of the investment. In…

  15. Family-Based Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakalahi, Halaevalu F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines family-based variables as predictors of adolescent substance use. Overall, this study supported prior research, indicating certain family variables as predictors of adolescent substance use. Sibling marijuana use, family involvement, and religious affiliation were predictors of adolescent tobacco use. Family involvement, sibling tobacco…

  16. Praiseworthiness: predictors of positive interpersonal judgments.

    PubMed

    Ogletree, Shirley M; Covington, Jennifer A; Archer, Richard L

    2013-06-01

    Deterministic attitudes, information about a person's background, one's perceived similarity to a target person, and attributions of effort and ability may affect praiseworthiness. Two vignette studies with college student participants were conducted to consider this issue. Based on regression analyses, attributing achievement to effort was the strongest predictor of praiseworthiness across both studies. In addition, evidence for an augmenting effect of an impoverished background on praiseworthiness was found. In the first study, perceived similarity to the target individual and religious-philosophical determinism were also predictors of praiseworthiness, while belief in free will predicted praiseworthiness in the second study. Judgments of praiseworthiness may be tied to a number of factors; among the most important of these are overcoming an impoverished childhood background and the attributed effort required for success. PMID:24245081

  17. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  18. Identifying predictors of survey mode preference.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Jolene D; Olson, Kristen; Millar, Morgan M

    2014-11-01

    To increase the likelihood of response, many survey organizations attempt to provide sample members with a mode they are thought to prefer. Mode assignment is typically based on conventional wisdom or results from mode choice studies that presented only limited options. In this paper we draw heavily on research and theory from the mode effects and the survey participation literatures to develop a framework for understanding what characteristics should predict mode preferences. We then test these characteristics using data from two different surveys. We find that measures of familiarity with and access to a mode are the strongest predictors of mode preference and measures of safety concerns, physical abilities, and normative concerns are unexpectedly weak predictors. Our findings suggest that variables that may exist on sample frames can be used to inform the assignment of "preferred" modes to sample members. PMID:25131280

  19. Crowdsourcing Novel Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C.; Hines, Paul D. H.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children’s lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors. PMID:24505310

  20. Predictors of Microvascular Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Shirabe, Ken; Aishima, Shinichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-09-01

    This chapter covers a range of important topics in the evaluation of the microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before treatment. The malignant potential of HCC is reflected by the types of MVI such as portal venous (vp), hepatic vein (vv) or bile duct (b) infiltration. The identification of the type of MVI in HCC has a key role in decisions regarding the effective treatment of HCC. Here, we describe the possible and important predictors of MVI in HCC. PMID:26398341

  1. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide are presented for the analytical satellite orbit predictor computer program which is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle orbiter and its payloads. The Poincare-Similar elements used make it possible to compute near-earth orbits to within an accuracy of a few meters. Recursive equations are used instead of complicated formulas. Execution time is on the order of a few milliseconds.

  2. Meta-Analyses of Predictors of Hope in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify predictors of hope in the literature reviewed, to use meta-analysis to determine the mean effect size (ES) across studies between each predictor and hope, and to examine four moderators on each predictor-hope relationship. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, 77 published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria. Eleven predictors of hope were identified and each predictor in relation to hope was subjected to meta-analysis. Five predictors (positive affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, and social support) of hope had large mean ESs, 1 predictor (depression) had a medium ES, 4 predictors (negative affect, stress, academic achievement, and violence) had small ESs, and 1 predictor (gender) had a trivial ES. Findings are interpreted for the 11 predictors in relation to hope. Limitations and conclusions are addressed; future studies are recommended. PMID:25421543

  3. Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder. PMID:22182364

  4. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. PMID:24726688

  5. Predictors of Mortality in Paediatric Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed Junaid; Mittal, Mahima; Kushwaha, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric myocarditis can present as mild flu like symptoms to fulminent form. Early identification of the severity of illness and prioritization of intensive care is helpful especially in developing countries with limited resources. Aim To know the factors at admission that can predict mortality in paediatric myocarditis. Materials and Methods This was an observational study which enrolled children who presented with fever of acute onset (less than 15 days in duration), and were diagnosed as suspected myocarditis on the basis of clinical features, Troponin I and echocardiography, according to Expanded criteria for myocarditis in Paediatric ward at our institute over a period from August 2014 to December 2015. Their clinical features, cardiac biomarkers and echocardiography findings were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Statistical Analysis All statistical analysis was done using graphpad Prism 5 and SPSS statistical software. A Fisher exact p-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Multivariate Logistic Regression was carried out to quantify the relationship between cardiac death and other predictor variables. The logistic coefficients for the predictor variables and their exponents, that is, log odds were calculated. Statistical significance of these predictor variables was interpreted by p-values. Results A 17.7% (n=11/62) patients of paediatric myocarditis died in this study. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV dyspnea (p=0.0115) and hypotension (p=0.0174) were more in patients who did not survive. The mean value of Troponin I was more in the non-survivor group (0.958 ± 1.13ng/ml); (p=0.0074). More number of patients who died had Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels increased in their plasma (p=0.0087) with higher mean value (p=0.0175). LV ejection fraction was decreased markedly in non survivor group with mean value of 37±8.09 % as compared to survivor group with mean value of 46.6±10.5%, (p=0.0115). On multivariate

  6. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  7. Predictors of condom use among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (beta = .67, p <.001), technical skills (beta = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (beta = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  8. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael J; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  9. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  10. Longitudinal Predictors of Institutionalization in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Lange, Carolin; Posselt, Tina; Wiese, Birgitt; Steinmann, Susanne; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate time-dependent predictors of institutionalization in old age using a longitudinal approach. Methods In a representative survey of the German general population aged 75 years and older predictors of institutionalization were observed every 1.5 years over six waves. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions (with 201 individuals and 960 observations) were performed to estimate the effects of marital status, depression, dementia, and physical impairments (mobility, hearing and visual impairments) on the risk of admission to old-age home or nursing home. By exploiting the longitudinal data structure using panel econometric models, we were able to control for unobserved heterogeneity such as genetic predisposition and personality traits. Results The probability of institutionalization increased significantly with occurrence of widowhood, depression, dementia, as well as walking and hearing impairments. In particular, the occurrence of widowhood (OR = 78.3), dementia (OR = 154.1) and substantial mobility impairment (OR = 36.7) were strongly associated with institutionalization. Conclusion Findings underline the strong influence of loss of spouse as well as dementia on institutionalization. This is relevant as the number of old people (a) living alone and (b) suffering from dementia is expected to increase rapidly in the next decades. Consequently, it is supposed that the demand for institutionalization among the elderly will increase considerably. Practitioners as well as policy makers should be aware of these upcoming challenges. PMID:26658776

  11. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  12. PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain. PMID:20133152

  13. Predictors of Generalized Anxiety Disorder stigma.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Barney, Lisa J; Parsons, Alison

    2013-04-30

    The stigma associated with mental illness can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including delaying or avoiding help seeking. Identifying the characteristics of people who are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes enables the development of targeted stigma reduction programs. However, no previous research has systematically examined the predictors of anxiety stigma. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) to assess the predictors of personal stigma and perceived stigma associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. A community sample of 617 Australian adults completed a survey that included the GASS, the Depression Stigma Scale, exposure to anxiety disorders, emotional distress and a range of demographic characteristics. Linear regression models indicated that women, people with greater exposure to anxiety disorders and people reporting a previous anxiety diagnosis had lower personal stigma toward anxiety. Higher exposure to anxiety disorders and rurality were significantly associated with higher perceived anxiety stigma. Results also suggested that respondents who had only been exposed to anxiety disorders through the media tended to be no more stigmatizing than respondents who had direct contact with people with an anxiety disorder. Media campaigns may be an effective vehicle for decreasing stigmatizing views in the community. PMID:23218916

  14. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  15. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  16. Preschool Predictors of Narrative Writing Skills in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Nelson, Lauren; Zeisel, Susan; Kasambira Fannin, Danai

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the preschool predictors of elementary school narrative writing skills. The sample included 65 typically developing African American children, ranging in age from 5.0 to 5.5 years, and was 44.6% male. Targeted preschool predictors included measures of phonological processing, core language abilities, prereading skills, and…

  17. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  18. Effects of Internship Predictors on Successful Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Fred; Morton, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Finds that a majority of advertising and public-relations interns found their internships successful. Indicates that successful internships depend on predictors given the least attention by school programs: quality of supervision was the most important single predictor variable, followed in importance by organizational practices/policies, positive…

  19. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  20. Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in Taiwanese Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances

    This study investigated significant predictors of anxiety and depression in Taiwanese secondary students and the different functions of these predictors. Surveys were completed by 1,672 senior high school students in Taiwan. As part of a larger study, these students completed the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), an instrument developed by…

  1. An Effect Size for Regression Predictors in Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloe, Ariel M.; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2012-01-01

    A new effect size representing the predictive power of an independent variable from a multiple regression model is presented. The index, denoted as r[subscript sp], is the semipartial correlation of the predictor with the outcome of interest. This effect size can be computed when multiple predictor variables are included in the regression model…

  2. Predictors of Performance on National Board Examinations Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Michael W.

    1984-01-01

    In an investigation of the predictors of success on the dental National Board Examinations Part II, three studies were undertaken to test (1) the factual validity of a mock examination, (2) the usefulness of the mock examination as a predictor of board examination success, and (3) whether the third cross-validated the previous findings. (MSE)

  3. Predictors of Outcomes in a Performance Ladder Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Robert H.; McHenry, James D.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated variables from initial inmate evaluations at a state penitentiary as predictors of inmate success in behavioral ladder program. Results indicated that academic test variables were best predictors of overall success level, attitudes, and work habits. Personality variables and one interview observation variable were also found to be…

  4. Predictors of Service Utilization among Youth Diagnosed with Mood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Amy N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I investigated patterns and predictors of service utilization for children with mood disorders. The Behavioral Model for Health Care Utilization was used as an organizing framework for identifying predictors of the number and quality of services utilized. Hierarchical regression was used in secondary data analyses of the…

  5. Predictors of Metastatic Disease After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, Kevin; Burri, Ryan; Stone, Nelson; Stock, Richard G.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors of metastatic disease after brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients who received either brachytherapy alone (implant) or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for treatment of localized prostate cancer at The Mount Sinai Hospital between June 1990 and March 2007 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed on the following variables: risk group, Gleason score (GS), clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, post-treatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT), treatment type (implant vs. implant plus external beam radiation therapy), treatment era, total biological effective dose, use of androgen deprivation therapy, age at diagnosis, and race. PSA-DT was analyzed in the following ordinate groups: 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 180 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days. Results: We included 1,887 patients in this study. Metastases developed in 47 of these patients. The 10-year freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) rate for the entire population was 95.1%. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 2-15 years). The only two significant predictors of metastatic disease by multivariable analyses were GS and PSA-DT (p < 0.001 for both variables). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for GS of 6 or less, GS of 7, and GS of 8 or greater were 97.9%, 94.3%, and 76.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated FFDM rates for PSA-DT of 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 181 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days were 17.5%, 67.9%, 74%, and 94.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 98.6%, 96.2%, and 86.7%, respectively. A demographic shift to patients presenting with higher-grade disease in more recent years was observed. Conclusions: GS and post-treatment PSA-DT are both statistically significant independent predictors of metastatic

  6. The development of a Kalman filter clock predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John A.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Boudjemaa, Redoane

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter based clock predictor is developed, and its performance evaluated using both simulated and real data. The clock predictor is shown to possess a neat to optimal Prediction Error Variance (PEV) when the underlying noise consists of one of the power law noise processes commonly encountered in time and frequency measurements. The predictor's performance is the presence of multiple noise processes is also examined. The relationship between the PEV obtained in the presence of multiple noise processes and those obtained for the individual component noise processes is examined. Comparisons are made with a simple linear clock predictor. The clock predictor is used to predict future values of the time offset between pairs of NPL's active hydrogen masers.

  7. Cognitive bias and irrational belief as predictors of avoidance.

    PubMed

    Warren, R; Zgourides, G; Jones, A

    1989-01-01

    Cognitive bias, i.e. overestimates of subjective probability and cost of catastrophic events, and irrational belief were explored as predictors of avoidance. Three groups-anxiety disordered clients, a mixed group of clinic outpatients, and normals--were administered several self-report inventories. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate a modified version of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, the Belief Scale, and the Body Sensations Questionnaire as predictors of avoidance, as measured by the Mobility Inventory. It was hypothesized that frequency x probability x cost of catastrophic cognitions (and the occurrence of the events they represent) would be a better predictor of avoidance than frequency alone. It was also hypothesized that irrational thinking would be a significant predictor of avoidance. The results generally supported the hypotheses, with subjective probability emerging as a particularly potent predictor of avoidance. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:2930444

  8. Autoencoder-based identification of predictors of Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Moumita; Mitra, Pabitra; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2016-02-01

    Prediction of Indian summer monsoon uses a number of climatic variables that are historically known to provide a high skill. However, relationships between predictors and predictand could be complex and also change with time. The present work attempts to use a machine learning technique to identify new predictors for forecasting the Indian monsoon. A neural network-based non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, namely, the sparse autoencoder is used for this purpose. It extracts a number of new predictors that have prediction skills higher than the existing ones. Two non-linear ensemble prediction models of regression tree and bagged decision tree are designed with identified monsoon predictors and are shown to be superior in terms of prediction accuracy. Proposed model shows mean absolute error of 4.5 % in predicting the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Lastly, geographical distribution of the new monsoon predictors and their characteristics are discussed.

  9. LACIE performance predictor FOC users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LACIE Performance Predictor (LPP) is a computer simulation of the LACIE process for predicting worldwide wheat production. The simulation provides for the introduction of various errors into the system and provides estimates based on these errors, thus allowing the user to determine the impact of selected error sources. The FOC LPP simulates the acquisition of the sample segment data by the LANDSAT Satellite (DAPTS), the classification of the agricultural area within the sample segment (CAMS), the estimation of the wheat yield (YES), and the production estimation and aggregation (CAS). These elements include data acquisition characteristics, environmental conditions, classification algorithms, the LACIE aggregation and data adjustment procedures. The operational structure for simulating these elements consists of the following key programs: (1) LACIE Utility Maintenance Process, (2) System Error Executive, (3) Ephemeris Generator, (4) Access Generator, (5) Acquisition Selector, (6) LACIE Error Model (LEM), and (7) Post Processor.

  10. Design of the hybrid automated reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, R.; Trivedi, K.; Dugan, J. B.; Smotherman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP), now under development at Duke University, is presented. The HARP approach to reliability prediction is characterized by a decomposition of the overall model into fault-occurrence and fault-handling sub-models. The fault-occurrence model is a non-homogeneous Markov chain which is solved analytically, while the fault-handling model is a Petri Net which is simulated. HARP provides automated analysis of sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters and in the initial state specifications. It then produces a predicted reliability band as a function of mission time, as well as estimates of the improvement (narrowing of the band) to be gained by a specified amount of reduction in uncertainty.

  11. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Olsson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Telomeres shorten as a consequence of DNA replication, in particular in cells with low production of telomerase and perhaps in response to physiological stress from exposure to reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide. This process of telomere attrition is countered by innate antioxidation, such as via the production of superoxide dismutase. We studied the inheritance of telomere length in the Australian painted dragon lizard ( Ctenophorus pictus) and the extent to which telomere length covaries with mass-corrected maternal reproductive investment, which reflects the level of circulating yolk precursor and antioxidant, vitellogenin. Our predictors of offspring telomere length explained 72 % of telomere variation (including interstitial telomeres if such are present). Maternal telomere length and reproductive investment were positively influencing offspring telomere length in our analyses, whereas flow cytometry-estimated superoxide level was negatively impacting offspring telomere length. We suggest that the effects of superoxide on hatchling telomere shortening may be partly balanced by transgenerational effects of vitellogenin antioxidation.

  12. Neuroplasticity and Predictors of Alcohol Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-related neuroadaptations in key neural circuits of emotional and cognitive control play a critical role in the development of, and recovery from, alcoholism. Converging evidence in the neurobiological literature indicates that neuroplastic changes in the prefrontal–striatal–limbic circuit, which governs emotion regulation and decisionmaking and controls physiological responses in the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis system, contribute to chronic alcoholism and also are significant predictors of relapse and recovery. This paper reviews recent evidence on the neuroplasticity associated with alcoholism in humans, including acute and chronic effects, and how these neurobiological adaptations contribute to alcohol recovery, along with the discussion of relevant clinical implications and future research directions. PMID:26259094

  13. Heteroscedasticity generated by errors in predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The heteroscedasticity or changing variance observed ``raw`` data may be the result of randomness or uncertainty in the predictor variables. As an example we consider ``Charpy Test`` experiments widely used to characterize the ductile-brittle toughness of steels such as those used for nuclear pressure vessels. While this type of experiment is of interest in itself, our main objective is to show that the use of a proper statistical technique may help to avoid the use of more complicated physical models to explain the heteroscedasticity of the observations. We also extend the existing method of regression analysis with errors in controllable variables to the case when the variances of the response and the controllable variables are both unknown.

  14. Stable LPV realisation of the Smith predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchini, Franco; Casagrande, Daniele; Miani, Stefano; Viaro, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    The paper is concerned with the control of a linear plant with an output delay. As is known, when the plant parameters do not vary in time, the transfer function approach can be used to find a high-performing controller with the Smith-predictor structure. Such an approach in the domain of the Laplace transform is not directly applicable in the time-variant case. Nevertheless, it is shown that the transfer function of the Smith controller valid for constant values of the parameters can be realised in such a way that closed-loop stability, as well as point-wise optimal performance, is ensured also when the parameters vary with time. The suggested technique is applied to the control of a heat exchanger whose varying parameters include a measurement delay.

  15. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  16. Nutritional Predictors of Complications Following Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David C.; Riggs, Stephen B.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Matthews, Jonathan E.; Woods, Michael E.; Wallen, Eric M.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Smith, Angela B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of preoperative nutritional status on the development of surgical complications following cystectomy using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Methods We performed a retrospective review of the NSQIP 2005–2012 Participant Use Data Files. ACS-NSQIP collects data on 135 variables, including pre- and intraoperative data and 30-day post-operative complications and mortality on all major surgical procedures at participating institutions. Preoperative albumin (<3.5 or >3.5 g/dl), weight loss 6 months before surgery (>10%), and BMI were identified as nutritional variables within the database. The overall complication rate was calculated and predictors of complications were identified using multivariable logistic regression models. Results 1,213 patients underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between 2005–2012. The overall 30-day complication rate was 55.1% (n=668). While 14.7% (n=102) had a preoperative albumin <3.5 g/dL, 3.4% had >10% weight loss in the 6 months prior to surgery, and the mean BMI was 28 kg/m2. After controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidities, medical resident involvement, operation year, operative time and prior operation, only albumin <3.5g/dl was a significant predictor of experiencing a postoperative complication (p=0.03). This remained significant when albumin was evaluated as a continuous variable (p=0.02) Conclusions Poor nutritional status measured by serum albumin is predictive of an increased rate of surgical complications following radical cystectomy. This finding supports the importance of preoperative nutritional status in this population and highlights the need for the development of effective nutritional interventions in the preoperative setting. PMID:25240535

  17. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Incident Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kaylin T; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dewland, Thomas A; Mandyam, Mala C; Stein, Phyllis K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Heckbert, Susan R; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is likely secondary to multiple different pathophysiological mechanisms that are increasingly but incompletely understood. Motivated by the hypothesis that 3 previously described electrocardiographic predictors of AF identify distinct AF mechanisms, we sought to determine if these electrocardiographic findings independently predict incident disease. Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants without prevalent AF, we determined whether left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), a prolonged QTC, and atrial premature complexes (APCs) each predicted AF after adjusting for each other. We then calculated the attributable risk in the exposed for each electrocardiographic marker. LAFB and QTC intervals were assessed on baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram (n = 4,696). APC count was determined using 24-hour Holter recordings obtained in a random subsample (n = 1,234). After adjusting for potential confounders and each electrocardiographic marker, LAFB (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 3.9, p = 0.023), a prolonged QTC (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3, p = 0.002), and every doubling of APC count (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3, p <0.001) each remained independently predictive of incident AF. The attributable risk of AF in the exposed was 35% (95% CI 13% to 52%) for LAFB, 25% (95% CI 0.6% to 44%) for a prolonged QTC, and 34% (95% CI 26% to 42%) for APCs. In conclusion, in a community-based cohort, 3 previously established electrocardiogram-derived AF predictors were each independently associated with incident AF, suggesting that they may represent distinct mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:27448684

  18. Evaluation of bedform predictors in tidal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferret, Y.; Ernstsen, V.; Lefebvre, A.; Winter, C.

    2012-04-01

    The seabed of coastal environments commonly exhibits a large range of complex mobile bedforms due to the interaction between hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Yet, no fundamental law has been identified which describes the initiation and development of these ubiquitous, flow and wave driven features. Thus, the prediction of bedform dimensions and dynamics is carried out using empirical relationships. In this study we evaluate some of these equations, based on a large data set consisting of high resolution multi-beam bathymetry, modelled hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics collected in the Jade Bay, and the Weser and the Elbe estuaries (German Bight, North Sea). More than 2000 individual bedforms were identified; they display a wide range of dimensions with heights ranging from 0.1 to 5 m and wavelengths between 10 and 300 m. They were used to test the classical relationships of Flemming (1988) and Francken et al. (2004) for the interdependency of length and height of individual bedforms. Taking into account all the data resulted in a large scatter, with weak correlations of averaged measured and predicted parameters (bedform height and length). However, applying a generalized extreme value method (which weights the Gaussian distribution of bedform height with the maximum frequency for every measured bedform length) in order to get the maximum density of bedform height, a strong dependency was identified (r2 = 0.76). Furthermore predictor equations that relate equilibrium flow and sediment characteristics to bedform dimensions and hydraulic roughness were tested (e.g. Yalin, 1964; Van Rijn, 1984). Results showed a significant scatter and limited reliability. Statistical analyses were used to accurately quantify the influence of the physical environment (depth, current velocity, grain size) on bedform morphologies in order to enhance the bedform predictors.

  19. Predictors and prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chavali, Vishalakshi; Tyagi, Suresh C; Mishra, Paras K

    2013-01-01

    Despite our cognizance that diabetes can enhance the chances of heart failure, causes multiorgan failure,and contributes to morbidity and mortality, it is rapidly increasing menace worldwide. Less attention has been paid to alert prediabetics through determining the comprehensive predictors of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and ameliorating DCM using novel approaches. DCM is recognized as asymptomatic progressing structural and functional remodeling in the heart of diabetics, in the absence of coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension. The three major stages of DCM are: (1) early stage, where cellular and metabolic changes occur without obvious systolic dysfunction; (2) middle stage, which is characterized by increased apoptosis, a slight increase in left ventricular size, and diastolic dysfunction and where ejection fraction (EF) is <50%; and (3) late stage, which is characterized by alteration in microvasculature compliance, an increase in left ventricular size, and a decrease in cardiac performance leading to heart failure. Recent investigations have revealed that DCM is multifactorial in nature and cellular, molecular, and metabolic perturbations predisposed and contributed to DCM. Differential expression of microRNA (miRNA), signaling molecules involved in glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia, advanced glycogen end products, cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling, and alteration in survival and differentiation of resident cardiac stem cells are manifested in DCM. A sedentary lifestyle and high fat diet causes obesity and this leads to type 2 diabetes and DCM. However, exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, contractility of cardiomyocytes, and cardiac performance in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide new clues to diagnose and mitigate DCM. This review embodies developments in the field of DCM with the aim of elucidating the future perspectives of predictors and prevention of DCM. PMID:23610527

  20. Branch classification: A new mechanism for improving branch predictor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.Y.; Hao, E.; Patt, Y.; Yeh, T.Y.

    1996-04-01

    There is wide agreement that one of the most significant impediments to the performance of current and future pipelined superscalar processors is the presence of conditional branches in the instruction stream. Speculative execution is one solution to the branch problem, but speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative execution requires a very accurate branch predictor; 95% accuracy is not good enough. This paper proposes branch classification, a methodology for building more accurate branch predictors. Branch classification allows an individual branch instruction to be associated with the branch predictor best suited to predict its direction. Using this approach, a hybrid branch predictor can be constructed such that each component branch predictor predicts those branches for which it is best suited. To demonstrate the usefulness of branch classification, an example classification scheme is given and a new hybrid predictor is built based on this scheme which achieves a higher prediction accuracy than any branch predictor previously reported in the literature.

  1. Predictors of mortality after transjugular portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ascha, Mona; Abuqayyas, Sami; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Alkukhun, Laith; Sands, Mark; Dweik, Raed A; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinations obtained at the time of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can provide prognostic information that will enhance risk stratification of patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 467 patients who underwent TIPS between July 2003 and December 2011 at our institution. We recorded information regarding patient demographics, underlying liver disease, indication for TIPS, baseline laboratory values, hemodynamic determinations at the time of TIPS, and echocardiographic measurements both before and after TIPS. We recorded patient comorbidities that may affect hemodynamic and echocardiographic determinations. We also calculated Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) class. The following pre- and post-TIPS echocardiographic determinations were recorded: Left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, subjective RV dilation, and subjective RV function. We recorded the following hemodynamic measurements: Right atrial (RA) pressure before and after TIPS, inferior vena cava pressure before and after TIPS, free hepatic vein pressure, portal vein pressure before and after TIPS, and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). RESULTS: We reviewed 418 patients with portal hypertension undergoing TIPS. RA pressure increased by a mean ± SD of 4.8 ± 3.9 mmHg (P < 0.001), HVPG decreased by 6.8 ± 3.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression analysis, a higher MELD score, lower platelet count, splenectomy and a higher portal vein pressure were independent predictors of higher RA pressure (R = 0.55). Three variables predicted 3-mo mortality after TIPS in a multivariate analysis: Age, MELD score, and CTP grade C. Change in the RA pressure after TIPS predicted long-term mortality (per 1 mmHg change, HR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.06, P < 0.012). CONCLUSION: RA pressure increased immediately after TIPS particularly in

  2. Early Predictors of Hypocalcemia After Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Genther, Dane J.; Lopez, Michael; Agrawal, Nishant; Tufano, Ralph P.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy, and perioperative monitoring of serum calcium levels is arguably the primary reason for overnight hospitalization. Confidently predicting which patients will not develop significant hypocalcemia may allow for a safe earlier discharge. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of patient characteristics with hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH) level after total thyroidectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy by a single high-volume surgeon between February 1, 2010, and November 30, 2012. Postoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), calcium, and IPTH levels were tested within 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Mild hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.4 to 8.0 mg/dL. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.0 mg/dL or the development of hypocalcemia-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS Total thyroidectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Associations of patient demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory values with postoperative mild and significant hypocalcemia were examined using univariate analysis, and independent predictors of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and IPTH level were determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Overall, 304 total thyroidectomies were performed. Mild and significant hypocalcemia occurred in 68 (22.4%) and 91 (29.9%) patients, respectively, of which the majority were female (P = .003). The development of significant hypocalcemia was associated with postoperative IPTH level (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, males had a decreased risk of developing mild (odds ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16–0.85]) and significant (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.09–0.78]) hypocalcemia. Every 10-pg/mL increase in postoperative IPTH level

  3. Predictors of nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Corda, Luciano; Novali, Mauro; Montemurro, Luigi Taranto; La Piana, Giuseppe Emanuele; Redolfi, Stefania; Braghini, Alessia; Modina, Denise; Pini, Laura; Tantucci, Claudio

    2011-12-15

    It would be useful to detect predictors of marked nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation (NOD) among COPD patients, who do not have respiratory failure when awake and sleep apnea (SA). Stable COPD patients with awake Pa(O2) ≥ 60 mmHg and Pa(CO2) ≤ 45 mmHg underwent cardio-respiratory polysomnography to exclude SA and to assess NOD. The patients that spent more than 30% of night time with Sp(O2) < 90%, were defined desaturators (D), and the others non desaturators (ND). Pulmonary function testing was performed to determine lung volumes, maximal flow rates, lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (P(Imax) and P(Emax)). Negative expiratory pressure test was performed to assess tidal expiratory flow limitation. Supine pharyngometry was performed to determine upper airway size, shuttle walking test to assess exercise desaturation. Twenty-one patients were included in the study (18 male, age 66.0±7.2 years, Body Mass Index 25.9±4.4 kg/m(2), FEV(1) 47.2±16.4% pred., Pa(O2) 74.7±6.9 mmHg, Pa(CO2) 40.3±3.4 mmHg): 10 were D and 11 ND. Significant differences between the two groups were found in diurnal Pa(CO2) (D: 42.4±3.0 vs. ND: 38.3±2.6mmHg; p<0.01), diurnal Sp(O2) (D: 94.0±1.5 vs. ND: 95.9±0.9%; p<0.01), inspiratory capacity (IC) (D: 69.6±11.9 vs. ND: 87.0±17.7% pred.; p<0.05), and oro-pharyngeal junction area (OPJ) (D: 0.8±0.2 vs. ND: 1.2±0.3 cm(2); p<0.01). Among parameters related to marked NOD at the univariate analysis, [Formula: see text] and OPJ remained as independent predictors after stepwise multiple regression analysis. These findings indicate that previously unrecognized factors such as smaller upper airway caliber and lung dynamic hyperinflation are associated with marked NOD in stable COPD patients without daytime respiratory failure and SA. PMID:21864725

  4. Early predictors of boys’ antisocial trajectories

    PubMed Central

    SHAW, DANIEL S.; HYDE, LUKE W.; BRENNAN, LAURETTA M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies tracing patterns of youth antisocial behavior (AB) during adolescence, few have prospective data on the developmental precursors of AB beginning during infancy. Using a cohort of 268 low-income boys first assessed at 18 months, the current study examined predictors of early- and late-starting trajectories of AB assessed during early childhood and early adolescence. Four trajectory groups were identified, including early- and late-starting groups, a low stable group, and a high decreasing group, characterized by multiple risk factors during early childhood and early adolescence. During early childhood, parenting and maternal depression discriminated two AB trajectory groups, an early-starting and a high decreasing group, who would go on to demonstrate a high preponderance of juvenile court involvement (60% to 79%) and elevated rates of clinical depression 13 to 15 years later. The results were discussed in reference to targeting malleable family risk factors during early childhood associated with patterns of AB and mental health disorders during adolescence. PMID:22781860

  5. Estimating Interaction Effects With Incomplete Predictor Variables

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Craig K.; Baraldi, Amanda N.; Cham, Heining

    2014-01-01

    The existing missing data literature does not provide a clear prescription for estimating interaction effects with missing data, particularly when the interaction involves a pair of continuous variables. In this article, we describe maximum likelihood and multiple imputation procedures for this common analysis problem. We outline 3 latent variable model specifications for interaction analyses with missing data. These models apply procedures from the latent variable interaction literature to analyses with a single indicator per construct (e.g., a regression analysis with scale scores). We also discuss multiple imputation for interaction effects, emphasizing an approach that applies standard imputation procedures to the product of 2 raw score predictors. We thoroughly describe the process of probing interaction effects with maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. For both missing data handling techniques, we outline centering and transformation strategies that researchers can implement in popular software packages, and we use a series of real data analyses to illustrate these methods. Finally, we use computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques. PMID:24707955

  6. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed. PMID:25621666

  7. Predictors of juveniles' noncompliance with probation requirements.

    PubMed

    NeMoyer, Amanda; Goldstein, Naomi E S; McKitten, Rhonda L; Prelic, Ana; Ebbecke, Jenna; Foster, Erika; Burkard, Casey

    2014-12-01

    Probation is the most common disposition for adjudicated youth, but little is known about which specific requirements are commonly imposed on juveniles, the requirements with which juveniles most often fail to comply, and how certain youth characteristics and/or imposed requirements might relate to probation noncompliance. An investigation of 120 archived files of youth represented by an urban public defender's office identified 29 probation requirements imposed on youth and 18 requirements with which youth commonly failed to comply. Results revealed that 52% of youth failed to comply with at least one probation requirement; prior probation noncompliance and race were both significantly associated with noncompliance in the examined probation disposition. In addition, the probability of probation noncompliance was significantly higher when youth received either of two substance-related probation requirements: drug tests or drug and alcohol counseling. Such results may prompt further investigation of juvenile probation-related predictors, identify areas of need for clinical service provision to foster successful completion of probation requirements, and help identify areas of potential biases among juvenile court personnel. PMID:24933176

  8. [Molecular biological predictors for kidney cancer].

    PubMed

    Vtorushin, S V; Tarakanova, V O; Zavyalova, M V

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the data available in the modern literature on studies of potential molecular predictors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Investigations of cell death markers, namely; Bcl-2 as an inhibitor of apoptosis, are of interest. Its high expression correlates with a more favorable prognosis. Inactivation of Berclin 1 that is an authophagy indicator in intact tissues gives rise to t high risk for tumorigenesis. At the same time, high Beclin 1 expression in the tissue of the tumor itself results in the lower efficiency of performed chemotherapy. Excess annexin A2 in the tumor promotes the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Patients with tumor over-expression of SAM68 protein involved in cell proliferation have a lower overall survival rate. The lifespan of patients without distinct metastases survive significantly longer in the overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). High PD-L1 protein expression on the cell membrane is considered to be a potential marker of effective immunotherapy for RCC. PMID:27077146

  9. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    2015-01-01

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia’s rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report ‘distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.’ Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system. PMID:26609338

  10. Spirituality: an overlooked predictor of placebo effects?

    PubMed Central

    Kohls, Nikola; Sauer, Sebastian; Offenbächer, Martin; Giordano, James

    2011-01-01

    Empirical findings have identified spirituality as a potential health resource. Whereas older research has associated such effects with the social component of religion, newer conceptualizations propose that spiritual experiences and the intrapersonal effects that are facilitated by regular spiritual practice might be pivotal to understanding potential salutogenesis. Ongoing studies suggest that spiritual experiences and practices involve a variety of neural systems that may facilitate neural ‘top-down’ effects that are comparable if not identical to those engaged in placebo responses. As meaningfulness seems to be both a hallmark of spirituality and placebo reactions, it may be regarded as an overarching psychological concept that is important to engaging and facilitating psychophysiological mechanisms that are involved in health-related effects. Empirical evidence suggests that spirituality may under certain conditions be a predictor of placebo response and effects. Assessment of patients' spirituality and making use of various resources to accommodate patients' spiritual needs reflect our most current understanding of the physiological, psychological and socio-cultural aspects of spirituality, and may also increase the likelihood of eliciting self-healing processes. We advocate the position that a research agenda addressing responses and effects of both placebo and spirituality could therefore be (i) synergistic, (ii) valuable to each phenomenon on its own, and (iii) contributory to an extended placebo paradigm that is centred around the concept of meaningfulness. PMID:21576141

  11. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  12. Predictors of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael R; Klika, Alison K; Lee, Ho H; Joyce, David M; Mehta, Priyesh; Barsoum, Wael K

    2010-03-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) requires preoperative planning to enable the reconstruction of bony deficiencies. The objective of this project was to identify predictors of bone loss management at RTKA based on the preoperative failure mode and patient demographics known preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed 245 consecutive RTKA procedures in which the same revision knee system was utilized. Patient demographic and treatment data were recorded, and locations of bone loss were identified based on the reconstructive management. We identified significant predictors for use of femoral augments at all four positions. Several predictors significantly predisposed to use of a thick (>19 mm) polyethylene; however, no predictors of tibial augments were significant. Although the reconstruction of bone loss is primarily based on the intraoperative assessment, these findings may provide additional information to help the surgeon prepare for difficult revision procedures. PMID:20812582

  13. Health Before a Stroke Is Big Predictor of Second Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159881.html Health Before a Stroke Is Big Predictor of Second Attack Getting hypertension, cholesterol under ... the researchers explained. The findings weren't a big surprise to the study authors. "We found in ...

  14. Predictors of Child Noncompliant Behavior in the Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were 18 mothers and their clinic-referred children. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that two maternal behaviors, beta commands and total rewards, displayed in the clinic were the best predictors of child compliance in the home. (Author)

  15. Predictors of Parental Monitoring Among Families With a Runaway Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Reed, Sandra; Letcher, Amber; Katafiasz, Heather; Jones, Travis; Buettner, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research shows that parental monitoring is a critical factor in child adjustment. Using parent and adolescent reports, this study sought to examine predictors of parental monitoring among an understudied, high-risk sample of runaway adolescents. Parent-reported depressive symptoms, couple (romantic) relationship satisfaction, and adolescent-reported bonding with parents were used as predictors of both child- and parent-reported monitoring. Findings indicated that, among parents, the couple relationship was the primary predictor of monitoring, whereas among adolescents, the parent-child relationship was the primary predictor. Maternal depressive symptoms were unrelated to monitoring. These findings suggest the utility of considering monitoring as an interpersonal phenomenon rather than primarily a parent- or child-driven phenomenon. PMID:22239389

  16. Predictors of Teachers' Perceived Self-Competence in Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined predictors of teachers' (N=182) management beliefs (the degree to which teachers believe they can personally manage a behavior). Found variables relating to greatest number of dependent measures were student academic achievement and socioeconomic status. (Author/ABL)

  17. Designing Estimator/Predictor Digital Phase-Locked Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Hurd, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Signal delays in equipment compensated automatically. New approach to design of digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) incorporates concepts from estimation theory and involves decomposition of closed-loop transfer function into estimator and predictor. Estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher order derivatives of phase with respect to time, while predictor compensates for delay, called "transport lag," caused by PLL equipment and by DPLL computations.

  18. An estimator-predictor approach to PLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Hurd, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital phase locked loops (DPLL) using estimation theory concepts in the selection of a loop filter is presented. The key concept, that the DPLL closed-loop transfer function is decomposed into an estimator and a predictor, is discussed. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher-order derivatives, and the predictor compensates for the transport lag inherent in the loop.

  19. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor, Vol 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James, Major

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  20. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  1. Stable behavioral inhibition and glucocorticoid production as predictors of longevity.

    PubMed

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Ragan, Christina M; Michael, Kerry C; Kovacsics, Colleen E; Bruscke, Alexander P

    2009-08-01

    Several personality/temperament traits have been linked to health outcomes in humans and animals but underlying physiological mechanisms for these differential outcomes are minimally understood. In this paper, we compared the strength of a behavioral trait (behavioral inhibition) and an associated physiological trait (glucocorticoid production) in predicting life span. In addition, we examined the relative stability of both the behavioral and physiological traits within individuals over a significant portion of adulthood, and tested the hypothesis that a stable behavioral trait is linked with a stable physiological bias. In a sample of 60 Sprague-Dawley male rats, we found that stable inhibition/neophobia was a stronger predictor of life span than stably elevated glucocorticoid production. In addition, these predictors appeared to have an additive influence on life span in that males with both risk factors (stable inhibition and consistently high glucocorticoid production) had the shortest life spans of all, suggesting both traits are important predictors of life span. Across a 4-month period in young adulthood, inhibition and glucocorticoid reactivity were relatively stable traits, however these two traits were not highly correlated with one another. Interestingly, baseline glucocorticoid production was a better predictor of life span than reactivity levels. The results indicate that glucocorticoid production in young adulthood is an important predictor of life span, although not as strong a predictor as inhibition, and that other physiological processes may further explain the shortened life span in behaviorally-inhibited individuals. PMID:19477191

  2. Learning phenotype densities conditional on many interacting predictors

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, David C.; Taylor, Jack A.; Dunson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Estimating a phenotype distribution conditional on a set of discrete-valued predictors is a commonly encountered task. For example, interest may be in how the density of a quantitative trait varies with single nucleotide polymorphisms and patient characteristics. The subset of important predictors is not usually known in advance. This becomes more challenging with a high-dimensional predictor set when there is the possibility of interaction. Results: We demonstrate a novel non-parametric Bayes method based on a tensor factorization of predictor-dependent weights for Gaussian kernels. The method uses multistage predictor selection for dimension reduction, providing succinct models for the phenotype distribution. The resulting conditional density morphs flexibly with the selected predictors. In a simulation study and an application to molecular epidemiology data, we demonstrate advantages over commonly used methods. Availability and implementation: MATLAB code available at https://googledrive.com/host/0Bw6KIFB-k4IOOWQ0dFJtSVZxNE0/ktdctf.html Contact: dave.kessler@gmail.com PMID:24501099

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: outcome predictors

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Ávila, Paulo; Cavaco, Raquel; Germano, Nuno; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Objective The determination of coma patient prognosis after cardiac arrest has clinical, ethical and social implications. Neurological examination, imaging and biochemical markers are helpful tools accepted as reliable in predicting recovery. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, these data need to be reconfirmed. In this study, we attempted to determine the validity of different markers, which can be used in the detection of patients with poor prognosis under hypothermia. Methods Data from adult patients admitted to our intensive care unit for a hypothermia protocol after cardiac arrest were recorded prospectively to generate a descriptive and analytical study analyzing the relationship between clinical, neurophysiological, imaging and biochemical parameters with 6-month outcomes defined according to the Cerebral Performance Categories scale (good 1-2, poor 3-5). Neuron-specific enolase was collected at 72 hours. Imaging and neurophysiologic exams were carried out in the 24 hours after the rewarming period. Results Sixty-seven patients were included in the study, of which 12 had good neurological outcomes. Ventricular fibrillation and electroencephalographic theta activity were associated with increased likelihood of survival and improved neurological outcomes. Patients who had more rapid cooling (mean time of 163 versus 312 minutes), hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging or neuron-specific enolase > 58ng/mL had poor neurological outcomes (p < 0.05). Conclusion Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and neuron-specific enolase were strong predictors of poor neurological outcomes. Although there is the belief that early achievement of target temperature improves neurological prognoses, in our study, there were increased mortality and worse neurological outcomes with earlier target-temperature achievement. PMID:26761469

  4. Ayurvedic Doshas as Predictors of Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Pathak, Shivangi; Kumar, Ankur; Mishra, Prabhat; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Background The 3 Ayurvedic constitutional types or Doshas – vata, pitta, and kapha – are responsible for homeostasis and health. The doshas determine various functions, including sleep. According to the Ayurvedic texts, sleep is caused by increased kapha and insomnia by increased vata or pitta, which may follow physical or mental exertion, or disease. The present study was carried out to determine whether this relationship could be found using contemporary standardized questionnaires. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional single-group study, 995 persons participated (646 males; group average age ±S.D., 49.1±15.2 years). Participants were attending a 1-week residential yoga program in northern India. Participants were assessed for dosha scores using a Tridosha questionnaire and the quality of sleep in the preceding week was self-rated using a sleep rating questionnaire. Results Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine if each dosha acted as a predictor of quality and quantity of sleep. Vata scores significantly predicted the time taken to fall asleep [p<0.01], and the feeling of being rested in the morning [p<0.001]; with higher vata scores being associated with a longer time to fall asleep and a lesser feeling of being rested in the morning. Kapha scores significantly predicted day-time somnolence [p<0.05] and the duration of day-time naps in minutes [p<0.05], with higher kapha scores being associated with longer day-time naps. Conclusions The results suggest that the doshas can influence the quality and quantity of sleep. PMID:25982247

  5. Predictors of surgical outcome and their assessment.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Anne F; Elfering, Achim

    2006-01-01

    The relatively high rate of failed back surgery has prompted the search for "risk factors" to predict the result of spinal surgery in a given individual. However, the literature reveals few unequivocal predictors and they often explain a relatively low proportion of variance in outcome. This suggests that we have a long way to go before being able to rest easily, having refused someone surgery on the basis of unfavourable baseline characteristics. The best recommendation is to ensure, firstly, that the indication for surgery is absolutely clear-cut (i.e. that surgically remediable pathology exists) and then to consider the various factors that may influence the "typical" outcome. Consistent risk factors for a poor outcome regarding return-to-work include long-term sick leave/receipt of disability benefit. Hence, every effort should be made to keep the individual in the workforce, despite the ongoing symptoms and plans for surgery. In patients with a particularly heavy job, consultation with occupational physicians might later ease the patient's way back into the workplace. Patients with degenerative disorders and/or comorbidity should be counselled that few of them will have complete/lasting pain relief or a complete return to pre-morbid function. Patients with a high level of distress may benefit from psychological treatment, before and/or accompanying the surgical treatment. The opportunity (time), encouragement (education and positive messages), and resources (referral to appropriate support services) to modify risk factors that are indeed modifiable should be offered, and realistic expectations should be discussed with the patient before the decision to operate is made. PMID:16320033

  6. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  7. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  8. Predictors of Patient Satisfaction With Mohs Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Maryam M.; Warton, E. Margaret; Neugebauer, Romain; Chren, Mary-Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables that predict higher short- and long-term patient satisfaction with Mohs surgery. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting A university-based dermatology practice and the affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center dermatology clinic. Patients A total of 339 consecutive patients treated with Mohs surgery in 1999 and 2000. Main Outcome Measures Short-term satisfaction at 1 week and long-term satisfaction at 1 year. We used directed acyclic graphs to determine appropriate confounding adjustment for preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables that influence satisfaction with Mohs surgery in logistic regression models. Results Better preoperative skin-related quality of life (measured using Skindex) and more intraoperative Mohs stages were the most salient predictors of higher short- and long-term satisfaction; these odds ratios (ORs) were 2.33 (95% CI, 1.01–5.35) and 5.19 (1.66–16.29), respectively, for preoperative skin-related quality of life and 7.06 (2.02–24.67) and 5.30 (1.24–22.64), respectively, for more intraoperative Mohs stages. Patients not bothered by postoperative bleeding were more likely to be satisfied short term (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.25–4.05), as were those who considered themselves involved in decision making about their treatment (3.05; 1.52–6.10). Higher long-term satisfaction with Mohs surgery was observed among patients who were married (2.36; 1.10–5.09). Conclusions Higher short- and long-term satisfaction with Mohs surgery is predicted by better preoperative skin-related quality of life and by more intraoperative Mohs stages. The effect of postoperative variables wanes over time, suggesting that factors influencing satisfaction can vary depending on the time frame when satisfaction is measured. Our results may help clinicians identify patients who are at higher risk of dissatisfaction following Mohs surgery. PMID:22184760

  9. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  10. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  11. Predictors of Difficult Intubation Among Malay Patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and

  12. Predictor symbology in computer-generated pictorial displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The display under investigation, is a tunnel display for the four-dimensional commercial aircraft approach-to-landing under instrument flight rules. It is investigated whether more complex predictive information such as a three-dimensional perspective vehicle symbol, predicting the future vehicle position as well as future vehicle attitude angles, contributes to a better system response, and suitable predictor laws for the predictor motions, are formulated. Methods for utilizing the predictor symbol in controlling the forward velocity of the aircraft in four-dimensional approaches, are investigated. The simulator tests show, that the complex perspective vehicle symbol yields improved damping in the lateral response as compared to a flat two-dimensional predictor cross, but yields generally larger vertical deviations. Methods of using the predictor symbol in controlling the forward velocity of the vehicle are shown to be effective. The tunnel display with superimposed perspective vehicle symbol yields very satisfactory results and pilot acceptance in the lateral control but is found to be unsatisfactory in the vertical control, as a result of too large vertical path-angle deviations.

  13. Predictors of Post-Infectious Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben Z; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case-control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at 6 months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at 6 months. PMID:24660116

  14. Predictors of two-year outcome among psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Harder, D W; Greenwald, D F; Strauss, J S; Kokes, R F; Ritzler, B A; Gift, T E

    1990-05-01

    This study hypothesized that social competence and clinical factors previously associated with psychiatric outcome among inpatients would be effective predictors of outcome among outpatients (N = 77) as well. Intake and 2-year outcome status were assessed multidimensionally with absolute-level and residualized indices of functioning, overall clinical status, and symptomatology. Menninger health-sickness proved to be the best single predictor, although Phillips premorbid functioning, Strauss-Carpenter prognosis, social class, and diagnostic severity also predicted well to outcome. Patterns of associated predictor/outcome variable clusters were described. Results suggest that a general social competence factor predicts to psychiatric outcome across the entire range of disorders, but that life events stress does not. PMID:2347928

  15. Predictors of early precocious talking: a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Skeat, Jemma; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena; Eadie, Patricia; Bretherton, Lesley; Bavin, Edith L; Ukoumunne, Obioha C

    2010-11-01

    This study examines potential predictors of 'precocious talking' (expressive language ≥90th percentile) at one and two years of age, and of 'stability' in precocious talking across both time periods, drawing on data from a prospective community cohort comprising over 1,800 children. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between precocious talking and the following potential predictors: gender, birth order, birth weight, non-English speaking background, socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal mental health scores, and vocabulary and educational attainment of parents. The strongest predictors of precocity (being female and having a younger mother) warrant further exploration. Overall, however, it appears that precocity in early vocabulary development is not strongly influenced by the variables examined, which together explained just 2.6% and 1% of the variation at 1;0 and 2;0 respectively. PMID:19874641

  16. Predictors of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee R.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case–control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with infectious mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress, and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at six months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at six months. PMID:24660116

  17. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters. PMID:26332326

  18. Predictors of Childhood Anxiety: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored predictors of early childhood anxiety. Objective To determine the prenatal, postnatal, and early life predictors of childhood anxiety by age 5. Methods Population-based, provincial administrative data (N = 19,316) from Manitoba, Canada were used to determine the association between demographic, obstetrical, psychosocial, medical, behavioral, and infant factors on childhood anxiety. Results Risk factors for childhood anxiety by age 5 included maternal psychological distress from birth to 12 months and 13 months to 5 years post-delivery and an infant 5-minute Apgar score of ≤7. Factors associated with decreased risk included maternal age < 20 years, multiparity, and preterm birth. Conclusion Identifying predictors of childhood anxiety is a key step to early detection and prevention. Maternal psychological distress is an early, modifiable risk factor. Future research should aim to disentangle early life influences on childhood anxiety occurring in the prenatal, postnatal, and early childhood periods. PMID:26158268

  19. Nativity and Health Disparities: Predictors of Immigrant Health.

    PubMed

    Danso, Kofi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the differences in the social determinants of health and chronic health conditions of immigrants and nonimmigrants. The logistic regression results indicate that employment, education, poverty, residential status, and neighborhood safety have strong influence on the health of immigrants and native-born Americans; however, gender and place of residence are significant to only nonimmigrant health. For chronic health conditions, age and employment status are significant predictors for immigrants whereas race/ethnicity, age, gender, insurance coverage, and education are important predictors of chronic health conditions among nonimmigrants. Neighborhood safety, English proficiency, and marital status were not significant determinants of the health conditions of both subgroups. The study points to the importance of education, poverty/income, and neighborhood safety as essential determinants of immigrant and nonimmigrant health. However, there are variations in the health predictors for each group. PMID:26963922

  20. A grid-enabled protein secondary structure predictor.

    PubMed

    Mirto, Maria; Cafaro, Massimo; Fiore, Sandro Luigi; Tartarini, Daniele; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    We present an integrated Grid system for the prediction of protein secondary structures, based on the frequent automatic update of proteins in the training set. The predictor model is based on a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network which is trained with the back-propagation algorithm; the design reuses existing legacy software and exploits novel grid components. The predictor takes into account the evolutionary information found in multiple sequence alignment (MSA); the information is obtained running an optimized parallel version of the PSI-BLAST tool, based on the MPI Master-Worker paradigm. The training set contains proteins of known structure. Using Grid technologies and efficient mechanisms for running the tools and extracting the data, the time needed to train the neural network is dramatically reduced, whereas the results are comparable to a set of well-known predictor tools. PMID:17695746

  1. Genetic predictors of response to photodynamictherapy.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Gemmati, Donato; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Perri, Paolo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Romano, Mario R; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo; Incorvaia, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    In Western countries, therapeutic management of patients affected by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to different typologies of macular degeneration represents a major health care problem. Age-related macular degeneration is the disease most frequently associated with CNV development. Schematically, CNVs can be distinguished into classic and occult subtypes, which are characterized by variable natural history and different responsiveness to some therapeutic procedures. At present, the dramatic vision loss due to CNV can be mainly treated by two interventional strategies, which are utilizable in either single or combined modalities: photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT-V), and intravitreal administration of drugs acting against vascular endothelial growth factor. The combined use of PDT-V and anti-angiogenic drugs represents one of the most promising strategies against neovascular macular degeneration, but it unavoidably results in an expensive increase in health resource utilization. However, the positive data from several studies serve as a basis for reconsidering the role of PDT-V, which has undergone a renaissance prompted by the need for a more rational therapeutic approach toward CNV. New pharmacogenetic knowledge of PDT-V points to exploratory prospects to optimize the clinical application of this intriguing photothrombotic procedure. In fact, a Medline search provides data regarding the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as genetic predictors of CNV responsiveness to PDT-V. Specifically, correlations between SNPs and different levels of PDT-V efficacy have been detected by examining the gene variants influencing (i) thrombo-coagulative pathways, i.e. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T (rs1801133), factor V (F5) 1691G>A (rs6025), prothrombin (F2) 20210G>A (rs1799963), and factor XIII-A (F13A1) 185G>T (rs5985); (ii) complement activation and/or inflammatory processes, i.e. complement factor H (CFH) 1277T

  2. Organized music instruction as a predictor of nursing student success.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K; Cesario, Robert J; Cesario, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Stringent admission criteria exist for nursing programs in the United States, but better predictors of success are needed to reduce student attrition. Research indicates that organized music experiences are associated with greater academic success. This exploratory study examined the association between early music experiences and undergraduate nursing student success. Findings suggest that students with a music background were more likely to graduate, have higher grade point averages, and pass the licensure examination. Previous music education might be considered as an additional predictor of nursing student success. PMID:23778040

  3. Can we automatically extract predictors from observational data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Huaning

    2016-07-01

    Many statistical and machine learning methods have been used to build solar flare forecasting model. These methods rely on physical characteristics of an active region, for example, morphological classification of sunspots and magnetic field parameters of an active region. However, these predictors are correlated with each other and have limited forecasting ability. Here, we present a method which can automatically extract predictors and build a solar flare forecasting model from observational data. Comparing with the conventional model, we obtain the better forecasting performances in our testing dataset.

  4. Sex differences in predictors of ischemic stroke: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Samai, Alyana A; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Globally, stroke is a significant public health concern affecting more than 33 million individuals. Of growing importance are the differences between males and females in the predictors and overall risk of stroke. Given that women have a higher lifetime risk for stoke and account for more than half of all stroke deaths, sex-specific stroke risk factors merit investigation and may help target public health interventions. This review aims to discuss the current body of knowledge regarding sex-specific predictors of ischemic stroke including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, as well as specific pathologies known to increase stroke risk. PMID:26251609

  5. Prestroke family interaction as a predictor of stroke outcome.

    PubMed

    Evans, R L; Bishop, D S; Matlock, A L; Stranahan, S; Halar, E M; Noonan, W C

    1987-08-01

    The Family of Assessment Device and clinical data for 60 stroke patients were used to predict outcome at six months and one year poststroke. Ratings of behavior control and affective responsiveness of the family predicted number of days of rehospitalization during the study. Problem solving scores, family communication skills, and patient self-care ability predicted family-rated patient adjustment. Family function was a better predictor of hospital stay than baseline ratings of typical predictors of stroke outcome. Family function represents an area for potential stroke intervention that may have more relevance to efficient health care delivery and the clinical status of stroke patients than has previously been noted. PMID:3619614

  6. Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radanovics, S.; Vidal, J.-P.; Sauquet, E.; Ben Daoud, A.; Bontron, G.

    2012-04-01

    Relationships between local precipitation (predictands) and large-scale circulation (predictors) are used for statistical downscaling purposes in various contexts, from medium-term forecasting to climate change impact studies. For hydrological purposes like flood forecasting, the downscaled precipitation spatial fields have furthermore to be coherent over possibly large basins. This thus first requires to know what predictor domain can be associated to the precipitation over each part of the studied basin. This study addresses this issue by identifying the optimum predictor domains over the whole of France, for a specific downscaling method based on a analogue approach and developed by Ben Daoud et al. (2011). The downscaling method used here is based on analogies on different variables: temperature, relative humidity, vertical velocity and geopotentials. The optimum predictor domain has been found to consist of the nearest grid cell for all variables except geopotentials (Ben Daoud et al., 2011). Moreover, geopotential domains have been found to be sensitive to the target location by Obled et al. (2002), and the present study thus focuses on optimizing the domains of this specific predictor over France. The predictor domains for geopotential at 500 hPa and 1000 hPa are optimised for 608 climatologically homogeneous zones in France using the ERA-40 reanalysis data for the large-scale predictors and local precipitation from the Safran near-surface atmospheric reanalysis (Vidal et al., 2010). The similarity of geopotential fields is measured by the Teweles and Wobus shape criterion. The predictive skill of different predictor domains for the different regions is tested with the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) for the 25 best analogue days found with the statistical downscaling method. Rectangular predictor domains of different sizes, shapes and locations are tested, and the one that leads to the smallest CRPS for the zone in question is retained. The

  7. Predictors of African American Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Bangi, Audrey K.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated predictors of African American adolescent sexual activity, testing an ecological model of risk factors influencing sexual activity. Data collected over three years indicated that risk factors at the personal, familial, and extrafamilial levels of adolescents' social ecology related to being a virgin or not. Males and older adolescents…

  8. Clinical predictors of therapeutic response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Maren; Correll, Christoph U.

    2014-01-01

    The search for clinical outcome predictors for schizophrenia is as old as the field of psychiatry. However, despite a wealth of large, longitudinal studies into prognostic factors, only very few clinically useful outcome predictors have been identified. The goal of future treatment is to either affect modifiable risk factors, or use nonmodifiable factors to parse patients into therapeutically meaningful subgroups. Most clinical outcome predictors are nonspecific and/or nonmodifiable. Nonmodifiable predictors for poor odds of remission include male sex, younger age at disease onset, poor premorbid adjustment, and severe baseline psychopathology. Modifiable risk factors for poor therapeutic outcomes that clinicians can act upon include longer duration of untreated illness, nonadherence to antipsychotics, comorbidities (especially substance-use disorders), lack of early antipsychotic response, and lack of improvement with non-clozapine antipsychotics, predicting clozapine response. It is hoped that this limited capacity for prediction will improve as pathophysiological understanding increases and/or new treatments for specific aspects of schizophrenia become available. PMID:25733955

  9. Educational Research in Educational Practice: Predictors of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Larysa V.; Abrami, Philip C.; Dagenais, Christian; Janosz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the predictors of school practitioners' (N = 2,425) use of educational research. The suggested model explained significantly but modestly the infrequent use of educational research by practitioners. Of the four factors in the study, "opinions about research" had the most explanatory power. The results are…

  10. Family and Individual Predictors of Late Adolescents' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Marchand, Jennifer F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied parent-adolescent conflict and late adolescents' attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms as predictors of late adolescents' romantic relationships. Findings based on questionnaire responses of 256 college students highlight the differential roles of familial and individual attributes in female and male adolescents' romantic relationship…

  11. Predictors of Gender Inequalities in the Rank of Full Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijstra, Thamar; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether age, work-related, and family-related predictors explain differences in the academic advancement of women and men in Iceland. Survey data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. The findings put that women climb the academic career ladder at a slower pace than men. This finding puts one of the widely known…

  12. Predictors of Organizational Commitment: Variations across Career Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jan Leeman; Seers, Anson

    1991-01-01

    The matching of 5 predictors of organizational commitment with 5 career stages was investigated with a sample of 1,536 Air Force employees. Between- and within-stage analysis showed that team cohesion was stronger during second stage, job challenge during third, supervisor behavior during fourth, and organizational climate during fifth.…

  13. Video Game Strategies as Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between strategies students use to overcome challenges in both video games and homework assignments, and whether or not these are predictors of academic performance in school. Data were collected through an online survey of students, primarily in middle and high school, assessing both…

  14. Predictors of Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedia, Satish; Williams, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes several variables important in predicting the likelihood of abstinence among substance abuse clients. Data was collected from 1,350 clients treated for alcohol or drug abuse in residential, halfway house, or outpatient facilities. Analyzing 22 variables as possible treatment outcome predictors, results found one…

  15. Predictors of Running Away from Family Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Running away is a frequent but little studied phenomenon among adolescents in foster care. Repeated running from care often leads to premature discharge and homelessness for youth. This article uses cumulative risk theory in the context of normative adolescent development to investigate predictors of running away from foster care. Results indicate…

  16. Predictors of Attrition and Achievement in a Tertiary Bridging Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whannell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the attrition and achievement of a sample of 295 students in an on-campus tertiary bridging program at a regional university. A logistic regression analysis using enrolment status, age and the number of absences from scheduled classes at week three of the semester as predictor variables correctly predicted 92.8 percent of…

  17. Early Temperamental and Family Predictors of Shyness and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volbrecht, Michele M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2010-01-01

    With a sample of 242 twins (135 girls, 107 boys) studied longitudinally, behavioral inhibition (BI) and inhibitory control (IC) measured at 3 years, as well as early and concurrent family process variables, were examined as predictors of shyness and of anxiety symptoms approximately 4 years later. Structured observational data from laboratory and…

  18. Epistemological Predictors of Prospective Biology Teachers' Nature of Science Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köseoglu, Pinar; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate epistemological predictors of nature of science understandings of 281 prospective biology teachers surveyed using the Epistemological Beliefs Scale Regarding Science and the Nature of Science Scale. The findings on multiple linear regression showed that understandings about definition of science and…

  19. Predictors of Employment and Postsecondary Education of Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Alberto; Timmons, Jaimie; Butterworth, John; Lugas, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Using logistic and multiple regressions, the authors investigated predictors of employment and postsecondary education outcomes of youth with autism in the Vocational Rehabilitation Program. Data were obtained from the RSA911 data set, fiscal year 2008. Findings showed that the odds of gaining employment were greater for youth who received job…

  20. Predictors of Sexual Offence Recidivism in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Elliot, Susanne F.; Astell, Arlene

    2004-01-01

    Background: The extensive research on prediction of risk in offenders has developed a number of reliable static risk predictors. There is also a developing body of work on proximal, dynamic risk factors and their importance in predicting violent and sexual offending. Although this work has not been done specifically on offenders with intellectual…

  1. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  2. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  3. Rates and Predictors of Sexual Aggression Among Students and Nonstudents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared rates and predictors of sexual aggression for women attending college with those of women from the same population who were not attending college. Because it has been suggested that less parental monitoring at college may be associated with risky behaviors that contribute to sexual aggression, they also compared rates and…

  4. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  5. Predictors of Parenting Stress for Abusive and Nonabusive Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Andrea V.; Lewis, Kristen M.; Lynn, Amy E.; Haskett, Mary E.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined a model of parenting stress for abusive mothers (n = 80) and nonabusive mothers (n = 86) using linear regression analyses. Predictors in the model included (a) the degree to which mothers were bothered by child misbehavior, (b) mothers' general psychological functioning, and (c) observed child behavior during parent-child interactions.…

  6. Predictors of Self-Assessed Health among Elderly Post Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Elinore; And Others

    Self-assessment of health incorporates both objective and subjective elements into a general state with implications for health-related behavior. To examine the predictors of self-assessed health in an elderly, post-hospitalization population, 73 adults, 65 years of age or older, were asked to assess the status of the condition for which they were…

  7. Predictors of Generalized Indecision among Portuguese Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Paulo Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Portuguese secondary students (n=345) completed measures of generalized indecision, psychological separation, vocational identity, self-esteem, locus of control, and anxiety. The most significant predictor of indecision was trait anxiety. Generalized indecision was associated with external locus of control, low self-esteem, low level of…

  8. Predictors of Sense of Belonging for Students with Psychological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Michele Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a portrait of students with psychological conditions, to determine the predictors of sense of belonging for these students, and to draw comparisons between the collegiate experiences of students with, and those without, psychological conditions. Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of…

  9. Predictors of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianakos, Irene

    2001-01-01

    College students (n=209) completed the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale, Self-Reliance Inventory, and Work Preferences Scale. Counterdependence (distancing) was negatively related to CDMSE. Self-reliance, work preference, and gender variables were significant predictors of CDMSE. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  10. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  11. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  12. Predictors of Relationship Power among Drug-involved Women

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based relationship power is frequently linked to women’s capacity to reduce sexual risk behaviors. This study offers an exploration of predictors of relationship power, as measured by the multidimensional and theoretically grounded Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Linear models were used to test nine predictors (age, race/ethnicity, education, time in treatment, economic dependence, substance use, sexual concurrency, partner abuse, sex role orientation) of relationship power among 513 women participating in a multi-site HIV risk reduction intervention study. Significant predictors of relationship control included having a non-abusive male partner, only one male partner, and endorsing traditional masculine (or both masculine and feminine) sex role attributes. Predictors of decision-making dominance were interrelated, with substance use x partner abuse and age x sex role orientation interactions. Results contribute to the understanding of factors which may influence relationship power and to their potential role in HIV sexual risk reduction interventions. PMID:22614746

  13. Socio-economic Predictors of Alienation among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Thomas J., Jr.; Christian, Ollie

    1990-01-01

    Studied level of alienation and associations between socioeconomic variables and alienation in 200 older senior center clients. Found group isolation and powerlessness were more prevalent than personal isolation or normlessness; health, race, education, and income were strongest predictors of alienation; and older Blacks and those with lower…

  14. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  15. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  16. Children's Rorschach Scores as Predictors of Later Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, Steven B.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that Rorschach measures of object relations and thought organization could help predict later adjustment. Former patients (N=70) at a child residential treatment center were followed up as adults. Object relations measures were found to be effective discriminators and predictors of later rehospitalization for boys. (JAC)

  17. Comparison of Four Methods for Weighting Multiple Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aamodt, Michael G.; Kimbrough, Wilson W.

    1985-01-01

    Four methods were used to weight predictors associated with a Resident Assistant job: (1) rank order weights; (2) unit weights; (3) critical incident weights; and (4) regression weights. A cross-validation was also done. Most weighting methods were highly related. No method was superior in terms of protection from validity shrinkage. (GDC)

  18. Predictors of Organizational Commitment among Staff in Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the role of organizational culture, job satisfaction, and sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of organizational commitment among staff in assisted living. It is particularly important to examine organizational commitment, because of its close links to staff turnover. Design and Methods: Data were collected…

  19. Predictors of weight loss in Mexican American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined predictors of weight change in Mexican American adolescents. Eighty overweight Mexican American children were randomized to receive either the intensive intervention or self help program. Physiological (e.g. standardized BMI (zBMI), percent body fat, and tanner stage), psychologi...

  20. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  1. Confidence: The Best Non-Cognitive Predictor of Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Morony, Suzanne; Lee, Yim Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to identify non-cognitive predictors of academic achievement and school success have largely focused on self-constructs such as self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety that are measured with respect to a specific domain (e.g. mathematics). We extend the measurement of the non-cognitive realm in education to incorporate both social…

  2. Predictors of Burnout in Community College Faculty: A Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phronebarger, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in an effort to develop a model to predict "burnout" in community college faculty members using the demographic predictors of employment status, teaching load, age, teaching experience and gender. Originally termed by Herbert Freudenberger in 1974, burnout is a phenomenon that has been investigated in a…

  3. Predictors of Condom Use in Latino Migrant Day Laborers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organista, Kurt C.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on predictors of condom use with casual female sex partners on the part of Latino migrant day laborers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results come from a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling to interview 290 sexually active adult, male, migrant Latino day laborers. Regression…

  4. Clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors of Bordetella pertussis infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; de Oliveira, Andressa Welter; Tusset, Cintia; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Amantéa, Sérgio Luís; Motta, Fabrizio; Gasparotto, Aline; Andreolla, Huander Felipe; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratorial and radiographic predictors for Bordetella pertussis infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which analyzed medical records of all patients submitted to a molecular dignosis (qPCR) for B. pertussis from September 2011 to January 2013. Clinical and laboratorial data were reviewed, including information about age, sex, signs/symptoms, length of hospitalization, blood cell counts, imaging findings, coinfection with other respiratory pathogens and clinical outcome. RESULTS: 222 cases were revised. Of these, 72.5% had proven pertussis, and 60.9% were under 1 year old. In patients aging up to six months, independent predictors for B. pertussis infection were (OR 8.0, CI 95% 1.8-36.3; p=0.007) and lymphocyte count >104/µL (OR 10.0, CI 95% 1.8-54.5; p=0.008). No independent predictors of B. pertussis infection could be determined for patients older than six months. Co-infection was found in 21.4% of patients, of which 72.7% were up to six months of age. Adenovirus was the most common agent (40.9%). In these patients, we were not able to identify any clinical features to detect patients presenting with a respiratory co-infection, even though longer hospital stay was observed in patients with co-infections (12 vs. 6 days; p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Cyanosis and lymphocytosis are independent predictors for pertussis in children up to 6 months old. PMID:25510991

  5. Predictors of Negative Spillover from Family to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Jennie E. Long

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has inconsistently documented the gendered nature of negative spillover between the domains of home and work. Little is known about predictors of negative spillover for employed mothers and fathers. Using the 1997 wave of the National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study's purpose was twofold: to determine if a difference…

  6. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  7. Predictors of Home Based Long-Term Care Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppens, Jean; And Others

    An attempt was made to determine predictors of service need, use, and outcome among chronically impaired adults and aged who were living in the community and using the home-based, long term care services of the Chronic Illness Center (CIC) of the Cuyahoga County Hospitals (Ohio). Randomly selected consumer service records (N=200) were coded for…

  8. Executive Functions as Predictors of Math Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ between low achieving and typically achieving children…

  9. Intergenerational Family Predictors of the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Varner, Fatima; Greene, Nereira; Richman, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined intergenerational family predictors of the Black-White achievement gap among 4,406 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. An intergenerational model of the process by which family factors contribute to the achievement gap was also tested. The results showed that the ethnic gaps in socioeconomic status…

  10. Social Predictors of Sunscreen and Self-Tanning Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated social predictors of sunscreen and self-tanning product use among 164 undergraduates. Immediate family members' sunscreen use predicted participants' facial sunscreen use while sunbathing but not their sunscreen use on other areas of the body. In addition, familial support of a tanned appearance was inversely associated…

  11. Examining the Changing Influence of Predictors on Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kim A.; Stone, Rosalie Torres; Bersani, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the influence of key characteristics on adolescent alcohol misuse (i.e., maternal binge drinking, parenting, peers, school characteristics, and the adolescent's own behavior) change over time and whether predictors of adolescent alcohol misuse vary by gender and race/ethnicity. Using prospective,…

  12. Predictors of Appraisal and Coping Dimensions in Myocardial Infarction Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyong Sil; Martin, Peter

    This study attempted to identify predictors of perception and coping after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Sixty males and 17 females who had suffered from a myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to the research were recruited from a hospital rehabilitation program. Subjects completed the Peri-Life Events Scale, the 16-PF…

  13. Anxiety, Stress and Social Support: Prenatal Predictors of Obstetrical Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethercut, Gail; Adler, Nancy

    The role of anxiety, stress, and social support in predicting negative obstetrical outcomes was examined in a high-risk group of pregnant women. The predictor variables were assessed with separate self-report scales, including The Sarason Life Experience Survey, the Spielberger State/Trait Inventory, and a modified version of the Lazarus and Cohen…

  14. Predictors of Adult Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Tourigny, Marc; Joly, Jacques; Pouliot-Lapointe, Joelle

    2007-01-01

    This study identifies predictors of favorable attitudes toward spanking. Analyses were performed with survey data collected from a representative sample of 1,000 adults from Quebec, Canada. According to this survey, a majority of respondents endorsed spanking, despite their recognition of potential harm associated with corporal punishment (CP) of…

  15. Trends and Predictors of Alcohol Use among Undergraduate Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozegovic, Jelena Jovanovic; Bikos, Lynette Heim; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines drinking patterns of female college students and evaluates the contributions of age, sorority membership, emotional pain, and peer acceptance on both frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption. Results indicate that sorority membership and emotional pain were significant predictors of frequency of alcohol consumption; and age, sorority…

  16. Predictors of Obesity Bias among Exercise Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Jody; Rukavina, Paul; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate particular psychosocial predictors of obesity bias in prehealth professionals, which include the internalization of athletic and general body ideals, perceived media pressure and information, and achievement goal orientations. Exercise science undergraduate students (n = 242) filled out a survey…

  17. Student Pathways at the University: Patterns and Predictors of Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumen, Sarah; Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a longitudinal pathway analysis of student performance within educational institutions, so as to identify student profiles which describe those groups of students who are more likely to complete or leave a bachelor degree program, and to identify the predictors for these outcomes. The analyses are based on 7314 undergraduate…

  18. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  19. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  20. Relative Strengths of Predictors of Middle School Girls' Suspendable Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Barbara Harlow

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the relative strength of predictors of school violence among a sample of 229 girls enrolled in a single middle school. The four-part questionnaire, comprising sociodemographic items, a school violence inventory, a self-esteem scale, and an attitudes toward violence scale, measured school violence in terms of suspendable…

  1. Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…

  2. Predictors of Expressive Vocabulary Growth in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Veronica; Mirenda, Pat; Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the variability and predictors of expressive vocabulary development in children with autism and very delayed language. Method: This study involved 35 children with autism whose initial chronological ages were between 20 and 71 months and whose initial expressive vocabularies were less…

  3. Ten Years down the Road: Predictors of Driving Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Bart, Edward; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Cissell, Gayla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent prospective studies have found that cognition is a more salient predictor of driving cessation than physical performance or demographic factors among community-dwelling older adults. However, these studies have been limited to 5 years of follow-up. The current study used data from the Maryland Older Drivers Project to examine…

  4. Attitudes, Values and Moral Reasoning as Predictors of Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarry, Hammond; Emler, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes to institutional authority, strength of support for moral values and maturity of socio-moral reasoning have all been identified as potential predictors of adolescent delinquency. In a sample of 12-15-year-old boys (N = 789), after checking for effects of age, IQ, social background and ethnicity, self-reported delinquency was…

  5. Predictors of Sexual Aggression among Male Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Lenberg, Kathryn L.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline,…

  6. Predictors of Future Performance in Architectural Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The link between academic performance in secondary education and the subsequent performance of students studying architecture at university level is commonly questioned by educators and admissions tutors. This paper investigates the potential for using measures of cognitive style and spatial ability as predictors of future potential in…

  7. The Comparison of Predictors of Death Obsession within Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Maltby, John

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare various predictors of death obsession (i.e., anxiety, optimism, pessimism), and self-ratings of religiosity, physical health, mental health, happiness, and satisfaction with life, among 2 samples of college students recruited from two different cultures: Kuwait (n = 271) and United Kingdom (n = 205). The…

  8. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  9. Individual, Family, and Peer predictors of Violence among Samoan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…

  10. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  11. Predictors of Paternal Involvement Postdivorce: Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrons, Constance R.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between paternal involvement postdivorce and the divorced coparental relationship. Interviews with 54 pairs of ex-spouses showed mothers and fathers had different perceptions of the father's involvement. The coparental relationship was a significant predictor of both mothers' and fathers' perceptions of the father's…

  12. Predictors of Specialized Inpatient Admissions for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modi, Miti; McMorris, Carly; Palucka, Anna; Raina, Poonam; Lunsky, Yona

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have complex mental health needs and may seek specialized ID psychiatric services. This study reports on predictors of specialized inpatient admissions for 234 individuals with ID who received outpatient services at a psychiatric hospital. Overall, from 2007-2012, 55 of the 234 outpatients were triaged…

  13. Predictors for the development of temporomandibular disorders in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; van Wijk, A J; Klingler, M C; Ruiz Vicente, E; van Dijk, C J; Eijkman, M A J

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine predictors for the development of complaints of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a large sample of Dutch scuba divers who were free of any TMD complaints before they started diving actively. Five-hundred and thirty-six scuba divers (mean ± SD age = 40.4 ± 11.9 years; 34.1% women) completed a specifically developed questionnaire, either online or on paper. Stepwise forward logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the presence of TMD pain, with several potential risk factors as predictors. Four hundred and eighty-five of the 536 respondents were free of any TMD pain before they started diving actively. In this sample, TMD pain was present in 214 persons (44.1%). Four predictors contributed significantly to the presence of TMD pain, viz., clenching (OR = 2.466), warm water (OR = 1.685), biting on the mouthpiece (OR = 1.598), and the quality rating of the mouthpiece (OR = 0.887, that is, a higher rating means a smaller odds of having TMD pain). TMD pain is a common complaint among scuba divers who were free of such complaints before they started diving actively. Clenching, biting on the mouthpiece, and a low rating of the mouthpiece are predictors for the presence of TMD pain in scuba divers, while diving in cold water serves as a protective factor for TMD pain. PMID:24766672

  14. Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumer, Seda; Poyrazli, Senel; Grahame, Kamini

    2008-01-01

    The role of gender, age, race/ethnicity, length of stay, social support, and proficiency in English in the variance in depression and anxiety among international students revealed that social support was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety among international students. Age significantly contributed to the variance in anxiety, and…

  15. Predictors of Life Satisfaction in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.; Chan, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that predict life satisfaction in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Two groups of variables were studied: life skills (interpersonal, instrumental and leisure) and higher-order predictors (social support, self-determination and productivity). Method: Fifty-six participants…

  16. Student Persistence Predictors and Community College Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Jeffrey Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on student persistence in community colleges through three research innovations. First, the literature on student persistence in community colleges was expanded by applying theory to the identification and testing of predictors. Second, it was expanded by validating retention prediction…

  17. Neurocognitive Predictors of Reading Outcomes for Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frijters, Jan C.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Steinbach, Karen A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on several specific neurocognitive process predictors of reading outcomes for a sample of 278 children with reading disabilities. Three categories of response (i.e., poor, average, and good) were formed via growth curve models of six reading outcomes. Two nested discriminant function analyses were conducted to evaluate the…

  18. Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Calculation Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Early calculation abilities in preschoolers are predictive of mathematics achievement in subsequent grades (e.g., Jordan et al. 2009). Two studies were conducted to evaluate concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early calculation skills. In the first study, 102 preschoolers (57.8% female; mean age?=?60.57?±?8.66 months) were given vocabulary,…

  19. Using Dominance Analysis to Determine Predictor Importance in Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azen, Razia; Traxel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes an extension of dominance analysis that allows researchers to determine the relative importance of predictors in logistic regression models. Criteria for choosing logistic regression R[superscript 2] analogues were determined and measures were selected that can be used to perform dominance analysis in logistic regression. A…

  20. Predictors of Academic Procrastination in Asian International College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; Kuo, Ben C. H.; Song, Hyun-A.; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Kim, Eunyoung; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chang, Catherine Y.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among acculturative stress, coping styles, self-efficacy, English language proficiency, and various demographic characteristics as predictors of procrastination behavior in Asian International students (N = 255) studying in the United States. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that a collective…

  1. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  2. Predictor Implementation School/District Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Post-School Outcomes Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The checklist provided here is intended to provide schools, districts, or other stakeholders in secondary transition with a framework for determining the degree to which their program is implementing practices that are likely to lead to more positive post-school outcomes for students with disabilities. The predictor categories listed have been…

  3. Predictors of Autism Enrollment in Public School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Katelyn; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Smith, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    With a number of disparities present in the diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders, the education system plays a crucial role in the provision of both these service elements. Based on school and federal census data, this article examines one state's public school autism enrollment and possible predictors of…

  4. Predictors of College Student Suicidal Ideation: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Hugh; Pena-Shaff, Judith; Quirk, Priscilla

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to identify students at risk for suicide. Predictors of suicidality were examined separately for men and women in a college health survey of 630 students. Women reported higher levels of suicidal ideation than men in the previous year. Separate regression analyses for men and women accounted for significant amounts of the variance…

  5. Cross-Cultural Similarities in the Predictors of Reading Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Kail, Robert V.

    2002-01-01

    Compared reading development among kindergartners in Hong Kong and the United States using measures of word recognition, phonological awareness, speeded naming, visual spatial skill, and processing speed. Found that models of early reading development were similar across cultures. The strongest predictor of reading was phonological awareness.…

  6. Predictors of Nonmedical ADHD Medication Use by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students. Participants: A total of 843 undergraduates attending one public or one private university in southeastern United States. Method: Students completed a Web-based survey inquiring about ADHD medication use during the first semester freshman of their year and…

  7. Predictors of Success on the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, E. A.; Homeyer, Linda E.; Walker, John L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between 403 counseling graduate students' scores on the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Examination (CPCE; Center for Credentialing and Education, n.d.) and 3 admissions requirements used as predictor variables: undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test Verbal…

  8. Empirical Investigation of Predictors of Success in an MBA Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Atul; Turek, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The twofold purpose of this study was to determine if selected variables were predictors of: student performance in the MBA programme; and student performance on the MBA MFT exam. Design/methodology/approach: This study focuses on MBA graduates at a US university who have successfully completed the entire programme requirements. Real…

  9. Is Motivation a Predictor of Foreign Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Kazuyo

    2006-01-01

    This article reports an investigation into the factors that facilitate language learning. The first strand examines whether motivation is a predictor of as is widely accepted. In order to confirm this, Grade 10 students' motivation level was measured using two questions. Language gains were also measured and compared with the motivation level. The…

  10. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  11. Showing the Love: Predictors of Student Loyalty to Undergraduate Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vianden, Jörg; Barlow, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the notion that undergraduates may be considered student-customers whose relationship with and loyalty to their institutions can be managed by college educators. The Student University Loyalty Instrument administered to 1,207 undergraduates at three comprehensive Midwestern institutions assessed the predictors of student…

  12. Early Predictors of School Performance Declines at School Transition Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaspina, Diane; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed students (n = 265) from kindergarten through seventh grade and examined early social and academic predictors of school performance at two normative school transitions. Questions addressed include: (a) are there changes in students' school performance over time, especially at school transition points; (b) are…

  13. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  14. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  15. Excavating Culture: Ethnicity and Context as Predictors of Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E.; Tyson, Diana F.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic, socioeconomic, and contextual predictors of parenting and family socialization practices were examined among African American and European American families. This is one of a set of coordinated studies presented in this special issue (Le et al.). With the goal of sampling African American and European American children and families that…

  16. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  17. PREDICTORS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE RESPONSE TO OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purposes of this study were to identify personal characteristics which predict individual differences in acute response to ozone exposure and to develop a predictive model for decrements in FEV1 as a function of ozone concentration and individual predictors. esponse and predi...

  18. Neurophysiological predictor of SMR-based BCI performance.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Sannelli, Claudia; Halder, Sebastian; Hammer, Eva M; Kübler, Andrea; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel; Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2010-07-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow a user to control a computer application by brain activity as measured, e.g., by electroencephalography (EEG). After about 30years of BCI research, the success of control that is achieved by means of a BCI system still greatly varies between subjects. For about 20% of potential users the obtained accuracy does not reach the level criterion, meaning that BCI control is not accurate enough to control an application. The determination of factors that may serve to predict BCI performance, and the development of methods to quantify a predictor value from psychological and/or physiological data serve two purposes: a better understanding of the 'BCI-illiteracy phenomenon', and avoidance of a costly and eventually frustrating training procedure for participants who might not obtain BCI control. Furthermore, such predictors may lead to approaches to antagonize BCI illiteracy. Here, we propose a neurophysiological predictor of BCI performance which can be determined from a two minute recording of a 'relax with eyes open' condition using two Laplacian EEG channels. A correlation of r=0.53 between the proposed predictor and BCI feedback performance was obtained on a large data base with N=80 BCI-naive participants in their first session with the Berlin brain-computer interface (BBCI) system which operates on modulations of sensory motor rhythms (SMRs). PMID:20303409

  19. Predictor and Performance Variables in a Performance Based Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Thomas M.; Douzenis, Cordelia

    Students enrolled in classes which stressed learning theory and human development served as subjects in an investigation of the predictive power of observation scores compared to more traditional predictors such as grade point average and ACT scores. A stepwise discriminant analysis was employed, using the BMDP7B program on the Sperry 1100 Univac,…

  20. Topical Knowledge and Topical Interest Predictors of Listening Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Victoria Chou; Devine, Denise A.

    A study was designed to determine whether scores for general knowledge, specific knowledge, and general interest on a topic could be used as predictors of children's listening comprehension. Baseball and dolls were chosen as the topics because their stereotypic nature would allow the data to be generalized across the subject population. Data were…

  1. Adolescent Gambling: A Narrative Review of Behavior and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…

  2. Joint probabilistic-logical refinement of multiple protein feature predictors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational methods for the prediction of protein features from sequence are a long-standing focus of bioinformatics. A key observation is that several protein features are closely inter-related, that is, they are conditioned on each other. Researchers invested a lot of effort into designing predictors that exploit this fact. Most existing methods leverage inter-feature constraints by including known (or predicted) correlated features as inputs to the predictor, thus conditioning the result. Results By including correlated features as inputs, existing methods only rely on one side of the relation: the output feature is conditioned on the known input features. Here we show how to jointly improve the outputs of multiple correlated predictors by means of a probabilistic-logical consistency layer. The logical layer enforces a set of weighted first-order rules encoding biological constraints between the features, and improves the raw predictions so that they least violate the constraints. In particular, we show how to integrate three stand-alone predictors of correlated features: subcellular localization (Loctree [J Mol Biol 348:85–100, 2005]), disulfide bonding state (Disulfind [Nucleic Acids Res 34:W177–W181, 2006]), and metal bonding state (MetalDetector [Bioinformatics 24:2094–2095, 2008]), in a way that takes into account the respective strengths and weaknesses, and does not require any change to the predictors themselves. We also compare our methodology against two alternative refinement pipelines based on state-of-the-art sequential prediction methods. Conclusions The proposed framework is able to improve the performance of the underlying predictors by removing rule violations. We show that different predictors offer complementary advantages, and our method is able to integrate them using non-trivial constraints, generating more consistent predictions. In addition, our framework is fully general, and could in principle be applied to a vast

  3. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nina S N; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster. PMID:23133530

  4. A New Perspective for the Calibration of Computational Predictor Models.

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, Luis Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a framework for calibrating computational models using data from sev- eral and possibly dissimilar validation experiments. The offset between model predictions and observations, which might be caused by measurement noise, model-form uncertainty, and numerical error, drives the process by which uncertainty in the models parameters is characterized. The resulting description of uncertainty along with the computational model constitute a predictor model. Two types of predictor models are studied: Interval Predictor Models (IPMs) and Random Predictor Models (RPMs). IPMs use sets to characterize uncer- tainty, whereas RPMs use random vectors. The propagation of a set through a model makes the response an interval valued function of the state, whereas the propagation of a random vector yields a random process. Optimization-based strategies for calculating both types of predictor models are proposed. Whereas the formulations used to calculate IPMs target solutions leading to the interval value function of minimal spread containing all observations, those for RPMs seek to maximize the models' ability to reproduce the distribution of obser- vations. Regarding RPMs, we choose a structure for the random vector (i.e., the assignment of probability to points in the parameter space) solely dependent on the prediction error. As such, the probabilistic description of uncertainty is not a subjective assignment of belief, nor is it expected to asymptotically converge to a fixed value, but instead it is a description of the model's ability to reproduce the experimental data. This framework enables evaluating the spread and distribution of the predicted response of target applications depending on the same parameters beyond the validation domain (i.e., roll-up and extrapolation).

  5. Clinical predictors of functioning in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I B; Cleary, P D

    1996-06-01

    To help clinicians better assess and treat functional disabilities in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors estimate empirical relations among biologic and physiologic variables, symptoms, and physical functioning in persons with AIDS. The sample of 305 persons with AIDS for this cross-sectional analysis came from three sites in Boston, Massachusetts: a hospital-based group practice, a human immunodeficiency virus clinic at a city hospital, and a staff-model health maintenance organization. Physical functioning, 10 AIDS-specific symptoms, and mental health were assessed by interview. Clinical diagnoses, comorbidities, health habits such as smoking, laboratory results, and selected medication use were assessed by chart review. Significant predictors of physical functioning P < 0.01, R2 = .58) in a multivariable regression model included energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, fever symptoms, a lower hemoglobin level, and current non-pneumonia bacterial infection. Ninety-six percent of the explained variance in physical functioning was accounted for by three symptom complexes: energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, and fever symptoms. Significant predictors of energy/fatigue in multivariable models included poorer mental health, lower white blood cell count, longer time since diagnosis, and weight loss (P < 0.01, R2 =.36). Significant predictors of neurologic symptoms included poorer mental health, weight loss, and no zidovudine use (P < 0.001, R2 = .30). Predictors of fever symptoms included poorer mental health, no zidovudine use, weight loss, and history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.05, R2 = .25). In conclusion, symptom reports were strong predictors of physical functioning. Poorer mental health and weight loss were correlated consistently with worse symptoms, and not using zidovudine was correlated with worse neurologic and fever symptoms. These variables, and the others the authors identified, may represent

  6. Predictors of Business Return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Nina S. N.; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster. PMID:23133530

  7. Calibration of Predictor Models Using Multiple Validation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for calibrating computational models using data from several and possibly dissimilar validation experiments. The offset between model predictions and observations, which might be caused by measurement noise, model-form uncertainty, and numerical error, drives the process by which uncertainty in the models parameters is characterized. The resulting description of uncertainty along with the computational model constitute a predictor model. Two types of predictor models are studied: Interval Predictor Models (IPMs) and Random Predictor Models (RPMs). IPMs use sets to characterize uncertainty, whereas RPMs use random vectors. The propagation of a set through a model makes the response an interval valued function of the state, whereas the propagation of a random vector yields a random process. Optimization-based strategies for calculating both types of predictor models are proposed. Whereas the formulations used to calculate IPMs target solutions leading to the interval value function of minimal spread containing all observations, those for RPMs seek to maximize the models' ability to reproduce the distribution of observations. Regarding RPMs, we choose a structure for the random vector (i.e., the assignment of probability to points in the parameter space) solely dependent on the prediction error. As such, the probabilistic description of uncertainty is not a subjective assignment of belief, nor is it expected to asymptotically converge to a fixed value, but instead it casts the model's ability to reproduce the experimental data. This framework enables evaluating the spread and distribution of the predicted response of target applications depending on the same parameters beyond the validation domain.

  8. Biological predictors of cervical cancer response to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Klopp, Ann H; Eifel, Patricia J

    2012-04-01

    The addition of cisplatin-based chemotherapy to standard radiation therapy reduces the risk of recurrence and disease-related death rates from locally advanced cervical cancers by as much as 50%. However, the absolute gains are relatively small for patients with early tumors, many of whom would have been cured with radiation alone, and recurrence rates are still high for patients who have very large or advanced-stage tumors. As a result, there is a pressing need for more accurate predictors of radiocurability. A variety of types of biomarkers have been shown to correlate with cervical cancer response to radiation therapy. These include traditional clinical and morphologic predictors, non-molecular biomarkers, including hypoxia and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) avidity, as well as molecular biomarkers, which include single-gene markers or array-based multigene predictors. Multi-gene predictors of response remain immature in cervical cancer, but studies thus far have paved the way for future studies to validate these findings. Methods will need to be standardized and markers will need to be validated on homogeneous patient populations and treatment approaches before they can become useful tools for clinical decision making. In addition, new biomarkers will be of major value only if they add to the predictive value of traditional clinical and morphologic predictors. Ultimately, the most useful biomarkers will identify patients who will benefit from specific molecularly targeted agents in addition to radiation therapy or perhaps identify patient who are at low risk for recurrence, for whom the dose of radiation or chemotherapy can be reduced. PMID:22385921

  9. Community Colleges under the Microscope: An Analysis of Performance Predictors for Native and Transfer Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlan, Philip E.; Byxbe, Ferris R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports that studies of native and transfer students at a university indicated that lower division GPA and major were significant predictors of upper division GPA for both groups, but more so for transfers than for natives. States that, although race was not a significant predictor for transfers, it was the most significant predictor for native…

  10. Situational and Intrapersonal Predictors of School and Life Satisfaction of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Amy Linden

    2012-01-01

    This study examined predictors of school and life satisfaction of fifth-grade students. Two situational predictor variables (school climate and school stress) and two intrapersonal predictor variables (locus of control and academic self-concept) were examined. It was hypothesized that positive school climate, low levels of school stress, internal…

  11. Predictors of early continence following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur-Blouin, Hugo; Noriega, Alina Camacho; Valdivieso, Roger; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Bienz, Marc; Alhathal, Naif; Latour, Mathieu; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) greatly influence patient quality of life. Data regarding predictors of early continence, especially 1 month following RARP, are limited. Previous reports mainly address immediate or 3-month postoperative continence rates. We examine preoperative predictors of pad-free continence recovery at the first follow-up visit 1 month after RARP. Methods: Between January 2007 and January 2013, preoperative and follow-up data were prospectively collected for 327 RARP patients operated on by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons (AEH and KCZ). Patient and operative characteristics included age, body mass index (BMI), staging, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate weight, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score and type of nerve-sparing performed. Continence was defined by 0-pad usage at 1 month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess for predictors of early continence. Results: Overall, 44% of patients were pad-free 1 month post-RARP. In multivariate regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 0.946, confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.91, 0.98) and IPSS (OR: 0.953, CI 95%: 0.92, 0.99) were independent predictors of urinary continence 1 month following RARP. Other variables (BMI, staging, preoperative PSA, SHIM score, prostate weight and type of nerve-sparing) were not statistically significant predictors of early continence. Limitations of this study include missing data for comorbidities, patient use of pelvic floor exercises and patient maximal activity. Moreover, patient-reported continence using a 0-pad usage definition represents a semiquantitative and subjective measurement. Conclusion: In a broad population of patients who underwent RARP at our institution, 44% of patients were pad-free at 1 month. Age and IPSS were independent predictors of early continence after surgery. Men of advanced

  12. Two fusion predictors for continuous-time linear systems with different types of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Shin, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes new fusion predictors for continuous-time linear systems with different types of observations. The fusion predictors are formed by the summation of the local Kalman estimators (filters and predictors) with matrix weights depending only on time instants. Both fusion predictors represent the optimal linear combination of an arbitrary number of local Kalman estimators and each is fused by the minimum mean square error criterion. As a consequence of the parallel structure of the proposed predictors, parallel computers can be used for their design. This article also establishes the relationship between fusion predictors. High accuracy and computational efficiency of the fusion predictors are demonstrated through several examples, including the damper harmonic oscillator motion with a multisensory environment.

  13. Predictors of CBT outcome in older adults with GAD.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Natalie E; Amspoker, Amber B; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Cully, Jeffrey A; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-12-01

    The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life GAD (Stanley et al., 2014) which provided an opportunity to examine predictors of outcome among those who received CBT. Participants were 150 older adults who were randomized to receive 10 sessions of CBT. Completer analyses found that homework completion, number of sessions attended, lower worry severity, lower depression severity, and recruitment site predicted 6-month worry outcome on the PSWQ-A, whereas homework completion, credibility of the therapy, lower anxiety severity, and site predicted 6-month anxiety outcome on the STAI-T. In intent-to-treat multivariate analyses, however, only initial worry and anxiety severity, site, and number of sessions completed predicted treatment outcome. These results are largely consistent with predictors of outcome in younger adults and suggest that lower initial symptom severity and variables consistent with greater engagement in treatment predict outcome. PMID:25445074

  14. Psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression in diverse groups of women.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M C; Usui, W

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the extent to which a causal model developed from a theoretical formulation of postpartum depression was consistent with data collected from three groups of postpartum women. In this cross-sectional, correlational design, the samples consisted of primarily middle-class, Caucasian mothers of term infants and preterm infants, and low-income, African American mothers of term infants. Instruments included the CES-D Depression instrument, the Postpartum Support Questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem instrument, and a question regarding closeness to partner. The causal model was tested with structural equation modeling. Importance of support, support received, and closeness to partner were significant predictors of both self-esteem and depression. Predictors of postpartum depression are the same across diverse samples of women, as proposed in the causal model. PMID:11569330

  15. Encke-Beta Predictor for Orion Bum Targeting and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Shane; Scarritt, Sara; Goodman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The state vector prediction algorithm selected for Orion on-board targeting and guidance is known as the Encke-Beta method. Encke-Beta uses a universal anomaly (beta) as the independent variable, valid for circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits. The variable, related to the change in eccentric anomaly, results in integration steps that cover smaller arcs of the trajectory at or near perigee, when velocity is higher. Some burns in the EM-1 and EM-2 mission plans are much longer than burns executed with the Apollo and Space Shuttle vehicles. Burn length, as well as hyperbolic trajectories, has driven the use of the Encke-Beta numerical predictor by the predictor/corrector guidance algorithm in place of legacy analytic thrust and gravity integrals.

  16. Biomarkers and predictors of restorative therapy effects after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Erin; Cramer, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Many restorative therapies that promote brain repair are under development. Stroke is very heterogeneous, highlighting the need to identify target populations and to understand inter-subject differences in treatment response. Several neuroimaging measures have shown promise as biomarkers and predictors, including measures of structure and function, in gray matter and white matter. Choice of biomarker and predictor can vary with the content of therapy and with the population under study, for example, contralesional hemisphere measures may be of particular importance in patients with more severe injury. Studies of training effects in healthy subjects provide insights useful to brain repair. Limitations of published studies include a focus on chronic stroke, however the brain is most galvanized to respond to restorative therapies in the early days post-stroke. Multimodal approaches might be the most robust approach for stratifying patients and so for optimizing prescription of restorative therapies after stroke. PMID:23299824

  17. Hierarchical Adaptive Regression Kernels for Regression with Functional Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Dawn B.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Ruppert, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method for regression using a parsimonious and scientifically interpretable representation of functional predictors. Our approach is designed for data that exhibit features such as spikes, dips, and plateaus whose frequency, location, size, and shape varies stochastically across subjects. We propose Bayesian inference of the joint functional and exposure models, and give a method for efficient computation. We contrast our approach with existing state-of-the-art methods for regression with functional predictors, and show that our method is more effective and efficient for data that include features occurring at varying locations. We apply our methodology to a large and complex dataset from the Sleep Heart Health Study, to quantify the association between sleep characteristics and health outcomes. Software and technical appendices are provided in online supplemental materials. PMID:24293988

  18. An estimator-predictor approach to PLL loop filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Hurd, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to the design of digital phase locked loops (DPLLs), using estimation theory concepts in the selection of a loop filter, is presented. The key concept is that the DPLL closed-loop transfer function is decomposed into an estimator and a predictor. The estimator provides recursive estimates of phase, frequency, and higher order derivatives, while the predictor compensates for the transport lag inherent in the loop. This decomposition results in a straightforward loop filter design procedure, enabling use of techniques from optimal and sub-optimal estimation theory. A design example for a particular choice of estimator is presented, followed by analysis of the associated bandwidth, gain margin, and steady state errors caused by unmodeled dynamics. This approach is under consideration for the design of the Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver Carrier DPLL.

  19. Predictors of CBT Outcome in Older Adults with GAD

    PubMed Central

    Hundt, Natalie E.; Amspoker, Amber B.; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life GAD (Stanley et al., 2014) which provided an opportunity to examine predictors of outcome among those who received CBT. Participants were 150 older adults who were randomized to receive 10 sessions of CBT. Completer analyses found that homework completion, number of sessions attended, lower worry severity, lower depression severity, and recruitment site predicted 6-month worry outcome on the PSWQ-A, whereas homework completion, credibility of the therapy, lower anxiety severity, and site predicted better 6-month anxiety outcome on the STAI-T. In intent-to-treat multivariate analyses, however, only initial worry and anxiety severity, site, and number of sessions completed predicted treatment outcome. These results are largely consistent with predictors of outcome in younger adults and suggest that lower initial symptom severity and variables consistent with greater engagement in treatment predict outcome. PMID:25445074

  20. Predictors of body dissatisfaction in a Hispanic college student sample.

    PubMed

    Blow, Julie; Cooper, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of demographic, mood, acculturation, weight, and accurate weight feedback on body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. One hundred and sixty Hispanic college students completed measures assessing depressive symptoms, acculturation, affect, and body image. Participants were randomized to receive immediate or delayed weight feedback. Three multiple regression analyses assessed predictors of body dissatisfaction, body weight and fitness happiness, and perceived attractiveness. A hierarchical regression model assessed body dissatisfaction after receiving feedback. Results indicate that greater body dissatisfaction was associated with females, greater depressive symptomatology, and higher weight. Body weight and fitness happiness was associated with males and greater positive affect. Perceived attractiveness was related to smoking, greater positive affect, and greater importance placed on weight. Body dissatisfaction was not impacted by accurate weight feedback. Studies assessing the impact of these predictors in weight loss and/or body acceptance interventions are warranted, particularly in Hispanic college students. PMID:24411740

  1. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:9818990

  2. Statistical significance of climate sensitivity predictors obtained by data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Peter M.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Klein, Stephen A.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Sanderson, Benjamin M.

    2014-03-01

    Several recent efforts to estimate Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) focus on identifying quantities in the current climate which are skillful predictors of ECS yet can be constrained by observations. This study automates the search for observable predictors using data from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The primary focus of this paper is assessing statistical significance of the resulting predictive relationships. Failure to account for dependence between models, variables, locations, and seasons is shown to yield misleading results. A new technique for testing the field significance of data-mined correlations which avoids these problems is presented. Using this new approach, all 41,741 relationships we tested were found to be explainable by chance. This leads us to conclude that data mining is best used to identify potential relationships which are then validated or discarded using physically based hypothesis testing.

  3. Personal predictors of spectator aggression at little league baseball games.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Dwight A; Schwartz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Parents from two baseball leagues completed questionnaires regarding their likelihood of engaging in various aggressive behaviors (yelling, swearing, shoving, fighting, humiliating) toward targets at youth baseball games (other spectators, umpires, coaches, other players, their child). Overall, the likelihood of all forms of aggression was very low, particularly physical aggression and swearing. Hierarchical entry stepwise regressions were calculated to determine predictors of yelling and humiliating using demographics, trait aggression, anger, hostility, and vengeance as predictors. Parents with greater hostility reported a greater likelihood of humiliating a child's teammate, while those with elevated trait anger reported a greater likelihood of yelling at other spectators. Finally, parents with a more vengeful attitude reported a greater likelihood of humiliating umpires. PMID:17479556

  4. Spatial patterns and predictors of trophic control in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Daniel G; Frank, Kenneth T; Worm, Boris; Leggett, William C

    2015-10-01

    A key question in ecology is under which conditions ecosystem structure tends to be controlled by resource availability vs. consumer pressure. Several hypotheses derived from theory, experiments and observational field studies have been advanced, yet a unified explanation remains elusive. Here, we identify common predictors of trophic control in a synthetic analysis of 52 observational field studies conducted within marine ecosystems across the Northern Hemisphere and published between 1951 and 2014. Spatial regression analysis of 45 candidate variables revealed temperature to be the dominant predictor, with unimodal effects on trophic control operating both directly (r(2) = 0.32; P < 0.0001) and indirectly through influences on turnover rate and quality of primary production, biodiversity and omnivory. These findings indicate that temperature is an overarching determinant of the trophic dynamics of marine ecosystems, and that variation in ocean temperature will affect the trophic structure of marine ecosystems through both direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:26252155

  5. Comparison and validation of genomic predictors for anticancer drug sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; De Jay, Nicolas; Hachem, Nehme; Olsen, Catharina; Bontempi, Gianluca; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Background An enduring challenge in personalized medicine lies in selecting the right drug for each individual patient. While testing of drugs on patients in large trials is the only way to assess their clinical efficacy and toxicity, we dramatically lack resources to test the hundreds of drugs currently under development. Therefore the use of preclinical model systems has been intensively investigated as this approach enables response to hundreds of drugs to be tested in multiple cell lines in parallel. Methods Two large-scale pharmacogenomic studies recently screened multiple anticancer drugs on over 1000 cell lines. We propose to combine these datasets to build and robustly validate genomic predictors of drug response. We compared five different approaches for building predictors of increasing complexity. We assessed their performance in cross-validation and in two large validation sets, one containing the same cell lines present in the training set and another dataset composed of cell lines that have never been used during the training phase. Results Sixteen drugs were found in common between the datasets. We were able to validate multivariate predictors for three out of the 16 tested drugs, namely irinotecan, PD-0325901, and PLX4720. Moreover, we observed that response to 17-AAG, an inhibitor of Hsp90, could be efficiently predicted by the expression level of a single gene, NQO1. Conclusion These results suggest that genomic predictors could be robustly validated for specific drugs. If successfully validated in patients’ tumor cells, and subsequently in clinical trials, they could act as companion tests for the corresponding drugs and play an important role in personalized medicine. PMID:23355484

  6. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials. PMID:26122979

  7. Predictors of Successful Clinical Performance in Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore self-efficacy and emotional intelligence (EI) as predictors for successful clinical performance in nursing students. Students (n = 56) from 5 associate degree in nursing (ADN) schools in 2 Northeastern states participated in the study. Findings demonstrated significant relationships among EI, self-efficacy, and student-rated clinical competence. The findings from this study support the importance of fostering clinical self-efficacy and building EI abilities in ADN students. PMID:25628244

  8. Pubertal Timing and Demographic Predictors of Adolescents in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sabageh, Donatus; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in the timing of puberty have been an area of research interest in developed countries because of its associated health and psychosocial problems. Adolescents in Africa are no exception as they are reaching adulthood today much earlier than before. This changing trend may have a major influence on adolescents’ sexual behaviour. Aim This study determined the timing of puberty and demographic predictors among the adolescents in southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional study. Using Modified Sexual Maturity Scale (MSMS) of pubertal assessment, data were collected from 1000 respondents from rural and urban areas of Osun state, Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested Assisted Self Completion Questionnaires (ASCQ). The rate of pubertal development was based on age group and current pubertal stage. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were done to identify significant demographic predictors. Statistical significance was at 5% level. Results The overall mean age of the respondents was 14.22±2.47 years. The mean age for males was 14.19±2.38 years and 14.25±2.57 years for females. A total of 52.9% of the respondents were males and 47.1% were females. Higher proportions of the females, 41.6% were already in late puberty stages compared to their male counterparts where 21.9% were at this stage. With regards to this rate of pubertal development, more males, 14.2% significantly had late rate of pubertal development than the females 5.1%. The significant demographic predictors was socio-economic class in females only. Conclusion From this study, the timing of puberty was early for females and socio-economic class is an important demographic predictor for pubertal development. This study was however limited because intrinsic factors such as genetic makeup and nutritional status which could affect the finding were not be excluded. PMID:26435973

  9. Radiographic Predictors of DRUJ Instability with Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Onishi, Tadanobu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Because the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is an inherently unstable joint, the diagnosis and treatment of DRUJ instability is often difficult in a clinical hand surgery practice. Several soft tissue stabilizers are recognized, of which the deep limbs of the radioulnar ligament are primary stabilizers. This article discusses the predictors of DRUJ instability in distal radius fractures based on our clinical and biomechanical analyses. PMID:24533238

  10. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ≥40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of ≥ 40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ≥50 (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR = 1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR = 2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR = 1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI ≥ 30 Kg/meter squared (OR = 2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

  11. Predictors of outpatient treatment retention: patient versus substance use characteristics.

    PubMed

    McCaul, M E; Svikis, D S; Moore, R D

    2001-03-01

    The present study examined predictors of participation and retention for patients treated at an urban, hospital-based outpatient substance abuse treatment clinic. All patients were interviewed using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) at the time of admission. Based on lifetime diagnostic history of psychoactive substance abuse/dependence, patients (N=268) were classified as: alcohol-only, drug(s)-only, and alcohol+drug(s). Alcohol-only patients were significantly older, more likely to be Caucasian, married, have less than a high school education, and be employed than drug-only or alcohol/drug patients. Using multiple regression analysis, substance use status did not predict treatment participation and retention, whereas race, gender and employment composite score were significant predictors. Specifically, patients attended more sessions and remained in treatment longer if they were Caucasian, male and had a high employment composite score. These findings suggest that type of substance abuse may be overemphasized as a predictor of outpatient drug-free treatment retention, and that greater emphasis should be placed on tailoring treatment to patients' cultural, gender and vocational needs. PMID:11173163

  12. Avoiding DWI Among Bar-room Drinkers: Strategies and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Barry D.; Rogers, John W.; Howard, Jan; Frissell, Kevin C.; Harding, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and predictors of 11strategies to avoid driving when feeling intoxicated among 561 bar-room patrons in two medium-sized Maryland communities. Logistic regression analyses identified demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal predictors of avoidance strategies and interactions among predictors. Overall, 89% reported one or more DWI avoidance actions in the past year, and 38% reported driving intoxicated during that time. Average frequencies of avoidance behavior and intoxicated driving increased significantly as drinking level increased. However, the higher the drinking level, the smaller the ratio of avoidance actions to DWI experiences, highlighting the vulnerability of heavy drinkers who had driven intoxicated. Using a sober driver or one who allegedly drank less than the respondent were the most popular and frequent strategies, but paying for a cab, walking, and using a bus or free cab were relatively unpopular. Higher drinking levels predicted significantly higher odds of using avoidance approaches, as did intoxicated driving. Confidence in driving safely when intoxicated was positively related to drinking level and intoxicated driving, but it tended to predict lower odds of avoidance actions. Similarly, marital status, age, gender, and location influenced the odds of avoidance behaviors. Interventions should be strategically tailored to exploit or counter drinker predilections among avoidance options. PMID:22879742

  13. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080

  15. Sample size requirements for training high-dimensional risk predictors

    PubMed Central

    Dobbin, Kevin K.; Song, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    A common objective of biomarker studies is to develop a predictor of patient survival outcome. Determining the number of samples required to train a predictor from survival data is important for designing such studies. Existing sample size methods for training studies use parametric models for the high-dimensional data and cannot handle a right-censored dependent variable. We present a new training sample size method that is non-parametric with respect to the high-dimensional vectors, and is developed for a right-censored response. The method can be applied to any prediction algorithm that satisfies a set of conditions. The sample size is chosen so that the expected performance of the predictor is within a user-defined tolerance of optimal. The central method is based on a pilot dataset. To quantify uncertainty, a method to construct a confidence interval for the tolerance is developed. Adequacy of the size of the pilot dataset is discussed. An alternative model-based version of our method for estimating the tolerance when no adequate pilot dataset is available is presented. The model-based method requires a covariance matrix be specified, but we show that the identity covariance matrix provides adequate sample size when the user specifies three key quantities. Application of the sample size method to two microarray datasets is discussed. PMID:23873895

  16. On the uncertainty of individual prediction because of sampling predictors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Xiaochun

    2016-05-30

    Prediction of an outcome for a given unit based on prediction models built on a training sample plays a major role in many research areas. The uncertainty of the prediction is predominantly characterized by the subject sampling variation in current practice, where prediction models built on hypothetically re-sampled units yield variable predictions for the same unit of interest. It is almost always true that the predictors used to build prediction models are simply a subset of the entirety of factors related to the outcome. Following the frequentist principle, we can account for the variation because of hypothetically re-sampled predictors used to build the prediction models. This is particularly important in medicine where the prediction has important and sometime life-death consequences on a patient's health status. In this article, we discuss some rationale along this line in the context of medicine. We propose a simple approach to estimate the standard error of the prediction that accounts for the variation because of sampling both subjects and predictors under logistic and Cox regression models. A simulation study is presented to support our argument and demonstrate the performance of our method. The concept and method are applied to a real data set. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26712471

  17. Survey and Method for Determination of Trajectory Predictor Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentas, Tamika L.; Green, Steven M.; Cate, Karen Tung

    2009-01-01

    A survey of air-traffic-management researchers, representing a broad range of automation applications, was conducted to document trajectory-predictor requirements for future decision-support systems. Results indicated that the researchers were unable to articulate a basic set of trajectory-prediction requirements for their automation concepts. Survey responses showed the need to establish a process to help developers determine the trajectory-predictor-performance requirements for their concepts. Two methods for determining trajectory-predictor requirements are introduced. A fast-time simulation method is discussed that captures the sensitivity of a concept to the performance of its trajectory-prediction capability. A characterization method is proposed to provide quicker, yet less precise results, based on analysis and simulation to characterize the trajectory-prediction errors associated with key modeling options for a specific concept. Concept developers can then identify the relative sizes of errors associated with key modeling options, and qualitatively determine which options lead to significant errors. The characterization method is demonstrated for a case study involving future airport surface traffic management automation. Of the top four sources of error, results indicated that the error associated with accelerations to and from turn speeds was unacceptable, the error associated with the turn path model was acceptable, and the error associated with taxi-speed estimation was of concern and needed a higher fidelity concept simulation to obtain a more precise result

  18. Longitudinal Neuropsychiatric Predictors of Death in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Long, Jeffrey D; Robinson, Robert G; Trequattrini, Alberto; Pizzoli, Sonia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Orfei, Maria D

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics associated with life expectancy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still far from known. Here we aimed at examining the ability of baseline/longitudinal clinical variables to predict time to death. One-hundred fifty AD outpatients underwent diagnostic, neuropsychiatric, and functional assessment at baseline (when ApoE ɛ4 was also investigated) and at each subsequent annual visit. A random effects joint modeling approach was used to simultaneously model the baseline and longitudinal trajectory of each factor and predict the time to death, adjusting for demographic covariates. An ancillary analysis of ApoE ɛ4 status as a predictor was also conducted. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to elucidate the relationship between each factor and the estimated probability of death over time. Shorter survival was associated with male gender, higher education, older age, lower cognition, and worse functioning in daily life, but not ApoE ɛ4 status. Longitudinal trajectories increased predictive power over using just baseline levels highlighting apathy, and secondarily aberrant motor behaviors and sleep disorders, as a highly reliable predictor for mortality. Apathy was the strongest neuropsychiatric predictor of time to death, which supports its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. An increased knowledge of factors modulating survival in AD is a strategic prerequisite to plan therapeutic interventions. PMID:26402103

  19. Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence in Hyperthyroid and Euthyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gürdoğan, Muhammet; Ari, Hasan; Tenekecioğlu, Erhan; Arı, Selma; Bozat, Tahsin; Koca, Vedat; Melek, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults, and is encountered in 10-15% of the patients with hyperthyroidism. Unless euthyroidism is restored, pharmacological or electrical cardioversion is controversial in patients with AF who remain hyperthyroid. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of electrical cardioversion and predictors of AF recurrence in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients. Methods The study included 33 hyperthyroid (21 males) and 48 euthyroid (17 males) patients with persistent AF. The patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam before undergoing electrical cardioversion delivered by synchronized biphasic shocks. Rates of AF recurrence were recorded. Results Mean follow-up was 23.63 ± 3.74 months in the hyperthyroid group and 22.78 ± 3.15 months in the euthyroid group (p = 0.51). AF recurred in 14 (43.8%) and 21 (44.7%) patients in each group, respectively (p = 0.93). Multivariate regression analysis in each group showed that AF duration was the only predictor of AF recurrence, with odds ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 - 1.82, p = 0.02) in the hyperthyroid group and 1.42 (95% CI = 1.05 - 1.91, p= 0.02) in the euthyroid group. Conclusion Rates of long-term AF recurrence were similar in successfully cardioverted hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients. The only predictor of AF recurrence in both groups was AF duration. PMID:26815460

  20. [Extradyadic Sex and its Predictors in Homo- and Heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Haversath, Julia; Kröger, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Infidelity appears to be a common phenomenon. Although there are initially positive consequences for the unfaithful partner, it has negative impacts on individuals, the relationship and health in the long-term. How often are extradyadic sexual contacts indicated within a German sample? Which factors predict infidelity? Via Internet (n=1 899) socio-demographic, individual (attitudes towards infidelity, religiosity), relationship (global and emotional relationship satisfaction, length of primary relationship, sexual agreements), and contextual factors (opportunities) were surveyed. The results of the regression analysis on an 80% subsample (n=1 533) were cross-validated with the remaining 20% of the data (n=366). The analysis showed that 4% of lesbian women, 34% of gay men, 29% of heterosexual women and 49% of heterosexual men reported extra-dyadic sexual contacts. Sexual orientation and restrictive attitudes towards monogamy and infidelity were found to be significant predictors. Low global relationship satisfaction, longer duration of primary relationship, non-monogamous relationships, availability of alternative sexual partners and ways to conceal infidelity increased the likelihood of extradyadic involvement. Cross-validation with 20% of the data (n=366) confirmed the stability of the regression model. Future research should examine identified predictors using representative population-based data. Predictors should be considered in therapy. PMID:25494186

  1. Predictors of psychological distress among southeast Asian refugees.

    PubMed

    Chung, R C; Kagawa-Singer, M

    1993-03-01

    This paper analyzed data from one of the first needs assessment projects on a representative non-clinical population of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States in order to test two hypotheses: (1) whether or not premigration experiences still have an effect on psychological distress beyond the initial resettlement period and (2) whether or not interethnic group differences existed in the predictors of psychological distress between three Southeast Asian refugee groups, the Vietnamese, Cambodians and Lao. The results of the analysis of 2180 subjects supported both hypotheses. Regardless of ethnicity and the number of years in the U.S., premigration trauma events and refugee camp experiences were significant predictors of psychological distress even 5 years or more after migration and significant group differences in the types of postmigration distress predictors were also found. Acculturation concerns for the Vietnamese and Lao were influenced by both premigration and postmigration variables. In contrast, the primary concerns of the Cambodians were still related to premigration issues. The results also indicated that Vietnamese and Lao women were more likely to experience distress than their male counterparts, but no gender differences emerged for the Cambodians. Age predicted distress for Vietnamese and Cambodians, but not Lao. Similar to previous findings in the literature, Cambodians reported the highest levels of distress, followed by Lao and then Vietnamese. Interpretations of these results for this community sample are proposed. PMID:8456333

  2. Predictors of prejudice against lesbians and gay men in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    West, Keon; Cowell, Noel M

    2015-01-01

    Jamaica has acquired an international reputation for strong antigay prejudice, incidents of antigay violence, and outspoken, antigay public figures. In recent years, national and international gay rights groups have attempted to improve this situation. However, these efforts have not been based on an empirical analysis of the factors underlying Jamaican antigay bias, which is essential for developing effective prejudice-reducing strategies. Using data collected in two large-scale national surveys in 2011 and 2012 (N 2011 = 997, N 2012 = 945), we investigated predictors of Jamaican antigay prejudice, including age, gender, religious affiliation, education, income, and a preference for dancehall music. We also examined changes in reported antigay bias between 2011 and 2012 after accounting for other predictors. All proposed variables predicted some aspect of antigay prejudice, though sometimes in unexpected ways. Male gender emerged as a particularly important predictor. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our design and the implications of our findings for prejudice-reduction strategies in Jamaica. PMID:24483715

  3. Predictors of Chain Acquisition among Independent Dialysis Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Pozniak, Alyssa S; Hirth, Richard A; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis providers. Data Sources Retrospective facility-level data combined from CMS Cost Reports, Medical Evidence Forms, Annual Facility Surveys, and claims for 1996–2003. Study Design Independent dialysis facilities' probability of acquisition by a dialysis chain (overall and by chain size) was estimated using a discrete time hazard rate model, controlling for financial and clinical performance, practice patterns, market factors, and other facility characteristics. Data Collection The sample includes all U.S. freestanding dialysis facilities that report not being chain affiliated for at least 1 year between 1997 and 2003. Principal Findings Above-average costs and better quality outcomes are significant determinants of dialysis chain acquisition. Facilities in larger markets were more likely to be acquired by a chain. Furthermore, small dialysis chains have different acquisition strategies than large chains. Conclusions Dialysis chains appear to employ a mix of turn-around and cream-skimming strategies. Poor financial health is a predictor of chain acquisition as in other health care sectors, but the increased likelihood of chain acquisition among higher quality facilities is unique to the dialysis industry. Significant differences among predictors of acquisition by small and large chains reinforce the importance of using a richer classification for chain status. PMID:20148985

  4. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Jomphe-Tremblay, Simon; Lamothe, Gilles; Stacey, Dawn; Szczotka, Agnieszka; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM). In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks), the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions. PMID:25988763

  5. Sexual coercion in men and women: similar behaviors, different predictors.

    PubMed

    Schatzel-Murphy, Elizabeth A; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A; Milburn, Michael A

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the contention that both women and men employ various seductive, manipulative, intoxication, and even forceful tactics of sexual coercion to obtain sexual contact from unwilling partners. Although the self-reported coercive behavior of men and women may appear similar in many respects, predictors of such behavior seem to vary in important ways across gender. In addition to examining the prevalence of coercive behaviors reported across gender, the present study examined the extent to which four variables found in models of male sexual coercion predicted self-reported use of sexual coercion in a sample (n = 186) of college men and women: prior sexual abuse, sexual dominance, sociosexuality, and sexual compulsivity. Although prior sexual abuse seemed to be part of a cycle of sexual coercion among both men and women, key predictors of sexual coercion among men were sexual dominance and sociosexuality, whereas the key predictor of sexual coercion among women was sexual compulsivity. These findings support the notion that whereas men may behave coercively to obtain or maintain an impersonal sense of power and control, women may behave coercively to achieve some level of interpersonal connection when feeling out of control. PMID:19330440

  6. Predictors of uncontrolled hypertension in the Stroke Belt.

    PubMed

    Dave, Gaurav J; Bibeau, Daniel L; Schulz, Mark R; Aronson, Robert E; Ivanov, Louise L; Black, Adina; Spann, Lapronda

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate control of high systolic blood pressure in older adults has been largely attributable to poor control of overall hypertension (HTN). The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines emphasize the importance of controlling isolated systolic HTN in older adults. The study examined demographics, self-reported health information, and clinical measures as predictors of uncontrolled HTN among individuals taking antihypertensive medications. The Community Initiative to Eliminate Stroke, a stroke risk factor screening and prevention project, collected data in two North Carolina counties. Statistical modeling of predictors included odds ratios (ORs) and logistic regression analyses. Of the 2663 participants, 43.5% and 22.8% had uncontrolled systolic and diastolic HTN, respectively. African Americans were more likely to have uncontrolled systolic (60%) or diastolic HTN (70.9%) compared with whites (40% and 29.1%, respectively). Participants 55 years and older were more likely to have uncontrolled systolic HTN compared with younger individuals. Regression analyses showed that race (OR, 1.239; P=.00), age (OR, 1.683; P=.00), and nonadherence with medications (OR, 2.593; P=.00) were significant predictors of uncontrolled systolic HTN. Future interventions should focus on improving management of isolated systolic HTN in older adults and African Americans to increase overall control of HTN. PMID:23889718

  7. Predictor-Corrector Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youssef, Hussein; Chowdhry, Rajiv; Lee, Howard; Zimmerman, Curtis; Brandon, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An online entry guidance algorithm has been developed using a predictor-corrector approach. The algorithm is designed for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) and is demonstrated by using, the X-33 model. The objective of the design is to handle widely dispersed entry conditions and deliver the vehicle at the Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) interface box within an acceptable tolerance and without violating any of the vehicle physical constraints. Combination of several control variables is used in testing the performance and computational requirement of the algorithm. The control variables are the bank angle, angle-of-attack and the time for roll reversal. The bank angle and angle-of-attack profiles are the nominal profiles plus the perturbations in each direction. The initial guess of the bank profile is a 45 degrees bank angle with reversal at 360 seconds from liftoff. A six-element state vector is propagated to the TAEM interface box through the integration of the equations of motion (EOM). Altitude, heading and range errors are computed between the desired and the achieved state at the TAEM interface. These errors are used to correct the initial guess of the control variables. This process is repeated until the errors meet an acceptable level at the TAEM interface. Several numerical optimization methods are used to evaluate the convergent property of the predictor-predictor methodology. Successful results are demonstrated using the X-33 model.

  8. Kernel Averaged Predictors for Spatio-Temporal Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Matthew J; Gelfand, Alan E

    2012-12-01

    In applications where covariates and responses are observed across space and time, a common goal is to quantify the effect of a change in the covariates on the response while adequately accounting for the spatio-temporal structure of the observations. The most common approach for building such a model is to confine the relationship between a covariate and response variable to a single spatio-temporal location. However, oftentimes the relationship between the response and predictors may extend across space and time. In other words, the response may be affected by levels of predictors in spatio-temporal proximity to the response location. Here, a flexible modeling framework is proposed to capture such spatial and temporal lagged effects between a predictor and a response. Specifically, kernel functions are used to weight a spatio-temporal covariate surface in a regression model for the response. The kernels are assumed to be parametric and non-stationary with the data informing the parameter values of the kernel. The methodology is illustrated on simulated data as well as a physical data set of ozone concentrations to be explained by temperature. PMID:24010051

  9. Locus of Control & Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: Predictors of Student Success on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam & NCLEX-RN Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The two purposes of this study were to determine whether locus of control (LOC) was predictive of how a student would perform on the ATI Comprehensive Predictor Exam and the NCLEX-RN, and if the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) provided information that would help determine predictors of success on these two exams. The study…

  10. Predictors and Prevalence of Postconcussion Depression Symptoms in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Gray; Rabinowitz, Amanda; Meyer, Jessica; Arnett, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Depression is common after concussion and is associated with functional outcome and quality of life after injury. However, few baseline predictors of postconcussion depressive symptoms (PCDS) have been found. Objective: To describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a collegiate athlete sample at baseline and postconcussion, compare these levels of symptoms and change in symptoms with those of a control group with no reported concussions in the past year, and examine the baseline predictors for PCDS. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Undergraduate institution. Patients or Other Participants: Participants were 84 collegiate athletes (65 men, 19 women) with concussion and 42 individuals (23 men, 21 women) with no history of recent concussion who served as controls. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Beck Depression Inventory–Fast Screen was administered to the concussion group at baseline and postconcussion and to the control group at 2 time points. Results: Seventeen athletes (20%) showed a reliable increase in depression, and more athletes reported clinically important depression postconcussion than at baseline. Only 2 participants (5%) in the control group showed a reliable increase in depression. Concussed athletes were more likely to show a reliable increase in depression symptoms than control participants (χ21 = 5.2, P = .02). We also found several predictors of PCDS in the athletes, including baseline depression symptoms (r = 0.37, P < .001), baseline postconcussion symptoms (r = 0.25, P = .03), estimated premorbid intelligence (full-scale IQ; r = −0.29, P = .009), and age of first participation in organized sport (r = 0.34, P = .002). For the control group, predictors of depression symptoms at time 2 were number of previous head injuries (r = 0.31, P = .05) and baseline depression symptoms (r = 0.80, P < .001). Conclusions: A large proportion of athletes showed a reliable increase in depression after concussion, and we identified several

  11. Predictors of Serum Chlorinated Pesticide Concentrations among Prepubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige L.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.; Lee, Mary M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated predictors of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a class of lipophilic persistent chemicals. Objectives: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum OCP concentrations—hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)—among boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were recruited in a prospective cohort. The initial study visit included a physical examination; blood collection; health, lifestyle, and food-frequency questionnaires; and determination of residential distance from a local factory complex that produced HCB and β-HCH. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for OCPs at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of the boys’ serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations. Results: Among 355 boys with OCP measurements, median serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations were 158, 167, and 284 ng/g lipid, respectively. Lower body mass index, longer breastfeeding duration, and local dairy consumption were associated with higher concentrations of OCPs. Boys who lived < 2 km from the factory complex had 64% (95% CI: 37, 96) and 57% (95% CI: 32, 87) higher mean HCB and β-HCH concentrations, respectively, than boys who lived ≥ 5 km away. Living > 3 years in Chapaevsk predicted higher β-HCH concentrations, and having parents who lacked a high school education predicted higher p,p´-DDE concentrations. Conclusions: Among this cohort of prepubertal Russian boys, predictors of serum OCPs included consumption of local dairy products, longer local residence, and residential proximity to the local factory complex. Citation: Lam T, Williams PL, Burns JS, Sergeyev O, Korrick SA, Lee MM, Birnbaum LS, Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Hauser R. 2013. Predictors of serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations

  12. Modeling Natural Stream Nutrient Concentrations from Landscape Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. R.; Hawkins, C. P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding how much land use change has affected nutrient concentrations in aquatic ecosystems requires a way of estimating the nutrient concentrations that were present in these systems before they were altered. Pre-alteration data are generally not available, but models that associate natural landscape variation with stream nutrient concentrations can be used to predict natural nutrient concentrations. These models can also provide insight into which processes are primarily responsible for observed natural spatial and temporal variability in stream nutrient concentrations. We used data from 782 reference sites across the western USA to develop empirical models that predict natural, base-flow concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN). Models were built using Random Forests, a nonparametric regression technique that accounts for both interactions between variables and non-linear relationships. We developed candidate predictor variables associated with nutrient sources, sinks, or other processes potentially affecting nutrient concentrations among sites. Factors associated with watershed geology and P availability were the most important predictors of TP. Climate and co-precipitates were less important predictors. TN concentrations were equally associated with climate, atmospheric deposition, and vegetation phenology. Both models were relatively accurate (Root Mean Squared Errors < 12% of the range of observations for independent validation sites) and made better predictions than previous models of natural nutrient concentrations. However, the models were not very precise (r2 = 0.46 for the TP model, and r2 = 0.23 for the TN model). An analysis of the sources of variation showed that our models accounted for a majority of the spatial variation in nutrient concentrations, and much of the imprecision was due to temporal or measurement variation in nutrient concentrations.

  13. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults. PMID:23774283

  14. Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ryan P.; Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay; Benoit, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with

  15. Predictors of bacteraemia among febrile infants in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, Omolola O; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Osinusi, Kikelomo

    2002-09-01

    Fever is a common complaint in infancy, and bacteraemia is one of the more serious causes of such fever. However, there exists scanty data on risk of bacteraemia among febrile infants of developing countries and what clinical predictors, if any, could identify those febrile infants with bacteraemia. To address this issue, 102 infants aged 1-12 month(s) attending the Children's Emergency Ward of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, with rectal temperatures of > or = 38 degrees C and with a negative history of antimicrobial use for at least one week prior to presentation, were studied to identify clinical predictors of bacteraemia. Infants, meeting the eligibility criteria of the study, underwent a full clinical evaluation and had blood cultures done for aerobic organisms by standard methods. Over 38% of the infants had bacteraemia. Escherichia coli (35.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (33.3%), and Klebsiella spp. (10.3%) of positive cultures were commonly isolated. Three variables, age of < or = 6 months, restlessness, and a white cell count of >15,000/mm3, were significant independent predictors of bacteraemia. Each of these variables was associated with a 3-6-fold increase in risk of bacteraemia (age of < or = 6 months: odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.017; restlessness: odds ratio 6.3, p = 0.019; and white cell count of >15,000/mm3: odds ratio 5.4, p = 0.024). The variables, in combination, correctly classified 70% of the infants into 'bacteraemia' or 'no bacteraemia'. It is concluded that; in the setting of the study, about 4 in 10 febrile infants would have a positive blood culture for aerobic organisms and that age of < or = 6 months, restlessness, and a white cell count of > or = 15,000/mm3 are associated with a significantly increased risk of bacteraemia. Clinicians practising in such a setting need to be aware of the increased risk of bacteraemia in infants with these clinical features. PMID:12430758

  16. Role of exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive and safe measure of airways inflammation that may complement the assessment of asthma. Elevations of FeNO have recently been found to correlate with allergic sensitization. Therefore, FeNO may be a useful predictor of atopy in the general population. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO in predicting atopy in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in an age- and sex- stratified random sample of 13 to 15 year-olds in two communities in Peru. We asked participants about asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics, and underwent spirometry, assessment of FeNO and an allergy skin test. We used multivariable logistic regression to model the odds of atopy as a function of FeNO, and calculated area-under-the-curves (AUC) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO as a predictor of atopy. Results Of 1441 recruited participants, 1119 (83%) completed all evaluations. Mean FeNO was 17.6 ppb (SD=0.6) in atopics and 11.6 ppb (SD=0.8) in non-atopics (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, a FeNO>20 ppb was associated with an increase in the odds of atopy in non-asthmatics (OR=5.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.5) and asthmatics (OR=16.2, 95% CI 3.4 to 77.5). A FeNO>20 ppb was the best predictor for atopy with an AUC of 68% (95% CI 64% to 69%). Stratified by asthma, the AUC was 65% (95% CI 61% to 69%) in non-asthmatics and 82% (95% CI 71% to 91%) in asthmatics. Conclusions FeNO had limited accuracy to identify atopy among the general population; however, it may be a useful indicator of atopic phenotype among asthmatics. PMID:23639047

  17. Predictors of disability worsening in clinically isolated syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jokubaitis, Vilija G; Spelman, Tim; Kalincik, Tomas; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grand'Maison, François; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Cabrera-Gomez, José; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Boz, Cavit; Giuliani, Giorgio; Fernández-Bolaños, Ricardo; Iuliano, Gerardo; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Verheul, Freek; van Pesch, Vincent; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Fiol, Marcela; Moore, Fraser; Cristiano, Edgardo; Alroughani, Raed; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Barnett, Michael; Slee, Mark; Vella, Norbert; Herbert, Joseph; Shaw, Cameron; Saladino, Maria Laura; Amato, Maria Pia; Liew, Danny; Paolicelli, Damiano; Butzkueven, Helmut; Trojano, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess demographic, clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment exposure predictors of time to 3 or 12-month confirmed disability worsening in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We utilized the MSBase Incident Study (MSBasis), a prospective cohort study of outcome after CIS. Predictors of time to first 3 and 12-month confirmed expanded disability status scale worsening were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results About 1989 patients were analyzed, the largest seen-from-onset cohort reported to-date. A total of 391 patients had a first 3-month confirmed disability worsening event, of which 307 were sustained for 12 months. Older age at CIS onset (adjusted hazard ratio: aHR 1.17, 95% 1.06, 1.30), pyramidal (aHR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13, 1.89) and ambulation (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.09, 2.34) system dysfunction, annualized relapse rate (aHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.18, 1.22), and lower proportion of observation time on treatment were associated with 3-month confirmed worsening. Predictors of time to 12-month sustained worsening included pyramidal system dysfunction (Hazard ratio: aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05, 1.83), and older age at CIS onset (aHR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04, 1.31). Greater proportion of follow-up time exposed to treatment was associated with greater reductions in the rate of worsening. Interpretation This study provides class IV evidence for a strong protective effect of disease-modifying treatment to reduce disability worsening events in patients with CIS and early MS, and confirms age and pyramidal dysfunction at onset as risk factors. PMID:26000321

  18. Significant predictors of patients' uncertainty in primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Chien, Lung-Chang; Acquaye, Alvina A; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-05-01

    Patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) face uncertainty related to prognosis, symptoms and treatment response and toxicity. Uncertainty is correlated to negative mood states and symptom severity and interference. This study identified predictors of uncertainty during different treatment stages (newly-diagnosed, on treatment, followed-up without active treatment). One hundred eighty six patients with PBT were accrued at various points in the illness trajectory. Data collection tools included: a clinical checklist/a demographic data sheet/the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale-Brain Tumor Form. The structured additive regression model was used to identify significant demographic and clinical predictors of illness-related uncertainty. Participants were primarily white (80 %) males (53 %). They ranged in age from 19-80 (mean = 44.2 ± 12.6). Thirty-two of the 186 patients were newly-diagnosed, 64 were on treatment at the time of clinical visit with MRI evaluation, 21 were without MRI, and 69 were not on active treatment. Three subscales (ambiguity/inconsistency; unpredictability-disease prognoses; unpredictability-symptoms and other triggers) were different amongst the treatment groups (P < .01). However, patients' uncertainty during active treatment was as high as in newly-diagnosed period. Other than treatment stages, change of employment status due to the illness was the most significant predictor of illness-related uncertainty. The illness trajectory of PBT remains ambiguous, complex, and unpredictable, leading to a high incidence of uncertainty. There was variation in the subscales of uncertainty depending on treatment status. Although patients who are newly diagnosed reported the highest scores on most of the subscales, patients on treatment felt more uncertain about unpredictability of symptoms than other groups. Due to the complexity and impact of the disease, associated symptoms, and interference with functional status, comprehensive assessment of patients

  19. Predictors of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Anniston residents.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Wattigney, W A; Dutton, N D; Sjödin, A; Shelton, C; Turner, W E; Bartell, S M; Bartell, S; Carpenter, D O; Cash, J; Foushee, R; Percy, A; Frumkin, H; Lavender, M; Moysich, K; Olson, J; Pavuk, M; Rosenbaum, P; Silverstone, A; Weinstock, R; Shelton, C

    2014-10-15

    The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005-2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11-170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility. PMID:25115605

  20. Predictors and grouping for bias correction of radiosonde temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, M.; Haimberger, L.

    2015-10-01

    Due to various causes, artificial biases can be found in meteorological observations. The use of biased observations in the assimilation process leads to systematic errors in the resulting analysis unless special measures are taken during the data assimilation. One such method that avoids the assumption of unbiased input observations is the variational bias correction (VarBC), which is used successfully within the (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts) operational system, mainly to deal with satellite radiance data. In VarBC the bias of the given observation is estimated using a linear predictor model based on a small number of predefined predictors and the corresponding unknown bias parameters. These are estimated together with the model state by including a bias term in the cost function of the variational analysis. The radiosonde temperature biases depend mainly on pressure, on solar elevation, and on the instrumentation used. The optimal choice of the grouping of radiosonde stations (to get larger samples) and of the bias models is not obvious. While the method should be used in a 4D-VAR setting, its properties can be estimated off-line with much less computational effort. In this paper different methods for the grouping and the bias model are investigated, both using and not using metadata. At the same time the statistics are compared with the output of two independent homogeneity adjustment algorithms. The major outcome of this work is, apart from the development of predictors model suitable for VarBC, the detection of the high variability in the bias using grouping based on metadata.

  1. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  2. Predictors of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Anniston residents

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Wattigney, W.A.; Dutton, N.D.; Sjödin, A.; Shelton, C.; Turner, W.E.; Bartell, S.M.; Bartell, S.; Carpenter, D.O.; Cash, J.; Foushee, R.; Percy, A.; Frumkin, H.; Lavender, M.; Moysich, K.; Olson, J.; Pavuk, M.; Rosenbaum, P.; Silverstone, A.; Weinstock, R.; Shelton, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005–2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11–170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility. PMID:25115605

  3. Predictors of Disease Progression in Pediatric Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kimberly M.; Shrader, Peter; Colan, Steven D.; Mital, Seema; Margossian, Renee; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Shirali, Girish; Barker, Piers; Canter, Charles E.; Altmann, Karen; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Rychik, Jack; Tani, Lloyd Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite medical advances, children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remain at high risk of death or need for cardiac transplantation. We sought to identify predictors of disease progression in pediatric DCM. Methods and Results The Pediatric Heart Network evaluated chronic DCM patients with prospective echocardiographic and clinical data collection during an 18-month follow-up. Inclusion criteria were age <22 years and DCM disease duration >2 months. Patients requiring intravenous inotropic/mechanical support or listed status 1A/1B for transplant were excluded. Disease progression was defined as an increase in transplant listing status, hospitalization for heart failure, intravenous inotropes, mechanical support, or death. Predictors of disease progression were identified using Cox proportional hazards modeling and classification and regression tree analysis. Of the 127 patients, 28 (22%) had disease progression during the 18-month follow-up. Multivariable analysis identified older age at diagnosis (hazard ratio=1.14 per year; P<0.001), larger left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic M-mode dimension z-score (hazard ratio=1.49; P<0.001), and lower septal peak systolic tissue Doppler velocity z-score (hazard ratio=0.81; P=0.01) as independent predictors of disease progression. Classification and regression tree analysis stratified patients at risk of disease progression with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity based on LV end-diastolic M-mode dimension z-score ≥7.7, LV ejection fraction <39%, LV inflow propagation velocity (color M-mode) z-score <-0.28, and age at diagnosis ≥8.5 months. Conclusions In children with chronic stable DCM, a combination of diagnosis after late infancy and echocardiographic parameters of larger LV size and systolic and diastolic function predicted disease progression. PMID:24132734

  4. Predictors of enduring clinical distress in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N N; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Aaronson, Neil K; van Abbema, Doris L; den Boer, Mathilda D; van Hezewijk, Marjan; Immink, Marcelle; Kaptein, Ad A; Menke-Pluijmers, Marian B E; Reyners, Anna K L; Russell, Nicola S; Schriek, Manon; Sijtsema, Sieta; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2016-08-01

    To date, little is known about enduring clinical distress as measured with the commonly used distress thermometer. We therefore used the distress thermometer to examine: (a) the prevalence of enduring clinical distress, distress-related problems, and subsequent wish for referral of women with breast cancer, and (b) sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of enduring clinical distress. The study had a multicenter, prospective, observational design. Patients with primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Medical data were retrieved from chart reviews. Enduring clinical distress was defined as heightened distress levels over time. The prevalence of enduring clinical distress, problems, and wish for referral was examined with descriptive analyses. Associations between predictors and enduring clinical distress were examined with multivariate analyses. One hundred sixty-four of 746 patients (22 %) reported having enduring clinical distress at 6 and 15 months postdiagnosis. Of these, 10 % wanted to be referred for care. Fatigue was the most frequently reported problem by patients with and without clinical distress, at both time points. Lack of muscle strength (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.98), experience of a low level of life satisfaction (OR = 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.89), more frequent cancer worry (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.05-1.89), and neuroticism (OR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18) were predictors of enduring clinical distress. In conclusion, one in five women with breast cancer develops enduring clinical distress. Oncologists, nurse practitioners, and cancer nurses are advised to use single-item questions about distress and distress-related problems to ensure timely detection of high-risk patients. Providers should also routinely assess fatigue and its causes, as fatigue is the most frequently reported distress-related problem over time. PMID:27417105

  5. Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon Clinical Findings and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Sanati, Hamidreza; Kiani, Reza; Shakerian, Farshad; Firouzi, Ata; Zahedmehr, Ali; Peighambari, Mohammadmehdi; Shokrian, Leila; Ashrafi, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Background: In some patients with chest pain, selective coronary angiography reveals slow contrast agent passage through the epicardial coronary arteries in the absence of stenosis. This phenomenon has been designated the slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to describe the demographic and clinical findings and presence of common atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with the SCF phenomenon. Patients and Methods: Between October 2014 and March 2015, demographic data, clinical histories, atherosclerosis risk factors, and laboratory and angiographic findings were recorded for all consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography and diagnosed with the SCF phenomenon, as well as a control group (patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries; NECA). SCF was diagnosed based on the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC). A TFC > 27 indicated a diagnosis of SCF phenomenon. Results: Among the 3600 patients scheduled for selective coronary angiography, 75 (2%) met the SCF criteria. SCF and NECA patients did not exhibit statistically significant differences in traditional risk factors except for hypertension, which was more prevalent in SCF than NECA patients (52% versus 31%, P = 0.008). A multivariable analysis indicated a low body mass index, presence of hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level, and high hemoglobin level as independent predictors of the SCF phenomenon; of these, hypertension was the strongest predictor (odds ratio = 6.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.2 - 17.9, P = 0.001). Conclusions: The SCF phenomenon is relatively frequent, particularly among patients with acute coronary syndrome who are scheduled for coronary angiography. Hypertension, a low HDL-c level, and high hemoglobin level can be considered independent predictors of this phenomenon. PMID:26889458

  6. Predictors of Clergy's Ability to Fulfill a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Role.

    PubMed

    Mason, Karen; Geist, Monica; Kuo, Richard; Marshall, Day; Wines, James D

    2016-03-01

    Catholic, Jewish and Protestant clergy (n = 801) completed a survey to identify predictors of clergy's ability to fulfill a suicide gatekeeper role. Exploratory backward stepwise regression identified predictors of risk identification including suicide knowledge, religion, conducting suicide funerals, having an attitude that people have a right to die, age, and race. Predictors of ability to intervene include suicide knowledge, training, religion, right to die attitude, and ethnicity. Recommendations include more suicide training and clergy self-care. PMID:26956748

  7. Certain death: ten predictors of hospital information system failure.

    PubMed

    Freed, David H

    2006-01-01

    Management is surprised when big investments in hospital information technology fail to produce expected results. Although failure appears to be sudden, it is actually the cumulative result of many subtle acts of omission by multiple parties over an extended period. Unfortunately, many senior managers recognize, but few confront the early warning signals of impending disaster. This article outlines 10 common predictors of hospital information system failure plus effective antidotes in each case. A carefully defined project outcome, appropriate project governance structure, and rigorous adherence to a structured systems development methodology are particularly critical management tools for assuring return on investment. PMID:16501379

  8. A predictor-corrector scheme for vortex identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Banks, David C.

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm for identifying and characterizing vortices in complex flows is presented. The scheme uses both the vorticity and pressure fields. A skeleton line along the center of a vortex is produced by a two-step predictor-corrector scheme. The technique uses the vector field to move in the direction of the skeleton line and the scalar field to correct the location in the plane perpendicular to the skeleton line. A general vortex cross section can be concisely defined with five parameters at each point along the skeleton line. The details of the method and examples of its use are discussed.

  9. The comparison of predictors of death obsession within two cultures.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Maltby, John

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare various predictors of death obsession (i.e., anxiety, optimism, pessimism), and self-ratings of religiosity, physical health, mental health, happiness, and satisfaction with life, among 2 samples of college students recruited from two different cultures: Kuwait (n = 271) and United Kingdom (n = 205). The findings suggest that anxiety, among both samples, pessimism among the Kuwait sample, and (un) happiness among the U.K. sample, might provide a good theoretical and empirical context with which to better understand the causes and consequences of death obsession. PMID:18850685

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of the Predictors of Tanning Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Wilson, Diane B.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate possible predictors of tanning dependence including demographic variables, exposure and protective behaviors, and other health-related behaviors. Methods This study consisted of an online survey of 400 students and other volunteers from a university community. Results Twenty-seven percent of the sample was classified as tanning dependent. Tanning dependence was predicted by ethnicity and skin type, indoor and outdoor tanning and burning, and lower skin protective behaviors, as well as smoking and body mass index. Conclusions Young adults are at risk for tanning dependence, which can be predicted by specific demographic and behavioral variables. PMID:18241130

  11. Predictors of Parental Mediation Regarding Children's Smartphone Use.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoori; Jeong, Se-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Children's addiction to smartphones has become a serious issue, and parental mediation could help prevent children's problematic use of smartphones. This research examined the factors that predict and explain parents' intention to mediate children's behavior over smartphone use. Based on a survey of 460 parents of elementary school students, we found that parental mediation was predicted by (a) parent's own addiction to smartphones, (b) perceived severity of smartphone addiction, and (c) personality traits such as neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the predictors of parental mediation regarding children's smartphone addiction, and the findings suggest some strategies to increase parental mediation. PMID:26544162

  12. LACIE performance predictor final operational capability program description, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements and processing logic for the LACIE Error Model program (LEM) are described. This program is an integral part of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) system. LEM is that portion of the LPP (LACIE Performance Predictor) which simulates the sample segment classification, strata yield estimation, and production aggregation. LEM controls repetitive Monte Carlo trials based on input error distributions to obtain statistical estimates of the wheat area, yield, and production at different levels of aggregation. LEM interfaces with the rest of the LPP through a set of data files.

  13. Biological predictors of pharmacological therapy in anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Eduard; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    At least one third of patients with anxiety disorders do not adequately respond to available pharmacological treatment. The reason that some patients with anxiety disorders respond well, but others not, to the same classes of medication is not yet fully understood. It is suggested that several biological factors may influence treatment mechanisms in anxiety and therefore could be identified as possible biomarkers predicting treatment response. In this review, we look at current evidence exploring different types of treatment predictors, including neuroimaging, genetic factors, and blood-related measures, which could open up novel perspectives in clinical management of patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:26487811

  14. Algorithmic properties of the midpoint predictor-corrector time integrator.

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, William J.; Love, Edward; Scovazzi, Guglielmo

    2009-03-01

    Algorithmic properties of the midpoint predictor-corrector time integration algorithm are examined. In the case of a finite number of iterations, the errors in angular momentum conservation and incremental objectivity are controlled by the number of iterations performed. Exact angular momentum conservation and exact incremental objectivity are achieved in the limit of an infinite number of iterations. A complete stability and dispersion analysis of the linearized algorithm is detailed. The main observation is that stability depends critically on the number of iterations performed.

  15. A Runtime Performance Predictor for Selecting Tabu Tenures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John A.; Minton, Steven N.

    1997-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of parameter based systems, such as tabu search, is the difficulty of finding the correct parameter for a particular problem. Often, rule-of-thumb advice is given which may have little or no applicability to the domain or problem instance at hand. This paper describes the application of a general technique, Runtime Performance Predictors (RPP) which can be used to determine, in an efficient manner, the correct tabu tenure for a particular problem instance. The details of the approach and a demonstration using a variant of GSAT are presented.

  16. Heart Rate Turbulence as Risk-Predictor after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zuern, Christine S.; Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is the baroreflex-mediated short-term oscillation of cardiac cycle lengths after spontaneous ventricular premature complexes. HRT is composed of a brief heart rate acceleration followed by a gradual heart rate deceleration. In high risk patients after myocardial infarction (MI) HRT is blunted or diminished. Since its first description in 1999 HRT emerged as one of the most potent risk factors after MI. Predictive power of HRT has been studied in more than 10,000 post-infarction patients. This review is intended to provide an overview of HRT as risk-predictor after MI. PMID:22180744

  17. Predictors of early and late stroke following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Richard; Healey, Jeff S.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Wang, Julie; Danter, Matthew R.; Tu, Jack V.; Novick, Richard; Fremes, Stephen; Teoh, Kevin; Khera, Vikas; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Much is known about the short-term risks of stroke following cardiac surgery. We examined the rate and predictors of long-term stroke in a cohort of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Methods: We obtained linked data for patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the province of Ontario between 1996 and 2006. We analyzed the incidence of stroke and death up to 2 years postoperatively. Results: Of 108 711 patients, 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–1.9%) had a stroke perioperatively, and 3.6% (95% CI 3.5%–3.7%) had a stroke within the ensuing 2 years. The strongest predictors of both early and late stroke were advanced age (≥ 65 year; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for all stroke 1.9, 95% CI 1.8–2.0), a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.3), peripheral vascular disease (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5–1.7), combined coronary bypass grafting and valve surgery (adjusted HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–1.8) and valve surgery alone (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.5). Preoperative need for dialysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.6–2.8) and new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) were predictors of only early stroke. A CHADS2 score of 2 or higher was associated with an increased risk of stroke or death compared with a score of 0 or 1 (19.9% v. 9.3% among patients with a history of atrial fibrillation, 16.8% v. 7.8% among those with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation and 14.8% v. 5.8% among those without this condition). Interpretation: Patients who had cardiac surgery were at highest risk of stroke in the early postoperative period and had continued risk over the ensuing 2 years, with similar risk factors over these periods. New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation was a predictor of only early stroke. The CHADS2 score predicted stroke risk among patients with and without atrial fibrillation. PMID:25047983

  18. Selecting and weighting spatial predictors for empirical modeling of landslide susceptibility in the Darjeeling Himalayas (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Saibal; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Westen, Cees J.; Jetten, Victor G.; Bhattacharya, Dipendra N.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we created predictive models for assessing the susceptibility to shallow translational rocksliding and debris sliding in the Darjeeling Himalayas (India) by empirically selecting and weighting spatial predictors of landslides. We demonstrate a two-stage methodology: (1) quantifying associations of individual spatial factors with landslides of different types using bivariate analysis to select predictors; and (2) pairwise comparisons of the quantified associations using an analytical hierarchy process to assign predictor weights. We integrate the weighted spatial predictors through multi-class index overlay to derive predictive models of landslide susceptibility. The resultant model for shallow translational landsliding based on selected and weighted predictors outperforms those based on all weighted predictors or selected and unweighted predictors. Therefore, spatial factors with negative associations with landslides and unweighted predictors are ineffective in predictive modeling of landslide susceptibility. We also applied logistic regression to model landslide susceptibility, but some of the selected predictors are less realistic than those from our methodology, and our methodology gives better prediction rates. Although previous predictive models of landslide susceptibility indicate that multivariate analyses are superior to bivariate analyses, we demonstrate the benefit of the proposed methodology including bivariate analyses.

  19. Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nina A.; Allen, Ryan W.; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D.; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration. PMID:20948956

  20. Independent predictors of delay in emergence from general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with intellectual disabilities spend longer than others in emergence from ambulatory general anesthesia for dental treatment. Although antiepileptic drugs and anesthetics might be involved, an independent predictor for delay of the emergence remains unclear. Thus, a purpose of this study is to identify independent factors affecting the delay of emergence from general anesthesia. This was a retrospective cohort study in dental patients with intellectual disabilities. Patients in need of sedative premedication were removed from participants. The outcome was time until emergence from general anesthesia. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used to extract independent factors affecting the outcome. Antiepileptic drugs and anesthetic parameters were included as predictor variables. The study included 102 cases. Clobazam, clonazepam, and phenobarbital were shown to be independent determinants of emergence time. Parameters relating to anesthetics, patients' backgrounds, and dental treatment were not independent factors. Delay in emergence time in ambulatory general anesthesia is likely to be related to the antiepileptic drugs of benzodiazepine or barbiturates in patients with intellectual disability. PMID:25849468

  1. Predictors of Unsafe Sex among At-Risk Heterosexual Women.

    PubMed

    Elifson, Kirk W; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E

    2010-12-01

    Despite widespread intervention efforts to curtail the spread of HIV, heterosexual transmission of HIV continues to drive the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, especially among women. Research has shown that knowledge about HIV and AIDS is relatively great, even among persons who engage in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. This begs the question: What characteristics underlie and are predictive of involvement in unprotected sex? The objective of this paper is to examine the factors that are associated with engaging in unprotected sex in a population of urban, at-risk, heterosexually-active women. Conceptually, the research is guided by the notion of understanding risk and, theoretically, by the Theory of Gender and Power. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with 178 sexually active adult at-risk heterosexual women in Atlanta, Georgia. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, and ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling procedures guided the recruitment process. Using a multivariate path analysis approach, three factors-marital status, having two drug-abusing parents, and negative attitudes toward condom use-were identified as predictors of unsafe sex. Further exploration of the latter measure yielded two factors that were statistically-significant multivariate predictors of attitudes toward using condoms: age and self-esteem level. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of a risk-prediction model containing all of these measures, and it was shown to be supported quite strongly by the data. PMID:23626486

  2. Predictors of eating attitudes and behaviors among gay Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Joseph P; Layerla, Dennys Martin; Barroso, Susana; Gattamorta, Karina A; Sanchez, Michael; Prado, Guillermo J

    2012-04-01

    Gay men are a vulnerable population at risk for a number of health disparities, but little is known about eating disorders among gay Hispanic men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of eating attitudes and behaviors with alcohol abuse, body image, depression, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors to determine predictors of eating attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of gay Hispanic men. Significant numbers of the participants were at risk for eating disorders (13%), alcohol abuse (18%), body image disturbance (29%), depression (25%), low self-esteem (12%), and high-risk sexual behaviors (34%). Alcohol abuse, body image, depression, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors were significant predictors of eating attitudes and behaviors and accounted for 38% of the variance in eating attitudes and behaviors. Nurses providing care to this population of gay men must be aware of this cluster of related mental health conditions that are experienced by these men. Addressing and treating these health conditions as a group of related mental health conditions are necessary. More research is needed to further explore this cluster of health issues among gay Hispanic men. PMID:22449559

  3. Neo-piagetian predictors of achievement in physical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    This article examines the predictive value of the cognitive variables of developmental level, mental capacity, cognitive style, short-term storage space, and numerical inductive reasoning for student achievement in college science. Achievement was analyzed for each of the categories of pure recall, computational, complex items, and total score of a midterm exam as well as for the composite score on a final exam. The sample for this study consisted of a class of 32 nonscience majors enrolled in Physical Science I at the University of Southern Mississippi. The results showed that developmental level was the single best predictor of achievement. Short-term storage space and mental capacity were significant predictors of achievement for computational and complex items, but, as expected from theoretical considerations, not for pure recall items. The degree of field dependence did not well predict performance on pure recall or computational items. The results also indicate that mental capacity and field dependence do not contribute significantly to the variance if developmental level is held constant. The pattern of the predictive power of numerical inductive reasoning parallels, in magnitude, that of mental capacity. The results of this study and its implications indicate that the construct of short-term storage space has great potential to guide classroom practice and the development of instructional materials. A strategy is outlined that would guide curriculum planners and classroom teachers in the development of materials which would allow students to develop complex problem-solving behaviors.

  4. Predictors of switch from depression to mania in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Fabbri, Chiara; Serretti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Manic switch is a relevant issue when treating bipolar depression. Some risk factors have been suggested, but unequivocal findings are lacking. We therefore investigated predictors of switch from depression to mania in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) sample. Manic switch was defined as a depressive episode followed by a (hypo)manic or mixed episode within the following 12 weeks. We assessed possible predictors of switch using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). 8403 episodes without switch and 512 episodes with switch (1720 subjects) were included in the analysis. Several baseline variables were associated with a higher risk of switch. They were younger age, previous history of: rapid cycling, severe manic symptoms, suicide attempts, amphetamine use and some pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments. During the current depressive episode, the identified risk factors were: any possible mood elevation, multiple mania-associated symptoms with at least moderate severity, and comorbid panic attacks. In conclusion, our study suggests that both characteristics of the disease history and clinical features of the current depressive episode may be risk factors for manic switch. PMID:25937504

  5. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  6. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Farkas, Dávid; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes toward self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior. PMID:23450676

  7. Predictors of sperm recovery after cryopreservation in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Darshan P; Vendryes, Christopher; Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Muller, Charles H; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify predictors of improved postthaw semen quality in men with testicular cancer banking sperm for fertility preservation. We reviewed 173 individual semen samples provided by 67 men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) who cryopreserved sperm before gonadotoxic treatment between 1994 and 2010 at our tertiary university medical center. Our main outcomes measures were independent predictors for the greater postthaw total motile count (TMC) in men with TGCT. Men with NSGCT were more likely to be younger (P < 0.01) and had high cancer stage (II or III, P < 0.01) compared with men with seminoma. In our multiple regression model, NSGCT histology, use of density gradient purification, and fresh TMC > median fresh TMC each had increased odds of a postthaw TMC greater than median postthaw TMC. Interestingly, age, advanced cancer stage (II or III), rapid freezing protocol, and motility enhancer did not show increased odds of improved postthaw TMC in our models. In conclusion, men with TGCT or poor fresh TMC should consider preserving additional vials (at least 15 vials) before oncologic treatment. Density gradient purification should be routinely used to optimize postthaw TMC in men with TGCT. Larger, randomized studies evaluating cancer stage and various cryopreservation techniques are needed to assist in counseling men with TGCT regarding fertility preservation and optimizing cryosurvival. PMID:25999362

  8. Predictors of sperm recovery after cryopreservation in testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Darshan P; Vendryes, Christopher; Lopushnyan, Natalya A; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Muller, Charles H; Walsh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify predictors of improved postthaw semen quality in men with testicular cancer banking sperm for fertility preservation. We reviewed 173 individual semen samples provided by 67 men with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) who cryopreserved sperm before gonadotoxic treatment between 1994 and 2010 at our tertiary university medical center. Our main outcomes measures were independent predictors for the greater postthaw total motile count (TMC) in men with TGCT. Men with NSGCT were more likely to be younger (P < 0.01) and had high cancer stage (II or III, P < 0.01) compared with men with seminoma. In our multiple regression model, NSGCT histology, use of density gradient purification, and fresh TMC > median fresh TMC each had increased odds of a postthaw TMC greater than median postthaw TMC. Interestingly, age, advanced cancer stage (II or III), rapid freezing protocol, and motility enhancer did not show increased odds of improved postthaw TMC in our models. In conclusion, men with TGCT or poor fresh TMC should consider preserving additional vials (at least 15 vials) before oncologic treatment. Density gradient purification should be routinely used to optimize postthaw TMC in men with TGCT. Larger, randomized studies evaluating cancer stage and various cryopreservation techniques are needed to assist in counseling men with TGCT regarding fertility preservation and optimizing cryosurvival. PMID:25999362

  9. Are Competition and Extrinsic Motivation Reliable Predictors of Academic Cheating?

    PubMed Central

    Orosz, Gábor; Farkas, Dávid; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes toward self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior. PMID:23450676

  10. Gene-Expression-Based Predictors for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arjun; Mutebi, Miriam; Bardia, Aditya

    2015-10-01

    An important and often complicated management decision in early stage hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer relates to the use of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Although traditional clinicopathologic markers exist, tremendous progress has been achieved in the field of predictive biomarkers and genomics with both prognostic and predictive capabilities to identify patients who will potentially benefit from additional therapy. The use of these genomic tests in the neoadjuvant setting is also being studied and may lead to these tests providing clinical benefit even earlier in the disease course. Landmark articles published in the last few years have expanded our knowledge of breast cancer genomics to an unprecedented level, and mutational analysis via next-generation sequencing methods allows the identification of molecular targets for novel targeted therapeutic agents and clinical trials testing efficacy of targeted therapies, such as PI3K inhibitors, in addition to endocrine therapy for HR-positive breast cancer, are ongoing. We provide an in-depth review on the role of gene expression-based predictors in early stage breast cancer and an overview of future directions, including next-generation sequencing. Over the coming years, we anticipate a significant increase in utilization of genomic-based predictors for individualized selection and duration of endocrine therapy with and without genotype-driven targeted therapy, and a major decrease in the use of chemotherapy, possibly even leading to a chemotherapy-free road for early stage HR-positive breast cancer. PMID:26215189

  11. Predictors of Measurement Error in Energy Intake During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Eric; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria; Herring, Amy; He, Ka; Stuebe, Alison; Olshan, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition plays a critical role in maternal and fetal health; however, research on error in the measurement of energy intake during pregnancy is limited. The authors analyzed data on 998 women living in central North Carolina with singleton pregnancies during 2001–2005. Second-trimester diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Estimated energy requirements were calculated using Institute of Medicine prediction equations, with adjustment for energy costs during the second trimester. Implausible values for daily energy intake were determined using confidence limits of agreement for energy intake/estimated energy requirements. Prevalences of low energy reporting (LER) and high energy reporting (HER) were 32.8% and 12.9%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, pregravid body mass index was related to both LER and HER; LER was higher in both overweight (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.02; P = 0.031) and obese (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval: 2.33, 4.65; P < 0.001) women than in normal-weight counterparts. Other predictors of LER included marriage and higher levels of physical activity. HER was higher among subjects who were underweight, African-American, and less educated and subjects who had higher depressive symptom scores. LER and HER are prevalent during pregnancy. Identifying their predictors may improve data collection and analytic methods for reducing systematic bias in the study of diet and reproductive outcomes. PMID:21273398

  12. Predictors of spirituality at the end of life

    PubMed Central

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Prapa, Efi; Smyrnioti, Marilena; Pagoropoulou, Anna; Lambros, Vlahos

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between spirituality and hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and clinical and disease-related characteristics among patients with advanced cancer, and to investigate predictors of spirituality. Spiritual well-being is thought to have a beneficial effect on patients’ response to illness. DESIGN Patients were asked to complete 4 questionnaires: the Greek version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale, the Greek version of the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and a questionnaire on demographics. SETTING A palliative care unit in Athens, Greece. PARTICIPANTS A total of 91 patients with advanced cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Associations between scores on the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs scale and scores on the Schedule of Attitudes toward Hastened Death scale and the Beck Hopelessness scale, and demographic characteristics. RESULTS Statistically significant associations were found between spirituality and sex of patients (P = .001) and spirituality and stronger hopelessness (r = 0.252, P = .016). In multivariate analyses, stronger hopelessness, male sex, younger age, and receiving chemotherapy were found to be the strongest predictors of being spiritual. CONCLUSION Demographic and clinical characteristics and stronger hopelessness appeared to have statistically significant relationships with spirituality. Interventions to improve patients’ spiritual well-being should take these relationships into account. PMID:19074719

  13. Predicting Performance in Higher Education Using Proximal Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, A. Susan M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the validity of two methods for predicting academic performance and student-program fit that were proximal to important study criteria. Applicants to an undergraduate psychology program participated in a selection procedure containing a trial-studying test based on a work sample approach, and specific skills tests in English and math. Test scores were used to predict academic achievement and progress after the first year, achievement in specific course types, enrollment, and dropout after the first year. All tests showed positive significant correlations with the criteria. The trial-studying test was consistently the best predictor in the admission procedure. We found no significant differences between the predictive validity of the trial-studying test and prior educational performance, and substantial shared explained variance between the two predictors. Only applicants with lower trial-studying scores were significantly less likely to enroll in the program. In conclusion, the trial-studying test yielded predictive validities similar to that of prior educational performance and possibly enabled self-selection. In admissions aimed at student-program fit, or in admissions in which past educational performance is difficult to use, a trial-studying test is a good instrument to predict academic performance. PMID:27073859

  14. Predictors of adult attitudes toward corporal punishment of children.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Tourigny, Marc; Joly, Jacques; Pouliot-Lapointe, Joëlle

    2007-10-01

    This study identifies predictors of favorable attitudes toward spanking. Analyses were performed with survey data collected from a representative sample of 1,000 adults from Quebec, Canada. According to this survey, a majority of respondents endorsed spanking, despite their recognition of potential harm associated with corporal punishment (CP) of children. The prediction model of attitudes toward spanking included demographics, experiencing or witnessing various forms of family violence and abuse in childhood, and perceived frequency of physical injuries resulting from CP. Spanking was the most reported childhood experience (66.4%), and most violence and abuse predictors were significantly and positively correlated. Older respondents who were spanked in childhood and who believed that spanking never or seldom results in physical injuries were the most in favor of spanking. On the other hand, respondents who reported more severe physical violence or psychological abuse in childhood were less in favor of spanking. Findings are discussed in terms of prevention of CP and family coercion cycle. PMID:17766727

  15. Incidence and predictors of smokeless tobacco use among US youth.

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, S L; Giovino, G A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of the cumulative incidence of initiation of smokeless tobacco use in a cohort of young persons and to explore sociodemographic, environmental, behavioral, and personal predictors of experimentation with and regular use of snuff or chewing tobacco. METHODS: The data for this cohort study were derived from the 1989 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey and its 1993 follow-up. The study included 7830 young people 11 through 19 years of age at baseline. RESULTS: During the 4 years, 12.7% of participants (20.9% of male participants) first tried smokeless tobacco, and 4.0% (8.0% of male participants) became self-classified regular users. This suggests that, each year, approximately 824000 young people in the United States 11 to 19 years of age experiment with smokeless tobacco and about 304 000 become regular users. Cumulative incidence was highest for male non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors of regular use included age, geographic region, cigarette smoking, participation in organized sports, and perceived friends' approval or indifference. CONCLUSIONS: Public health approaches to preventing use of smokeless tobacco should include development of skills for responding to pressures to use tobacco. PMID:9584028

  16. Neurocognitive predictors of social cognition in remitted schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Bhagyavathi, Haralahalli D; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Keshav J; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of how specific neurocognition (NC) abilities predict social cognition (SC) in schizophrenia has potential to guide novel integrated cognitive-remediation therapies. The scope of studies conducted in this field is limited as they have not examined a comprehensive set of SC domains and they employ small sample sizes of heterogeneous patient groups. We studied a broad range of NC (sustained attention, processing speed, verbal/visual memory and visual processing/encoding, cognitive flexibility and planning) and SC [different levels of theory of mind (ToM)], attributional bias, emotion recognition and social perception] abilities in 170 remitted schizophrenia patients. Multivariate regression analyses revealed attention and planning as predictors of 1st order ToM. Memory encoding was the strongest predictor of 2nd order ToM. Faux-pas recognition, social perception and emotion recognition were influenced by a combination of cognitive flexibility and memory encoding abilities. Overall, NC predicted anywhere between ~4% and 40% of variance observed in specific SC sub-dimensions of attributional bias (4%), 1st order (19%) and 2nd order (12%) theory of mind, faux-pas recognition (28%), social perception (29%) and emotion recognition (39%). Individual SC abilities are predicted by distinctive as well as shared NC abilities. These findings have important implications for integrated cognitive remediation. PMID:24953420

  17. Personality predictors of longevity: Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Methods Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age: 17 to 98 years, M = 50) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. Results In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored one SD above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average two to three years longer than those scoring one SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every one SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. Conclusions In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active. PMID:18596250

  18. Predictors of Patient Satisfaction with Tertiary Hospitals in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Hye-Sook; Peck, Eun Hee; Moon, Hee Soo; Yeom, Hye-A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the general and system-related predictors of outpatient satisfaction with tertiary health care institutions in Korea. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was employed. The subjects were 1,194 outpatients recruited from 29 outpatient clinics of a university medical center in Korea. Measurements included 5 outpatient service domains (i.e., doctor service, nurse service, technician service, convenience, and physical environment of facility) and patient satisfaction. Of the five domains, nurse service was the domain with the highest mean score (M = 4.21) and convenience was the domain with the lowest mean score (M = 3.77). The most significant predictor of patient satisfaction was the constructs of convenience (β = 0.21). The results of this study suggest that the concept of patient satisfaction with health care institutions in modern hospitals reflects an integrative process that includes not only the concerned health care personnel but also improved convenience such as user-friendly reservation system and comfortable waiting areas. PMID:25722886

  19. Clinical Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury Following Snake Bite Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Dharod, Mrudul V; Patil, Tushar B; Deshpande, Archana S; Gulhane, Ragini V; Patil, Mangesh B; Bansod, Yogendra V

    2013-01-01

    Background: Snake bite envenomation is a major public health concern in developing countries. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is as important cause of mortality in patients with vasculotoxic snake bite. Aims: This study was to evaluate the clinical profile of snake bite patients and to determine the predictors of developing AKI following snake bite. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-one patients with snake envenomation were included. Eighty-seven patients developed AKI (Group A) and 194 (Group B) did not. History, examination findings and investigations results were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: In group A, 61 (70.11%) patients were male and in group B, 117 (60.30%) patients were male. Out of 281 patients, 232 had cellulitis, 113 had bleeding tendencies, 87 had oliguria, 76 had neuroparalysis, and 23 had hypotension at presentation. After multivariate analysis, bite to hospital time (P = 0.016), hypotension (P = 0.000), albuminuria (P = 0.000), bleeding time (P = 0.000), prothrombin time (P = 0.000), hemoglobin (P = 0.000) and total bilirubin (P = 0.010) were significant independent predictors of AKI. Conclusions: AKI developed in 30.96% of patients with snake bite, leading to mortality in 39.08% patients. Factors associated with AKI are bite to hospital time, hypotension, albuminuria, prolonged bleeding time, prolonged prothrombin time, low hemoglobin and a high total bilirubin. PMID:24350071

  20. Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Samuel; Luísa Figueira, M; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto

    2016-09-30

    Craving is thought to play an important role in alcohol use disorders. The recent inclusion of "craving" as a formal diagnostic symptom calls for further investigation of this subjective phenomenon with multiple dimensions. Considering that alcohol-dependent patients compensate negative physical/emotional states with alcohol, the aim of this study is to investigate alcohol craving and its correlation with drinking measures and affective personality dimensions. A sample of 135 alcohol-dependent patients (104 males and 31 females) was collected from a clinical setting. Subjects self-rated their cravings (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) and the stage of change. Several personality scales were also administered. Craving was related to drinking status, abstinence time, age, and taking steps. After controlling for these conditions, psychological characteristics related to low self-concept, neuroticism, cyclothymic affective temperament, depression, and hostility were found to be predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients. Our results support craving as a component of the phenomenology of alcohol dependence and highlight the presence of unpleasant feelings as predictors of craving in sober alcohol-dependent patients without co-occurring psychiatric conditions. The predisposition to experience negative emotions may induce a stronger craving response and increase the likelihood of a first drink and a subsequent loss of control. PMID:27367491

  1. Predictors of Inpatient Utilization among Veterans with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Kyler M.; Morgan, Robert O.; Walder, Annette; Bass, David M.; Judge, Katherine S.; Wilson, Nancy; Snow, A. Lynn; Kunik, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is prevalent and costly, yet the predictors of inpatient hospitalization are not well understood. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to identify predictors of inpatient hospital utilization and the frequency of inpatient hospital utilization, respectively, among veterans. Variables significant at the P < 0.15 level were subsequently analyzed in a multivariate regression. This study of veterans with a diagnosis of dementia (n = 296) and their caregivers found marital status to predict hospitalization in the multivariate logistic model (B = 0.493, P = 0.029) and personal-care dependency to predict hospitalization and readmission in the multivariate logistic model and the multivariate negative binomial model (B = 1.048, P = 0.007, B = 0.040, and P = 0.035, resp.). Persons with dementia with personal-care dependency and spousal caregivers have more inpatient admissions; appropriate care environments should receive special care to reduce hospitalization. This study was part of a larger clinical trial; this trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00291161. PMID:24982674

  2. Variation Interpretation Predictors: Principles, Types, Performance, and Choice.

    PubMed

    Niroula, Abhishek; Vihinen, Mauno

    2016-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing methods have revolutionized the speed of generating variation information. Sequence data have a plethora of applications and will increasingly be used for disease diagnosis. Interpretation of the identified variants is usually not possible with experimental methods. This has caused a bottleneck that many computational methods aim at addressing. Fast and efficient methods for explaining the significance and mechanisms of detected variants are required for efficient precision/personalized medicine. Computational prediction methods have been developed in three areas to address the issue. There are generic tolerance (pathogenicity) predictors for filtering harmful variants. Gene/protein/disease-specific tools are available for some applications. Mechanism and effect-specific computer programs aim at explaining the consequences of variations. Here, we discuss the different types of predictors and their applications. We review available variation databases and prediction methods useful for variation interpretation. We discuss how the performance of methods is assessed and summarize existing assessment studies. A brief introduction is provided to the principles of the methods developed for variation interpretation as well as guidelines for how to choose the optimal tools and where the field is heading in the future. PMID:26987456

  3. Longitudinal predictors of stopping smoking in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to describe the longitudinal individual and environmental predictors of stopping smoking among a group of young adult smokers. Methods From a longitudinal population-based cohort of midwestern youth, semi-annual surveys were analyzed when study participants were between the ages of 18 and 21. Using data from 2001–2008, analyses were restricted to individuals who, at age 18, reported smoking between 1 and 30 days in the previous month (n=1,022). Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to analyze demographic, attitudinal, and social-environmental predictors of stopping smoking over time. Results After adjusting for smoking frequency at baseline, demographic and attitudinal factors that were associated with stopping smoking over time included increased age and attending college; male gender, smoking frequency and agreeing that cigarettes are calming were significantly associated with continued smoking. Social-environmental factors associated with stopping smoking over time included a household ban on smoking and living in a state with a clean indoor air policy; factors associated with continued smoking included living with a smoker and having close friends who smoke. Conclusions Both individual and social-environmental factors can serve as risk and protective factors for stopping smoking between ages 18 and 21. These factors should be used to refine more effective smoking cessation and prevention interventions in young adults. PMID:23763963

  4. Predictors of Inpatient Utilization among Veterans with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Kyler M; Morgan, Robert O; Walder, Annette; Bass, David M; Judge, Katherine S; Wilson, Nancy; Snow, A Lynn; Kunik, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is prevalent and costly, yet the predictors of inpatient hospitalization are not well understood. Logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to identify predictors of inpatient hospital utilization and the frequency of inpatient hospital utilization, respectively, among veterans. Variables significant at the P < 0.15 level were subsequently analyzed in a multivariate regression. This study of veterans with a diagnosis of dementia (n = 296) and their caregivers found marital status to predict hospitalization in the multivariate logistic model (B = 0.493, P = 0.029) and personal-care dependency to predict hospitalization and readmission in the multivariate logistic model and the multivariate negative binomial model (B = 1.048, P = 0.007, B = 0.040, and P = 0.035, resp.). Persons with dementia with personal-care dependency and spousal caregivers have more inpatient admissions; appropriate care environments should receive special care to reduce hospitalization. This study was part of a larger clinical trial; this trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00291161. PMID:24982674

  5. Predictors of engagement in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Casey, Daniel; Brown, Luke; Gajwani, Ruchika; Islam, Zoebia; Jasani, Rubina; Parsons, Helen; Tah, Priya; Birchwood, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-08-01

    Engagement with psychiatric services is critical for ensuring successful outcomes in patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis (FEP). However, it is not known how sociodemographic factors and patient beliefs about the causes of mental illness affect engagement. This study explored predictors of engagement in a cohort of 103 FEP patients presenting to an early-intervention service. Beliefs that mental illness is caused by social stress or thinking odd thoughts predicted higher engagement scores. Patients with no qualifications were found to have higher engagement scores than those educated to a higher level. Ethnicity, gender, age and socioeconomic factors were not significantly correlated with engagement scores. Duration of untreated illness (DUI) significantly predicted higher engagement scores, but only for values >1220days. Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was not a significant predictor of patient engagement scores. Patient beliefs about the causes of mental illness are an important factor to be taken into consideration and may represent a target of interventions to increase engagement in FEP. PMID:27132495

  6. Neuropsychologic predictors of operative skill among general surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Schueneman, A L; Pickleman, J; Hesslein, R; Freeark, R J

    1984-08-01

    The present study develops a rating scale method for evaluating operative skills, assesses the predictive utility of neuropsychologic tests of nonverbal cognitive and psychomotor abilities in accounting for individual differences in surgical skills, and compares the efficiency of these measures with those of traditional residency selection criteria. According to a multifactorial design, 120 general surgery residents were tested with a neuropsychologic test battery and then rated by attending surgeons on surgical skills exhibited during the course of 1445 surgical procedures. Analysis of the neuropsychologic battery resulted in three factors (complex visuo-spatial organization, stress tolerance, psychomotor abilities) that were statistically unrelated to traditional measures such as Medical College Admission Test and National Board scores. Multiple regression analyses indicated that academic predictors, taken alone, either do not correlate (National Board scores) or correlate negatively (Medical College Admission Test scores) with the surgery ratings. Conversely, neuropsychologic test scores show significant positive correlation (r = 0.68) with the ratings. When both sets of predictor variables are combined, a multiple regression coefficient of 0.80 is found with the ratings, with more than two thirds of the predictive power attributable to the neuropsychologic test scores. These tests may provide a useful addition to traditional methods of predicting operative skills. PMID:6463862

  7. Predictors of Using Mental Health Services After Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual assault increases the risk for psychopathology. Despite the availability of effective interventions, relatively few victims who need treatment receive care in the months following an assault. Prior work identified several factors associated with utilizing care, including ethnicity, insurance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Few studies, however, have examined predictors of treatment utilization prospectively from the time of assault. The present study hypothesized that White racial status, younger age, being partnered, having health insurance, having previously received mental health treatment, and having more PTSD and depression symptoms would predict utilization of care in the 6 months postassault. This was examined in a sample of 266 female sexual assault victims with an average age of 26.2 years, of whom 62.0% were White and 38.0% were African American assessed at 1.5 and 6 months postassault. Available information on utilizing care varied across assessments (1.5 months, n = 214; 3 months, n = 126; 6 months, n = 204). Significant predictors included having previously received mental health treatment (OR = 4.09), 1 day depressive symptoms (OR = 1.06), and having private insurance (OR = 2.24) or Medicaid (OR = 2.19). Alcohol abuse and prior mental health care were associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization (OR = 4.07). The findings highlight the need to help victims at risk obtain treatment after sexual assault. PMID:24852357

  8. Predictor variables for forward scapular posture including posterior shoulder tightness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Kwon, Oh-yun; Yoon, Tae-Lim

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationships between the degree of forward scapular posture and the pectoralis minor index, the strength of the serratus anterior, the thoracic spine angle, and posterior shoulder tightness, and (2) to identify predictors of forward scapular posture, including posterior shoulder tightness. The study recruited eighteen subjects with forward scapular posture and objectively measured the acromion distance, the pectoralis minor index, and the strength of the serratus anterior muscle of each participant. The amount of glenohumeral horizontal adduction and internal rotation were evaluated to measure posterior shoulder tightness. There were high intra-rater reliabilities in all measurements. The measurement results showed a statistically strong negative correlation between the degree of forward scapular posture and the pectoralis minor index. They also revealed a moderate positive correlation between the degree of forward scapular posture and the thoracic spine angle and a moderate negative relationship between the degree of forward scapular posture and the amount of the glenohumeral horizontal adduction. A multiple regression analysis indicated that a total multiple regression model explained 93% of the amount of forward scapular posture. All predictor variables, including posterior shoulder tightness, should be considered while assessing, managing, and preventing forward scapular posture. PMID:25892380

  9. Application of Mechanical Ventilation Weaning Predictors After Elective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Borges, Daniel Lago; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Oliveira, Rafaella Lima; Ferreira, Teresa de Fátima Ramos; Albuquerque, Renato Adams Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test several weaning predictors as determinants of successful extubation after elective cardiac surgery. METHODS The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital with 100 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery from September to December 2014. We recorded demographic, clinical and surgical data, plus the following predictive indexes: static compliance (Cstat), tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (f), f/ Vt ratio, arterial partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2), and the integrative weaning index (IWI). Extubation was considered successful when there was no need for reintubation within 48 hours. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were used to evaluate each index. RESULTS The majority of the patients were male (60%), with mean age of 55.4±14.9 years and low risk of death (62%), according to InsCor. All of the patients were successfully extubated. Tobin Index presented the highest SE (0.99) and LR+ (0.99), followed by IWI (SE=0.98; LR+ =0.98). Other scores, such as SP, NPV and LR-were nullified due to lack of extubation failure. CONCLUSION All of the weaning predictors tested in this sample of patients submitted to elective cardiac surgery showed high sensitivity, highlighting f/Vt and IWI. PMID:26934398

  10. Predictors of Student Commitment at Two-Year and Four-Year Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Linda C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    This study examined the predictors of institutional commitment of first-year students at 28 two-year public and 23 four-year public institutions. Institutional commitment is a precursor or predictor of student persistence behavior. For this study, institutional commitment is defined as the student's overall satisfaction, sense of belonging,…

  11. Spatial and Numerical Predictors of Measurement Performance: The Moderating Effects of Community Income and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Dearing, Eric; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tine, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Spatial reasoning and numerical predictors of measurement performance were investigated in 4th graders from low-income and affluent communities. Predictors of 2 subtypes of measurement performance (spatial-conceptual and formula based) were assessed while controlling for verbal and spatial working memory. Consistent with prior findings, students…

  12. Predictors of Success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses among Transfer BSN Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative research study (N=175) examined predictors of first time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) among transfer students in a baccalaureate degree program (BSN). The predictors were chosen after an extensive literature review yielded few studies related to this population. Benner's…

  13. Adolescent Mothers and Depression: Predictors of Resilience and Risk through the Toddler Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of depression in 278 African-American, 206 European-American, and 122 Hispanic teen mothers approximately 36 months after the birth while controlling for depression 14 months after the birth. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, mastery, knowledge of development, and parental distress. Younger teens were not…

  14. Changes in Situational and Dispositional Factors as Predictors of Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Anita C.; Semmer, Norbert K.

    2013-01-01

    Arguably, job satisfaction is one of the most important variables with regard to work. When explaining job satisfaction, research usually focuses on predictor variables in terms of levels but neglects growth rates. Therefore it remains unclear how potential predictors evolve over time and how their development affects job satisfaction. Using…

  15. Predictors of College Retention and Performance between Regular and Special Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Johyun

    2015-01-01

    This predictive correlational research study examined the effect of cognitive, demographic, and socioeconomic variables as predictors of regular and special admission students' first-year GPA and retention among a sample of 7,045 students. Findings indicated high school GPA and ACT scores were the two most effective predictors of regular and…

  16. Elderly Psychiatric Patient Status and Caregiver Perceptions as Predictors of Caregiver Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined aspects of patient status and caregiver perceptions in 46 pairs of elderly psychiatric patients and their caregivers. Found that significant predictors of caregiver burden included disruptive patient behavior, caregiver distress, and patients' functional limitations. Findings suggest that predictors of caregiver burden vary with patient…

  17. Measuring Teacher Quality: Continuing the Search for Policy-Relevant Predictors of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Logan, Joyce P.; Keiser, Clare M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential viability of the variable certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) as a policy-relevant predictor of student achievement. Because research has identified the teacher as the most important school-related predictor of student achievement, more research…

  18. Community College Faculty Recruitment: Predictors of Applicant Attraction to Faculty Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Kjorlien, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes MBA students' biographical data and reactions to simulated position ads for community college business faculty positions to identify predictors of applicant decisions. Reveals four significant predictors of participants' ratings of simulated positions: applicant's current job satisfaction, spouse's contribution to household income,…

  19. Predictors and Pathways from Infancy to Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Ystrom, Eivind; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a prospective 11-year longitudinal survey were used to identify early predictors and pathways to symptoms of anxiety and depression at 12-13 years of age, and to examine whether there were unique predictors of anxious versus depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to explore longitudinal relations between contextual…

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Colin; Bore, Miles; Zito, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have reported elevated rates of psychological distress (e.g., depression) in practicing lawyers yet little research has examined predictors of such problems in law students. Specific personality traits have been shown to be predictors of a range of psychological problems. We administered a battery of tests to a cohort of 1st-year…

  2. Examination of Predictors and Moderators for Self-Help Treatments of Binge-Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    Predictors and moderators of outcomes were examined in 75 overweight patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments. Age variables, psychiatric and personality disorder comorbidity, and clinical characteristics were tested as predictors and moderators of treatment outcomes.…

  3. Comparing species distribution models constructed with different subsets of environmental predictors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bucklin, David N.; Basille, Mathieu; Benscoter, Allison M.; Brandt, Laura A.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Speroterra, Carolina; Watling, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Our results indicate that additional predictors have relatively minor effects on the accuracy of climate-based species distribution models and minor to moderate effects on spatial predictions. We suggest that implementing species distribution models with only climate predictors may provide an effective and efficient approach for initial assessments of environmental suitability.

  4. The CPI Subscales as Predictors of Parental Coping with Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupst, Mary Jo; Schulman, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    Determined the role of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) in prediction of parental coping with leukemia. None of the standard CPI subscales was a significant predictor of coping. Coping with the specific situation may be a better predictor of later coping with a similar situation than more global assessments. (Author)

  5. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC) and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376) and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT). Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs. PMID:21232156

  6. Teacher Self-Efficacy as a Long-Term Predictor of Instructional Quality in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Künsting, Josef; Neuber, Victoria; Lipowsky, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined teachers' self-efficacy as a long-term predictor of their mastery goal orientation and three dimensions of instructional quality: supportive classroom climate, effective classroom management, and cognitive activation. Mastery goal orientation was also analyzed as a predictor of instructional quality.…

  7. Salient Predictors of School Dropout among Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doren, Bonnie; Murray, Christopher; Gau, Jeff M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unique contributions of a comprehensive set of predictors and the most salient predictors of school dropout among a nationally representative sample of students with learning disabilities (LD). A comprehensive set of theoretically and empirically relevant factors was selected for examination. Analyses…

  8. Marital History and the Prior Relationship as Predictors of Positive and Negative Outcomes among Wife Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Betty J.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated interpersonal vulnerability variables (marital history and quality of relationship prior to onset of Alzheimer's disease), caregiver resources, and appraisals of stressors as predictors of positive and negative outcomes among 72 wife caregivers. All variables were significant predictors of depression and quality of life even after…

  9. Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Loneliness and Psychological Distress in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2002-01-01

    Sociodemographic variables, social support, and physical health have been used previously in a few predictor models of loneliness and psychological distress in late life. The present study, however, was designed to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy beliefs of elderly persons are significantly stronger predictors of loneliness and…

  10. Predictors and Moderators of Treatment Outcome in the Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Treatment Study (POTS I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Abbe Marrs; Sapyta, Jeffrey J.; Moore, Phoebe S.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Franklin, Martin E.; March, John S.; Foa, Edna B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of outcome in the first Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS I) among youth (N = 112) randomly assigned to sertraline, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), both sertraline and CBT (COMB), or a pill placebo. Method: Potential baseline predictors and moderators were identified by literature review. The…

  11. Predictors of Outcome for Children Receiving Intensive Behavioral Intervention in a Large, Community-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Cummings, Anne; Geier, Jennifer Dunn; Freeman, Nancy L.; Hughes, Susan; Managhan, Tom; Reitzel, Jo-Ann; Williams, Janis

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on predictors of outcome in 332 children, aged 2-7 years, enrolled in the community-based Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI) program in Ontario, Canada. Data documenting children's progress were reported in an earlier publication (Perry et al., 2008). The present paper explores the degree to which four predictors (measured…

  12. Fit in the Classroom: Predictors of Student Performance and Satisfaction in Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, James W.; Nowicki, Margaret Dawn; Plante, David

    2002-01-01

    A study of 171 students in management classes taught by 3 professors found that the congruence between student and professor personalities was a significant predictor of student performance. Significant predictors of satisfaction were (1) congruence between students' ideal class and the actual environment and (2) congruence between student values…

  13. Predictors of Children's Intervention-Induced Resilience in a Parenting Program for Divorced Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipke, Kathleen N.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin, N.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines predictors of resilience in children of divorce whose mothers participated in a preventive parenting program. Used within-group analysis and between group analyses with a control group to examine predictors of improved child adjustment. Between-group analyses showed that children were less likely to maintain program gains in externalizing…

  14. Early Phonological and Sociocognitive Skills as Predictors of Later Language and Social Communication Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of outcome for children with early language delay have focused on measures of early language as predictors of language outcome. This study investigates whether very early processing skills (VEPS) known to underpin language development will be better predictors of specific language and social communication outcomes than…

  15. "Turn that Thing off!" Parent and Adolescent Predictors of Proactive Media Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    Though much research has focused on the positive outcomes of parents' monitoring of adolescents' media use, few studies have examined predictors of parents' media monitoring. Accordingly, the current study was designed to assess both parent and child predictors of proactive media monitoring during adolescence. Participants consisted of 478…

  16. Examining Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Female Adolescent Smoking in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…

  17. Personality Typologies as a Predictor of Being a Successful Elementary School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendiburu, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine personality typologies as a predictor of being a successful elementary school principal. Methodology: A post-hoc analysis design was used to describe the personality typologies as a predictor of being a successful elementary school principal. Eighteen principals were selected to participate in…

  18. Cognitive and Motivational Variables as Predictors of Academic Performance Among Disadvantaged College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtman, Joan P.

    1975-01-01

    Validity of selected cognitive and affective variables as predictors of academic success among disadvantaged minority college students was analyzed via multiple regression. The best combination of predictors was reading, attitude toward authority, internality-externality (selected items), and dogmatism, which together accounted for approximately…

  19. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN IN HISPANIC CHILDREN: THE VIVA LA FAMILIA STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hi...

  20. Predictors of Violent Behavior in an Early Adolescent Cohort: Similarities and Differences across Genders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Murray, David M.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed a cohort of 2,335 students from the Minneapolis, Minnesota, area to identify predictors of violent behavior and to determine whether the predictors varied by gender. The sample was 76% White; boys and girls were equally represented. The majority lived with two parents. A measure of violent behavior collected at the end of the…

  1. Predictors of Adolescent Participation in Organized Activities: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Poulin, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (a) growth curves of youth participation in sports, performance and fine arts, and youth clubs throughout the high school years and (b) the associations between a series of predictors and the initial participation rates and growth over time. The predictors included individual, friend, and family factors. The moderating effect…

  2. Gender Role Attitudes, Religion, and Spirituality as Predictors of Domestic Violence Attitudes in White College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Bahner, Angela D.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated gender role attitudes, religion, and spirituality as predictors of beliefs about violence against women in a sample of 316 White college students. Results indicated that gender role attitudes were the best overall predictor of domestic violence beliefs. Spirituality also contributed to the models for men and women.…

  3. Predictors of Bullying and Victimization in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Kim, Tia E.; Sadek, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Research on the predictors of 3 bully status groups (bullies, victims, and bully victims) for school-age children and adolescents was synthesized using meta-analytic procedures. The primary purpose was to determine the relative strength of individual and contextual predictors to identify targets for prevention and intervention. Age and how…

  4. Predictors of Academic Achievement for Elementary Teacher Education Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyukozturk, Sener

    2004-01-01

    Studies examining the important predictors of academic achievement of elementary teacher education students help us to understand the predictors of student achievement. These studies (House, 2000b; Ting & Bryant, 2001; Zheng, Saunders, Shelley, & Whalen, 2002)focus on the relationship between academic achievement and a number of cognitive as well…

  5. The Cognitive Predictors of Computational Skill with Whole versus Rational Numbers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Star, Jon R.; Bryant, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the 3rd-grade cognitive predictors of 5th-grade computational skill with rational numbers and how those are similar to and different from the cognitive predictors of whole-number computational skill. Students (n=688) were assessed on incoming whole-number calculation skill, language, nonverbal…

  6. Investigation of Remedial Education Course Scores as a Predictor of Introduction-Level Course Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Ward; Means, Darris R.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Kristensen, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether performance in remedial English and remedial math is a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or college-level math class; and whether demographic variables increase the likelihood of remedial English and remedial math as a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or…

  7. Pre-Veterinary Medical Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Academic Success in Veterinary College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Marcia F.; Kaiser, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A five-year longitudinal study was designed to find the best predictors of academic success in veterinary school at Kansas State University and to set up a multiple regression formula to be used in selecting students. The preveterinary grade point average was found to be the best predictor. (JMD)

  8. Exploratory regression analysis: a tool for selecting models and determining predictor importance.

    PubMed

    Braun, Michael T; Oswald, Frederick L

    2011-06-01

    Linear regression analysis is one of the most important tools in a researcher's toolbox for creating and testing predictive models. Although linear regression analysis indicates how strongly a set of predictor variables, taken together, will predict a relevant criterion (i.e., the multiple R), the analysis cannot indicate which predictors are the most important. Although there is no definitive or unambiguous method for establishing predictor variable importance, there are several accepted methods. This article reviews those methods for establishing predictor importance and provides a program (in Excel) for implementing them (available for direct download at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2480715/ERA.xlsm?dl=1) . The program investigates all 2(p) - 1 submodels and produces several indices of predictor importance. This exploratory approach to linear regression, similar to other exploratory data analysis techniques, has the potential to yield both theoretical and practical benefits. PMID:21298571

  9. Predictor model for seasonal variations in skid resistance, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, J. J.; Saito, K.; Blackburn, R.

    1984-04-01

    Two models, utilizing data collected in 1979 and 1980, were developed to predict variations in skid resistance due to rainfall conditions, temperature effects, and time of the year. A generalized predictor model was developed from purely statistical considerations and a mechanistic model was developed from hypothesized mechanisms. This model may be utilized to estimate the skid resistance at any time in the season from a measurement made during the same season, or to adjust skid-resistance measurement made at any time during the season to the end-of-season level. The mechanistic model requires, in addition to the above inputs, two pavement properties describing the polishing characteristics of the aggregate and an estimate of the percent normalized gradient of the skid resistance. The application of these models is summarized.

  10. Predictors of rape: findings from the National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Lisa S; Smith, Daniel W; Resnick, Heidi S; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Amstadter, Ananda B; Hanson, Rochelle F; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    The current report examines data for 872 female adolescents obtained during the initial and follow-up interviews of the National Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative sample. Lifetime prevalence of violence exposure reported was 12% and 13% for sexual assault, 19% and 10% for physical assault/punishment, and 33% and 26% for witnessing violence at Waves I and II, respectively. Racial/ethnic status, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and family drug problems emerged as significant predictors of new rape. Each of the PTSD symptom clusters significantly predicted new rape and analyses supported the mediational role of PTSD between CSA and new rape. African American or other racial identity was associated with lower risk. PMID:21425193

  11. Preoperative Predictors of Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Noiseux, Nicolas O.; Callaghan, John J.; Clark, Charles R.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Rakel, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty has provided dramatic improvements in function and pain for the majority of patients with knee arthritis, yet a significant proportion of patients remain dissatisfied with their results. We performed a prospective analysis of 215 patients undergoing TKA who underwent a comprehensive array of evaluations to discover whether any preoperative assessment could predict high pain scores and functional limitations postoperatively. Patients with severe pain with a simple knee range-of-motion test prior to TKA had a 10x higher likelihood of moderate to severe pain at 6 months. A simple test of pain intensity with active flexion and extension preoperatively was a significant predictor of postoperative pain at 6 months after surgery. Strategies to address this particular patient group may improve satisfaction rates of TKA. PMID:24630598

  12. Antecedent versus consequent events as predictors of problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Camp, Erin M; Iwata, Brian A; Hammond, Jennifer L; Bloom, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of results from descriptive and functional analyses of problem behavior generally have shown poor correspondence. Most descriptive analyses have focused on relations between consequent events and behavior, and it has been noted that attention is a common consequence for problem behavior even though it may not be a functional reinforcer. Because attention may be prescribed simply as a means of stopping serious problem behavior, it is possible that naturally occurring antecedent events (establishing operations) might be better predictors of problem behavior than consequences. We conducted descriptive and functional analyses of the problem behaviors of 7 participants. Conditional probabilities based on combined antecedent and consequent events showed correspondence with the functional analysis data for 4 of the 7 participants, but antecedent events were no better than consequent events in identifying the function of problem behavior. PMID:19949538

  13. Videofluoroscopic predictors of aspiration in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Perlman, A L; Booth, B M; Grayhack, J P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between aspiration and seven other variables indicative of pharyngeal stage dysphagia. Additionally, we looked at the relationship between aspiration and oral stage dysphagia. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified five independent predictors of aspiration that were significant at the p = 0.05 level: vallecular stasis, reduced hyoid elevation, deviant epiglottic function, diffuse hypopharyngeal stasis, and delayed initiation of the pharyngeal stage of the swallow. A linear trend was observed in that, as the severity of vallecular stasis, pyriform sinus stasis, diffuse hypopharyngeal stasis, or delayed initiation of the pharyngeal stage of the swallow increased, the proportion of patients who aspirated also increased. A stepwise logistic regression model furnished estimates of the odds ratio for each independent variable and can be used by clinicians to calculate the risk of aspiration in patients who demonstrate pharyngeal stage dysphagia. PMID:8005013

  14. Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process.

    PubMed

    Wanberg, C R; Kammeyer-Mueller, J D

    2000-06-01

    This 3-wave longitudinal study aimed to extend current understanding of the predictors and outcomes of employee proactivity (involving information seeking, feedback seeking, relationship building, and positive framing) in the socialization process. Two personality variables, extraversion and openness to experience, were associated with higher levels of proactive socialization behavior. Of the proactive behaviors studied, feedback seeking and relationship building were highlighted in their importance because of their various relationships with the work-related outcomes assessed in this study (e.g., social integration, role clarity, job satisfaction, intention to turnover, and actual turnover). The results also highlighted the importance of 2 control variables (opportunity to interact with others on the job and skill level of the new job) in the experience of socialization into a new job. PMID:10900812

  15. Predictors of recurrent venous thromboembolism and bleeding on anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Laurel A; McCrae, Keith R; Khorana, Alok A

    2016-04-01

    The impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the cancer population remains substantial despite significant advances in detecting and treating thrombotic events. While there is extensive literature regarding predictors of first VTE event in cancer patients as well as a validated predictive score, less data exist regarding recurrent VTE in cancer cohorts and associated predictive variables. A similar paucity of data in regard to bleeding events in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation has been observed. This review article will highlight clinical risk factors as well as predictive biomarkers associated with recurrent VTE and bleeding in cancer patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. Predictive risk assessment models for cancer-associated recurrent VTE and bleeding are also discussed. PMID:27067987

  16. Numerical predictors of arithmetic success in grades 1-6.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Ian M; Price, Gavin R; Vaessen, Anniek; Blomert, Leo; Ansari, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Math relies on mastery and integration of a wide range of simpler numerical processes and concepts. Recent work has identified several numerical competencies that predict variation in math ability. We examined the unique relations between eight basic numerical skills and early arithmetic ability in a large sample (N = 1391) of children across grades 1-6. In grades 1-2, children's ability to judge the relative magnitude of numerical symbols was most predictive of early arithmetic skills. The unique contribution of children's ability to assess ordinality in numerical symbols steadily increased across grades, overtaking all other predictors by grade 6. We found no evidence that children's ability to judge the relative magnitude of approximate, nonsymbolic numbers was uniquely predictive of arithmetic ability at any grade. Overall, symbolic number processing was more predictive of arithmetic ability than nonsymbolic number processing, though the relative importance of symbolic number ability appears to shift from cardinal to ordinal processing. PMID:24581004

  17. Making Professional Decisions in Research: Measurement and Key Predictors.

    PubMed

    Antes, Alison L; Chibnall, John T; Baldwin, Kari A; Tait, Raymond C; Vander Wal, Jillon S; DuBois, James M

    2016-01-01

    The professional decision-making in research (PDR) measure was administered to 400 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded and industry-funded investigators, along with measures of cynicism, moral disengagement, compliance disengagement, impulsivity, work stressors, knowledge of responsible conduct of research (RCR), and socially desirable response tendencies. Negative associations were found for the PDR and measures of cynicism, moral disengagement, and compliance disengagement, while positive associations were found for the PDR and RCR knowledge and positive urgency, an impulsivity subscale. PDR scores were not related to socially desirable responding, or to measures of work stressors and the remaining impulsivity subscales. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower moral disengagement scores, higher RCR knowledge, and identifying the United States as one's nation of origin emerged as key predictors of stronger performance on the PDR. The implications of these findings for understanding the measurement of decision-making in research and future directions for research and RCR education are discussed. PMID:27093003

  18. Predictors of yoga use among internal medicine patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga seems to be an effective means to cope with a variety of internal medicine conditions. While characteristics of yoga users have been investigated in the general population, little is known about predictors of yoga use and barriers to yoga use in internal medicine patients. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of yoga use among internal medicine patients. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among all patients being referred to a Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine during a 3-year period. It was assessed whether patients had ever used yoga for their primary medical complaint, the perceived benefit, and the perceived harm of yoga practice. Potential predictors of yoga use including sociodemographic characteristics, health behavior, internal medicine diagnosis, general health status, mental health, satisfaction with health, and health locus of control were assessed; and associations with yoga use were tested using multiple logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for significant predictors. Results Of 2486 participants, 303 (12.19%) reported having used yoga for their primary medical complaint. Of those, 184 (60.73%) reported benefits and 12 (3.96%) reported harms due to yoga practice. Compared to yoga non-users, yoga users were more likely to be 50–64 years old (OR = 1.45; 95%CI = 1.05-2.01; P = 0.025); female (OR = 2.45; 95%CI = 1.45-4.02; P < 0.001); and college graduates (OR = 1.61; 95%CI = 1.14-2.27; P = 0.007); and less likely to currently smoke (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.39-0.96; P = 0.031). Manifest anxiety (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.06-2.04; P = 0.020); and high internal health locus of control (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.38-2.67; P < 0.001) were positively associated with yoga use, while high external-fatalistic health locus of

  19. Predictors of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai

    2015-06-01

    This study examines Pap testing behavior among 265 Vietnamese American women aged 18 or above. A community-based survey was conducted with Vietnamese women in five cities: Houston (TX), Springfield (MA), Camden (NJ), Charlotte (NC), and Falls Church (VA). Seventy-five percent of the study sample ever received a Pap test, 45% within the last 12 months. Women's perceived risks of cancer, belief that cancer can be detected early with screening, and disagreement that it is embarrassing to get tested and that only married women should get tested are related to Pap testing. Having health insurance is the most important predictor of Pap testing. Main reasons for not having tested in the last 12 months include: feeling well, having no insurance, and high costs. Interventions should improve financial access to Pap testing among Vietnamese American women. Results also suggest that future communication programs should emphasize preventive practices and change traditional attitudes and misconceptions related to Pap testing. PMID:24078321

  20. Methamphetamine Use and Violent Behavior: User Perceptions and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the extent to which methamphetamine users perceive that their methamphetamine use has resulted in violent behavior, and describes the level of self-reported prevalence of specific violent criminal behaviors irrespective of methamphetamine use. Predictors of these two violence-related indicators, in terms of potential correlates from substance use history, criminal history, and health risk domains are examined. Data are from extensive interviews of 350 methamphetamine users who received substance use treatment in a large California county. A majority (56%) perceived that their methamphetamine use resulted in violent behavior; 59% reported specific violent criminal behaviors. For more than half of those reporting violent criminal behavior, this behavior pattern began before methamphetamine initiation. Thus, for a subsample of methamphetamine users, violence may be related to factors other than methamphetamine use. Users' perceptions that their methamphetamine use resulted in violence appears strongest for those with the most severe methamphetamine-related problems, particularly paranoia. PMID:26594058

  1. Predictors of father-son communication about sexuality.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Sally T; Demi, Alice S; Dilorio, Colleen; Facteau, Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    Examining the factors that influence adolescents' sexual behaviors is crucial for understanding why they often engage in risky sexual behaviors. Using social cognitive theory, we examined predictors of father-son communication about sexuality. Fathers (N=155) of adolescent sons completed a survey measuring 12 variables, including self-efficacy and outcome expectations. We found that (a) son's pubertal development, father's sex-based values, father's education; father's communication with his father, outcome expectations, and general communication accounted for 36% of the variance in information sharing communication and (b) son's pubertal development, outcome expectations, general communication, and father-son contact accounted for 20% of the variance in values sharing communication. Study findings can aid professionals in designing guidelines for programs to promote father-son general communication and sex-based communication. PMID:16123842

  2. Predictors of posttraumatic outcomes following the 1999 Taiwan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Connor, Kathryn M; Lai, Te-Jen; Lee, Li-Ching; Davidson, Jonathan R T

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined 10-month outcomes in survivors after the 1999 earthquake in Taiwan. Two hundred fifty-two randomly selected subjects were interviewed to assess the following: categorical assignment to full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD/PTSS), symptoms of PTSD, and general psychiatric morbidity. Using regression models, the following potential independent predictor variables were evaluated: age, gender, earthquake exposure, previous trauma, current depression, and general well-being. Variables predictive of PTSD/PTSS included female gender and current depression. Current depression and impaired well-being were predicted by greater PTSD severity. Greater psychiatric morbidity was predicted by female gender, current depression, number of traumatic experiences, and impaired well-being. These variables, particularly female gender, current depression, and impaired well-being, should be considered in assessing earthquake survivors who are at increased risk for developing posttraumatic sequelae. PMID:15674133

  3. Analyzing profiles, predictors, and consequences of student engagement dispositions.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Michael A; Masyn, Katherine E

    2015-02-01

    Drawing from a nationally representative sample of 12,760 students attending public high schools in the United States, this study used latent class analysis (LCA) to analyze profiles, predictors, and consequences of student engagement dispositions. A student engagement disposition is an umbrella concept. It encompasses students' identification with school together with their academic competencies and overall educational aspirations. Six subpopulation profiles of engagement dispositions were culled from the data using LCA. These profiles included students who possessed "model student" attributes as well as others whose school experiences reflected ambivalence and disidentification. Where practice and policy are concerned, findings regarding the characteristics and consequences of each profile can be used by researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to facilitate tailored intervention planning as well as more nuanced policy development. PMID:25636261

  4. Cholesteatoma in children, predictors and calculation of recurrence rates.

    PubMed

    Stangerup, S E; Drozdziewicz, D; Tos, M

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate after surgery for acquired cholesteatoma in children, to search for predictors of recurrency and to analyse the impact of the applied statistical method on the outcome of the results. During a 15-year period, 114 children underwent first-time surgery for acquired cholesteatoma. The patients were re-evaluated with a median observation time of 5.8 years, range 1-16 years. Recurrence of cholesteatoma developed in 27 ears. The cumulated total recurrence rate was 24% using standard incidence rate calculation, applying Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the recurrence rate was 33%. Recurrent disease occurred significantly more frequent in children < 8 years, with negative preoperative Valsalva, ossicular resorption and with large cholesteatomas. In conclusion, young children with poor Eustachian tube function, large cholesteatoma and erosion of the ossicular chain, are at special risk of recurrence and should be observed several years after surgery. PMID:10577779

  5. A predictor-corrector technique for visualizing unsteady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, David C.; Singer, Bart A.

    1995-01-01

    We present a method for visualizing unsteady flow by displaying its vortices. The vortices are identified by using a vorticity-predictor pressure-corrector scheme that follows vortex cores. The cross-sections of a vortex at each point along the core can be represented by a Fourier series. A vortex can be faithfully reconstructed from the series as a simple quadrilateral mesh, or its reconstruction can be enhanced to indicate helical motion. The mesh can reduce the representation of the flow features by a factor of one thousand or more compared with the volumetric dataset. With this amount of reduction it is possible to implement an interactive system on a graphics workstation to permit a viewer to examine, in three dimensions, the evolution of the vortical structures in a complex, unsteady flow.

  6. Sex-specific predictors of suicidality among runaway youth.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Michelle Burden; Stein, Judith A; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2002-03-01

    Examined predictors of suicidality (ideation and attempts) among 348 adolescent runways (197 boys; 56% African American; M age = 16) using sex-specific models that tested the impact of the three domains of the Social Action Model: individual characteristics, interpersonal influences, and life events. Twenty-five percent of the girls and 14% of the boys had attempted suicide at least once. Male suicidality was mainly predicted by individual characteristics: identifying as gay, emotional distress, fewer conduct problems, and avoidant reasons for drug use. The interpersonal influence of suicidal friends also predicted suicidality. Variables from all three domains influenced girls: individual characteristics of lower age, lower self-esteem, and emotional distress; interpersonal influence of suicidal friends; and life events of having lived on the streets and assaults. Findings suggest some sex-specific interventions, but decreasing emotional distress and lessening the influence of suicidal friends may be useful for both boys and girls. PMID:11845647

  7. Predictors of smoking cessation in a sample of Italian smokers.

    PubMed

    Persico, A M

    1992-06-01

    In this study we identify several pretreatment characteristics which predict abstinence at 6 months. Moreover, the persistence of withdrawal discomfort and of an increased frequency of night awakenings during the first month of abstinence, together with a tendency to "slip" during Weeks II-IV, strongly predicted relapse. Our results suggest that: 1) Predictors of outcome cannot be automatically extended from one cultural context to another; 2) a careful assessment of certain variables, made while the patient is still under treatment, provides significant prognostic hints; 3) ex-smokers' sleeping and dreaming function has been ignored by the literature, whereas they may well be involved into the maintenance of the drug-free state. PMID:1612820

  8. Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Bryan, Angela D

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:22080583

  9. Random generalized linear model: a highly accurate and interpretable ensemble predictor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ensemble predictors such as the random forest are known to have superior accuracy but their black-box predictions are difficult to interpret. In contrast, a generalized linear model (GLM) is very interpretable especially when forward feature selection is used to construct the model. However, forward feature selection tends to overfit the data and leads to low predictive accuracy. Therefore, it remains an important research goal to combine the advantages of ensemble predictors (high accuracy) with the advantages of forward regression modeling (interpretability). To address this goal several articles have explored GLM based ensemble predictors. Since limited evaluations suggested that these ensemble predictors were less accurate than alternative predictors, they have found little attention in the literature. Results Comprehensive evaluations involving hundreds of genomic data sets, the UCI machine learning benchmark data, and simulations are used to give GLM based ensemble predictors a new and careful look. A novel bootstrap aggregated (bagged) GLM predictor that incorporates several elements of randomness and instability (random subspace method, optional interaction terms, forward variable selection) often outperforms a host of alternative prediction methods including random forests and penalized regression models (ridge regression, elastic net, lasso). This random generalized linear model (RGLM) predictor provides variable importance measures that can be used to define a “thinned” ensemble predictor (involving few features) that retains excellent predictive accuracy. Conclusion RGLM is a state of the art predictor that shares the advantages of a random forest (excellent predictive accuracy, feature importance measures, out-of-bag estimates of accuracy) with those of a forward selected generalized linear model (interpretability). These methods are implemented in the freely available R software package randomGLM. PMID:23323760

  10. Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles.

    PubMed

    Roney, James R; Simmons, Zachary L

    2013-04-01

    Little is known regarding which hormonal signals may best predict within- and between-women variance in sexual motivation among naturally cycling women. To address this, we collected daily saliva samples across 1-2 menstrual cycles from a sample of young women; assayed samples for estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone; and also collected daily diary reports of women's sexual behavior and subjective sexual desire. With respect to within-cycle, day-to-day fluctuations in subjective desire, we found evidence for positive effects of estradiol and negative effects of progesterone. Desire exhibited a mid-cycle peak, similar to previous findings; measured progesterone concentrations statistically mediated the fall in desire from mid-cycle to the luteal phase, but no combination of hormone measures substantially mediated the follicular phase rise in desire, which suggests that other signals may be implicated in this effect. Hormonal predictors of within-cycle fluctuations in sexual behavior generally reached only trend levels of statistical significance, though the patterns again suggested positive effects of estradiol and negative effects of progesterone. Between-women and within-women, between-cycle effects of hormone concentrations were generally absent, although statistical power was more limited at these higher levels of analysis. There were no significant effects of testosterone concentrations when controlling for the effects of estradiol and progesterone, which raises questions regarding the importance of this hormone for the regulation of sexual motivation in natural cycles. Our study is among the first to identify hormonal predictors of within-cycle fluctuations in sexual motivation, and thus adds novel evidence regarding the endocrine correlates of human sexuality. PMID:23601091

  11. Smokeless tobacco use in Urban Indian women: Prevalence and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Kulkarni, Sheetal V.; Gupta, Subhadra D.; Shastri, Surendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco. Tobacco consumption in nonsmoking forms is culturally accepted even among women. Aims: This study aimed at understanding the patterns and predictors of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among the urban low-socioeconomic women in Mumbai, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional community-based survey of tobacco usage among women residing in seven low-socioeconomic communities in suburbs of Mumbai, India. Staff for the study was recruited, trained, clusters selected, accurately mapped, households identified, meetings held with community leaders, and household surveys conducted. Women using tobacco were invited to participate in the detailed survey and interviewed to document the various sociodemographic factors and in depth information on tobacco use. The data were computerized and analyzed. Results: About 22.30% of the total female population consumed tobacco, mainly in the smokeless forms, with only 0.50% of the tobacco users using smoked tobacco. Masheri was the most common form of tobacco used, followed by chewing tobacco. The median frequency of use of different tobacco products varied from 2 to 4 per day. The mean age at initiation of tobacco was 26.23 years. According to the results of univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, illiterate women, with advancing age, belonging to Hindu, Muslim, or Buddhist communities, who were either manual laborers or housewives, divorced or separated, and speaking Marathi were at higher risk of being tobacco user. Conclusion: Patterns and predictors of SLT use among women have been identified in the present study. This will guide in planning prevention and control strategies. PMID:26681842

  12. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain. PMID:22029555

  13. Race and Residential Socioeconomics as Predictors of CPAP Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Martha E.; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Zee, Phyllis; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: There are few established predictors of CPAP adherence; poor adherence limits its effectiveness. We investigated whether race, education level, and residential economic status predict CPAP adherence in participants enrolled in a trial with standard access to treatment. Design: A multi-center randomized trial of home vs. lab-based evaluation and treatment of OSA assessing adherence to CPAP at 1 and 3 months. Setting: Seven AASM-accredited sleep centers in 5 U.S. cities. Participants: Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15 and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 12) who completed follow-up at 1 and/or 3 months (n = 135). Measurements and Results: Subjects' demographic data were collected upon enrollment; CPAP use at 1 and 3 months was assessed at clinic follow-up. In unadjusted analyses, CPAP adherence (average minutes per night of CPAP use) at 3 months was lower in black subjects and in subjects from lower socioeconomic status ZIP codes. In adjusted analyses using multivariate linear regression, black race was predictive of CPAP adherence at one month (P = 0.03). At 3 months, black race was predictive in analyses only when ZIP code SES was not adjusted for. Conclusion: Black race and lower socioeconomic residential areas are associated with poorer adherence to CPAP in subjects with standardized access to care and treatment. Disparities remain despite provision of standardized care in a clinical trial setting. Future research is needed to identify barriers to adherence and to develop interventions tailored to improve CPAP adherence in at risk populations. Portable Monitoring for Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Apnea (HomePAP) Clinical Trial Information: NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME; Auckley D; Benca R; Foldvary-Schaefer N; Iber C; Redline S; Rosen CL; Zee P; Kapur VK. Race and residential socioeconomics as predictors of CPAP adherence. SLEEP 2011

  14. Predictors of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Haider; Moore, Ava; Bevilacqua, Kris; Lathief, Sanam; Williams, Joanne; Naqvi, Nighat; Pal, Lubna

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a cross-sectional study of 114 women seeking consultation for symptoms of PCOS (menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and/or acne), personal and family history of depression (HD and FHD respectively) were enquired. Vitamin D status (n = 104) and manifest depressive symptoms assessed by personal health questionnaire (PHQ) (MD) were evaluated in a subset (85). Relationships between HD and MD with PCOS symptoms, FHD, and vitamin D status were assessed using adjusted analyses. Thirty-five percent acknowledged a HD; MD (PHQ > 4) was apparent in 43 %. HD was associated with hirsutism (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.9), disturbed sleep (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3-6.9), and with FHD (OR 4.8, 95 % CI 1.7-13.5). Disturbed sleep (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.7) and FHD (OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.3-11.2) were independent predictors of HD adjusting for race and BMI. An inverse correlation was noted between serum 25 OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels and PHQ score, but only in those with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD ≤ 30 ng/ml, n = 57, r =-0.32, p = 0.015). 25OHD < 20 ng/ml (OR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.1-11.8) and HD (OR 12.8, 95 % CI 3.6-45.2) predicted scoring in the highest PHQ tertile after adjusting for hirsutism, BMI, and race. In women with PCOS, disturbed nocturnal sleep and FDH predicted personal HD, whereas HD and vitamin D deficiency related to the severity of MD symptoms. PMID:25209354

  15. Smoking among Vietnamese medical students: prevalence, costs, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Huy; Dao, Thi Minh An; Dao, Ngoc Phong

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated smoking patterns and predictors among Vietnamese medical students. In total, 4720 medical students from 3 universities, each located in South, Central, and North Vietnam, were interviewed using an adapted Global Youth Tobacco Survey Questionnaire. Ideas on smoking behavior and tobacco control derived from group discussions with students and from unstructured interviews with student managers and university directors. Overall, the current smoking rate was 25.0% and dominant in men at 43.7%. Most started smoking when just entering university (18 +/- 3.3 years). Male students from the central region had the highest smoking rate (35.1%), whereas their northern counterparts had the greatest smoking magnitude: age of smoking initiation (18.6 +/- 3.5), number of cigarettes per day (4.4 +/- 4.5), number of smoking days per month (16.5 +/- 11.6), and proportion of smoking cost among total expenses per month (10.9% +/- 11.9%). Smoking tended to increase across academic years, being highest in years 5 to 6 (35.0%). In contrast, the practice of ever quitting and the intention of quitting tended to decline from years 1-2 to years 5-6 (from 82.2% to 71.5%, P < .05, and from 70.8% to 51.5%, P < .001, respectively). Positive attitudes toward smoking (odds ratio = 1.4, P < .05), negative beliefs on hazards of smoking (odds ratio = 1.7), and daily exposure to family smokers (odds ratio = 2.0, P < .05) and to social smokers (odds ratio = 4.5, P < .05) were main predictors of smoking. Qualitative results suggest that nonsmoking university regulations played a critical role in tobacco control among medical students. Nonsmoking regulations and penalties for students who smoke need to be formulated at medical universities. The message that medical students must make a nonsmoking role model for community should be systematically promoted. PMID:19124295

  16. Predictors of Heavy Stethoscope Contamination Following a Physical Examination.

    PubMed

    Tschopp, Clément; Schneider, Alexis; Longtin, Yves; Renzi, Gesuele; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND The degree of bacterial contamination of stethoscopes can vary significantly following a physical examination. OBJECTIVE To conduct a prospective study to investigate the impact of various environmental and patient characteristics on stethoscope contamination. METHODS Following a standardized examination, the levels of bacterial contamination of 4 regions of the physicians' hands and 2 sections of the stethoscopes, and the presence of different pathogenic bacteria, were assessed. Predictors of heavy stethoscope contamination were identified through multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 392 surfaces were sampled following examination of 56 patients. The microorganisms most frequently recovered from hands and stethoscopes were Enterococcus spp. (29% and 20%, respectively) and Enterobacteriaceae (16% and 7%, respectively). Staphylococcus aureus (either methicillin susceptible or resistant), extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii were recovered from 4%-9% of the samples from either hands or stethoscopes. There was a correlation between the likelihood of recovering these pathogens from the stethoscopes vs from the physicians' hands (ρ=0.79; P=.04). The level of patient's skin contamination was an independent predictor of contamination of the stethoscope diaphragm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.001; P=.007) and tube (aOR, 1.001; P=.003). Male sex (aOR, 28.24; P=.01) and reception of a bed bath (aOR, 7.52; P=.048) were also independently associated with heavy tube contamination. CONCLUSIONS Stethoscope contamination following a single physical examination is not negligible and is associated with the level of contamination of the patient's skin. Prevention of pathogen dissemination is needed. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:673-679. PMID:27198604

  17. Predictors of collective guilt after the violent conflict.

    PubMed

    Jelić, Margareta; Biruski, Dinka Corkalo; Ajduković, Dean

    2013-03-01

    After a violent conflict many post-conflict communities remain ethnically divided and normalization of the inter-group relations is hindered not only by in-group norms and interpretation of past events, but also by collective guilt. Although collective guilt has proved to be an important indicator of post-conflict social repair, more research is needed to define its predictors. This study, conducted in an ethnically divided community, confirmed that collective guilt acceptance and collective guilt assignment in our sample are typical for the post-conflict pattern of intergroup relations--people readily assign guilt to the outgroup but are unwilling to accept the guilt of their in-group. This suggests that the process of community social reconstruction has not considerably progressed. Our findings also suggest that the two aspects of collective guilt--assignment and acceptance--are predicted by similar sets of variables. Both collective guilt assignment and collective guilt acceptance are influenced by identification with in-group which influence is fully or partially mediated with the justification of the in-group's wrongdoings. This indicates that in the post-conflict setting relationship towards the in-group may be more important for experiencing collective guilt than the relationship towards the out-group. Relationship towards out-group, although not crucial, also plays a role in experiencing collective guilt. Specifically, both affect towards and cognitions about out-group members predict collective guilt assignment (with cognition being stronger predictor than positive affect), whereas only (absence of) positive affect predicts acceptance of collective guilt and the cognitive aspect is not predictive. PMID:23697243

  18. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  19. Environmental predictors of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Madden, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover) as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20-30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season. PMID:25229453

  20. Antecedent Predictors of Children's Initiation of Sipping/Tasting Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2014-01-01

    Background Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol-use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. Previous cross-sectional analyses determined that child sipping or tasting is associated with the child's attitude toward sipping and with a family environment supportive of alcohol use, but not with variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior as formulated in Problem Behavior Theory (Jessor and Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1977, Academic Press, New York). This study extended these analyses longitudinally to identify antecedent predictors of the childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol in a multiwave study. Methods A sample of 452 children (238 girls) aged 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Antecedent variables collected at baseline (Wave 1) were examined as predictors of the initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol in childhood (before age 12) among Wave 1 abstainers (n = 286). Results Ninety-four children initiated sipping/tasting alcohol in a nonreligious context between baseline and turning age 12. Initiation of sipping/tasting did not generally relate to baseline variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, as found in the previous cross-sectional analyses, the variables most predictive of initiating sipping/tasting were perceived parents' approval for child sipping, parents' reported approval for child sipping, parents' current drinking status, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol. Conclusions These longitudinal analyses replicate the earlier cross-sectional results. Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of drinking and parental approval of child sipping and

  1. Predictors of functional status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; van Schaardenburg, D; van der Horst-Bru..., I E; Bezemer, P; Dijkmans, B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To find disease parameters that can predict the functional capacity of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the first visit to the rheumatologist and one year after entry.
METHODS—Patients referred to the outpatients clinic between 1995 and 1996, with a symptom duration of less than three years and fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for RA within one year after entry were included. Assessments of the duration of morning stiffness, the Disease Activity Score (DAS: a composite score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), number of painful and swollen joints and patient global assessment), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were performed every three months. Possible predictors of the HAQ at entry and after one year were analysed by logistic regression.
RESULTS—133 patients were included in the study. The median duration of complaints was three months (range 0-35) and the median HAQ score at entry was 1.12 (range 0-3). There was no correlation between duration of complaints and the HAQ at entry (r = 0.01). An HAQ score under the 50th percentile at entry could be predicted correctly for 74% of the patients by entry DAS and C reactive protein concentration, and at one year could be predicted correctly for 73% of the patients by entry HAQ and pain score.
CONCLUSION—Disease activity is strongly correlated with a lower functional capacity at entry, whereas disease duration is not. The functional status at entry is a good predictor for functional status at one year. Severity rather than duration of arthritis prompts referral in this cohort.

 PMID:10700432

  2. Gyrification brain abnormalities as predictors of outcome in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Angela; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Manara, Renzo; Santonastaso, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Gyrification brain abnormalities are considered a marker of early deviations from normal developmental trajectories and a putative predictor of poor outcome in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore cortical folding morphology in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). A MRI brain study was conducted on 38 patients with AN, 20 fully recovered patients, and 38 healthy women. Local gyrification was measured with procedures implemented in FreeSurfer. Vertex-wise comparisons were carried out to compare: (1) AN patients and healthy women; (2) patients with a full remission at a 3-year longitudinal follow-up assessment and patients who did not recover. AN patients exhibited significantly lower gyrification when compared with healthy controls. Patients with a poor 3-year outcome had significantly lower baseline gyrification when compared to both healthy women and patients with full recovery at follow-up, even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and gray matter volume. No significant correlation has been found between gyrification, body mass index, amount of weight loss, onset age, and duration of illness. Brain gyrification significantly predicted outcome at follow-up even after controlling for the effects of duration of illness and other clinical prognostic factors. Although the role of starvation in determining our findings cannot be excluded, our study showed that brain gyrification might be a predictor of outcome in AN. Further studies are needed to understand if brain gyrification abnormalities are indices of early neurodevelopmental alterations, the consequence of starvation, or the interaction between both factors. PMID:26374960

  3. Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

  4. Dissolved organic carbon and its potential predictors in eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Toming, Kaire; Kutser, Tiit; Tuvikene, Lea; Viik, Malle; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the true role of lakes in the global carbon cycle requires reliable estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and there is a strong need to develop remote sensing methods for mapping lake carbon content at larger regional and global scales. Part of DOC is optically inactive. Therefore, lake DOC content cannot be mapped directly. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the relationships of DOC and other water and environmental variables in order to find the best proxy for remote sensing mapping of lake DOC. The Boosted Regression Trees approach was used to clarify in which relative proportions different water and environmental variables determine DOC. In a studied large and shallow eutrophic lake the concentrations of DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were rather high while the seasonal and interannual variability of DOC concentrations was small. The relationships between DOC and other water and environmental variables varied seasonally and interannually and it was challenging to find proxies for describing seasonal cycle of DOC. Chlorophyll a (Chl a), total suspended matter and Secchi depth were correlated with DOC and therefore are possible proxies for remote sensing of seasonal changes of DOC in ice free period, while for long term interannual changes transparency-related variables are relevant as DOC proxies. CDOM did not appear to be a good predictor of the seasonality of DOC concentration in Lake Võrtsjärv since the CDOM-DOC coupling varied seasonally. However, combining the data from Võrtsjärv with the published data from six other eutrophic lakes in the world showed that CDOM was the most powerful predictor of DOC and can be used in remote sensing of DOC concentrations in eutrophic lakes. PMID:27318445

  5. Advanced Electrocardiographic Predictors of Sudden Death in Familial Dysautonomia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solaimanzadeh, I.; Schlegel, T. T.; Greco, E. C.; DePalma, J. L.; Starc, V.; Marthol, H.; Tutaj, M.; Buechner, S.; Axelrod, F. B.; Hilz, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify accurate predictors for the risk of sudden death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD). Ten-minute resting high-fidelity 12-lead ECGs were obtained from 14 FD patients and 14 age/gender-matched healthy subjects. Multiple conventional and advanced ECG parameters were studied for their ability to predict sudden death in FD over a subsequent 4.5-year period, including multiple indices of linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV); QT variability; waveform complexity; high frequency QRS; and derived Frank-lead parameters. Four of the 14 FD patients died suddenly during the follow-up period, usually with concomitant pulmonary disorder. The presence of low vagally-mediated HRV was the ECG finding most predictive of sudden death. Concomitant left ventricular hypertrophy and other ECG abnormalities such as increased QTc and JTc intervals, spatial QRS-T angles, T-wave complexity, and QT variability were also present in FD patients, suggesting that structural heart disease is fairly common in FD. Although excessive or unopposed cardiac vagal (relative to sympathetic) activity has been postulated as a contributor to sudden death in FD, the presence of low vagally-mediated HRV was paradoxically the best predictor of sudden death. However, we suggest that low vagally-mediated HRV be construed not as a direct cause of sudden death in FD, but rather as an effect of concurrent pathological processes, especially hypoxia due to pulmonary disorders and sleep apnea, that themselves increase the risk of sudden death in FD and simultaneously diminish HRV. We speculate that adenosine may play a role in sudden death in FD, possibly independently of vagal activity, and that adenosine inhibitors such as theophylline might therefore be useful as prophylaxis in this disorder.

  6. Predictors of micronutrient powder sachet coverage in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Perrine, Cria G

    2015-12-01

    Many countries implement micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes to improve the nutritional status of young children. Little is known about the predictors of MNP coverage for different delivery models. We describe MNP coverage of an infant and young child feeding and MNP intervention for children aged 6-23 months comparing two delivery models piloted in rural Nepal: distributing MNPs either by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or at health facilities (HFs). Cross-sectional household cluster surveys were conducted in four pilot districts among mothers of children 6-23 months after starting MNP distribution. FCHVs in each cluster were also surveyed. We used logistic regression to describe predictors of initial coverage (obtaining a batch of 60 MNP sachets) at 3 months and repeat coverage (≥2 times coverage among eligible children) at 15 months after project launch. At 15 months, initial and repeat coverage were higher in the FCHV model, although no differences were observed at 3 months. Attending an FCHV-led mothers' group meeting where MNP was discussed increased odds of any coverage in both models at 3 months and of repeat coverage in the HF model at 15 months. Perceiving ≥1 positive effects in the child increased odds of repeat coverage in both delivery models. A greater portion of FCHV volunteers from the FCHV model vs. the HF model reported increased burden at 3 and 15 months (not statistically significant). Designing MNP programmes that maximise coverage without overburdening the system can be challenging and more than one delivery model may be needed. PMID:26332845

  7. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  8. Environmental Predictors of Ice Seal Presence in the Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover) as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20–30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season. PMID:25229453

  9. Optimal Selection of Predictor Variables in Statistical Downscaling Models of Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, A.; Teegavarapu, R. S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Statistical downscaling models developed for precipitation rely heavily on predictors chosen and on accurate relationships between regional scale predictand and GCM-scale predictor for providing future precipitation projections at different spatial and temporal scales. This study provides two new screening methods for selection of predictor variables for use in downscaling methods based on predictand-predictors relationships. Methods to characterize predictand-predictors relationships via rigid and flexible functional relationships using mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model with binary variables and artificial neural network (ANN) models respectively are developed and evaluated in this study. In addition to these two methods, a stepwise regression (SWR) and two models that do not use any pre-screening of variables are also evaluated. A two-step process is used to downscale precipitation data with optimal selection of predictors and using them in a statistical downscaling model based on support vector machine (SVM) approach. Experiments with the proposed two new methods and three additional methods based on correlation between predictors and predictand and the other based on principal component analysis are evaluated in this study. Results suggest that optimal selection of variables using MINLP albeit with linear relationship and ANN method provided improved performance and error measures compared to two other models that did not use these methods for screening the variables. Of all the three screening methods tested in this study, SWR method selected the least number of variables and also ranked lowest based on several performance measures.

  10. Potential predictors of hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dhikav, Vikas; Anand, Kuljeet

    2011-01-01

    progression, it seems appropriate to learn more about the various predictors of hippocampal atrophy that determine the progression of Alzheimer's disease from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and then attempt to address these. It would be interesting to know to what extent these predictors play a role in the development of MCI or hasten the conversion of MCI to full-blown Alzheimer's disease. Finally, it would be useful to know the extent to which these predictors can worsen or aggravate existing Alzheimer's disease. Of the clinically used drugs in Alzheimer's disease, anticholinesterases have been shown to slow down the rate of progression of hippocampal atrophy. One study observed that the neuroprotective effect of these agents is possibly due to an anti-Aβ effect produced by cholinergic stimulation. Similarly, antihypertensive and antihyperglycaemic drugs (pioglitazone and insulin) have been shown to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease or disease progression. Currently, there are no disease-modifying therapies available for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that for treatment to be most effective, the regimen must be started before significant downstream damage has occurred (i.e. before the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, at the stage of MCI or earlier). Since the hippocampus is a plastic structure and atrophy of this structure is closely related to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, if we could control blood pressure, regulate blood sugar, treat behavioural and psychological symptoms, achieve satisfactory lipid lowering and maintain a seizure-free state in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this may not only improve disease control but could also potentially affect the rate of disease progression. PMID:21174483

  11. Predictors of malaria-association with rubber plantations in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The national Global Fund-supported malaria (GFM) program in Thailand, which focuses on the household-level implementation of vector control via insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)/long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) combined with indoor residual spraying (IRS), has been combating malaria risk situations in different provinces with complex epidemiological settings. By using the perception of malaria villagers (MVs), defined as villagers who recognized malaria burden and had local understanding of mosquitoes, malaria, and ITNs/LLINs and practiced preventive measures, this study investigated the predictors for malaria that are associated with rubber plantations in an area of high household-level implementation coverage of IRS (2007–2010) and ITNs/LLINs (2008–2010) in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province. Methods A structured questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, household characteristics and health behavioral factors (knowledge, perceptions and practices) regarding the performed interventions was administered to the 313 households (70 malaria-affected and 243 malaria-unaffected) that had respondents aged ≥18 years of both genders. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, only 246 (78.6%) MV respondents (62 malaria-affected and 184 malaria-unaffected) were analyzed to determine the predictors for risk (morbidity). Results The majority (70%) of households were covered by IRS. For a combination of ITNs/LLINs, there were 74% of malaria-affected households covered and 46% of malaria-unaffected households. In a logistic regression analysis using odds ratios (aORs) adjusted on the variables and a 95% confidence interval (CI), malaria affecting MVs was associated with daily worker (i.e., earning daily income by normally practicing laborious activities mostly in agriculture such as rubber tapping and rubber sheet processing at the smallholdings of rubber plantations) (aOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4), low-moderate level of malaria knowledge (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1

  12. Improving flood wave predictors by meta-learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neruda, M.; Neruda, R.; Srejber, J.

    2012-04-01

    Improving flood wave predictors by meta-learning Roman Neruda, Jan Srejber, Martin Neruda Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, CZ Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Usti nad Labem, CZ Faculty of Environment, University of J. E. Purkyne, Usti nad Labem, CZ The main goal of this work is to improve real time flood warning system operated by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) in a very sensitive part of Northern Bohemia, the Smeda River basin. This area has been subject to several flash floods during last decade, and thus it is important to model and predict the dynamics of the flood wave. Following the operational reality we reformulated the traditional time series prediction problem as either a runoff regression problem, or a classification of water level values into predefined decisive water level thresholds. Moreover, in contrast to our previous work [1,2], the modelled system utilizes data from three subsequent runoff gauges, namely Bily Potok, Frydlant and Visnova. The distance between them is 15 km and 12 km, respectively. The watershed area is 180 km2. Together with flood wave time series we utilized relevant precipitation totals from Hejnice rain gauge. While it is difficult to forecast the time of occurrence and the extent of floods, it is possible to predict fairly accurately the movement of the flood wave along a river [3]. Several methods are available for the flood wave propagation forecasting in general. Two simple hydrometric methods based on the extrapolation of the discharge difference and discharge-travel time are in use in CHMI. On a similar base, the neural model is created whose inputs are historical runoff values in the first two gauges, and an output is a classification of predicted water level (or runoff prediction) in the third gauge. Number of previous runoff values depends on the shape of a flood wave. It has been shown that during the training phase of neural models that setting of

  13. Regional distribution models with lack of proximate predictors: Africanized honeybees expanding north

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L.A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species–environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  14. Predictors of Enrollment and Retention in a Preventive Parenting Intervention for Divorced Families

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Emily B.; Bonds, Darya; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Participation rates in parenting programs are typically low, severely limiting the public health significance of these interventions. We examined predictors of parenting program enrollment and retention in a sample of 325 divorced mothers. Predictors included intervention timing and maternal reports of child, parent, family, and sociocultural risk factors. In multivariate analyses, child maladjustment and family income-to-needs positively predicted enrollment, and higher maternal education and recruitment near the time of the divorce predicted retention. Findings have implications for the optimal timing of preventive parenting programs for divorcing families and point to the importance of examining predictors of enrollment and retention simultaneously. PMID:19283483

  15. Predictors of Severe Disease in Melioidosis Patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Roslani, Ardita Dewi Roslani; Tay, Sun Tee; Puthucheary, Savithri D.; Rukumani, Devi V.; Sam, I-Ching

    2014-01-01

    The predictors of severe disease or death were determined for 85 melioidosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Most of the patients were male, > 40 years old, and diabetic. Severe disease or death occurred in 28 (32.9%) cases. Lower lymphocyte counts and positive blood cultures were significant independent predictors of severe disease, but age, presentations with pneumonia, inappropriate empirical antibiotics, or flagellin types of the infecting isolates were not. Knowledge of local predictors of severe disease is useful for clinical management. PMID:25246695

  16. Regional Distribution Models with Lack of Proximate Predictors: Africanized Honeybees Expanding North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L. A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species-environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  17. Predictors of mental distress among substance abusers receiving inpatient treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental distress measured by the HSCL-10 is used as an indicator of psychiatric disorders in population studies, where a higher level of mental distress has been shown to be related to demographic factors such as living conditions and level of education. The first aim of the study was to explore whether mental distress could be a valuable concept in substance use treatment. The second aim of the study was to explore to what degree mental distress among substance users at admission to treatment could be explained by the same demographic factors as in population studies, or whether treatment differences or differences in substance use would be better predictors of mental distress in this population. Methods Patients (N = 185) who received inpatient substance use treatment in five different settings in Northern Norway participated in the study. HSCL-10 was used as a measure for mental distress at admission to treatment. The self-report measures AUDIT, DUDIT and DUDIT-E were used for measuring substance use and readiness for treatment. The patients' clinicians reported demographic and treatment factors. A three-block hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine potential predictors of mental distress. Block 1 included demographic variables, Block 2 included treatment variables, and Block 3 substance use variables. Results Patients generally reported a high level of mental distress at admission to treatment, and 83% reported mental distress higher than the established cut-off level. Being female, having previously received psychiatric treatment, having a higher score on DUDIT and AUDIT, and using a larger number of substances all predicted a higher level of mental distress. The model explained 32% of the variance in mental distress. Conclusions Mental distress measured by the HSCL-10 can be a valuable concept in substance use treatment. The HSCL-10 can be useful in screening for patients who are in need of further assessment for

  18. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  19. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Joan A.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Rasmussen, Sara G.; Irving, Jennifer K.; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Objectives We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Methods Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Results Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167–679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52–178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = –0.323, 95% CI: –0.333, –0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p < 0.001), with higher levels in counties having ≥ 100 drilled wells versus counties with none, and with highest levels in the Reading Prong. Conclusions Geologic unit, well water, community, weather, and unconventional natural gas development were associated with indoor radon

  20. Identifying predictors of childhood anaemia in north-east India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanku; Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR = 2.035; p = 0.003) and moderate (OR = 1.23; p = 0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR = 2.971; p = 0.000), (OR = 1.195; p = 0.010), and (OR = 1.201; p = 0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR = 1.406; p = 0.001) and mild (OR = 1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  1. Patterns and predictors of self-medication in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ocan, Moses; Bwanga, Freddie; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Bagenda, Danstan; Waako, Paul; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Obua, Celestino

    2014-01-01

    Self-medication with antimicrobial agents is a common form of self-care among patients globally with the prevalence and nature differing from country to country. Here we assessed the prevalence and predictors of antimicrobial self-medication in post-conflict northern Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out using structured interviews on 892 adult (≥18 years) participants. Information on drug name, prescriber, source, cost, quantity of drug obtained, and drug use was collected. Households were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling method. One respondent who reported having an illness within three months in each household was recruited. In each household, information was obtained from only one adult individual. Data was analyzed using STATA at 95% level of significance. The study found that a high proportion (75.7%) of the respondents practiced antimicrobial self-medication. Fever, headache, lack of appetite and body weakness were the disease symptoms most treated through self-medication (30.3%). The commonly self-medicated antimicrobials were coartem (27.3%), amoxicillin (21.7%), metronidazole (12.3%), and cotrimoxazole (11.6%). Drug use among respondents was mainly initiated by self-prescription (46.5%) and drug shop attendants (57.6%). On average, participants obtained 13.9±8.8 (95%CI: 12.6-13.8) tablets/capsules of antimicrobial drugs from drug shops and drugs were used for an average of 3.7±2.8 days (95%CI: 3.3-3.5). Over half (68.2%) of the respondents would recommend self-medication to another sick person. A high proportion (76%) of respondents reported that antimicrobial self-medication had associated risks such as wastage of money (42.1%), drug resistance (33.2%), and masking symptoms of underlying disease (15.5%). Predictors of self-medication with antimicrobial agents included gender, drug knowledge, drug leaflets, advice from friends, previous experience, long waiting time, and distance to the health facility. Despite knowledge

  2. Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C.; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. Objectives: We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. Methods: We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). Results: From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%–76% in blood and 38%–52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002–2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. Conclusions: We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study. Citation: Riederer AM, Dhingra R

  3. The predictors of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Firth, Jill; Waxman, Robin; Law, Graham; Nelson, E Andrea; Helliwell, Philip; Siddle, Heidi; Otter, Simon; Butters, Violet; Baker, Lesley; Hryniw, Rosemary; Bradley, Sarah; Loughrey, Lorraine; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Davies, Samantha; Tranter, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the predictors of foot ulceration occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without diabetes. A multi-centre case control study was undertaken; participants were recruited from eight sites (UK). Cases were adults diagnosed with RA (without diabetes) and the presence of a validated foot ulcer, defined as a full thickness skin defect occurring in isolation on / below the midline of the malleoli and requiring > 14 days to heal. Controls met the same criteria but were ulcer naive. Clinical examination included loss of sensation (10g monofilament); ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI); forefoot deformity (Platto); plantar pressures (PressureStat); RA disease activity (36 swollen/tender joint counts) and the presence of vasculitis. History taking included past ulceration/foot surgery; current medication and smoking status. Participants completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Foot Impact Scale. A total of 83 cases with 112 current ulcers and 190 ulcer naïve controls participated. Cases were significantly older (mean age 71 years; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 69-73 vs. 62 years, 60-64) and had longer RA disease duration (mean 22 years; 19-25 vs. 15, 13-17). Univariate analysis showed that risk of ulceration increases with loss of sensation; abnormality of ABPI and foot deformity. Plantar pressures and joint counts were not significant predictors. HAQ score and history of foot surgery were strongly associated with ulceration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.704, 95 % CI 1.274-2.280 and OR = 2.256, 95 % CI 1.294-3.932). Three cases and two controls presented with suspected cutaneous vasculitis. In logistic regression modelling, ABPI (OR = 0.04; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.28) forefoot deformity (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.08-1.21) and loss of sensation (OR = 1.22; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.36) predicted risk of ulceration. In patients with RA, ABPI, forefoot deformity and loss of sensation predict risk of ulceration

  4. Predictors of quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Magda; Al Harbi, Ali; Al Suwaida, Abdulkareem; Al Ghonaim, Mohammed; Al Wakeel, Jamal; Mishkiry, Adel

    2013-03-01

    Quality of Life (QoL) is a consistent and powerful predictor that affects the out-come in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis. This study was undertaken to identify the factors that might predict QoL scores among ESRD patients on hemodialysis (HD). The study was conducted at three HD units in Saudi Arabia from January 2007 to January 2008. We studied 100 HD patients (53 males and 47 females) and used the SF-36 and KDQoL-SF forms covering six domains of QoL, namely physical, emotional, social, illness impact, medical and financial satisfaction, and overall general health. The mean age of the study patients was 47.5 ± 13.8 years and the mean duration of dialysis was 77.2 ± 75.5 months. The QoL scores were 45.8 ± 17.1 for general health, 53.1 ± 32.0 for physical QoL, 50.5 ± 14.8 for emotional QoL, 54.9 ± 18.1 for social QoL, 46.5 ± 13.7 for illness impact, and 45.9 ± 12.2 for the medical and financial domain. The total QoL score was 49.5 ± 13.7. The male patients had statistically significantly reduced QoL and younger patients had better QoL scores. The QoL scores revealed a decreasing trend with decreasing level of education; they were elevated among employed patients. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, dialysis duration, and male sex were negative predictors of QoL score. We conclude from our study that QoL is reduced in all the health domains of HD patients. Older age, male gender, unemployment, and duration of dialysis adversely affected the QoL scores. Adequate management of some of these factors could influence patient outcomes. PMID:23538347

  5. Identifying Predictors of Childhood Anaemia in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR=2.035; p=0.003) and moderate (OR=1.23; p=0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR=2.971; p=0.000), (OR=1.195; p=0.010), and (OR=1.201; p=0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR=1.406; p=0.001) and mild (OR=1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  6. Predictors of Change in Substance Abuse Status in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in soldiers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted to evaluate the substance abuse status among Iranian soldiers in 2010. The target population was the soldiers who had spent at least 3 months of their military service. Cluster sampling was done from army service garrisons in 12 provinces in Iran. A total of 3960 soldiers were selected with different levels of education and age. Data gathering was done with demographic questionnaires, Texas Christian university (TCU) drug screen II and ASI questionnaire (fifth edition). Four types of dependent variables were defined: “improvement”, “without change”, “deterioration”, and “severe deterioration”. Backward ordinal regression analysis was done and P values, OR, and SE were calculated by SPSS19 software. Results: Totally, 6.7% of soldiers improved, 82% remained without change, 6.1% deteriorated, and 5.2% severely deteriorated with regard to their substance abuse. Modifiable predictors were distance from home lower than 200 km (OR =1.54), bad relationship with commanders (OR = 1.88), service place dissatisfaction (OR = 1.39), and always feeling lonely (OR = 1.83). Non-modifiable factors were alcohol use within family and friends (P = 0.000); psychiatric drug use history (OR = 1.72); suicidal attempt history (OR = 1.31); divorce, separation, and extramarital contact (P = 0.001); unemployment (P = 0.019); leisure time dissatisfaction (P = 0.004); living alone (OR = 2.43); and substance abuse

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia as an Early Predictor of Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Giovannone, Riccardo; Busetto, Gian Maria; Antonini, Gabriele; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Ferro, Matteo; Tricarico, Stefano; Del Giudice, Francesco; Ragonesi, Giulia; Conti, Simon L.; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Gentile, Vincenzo; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Erectile dysfunction (ED) is inability to achieve and maintain an erection to permit satisfactory sexual activity. Homocysteine (Hcys) is a sulfur-containing amino acid synthesized from the essential amino acid methionine. Experimental models have elucidated the role of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcys) as a strong and independent predictor for atherosclerosis progression and impaired cavernosal perfusion. The aim of this study is to investigate the serum levels of Hcys in our cohort of patients with ED, to compare these values with these of control population and to examine Hcys as a predictive marker for those patients who are beginning to complain mild–moderate ED. A total of 431 patients were enrolled in the study. The whole cohort was asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. The study population was divided in 3 main groups: Group A: 145 patients with no ED serving as a control group; Group B: 145 patients with mild or mild–moderate ED; Group C: 141 patients with moderate or severe ED. Each participant underwent blood analysis. All patients underwent baseline and dynamic penile Doppler ultrasonography. We found in our cohort mean Hcys plasma concentrations significantly higher than the cut-off point in both groups B and C (18.6 ± 4.7 and 28.38 ± 7.8, respectively). Mean IIEF score was 27.9 ± 1.39, 19.5 ± 2.6, and 11.1 ± 2.5 for groups A, B, and C, respectively (P < 0.0001). In the penile Doppler ultrasonography studies, a high significant inverse correlation was detected between the mean values of the 10th minute's peak-systolic velocity (PSV) and Hcys levels for the groups B and C. This establishes a dose-dependent association between Hcys and ED. Furthermore, we showed that Hcys was an earlier predictor of ED than Doppler studies, as the Hcys increase was present in patients with mild ED even before abnormal Doppler values. PMID:26426624

  8. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18–49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels

  9. Random Predictor Models for Rigorous Uncertainty Quantification: Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    This and a companion paper propose techniques for constructing parametric mathematical models describing key features of the distribution of an output variable given input-output data. By contrast to standard models, which yield a single output value at each value of the input, Random Predictors Models (RPMs) yield a random variable at each value of the input. Optimization-based strategies for calculating RPMs having a polynomial dependency on the input and a linear dependency on the parameters are proposed. These formulations yield RPMs having various levels of fidelity in which the mean and the variance of the model's parameters, thus of the predicted output, are prescribed. As such they encompass all RPMs conforming to these prescriptions. The RPMs are optimal in the sense that they yield the tightest predictions for which all (or, depending on the formulation, most) of the observations are less than a fixed number of standard deviations from the mean prediction. When the data satisfies mild stochastic assumptions, and the optimization problem(s) used to calculate the RPM is convex (or, when its solution coincides with the solution to an auxiliary convex problem), the model's reliability, which is the probability that a future observation would be within the predicted ranges, can be bounded tightly and rigorously.

  10. Ecology and drug use: universal predictors across time and place.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Kats, Nataliya; Arencibia-Mireles, Orlando; Finch, Stephen J

    2009-06-01

    The interrelation of ecological and psychosocial risk factors and adolescent marijuana use is examined in this three-sample longitudinal data analysis. Participants included (a) white children from the northeast of the USA, (b) African-American and Puerto Rican adolescents from New York City, and (c) adolescents living in Colombia, South America. Adolescents were interviewed in their homes. Independent measures were from the ecological, personality, peer, and family domains. Logistic regression analysis showed that the majority of ecological variables was related to adolescent marijuana use. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that the ecological domain was directly and indirectly related to adolescent marijuana use (via the family, peer, and personality domains). Intervention programs should focus on adolescents' unique ecological settings while targeting universal risk factors (e.g., low ego integration, low parental identification) which predict adolescents' marijuana use. Similarities among the ecological predictors of adolescents' marijuana use in three samples, across time and place, allow a more universal approach to the prevention of substance use. PMID:19708421

  11. Fetal sex and race modify the predictors of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Simone A; Roberts, James M; Bodnar, Lisa M; Haggerty, Catherine L; Youk, Ada O; Catov, Janet M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is unknown if fetal sex and race modify the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and smoking on fetal growth. The authors studied markers of fetal growth in singleton offspring of 8,801 primiparous, normotensive women, enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. The authors tested for departures from additivity between sex/race and each predictor. The head-to-chest circumference ratio (HCC) decreased more, while birthweight and ponderal index (PI) increased more for each 1 kg/m(2) increase in pre-pregnancy BMI among term females versus males (P = 0.07, P < 0.01 and P = 0.08, interaction respectively). For term offspring of White compared with Black women, smoking independent of "dose" was associated with larger reductions in growth (165 g vs. 68 g reduction in birthweight, P < 0.01, interaction), greater reduction in fetal placental ratio (P < 0.01, interaction), PI (P < 0.01, interaction), and greater increase in HCC (P = 0.02), respectively. The association of BMI and smoking with fetal size appeared to be reversed in term versus preterm infants. Our study provides evidence that the associations of pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking are not constant across sex and race. This finding may be relevant to sex and race differences in neonatal and long term health outcomes. PMID:25030701

  12. Pupil response as a predictor of blindsight in hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Sahraie, Arash; Trevethan, Ceri T; MacLeod, Mary Joan; Urquhart, James; Weiskrantz, Lawrence

    2013-11-01

    Significantly above-chance detection of stimuli presented within the field defect of patients with postgeniculate lesions is termed "blindsight." It has been proposed that those with blindsight are more likely to benefit from visual rehabilitation by repeated stimulation, leading to increased visual sensitivity within their field defect. Establishing the incidence of blindsight and developing an objective and reliable method for its detection are of great interest. Sudden onsets of a grating pattern in the absence of any change in light flux result in a transient constriction of the pupil, termed "pupil grating response." The existence of pupil grating responses for stimuli presented within the blindfield has previously been reported in a hemianopic patient and two monkeys with removal of the primary visual cortex unilaterally. Here, we have systematically investigated the presence of a spatial channel of processing at a range of spatial frequencies using a psychophysical forced-choice technique and obtained the corresponding pupil responses in the blindfield of 19 hemianopic patients. In addition, in 13 cases we determined the pupil responses in a sighted field location that matched the blindfield eccentricities. Our findings demonstrate that blindfield pupil responses are similar to those for the sighted field, but attenuated in amplitude. Pupillometry correctly characterized the presence or absence of a significant psychophysical response and thus is worth measuring in the cortically blindfields as a predictor of intact psychophysical capacity. The incidence of blindsight where detection performance had been investigated psychophysically over a range of spatial frequencies was 70%. PMID:24145420

  13. Predictors of Depressive Symptomatology Among Rural Stimulant Users†

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sociodemographic and drug-related predictors of depressive symptoms among a rural, multistate sample of not-in-treatment stimulant drug users (n = 710). Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to measure symptoms of depression. Moderate to severe depressive symptomatology was reported by 43.0% of the sample. Cumulative logistic regression analysis showed that daily and nondaily crack use as well as the daily use of cocaine HCl increased the odds of depressive symptoms. Methamphetamine use had no significant association with depression. The daily use of marijuana, the illicit use of tranquilizers, light/moderate cigarette smoking, and injection drug use also increased the risk of depressive symptoms. Living in Kentucky or Ohio (compared to Arkansas), having unstable living arrangements, and being White, female, and older were related to higher odds of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that a host of drug and nondrug factors need to be considered when addressing depressive symptoms in stimulant users. PMID:21305908

  14. Metabolic syndrome in a screened worksite sample: prevalence and predictors.

    PubMed

    Godefroi, Robert; Klementowicz, Peter; Pepler, Catherine; Lewis, Barbara; McDonough, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Relatively limited contemporary information is available about the magnitude of, and factors associated with, the metabolic syndrome in adult men and women. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome in a sample of employed adults attending a worksite cardiovascular screening program. The study sample consisted of 871 men and women between the ages of 21 and 77 years from 6 locations of the parent company. These individuals attended an employer-sponsored cardiovascular screening and wellness program during 2003. A standardized questionnaire was administered to all study participants and a number of different coronary risk factors were measured. Approximately 27% of the study sample was classified as having the metabolic syndrome. Men, persons with a history of hypertension, heart disease, or stroke, sedentary individuals, and those with an increased heart rate and higher levels of C-reactive protein were associated with presence of the metabolic syndrome. A relatively similar risk factor profile was noted in persons without a self-reported history of prior cardiovascular disease. The results of our cross-sectional observational study suggest that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is considerable. A number of demographic, comorbid, and other factors are associated with this syndrome. Increased attention to the metabolic syndrome, and modification of predisposing factors, remains of considerable public health and clinical importance. PMID:15665535

  15. Predictors of dyspnea prevalence: Results from the BOLD study

    PubMed Central

    Grønseth, Rune; Vollmer, William M.; Hardie, Jon A.; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Lamprecht, Bernd; Buist, A. Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gulsvik, Amund; Johannessen, Ane; Enright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom for cardiorespiratory diseases. No study has assessed worldwide variation in dyspnea prevalence or predictors of dyspnea. We used cross-sectional data from population-based samples in 15 countries of the BOLD study to estimate prevalence of dyspnea in the full sample as well as in an a priori defined low-risk group (few risk factors or dyspnea-associated diseases). Dyspnea was defined by the modified Medical Research Council questions. We used ordered logistic regression analysis to study the association of dyspnea with site, sex, age, education, smoking habits, low/high BMI, self-reported disease, and spirometry results. Of the 9,484 participants, 27% reported any dyspnea. In the low-risk subsample (N=4,329), 16% reported some dyspnea. In multivariate analyses, all covariates were correlated to dyspnea, but only 13% of dyspnea variation was explained. Women reported more dyspnea than men (odds ratio ≈ 2.1). When forced vital capacity (FVC) fell below 60% of predicted, dyspnea was much more likely. There was considerable geographical variation in dyspnea, even when we adjusted for known risk factors and spirometry results. We were only able to explain 13% of dyspnea variation. PMID:24176991

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and rehabilitation: predictors of functional outcome

    PubMed Central

    DELLA VILLA, FRANCESCO; RICCI, MARGHERITA; PERDISA, FRANCESCO; FILARDO, GIUSEPPE; GAMBERINI, JACOPO; CAMINATI, DANIELE; DELLA VILLA, STEFANO

    2015-01-01

    Surgical reconstruction of an injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) leads to full recovery of function and sports activity in a high percentage of cases. The aim of the present study was to analyze variables related to the patient, the surgical technique and the post-surgical rehabilitation methods, seeking to identify predictors of outcome and recovery time after ACL reconstruction. One hundred and four patients (81 M, 23 F) undergoing a step-based rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction were evaluated. 43.2% of them had an isolated ACL lesion, whereas 56.8% had one or more concurrent injuries. Data relating to personal characteristics, surgery and post-operative management were collected and analyzed for correlation. Clinical outcome was evaluated with IKDC subjective score and the Tegner score, and the time to reach full recovery was noted as well. Young patients with a higher pre-injury Tegner activity level or who practice sport at professional level, no concurrent capsular lesions and no postoperative knee bracing had better clinical results and took shorter time to recover. Also, a higher percentage of on-the-field rehabilitation sessions, and absence of significant muscle strength deficits at the first knee isokinetic test emerged as rehabilitation-related factors leading to a better post-surgical outcome. Personal, surgical and rehabilitation factors should be considered in order to optimize patient management and maximize the expected results. Further studies are needed to find the strongest factors in different patients. Level of evidence Level IV, retrospective study. PMID:26904523

  17. Prevalence and predictors of complications following facial reconstruction procedures.

    PubMed

    Prakasam, S; Stein, K; Lee, M K; Rampa, S; Nalliah, R; Allareddy, V; Allareddy, V

    2016-06-01

    Facial reconstruction procedures are immensely challenging and are done for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this report is to provide nationally representative estimates of different types of facial reconstructive procedures and to examine prevalence and predictors of a wide range of complications associated with these procedures in the USA. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest inpatient dataset for the USA, was used. Data for the years 2004-2010 related to facial reconstruction procedures were identified through ICD-9-CM procedure codes. Associated complications were identified using secondary diagnosis field codes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between patient/hospital-level factors and the occurrence of complications. A total 26,374 facial reconstruction procedures were performed. About 20% of all patients who had facial reconstruction procedures developed a complication. Frequently occurring complications included postoperative pneumonia (4.9% of hospitalizations), hemorrhage (3.9%), other infections (3.6%), non-healing wounds (3.5%), and iatrogenically induced complications (3.2%). Significant factors found to be consistently associated with different types of complications included age, co-morbid burden, sex, and type of admission. The reported results are generalizable within limitations and can be used by health care providers to tailor quality improvement initiatives to minimize or better treat complications in the high-risk cohorts. PMID:26819151

  18. Hybrid automated reliability predictor integrated work station (HiREL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.

    1991-01-01

    The Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP) integrated reliability (HiREL) workstation tool system marks another step toward the goal of producing a totally integrated computer aided design (CAD) workstation design capability. Since a reliability engineer must generally graphically represent a reliability model before he can solve it, the use of a graphical input description language increases productivity and decreases the incidence of error. The captured image displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT) screen serves as a documented copy of the model and provides the data for automatic input to the HARP reliability model solver. The introduction of dependency gates to a fault tree notation allows the modeling of very large fault tolerant system models using a concise and visually recognizable and familiar graphical language. In addition to aiding in the validation of the reliability model, the concise graphical representation presents company management, regulatory agencies, and company customers a means of expressing a complex model that is readily understandable. The graphical postprocessor computer program HARPO (HARP Output) makes it possible for reliability engineers to quickly analyze huge amounts of reliability/availability data to observe trends due to exploratory design changes.

  19. Psychological predictors of sport injuries among junior soccer players.

    PubMed

    Johnson, U; Ivarsson, A

    2011-02-01

    Previous researches have established models that specify psychological factors that could predict sport injuries. One example is Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model stressing factors such as anxiety, negative life stress and few coping resources. The purpose of the current study was to find psychological factors that could lead to an increased injury risk among junior soccer players, in addition to construct an empirical model of injury risk factors for soccer players. The participants were 108 male and female soccer players (m=17, 6) studying at soccer high schools in southwest Sweden. Five questionnaires were used, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Sport Anxiety Scale, Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes, Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 and Swedish universities Scales of Personality. Injury record was collected by athletic trainers at the schools during a period of 8 months. The result suggested four significant predictors that together could explain 23% of injury occurrence. The main factors are life event stress, somatic trait anxiety, mistrust and ineffective coping. These findings partly support Williams and Andersen's stress-injury model and are organized into an empirical model. Recommendations are given to sport medicine teams and coaches concerning issues in sport injury prevention. PMID:20136759

  20. Predictors of objective cough frequency in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aish; Lee, Kai K; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Yousaf, Nadia; Pavord, Ian D; Galloway, James; Birring, Surinder S

    2016-05-01

    Cough is a common symptom of pulmonary sarcoidosis. This study aimed to quantify cough frequency, and investigate its relationship with cough reflex sensitivity, pulmonary function and health status.32 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis were compared with 40 healthy controls. Cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin, objective 24-h cough counts, cough-specific health status, cough severity and cough triggers were measured. The predictors of cough frequency in sarcoidosis were determined in a multivariate analysis.Objective cough frequency was significantly raised in patients with sarcoidosis compared with healthy controls (p<0.001) and patients with cough had an impaired health status. Patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis had a heightened cough reflex sensitivity compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Only cough reflex sensitivity was significantly associated with objective cough frequency in multivariate analysis, explaining 42% of the variance (p<0.001). There was no association between cough frequency, lung function, number of organs involved, chest radiograph stage or serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels.Cough is a common and significant symptom in patients with sarcoidosis. Ambulatory objective cough monitoring provides novel insights into the determinants of cough in sarcoidosis, suggesting that cough reflex sensitivity may be more important than lung function and other measures of disease severity, and this should be investigated further. PMID:26846840

  1. Predictors of employer satisfaction: technical and non-technical skills.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Kirk, Ryan A; Preast, Vanessa A

    2012-01-01

    Employers of 2007-2009 graduates from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were asked to respond to a survey regarding their overall satisfaction with their new employees as well as their new employees' preparation in several technical and non-technical skill areas. Seventy-five responses contained complete data and were used in the analysis. Four technical skill areas (data collection, data interpretation, planning, and taking action) and five non-technical skill areas (interpersonal skills, ability to deal with legal issues, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving) were identified. All of the skill area subscales listed above had appropriate reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.70) and were positively and significantly correlated with overall employer satisfaction. Results of two simultaneous regression analyses indicated that of the four technical skill areas, taking action is the most salient predictor of employer satisfaction. Of the five non-technical skill areas, interpersonal skills, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving were the most important skills in predicting employer satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all technical skills explained 25% of the variation in employer satisfaction; non-technical skills explained an additional 42% of the variation in employer satisfaction. PMID:22433741

  2. Predictors of introduction success in the South Florida avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions are an increasing global challenge, for which single-species studies and analyses focused on testing single hypotheses of causation in isolation are unlikely to provide much additional insight. Species interact with other species to create communities, which derive from species interactions and from the interactions of species with the scale specific elements of the landscape that provide suitable habitat and exploitable resources. I used logistic regression analysis to sort among potential intrinsic, community and landscape variables that theoretically influence introduction success. I utilized the avian fauna of the Everglades of South Florida, and the variables body mass, distance to nearest neighbor (in terms of body mass), year of introduction, presence of congeners, guild membership, continent of origin, distribution in a body mass aggregation or gap, and distance to body-mass aggregation edge (in terms of body mass). Two variables were significant predictors of introduction success. Introduced avian species whose body mass placed them nearer to a body-mass aggregation edge and further from their neighbor were more likely to become successfully established. This suggests that community interactions, and community level phenomena, may be better understood by explicitly incorporating scale. ?? Springer 2006.

  3. PREDICTORS OF DISCORDANCE BETWEEN PERCEIVED AND OBJECTIVE NEIGHBORHOOD DATA

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Erin J.; Malecki, Kristen C.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Walsh, Matthew C.; Bersch, Andrew J.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Peppard, Paul E.; Nieto, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pathways by which the social and built environments affect health can be influenced by differences between perception and reality. This discordance is an important for understanding health impacts of the built environment. This study examines associations between perceived and objective measures of 12 non-residential destinations, as well as previously unexplored sociodemographic, lifestyle, neighborhood and urbanicity predictors of discordance. Methods Perceived neighborhood data were collected from participants of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), using a self-administered questionnaire. Objective data were collected using the Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment, an audit-based instrument assessing built environment features around each participant’s residence. Results Overall, there was relatively high agreement, ranging from 50% for proximity to parks to >90% for golf courses. Education, positive neighborhood perceptions, and rurality were negatively associated with discordance. Associations between discordance and depression, disease status, and lifestyle factors appeared to be modified by urbanicity level. Conclusions These data show perceived and objective neighborhood environment data are not interchangeable and the level of discordance is associated with or modified by individual and neighborhood factors, including level of urbanicity. These results suggest that consideration should be given to including both types of measures in future studies. PMID:24467991

  4. A rapid, reproducible, noninvasive predictor of liver graft survival

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinpar, Ali; Lee, Coney; Noguchi, Emily; Yersiz, Hasan; Agopian, Vatche G.; Kaldas, Fady M.; Farmer, Douglas G.; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical and laboratory criteria are not reliable predictors of deceased donor liver graft quality. Intraoperative assessment of experienced surgeons is the gold standard. Standardizing and quantifying this assessment is especially needed now that regional sharing is the rule. We prospectively evaluated a novel, simple, rapid, noninvasive, quantitative measure of liver function performed before graft procurement. Materials and methods Using a portable, finger-probe–based device, indocyanine green plasma disappearance rates (ICG-PDR) were measured in adult brain-dead donors in the local donor service area before organ procurement. Results were compared with graft function and outcomes. Both donor and recipient teams were blinded to ICG-PDR measurements. Results Measurements were performed on 53 consecutive donors. Eleven liver grafts were declined by all centers because of quality; the other 42 grafts were transplanted. Logistic regression analysis showed ICG-PDR to be the only donor variable to be significantly associated with 7-d graft survival. Donor risk index, donor age, and transaminase levels at peak or procurement were not significantly associated with 7-d graft survival. Conclusions We report the successful use of a portable quantitative means of measuring liver function and its association with graft survival. These data warrant further exploration in a variety of settings to evaluate acceptable values for donated liver grafts. PMID:25940156

  5. Nanoparticle Surface Affinity as a Predictor of Trophic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Geitner, Nicholas K; Marinakos, Stella M; Guo, Charles; O'Brien, Niall; Wiesner, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Nanoscale materials, whether natural, engineered, or incidental, are increasingly acknowledged as important components in large, environmental systems with potential implications for environmental impact and human health. Mathematical models are a useful tool for handling the rapidly increasing complexity and diversity of these materials and their exposure routes. Presented here is a mathematical model of trophic transfer driven by nanomaterial surface affinity for environmental and biological surfaces, developed in tandem with an experimental functional assay for determining these surface affinities. We found that nanoparticle surface affinity is a strong predictor of uptake through predation in a simple food web consisting of the algae Chlorella vulgaris and daphnid Daphnia magna. The mass of nanoparticles internalized by D. magna through consuming nanomaterial-contaminated algae varied linearly with surface-attachment efficiency. Internalized quantities of gold nanoparticles in D. magna ranged from 8.3 to 23.6 ng/mg for nanoparticle preparations with surface-attachment efficiencies ranging from 0.07 to 1. This model, coupled with the functional-assay approach, may provide a useful screening tool for existing materials as well as a predictive model for their development. PMID:27249534

  6. Novel risk predictor for thrombus deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, M. G. C.; Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Succi, S.

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the basic mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular diseases stands as one of the most challenging problems in modern medical research including various mechanisms which encompass a broad spectrum of space and time scales. Major implications for clinical practice and pre-emptive medicine rely on the onset and development of intraluminal thrombus in which effective clinical therapies require synthetic risk predictors/indicators capable of informing real-time decision-making protocols. In the present contribution, two novel hemodynamics synthetic indicators, based on a three-band decomposition (TBD) of the shear stress signal, are introduced. Extensive fluid-structure computer simulations of patient-specific scenarios confirm the enhanced risk-prediction capabilities of the TBD indicators. In particular, they permit a quantitative and accurate localization of the most likely thrombus deposition in realistic aortic geometries, where previous indicators would predict healthy operation. The proposed methodology is also shown to provide additional information and discrimination criteria on other factors of major clinical relevance, such as the size of the aneurysm.

  7. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy.

    PubMed

    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. PMID:27056065

  8. Evaluation of Hemodynamic Parameters as Predictors of Glaucoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Janulevičiene, Ingrida; Ehrlich, Rita; Siesky, Brent; Nedzelskienė, Irena; Harris, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate hemodynamic parameters as possible predictors for glaucoma progression. Methods. An 18-month randomized double-masked cohort study including 30 open-angle glaucoma patients receiving fixed-combination treatment with Dorzolamide/Timolol (DTFC) or Latanoprost/Timolol (LTFC) (n = 15 per group) was performed. Intraocular pressure (IOP), arterial blood pressure (BP), ocular and diastolic perfusion pressures (OPP, DPP), color Doppler imaging, pulsatile ocular blood flow analysis, scanning laser polarimetry, and Humphrey visual field evaluations were included. Results. Both treatments showed statistically similar IOP reduction. Six patients in DTFC and 7 in LTFC group met glaucoma progression criteria. DTFC group had higher OPP, DPP, and lower vascular resistivity indices as compared to the LTFC. Progressing patients had higher nerve fiber index, lower systolic BP, OPP, DPP, higher ophthalmic and central retinal artery vascular resistance, and lower pulse volume (P < .05; t-test). Conclusions. Structural changes consistent with glaucoma progression correlate with non-IOP-dependent risk factors. PMID:21577269

  9. Vagal Flexibility: A Physiological Predictor of Social Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Muhtadie, Luma; Akinola, Modupe; Koslov, Katrina; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2015-01-01

    This research explores vagal flexibility— dynamic modulation of cardiac vagal control—as an individual-level physiological index of social sensitivity. In 4 studies, we test the hypothesis that individuals with greater cardiac vagal flexibility, operationalized as higher cardiac vagal tone at rest and greater cardiac vagal withdrawal (indexed by a decrease in respiratory sinus arrhythmia) during cognitive or attentional demand, perceive social-emotional information more accurately and show greater sensitivity to their social context. Study 1 sets the foundation for this investigation by establishing that vagal flexibility can be elicited consistently in the laboratory and reliably over time. Study 2 demonstrates that vagal flexibility has different associations with psychological characteristics than does vagal tone, and that these characteristics are primarily social in nature. Study 3 links individual differences in vagal flexibility with accurate detection of social and emotional cues depicted in still facial images. Study 4 demonstrates that individuals with greater vagal flexibility respond to dynamic social feedback in a more context-sensitive manner than do individuals with less vagal flexibility. Specifically, compared with their less flexible counterparts, individuals with greater vagal flexibility, when assigned to receive negative social feedback, report more shame, show more pronounced blood pressure responses, and display less sociable behavior, but when receiving positive social feedback display more sociable behavior. Taken together, these findings suggest that vagal flexibility is a useful individual difference physiological predictor of social sensitivity, which may have implications for clinical, developmental, and health psychologists. PMID:25545841

  10. Breast reconstruction following conservative mastectomies: predictors of complications and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, Sophocles H.; Frank, Simon G.

    2015-01-01

    Breast reconstruction can be performed using a variety of techniques, most commonly categorized into an alloplastic approach or an autologous tissue method. Both strategies have certain risk factors that influence reconstructive outcomes and complication rates. In alloplastic breast reconstruction, surgical outcomes and complication rates are negatively impacted by radiation, smoking, increased body mass index (BMI), hypertension, and prior breast conserving therapy. Surgical factors such as the type of implant material, undergoing immediate breast reconstruction, and the use of fat grafting can improve patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcomes. In autologous breast reconstruction, radiation, increased BMI, certain previous abdominal surgery, smoking, and delayed reconstruction are associated with higher complication rates. Though a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is the most common type of flap used for autologous breast reconstruction, pedicled TRAMs are more likely to be associated with fat necrosis than a free TRAM or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap. Fat grafting can also be used to improve aesthetic outcomes in autologous reconstruction. This article focuses on factors, both patient and surgical, that are predictors of complications and outcomes in breast reconstruction. PMID:26645003

  11. Nonpolitical images evoke neural predictors of political ideology.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Kishida, Kenneth T; Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Harvey, Ann; Alford, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Yaffe, Gideon; Hibbing, John R; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2014-11-17

    Political ideologies summarize dimensions of life that define how a person organizes their public and private behavior, including their attitudes associated with sex, family, education, and personal autonomy. Despite the abstract nature of such sensibilities, fundamental features of political ideology have been found to be deeply connected to basic biological mechanisms that may serve to defend against environmental challenges like contamination and physical threat. These results invite the provocative claim that neural responses to nonpolitical stimuli (like contaminated food or physical threats) should be highly predictive of abstract political opinions (like attitudes toward gun control and abortion). We applied a machine-learning method to fMRI data to test the hypotheses that brain responses to emotionally evocative images predict individual scores on a standard political ideology assay. Disgusting images, especially those related to animal-reminder disgust (e.g., mutilated body), generate neural responses that are highly predictive of political orientation even though these neural predictors do not agree with participants' conscious rating of the stimuli. Images from other affective categories do not support such predictions. Remarkably, brain responses to a single disgusting stimulus were sufficient to make accurate predictions about an individual subject's political ideology. These results provide strong support for the idea that fundamental neural processing differences that emerge under the challenge of emotionally evocative stimuli may serve to structure political beliefs in ways formerly unappreciated. PMID:25447997

  12. Residual dysplasia after successful Pavlik harness treatment: early ultrasound predictors.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Venelin Alexandrov; Harcke, H Theodore; Kumar, S Jay

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a group of children treated with Pavlik harness for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) to determine early ultrasound characteristics that predict poor acetabular development after walking age. From a group of 487 infants with DDH, 55 met inclusion criteria of (1) ultrasound documentation of major neonatal hip instability, (2) treatment with Pavlik harness, and (3) a minimum of 4 years of follow-up. These 55 infants had 100 abnormal hips. Harness treatment alone was successful in treating 87 of 100 hips. Persistent or late acetabular dysplasia was defined from serial radiographs. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 5 of the 87 (6%) were found to have sequelae (late acetabular dysplasia, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, or both). Three sonographic findings present on the initial ultrasound predicted late sequelae: (1) dynamic coverage index of 22% or less, (2) alpha angle less than 43 degrees, and (3) abnormal echogenicity of the cartilaginous roof on initial ultrasound. Abnormal echogenicity was the most specific single predictor of residual dysplasia (sensitivity 100% and specificity 88%). The structurally normal cartilaginous roof is non-echogenic except for a short triangular fibrous tip (the labrum). Pathologic cartilage becomes echogenic beyond the tip as hyaline cartilage becomes fibrous and deformed. In unstable hips that respond well to Pavlik harness treatment, it would appear that midterm acetabular development can be affected when early transformation of roof cartilage accompanies displacement and instability. PMID:16439895

  13. Predictors of static balance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donna K; Huang, Min H; Rodda, Becky J

    2016-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a high rate of falls and have decreased static and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine best predictors of static standing balance, as measured by a single limb stance (SLS) timed test, in ambulatory persons with MS (PwMS) from among commonly used medical and rehabilitation clinical tests. Ambulatory PwMS participated in a single test session. Medical exam data gathered included the Function System (FS) neurologic exam and Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). A variety of commonly administered rehabilitation clinical tests addressing static balance, dynamic balance, gait endurance, functional lower extremity strength, abdominal and respiratory muscle strength were completed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations, and forward step-wise linear regressions were calculated. Twenty-eight ambulatory PwMS completed this study. Mean age was 54.74 years. Mean SLS score was 14.6 s. Pyramidal, sensory, bowel/bladder, and visual FS scores and the EDSS were significantly correlated with SLS. Maximal step length scores were significantly correlated with SLS at P less than 0.05 and the Functional Stair Test (FST) and 6-min walk test were correlated with SLS at P less than 0.10. Medical exam data EDSS and FS sensory explain 72.1% of the variance in SLS scores. Rehabilitation exam data FS sensory and FST explain 68.8% of the variance. The FS sensory, EDSS, and FST together explain 73.3% of the variance. PMID:26579696

  14. Predictors of psychological distress in Lebanese hostages of war.

    PubMed

    Saab, Basem Roberto; Chaaya, Monique; Doumit, Myrna; Farhood, Laila

    2003-10-01

    A cross-sectional study addressed the experience of Lebanese hostages of war in Lebanon. It specifically assessed the prevalence of general distress and its relationship to captivity-related factors and selected psychosocial variables. Trained field researchers using standard measurements interviewed 118 Lebanese hostages released from Khiam prison, an Israeli detention center in Lebanon. Questionnaires administered included the GHQ-12 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Individuals were detained for 3.4 years on average, and 86% were tortured. Psychological distress was present in 42.1% of the sample compared to 27.8% among the control group. In the multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for distress were: years of education and increase in religiosity after release. In conclusion, even after 2 years of release, more than one-third of the Lebanese hostages released from Khiam prison were found to have psychological distress. Caregivers need to pay special attention to the mental health of hostages of war. The paper discusses the meaning and implications of the factors predicting resilience and vulnerability in this particular population. PMID:12899908

  15. Predictors of participation in preventive health examinations in Austria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventive health check-ups in Austria are offered free of charge to all insured adults (98% of the population) and focus on early detection of chronic diseases, primary prevention, and health counseling. The study aims to explore predictors of compliance with the recommended interval of preventive health check-up performance. Methods Source of data was the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (15,474 subjects). Participation in a preventive health examination during the last three years was used as dependent variable. Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were used as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Results show that 41.6% of men and 41.8% of women had attended a preventive health check-up within the last three years. In multivariate analysis, subjects ≥40 years, with higher education, higher income or born in Austria were significantly more likely to attend a preventive health check-up. Furthermore, a chronic disease was associated with a higher attendance rate (OR: 1.21; CI: 1.07-1.36 in men; OR: 1.19; CI: 1.06-1.33 in women). Conclusions Attendance rates for health check-ups in the general Austrian population are comparatively high but not equally distributed among subgroups. Health check-ups must increase among people at a young age, with a lower socio-economic status, migration background and in good health. PMID:24308610

  16. Preliminary Exploration of Adaptive State Predictor Based Human Operator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of the human operator dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long and rich history. In the last two decades, there has been a renewed interest in modeling the human operator. There has also been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. The purpose of this research is to attempt to go beyond pilot identification based on collected experimental data and to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of changing aircraft dynamics on an operator s ability to track a signal in order to eventually model a pilot adapting to changing aircraft dynamics. A gradient descent estimator and a least squares estimator with exponential forgetting used these data to predict pilot stick input. The results indicate that individual pilot characteristics and vehicle dynamics did not affect the accuracy of either estimator method to estimate pilot stick input. These methods also were able to predict pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and they may have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot.

  17. Predictors of intra-community variation in air quality

    PubMed Central

    FRANKLIN, MEREDITH; VORA, HITA; AVOL, EDWARD; McCONNELL, ROB; LURMANN, FRED; LIU, FEIFEI; PENFOLD, BRYAN; BERHANE, KIROS; GILLILAND, FRANK; GAUDERMAN, W. JAMES

    2015-01-01

    Air quality has emerged as a key determinant of important health outcomes in children and adults. This study aims to identify factors that influence local, within-community air quality, and to build a model for traffic-related air pollution (TRP).We utilized concentrations of NO2, NO, and total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which were measured at 942 locations in 12 southern California communities. For each location, population density, elevation, land-use, and several indicators of traffic were calculated. A spatial random effects model was used to study the relationship of these predictors to each TRP.Variation in TRP was strongly correlated with traffic on nearby freeways and other major roads, and also with population density and elevation. After accounting for traffic, categories of land-use were not associated with the pollutants. Traffic had a larger relative impact in small urban (low regional pollution) communities than in large urban (high regional pollution) communities. For example, our best fitting model explained 70% of the variation in NOx in large urban areas and 76% in small urban areas. Compared with living at least 1,500m from a freeway, living within 250m of a freeway was associated with up to a 41% increase in TRP in a large urban area, and up to a 75% increase in small urban areas.Thus, traffic strongly affects local air quality in large and small urban areas, which has implications for exposure assessment and estimation of health risks. PMID:22252279

  18. Breast reconstruction following conservative mastectomies: predictors of complications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Frank, Simon G; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Breast reconstruction can be performed using a variety of techniques, most commonly categorized into an alloplastic approach or an autologous tissue method. Both strategies have certain risk factors that influence reconstructive outcomes and complication rates. In alloplastic breast reconstruction, surgical outcomes and complication rates are negatively impacted by radiation, smoking, increased body mass index (BMI), hypertension, and prior breast conserving therapy. Surgical factors such as the type of implant material, undergoing immediate breast reconstruction, and the use of fat grafting can improve patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcomes. In autologous breast reconstruction, radiation, increased BMI, certain previous abdominal surgery, smoking, and delayed reconstruction are associated with higher complication rates. Though a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is the most common type of flap used for autologous breast reconstruction, pedicled TRAMs are more likely to be associated with fat necrosis than a free TRAM or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap. Fat grafting can also be used to improve aesthetic outcomes in autologous reconstruction. This article focuses on factors, both patient and surgical, that are predictors of complications and outcomes in breast reconstruction. PMID:26645003

  19. Predictors of anticipatory cortisol reactivity to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature, predictors, and consequences of anticipatory biological stress responses are important in understanding long-term effects of repeated stressors. We examined anticipatory cortisol responses after an individual has actually experienced and reacted to a stressor once and is anticipating a second similar stressor. We hypothesized that how an individual reacts to the first stressor may predict that individual's anticipatory responses to further stressors. In Session 1, 77 male participants delivered speeches and performed arithmetic tasks in front of two evaluators. In Session 2 one week later, participants were told that they would do the same tasks again in front of evaluators. Stress cortisol reactivity in Session 1 (increase in cortisol from pre-stressor to post-stressor) predicted anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2 (increase in cortisol from baseline to immediately pre-stressor). In addition, trait measures of low self-esteem and a "Submissive and Disconnected" interpersonal orientation predicted stronger anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2. If the cortisol response to an initial stressor does in fact shape consequent anticipatory cortisol responses, this self-perpetuating nature of the initial cortisol response may contribute to negative long-term effects of repeated stressors on health. One factor that may be able to counteract this effect is a dominant and confident interpersonal orientation, which may lead to lower anticipatory cortisol reactions regardless of the response to the initial stressor. PMID:26071396

  20. HDL particle number and size as predictors of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kontush, Anatol

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that reduced concentrations of circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles can be superior to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Measurements of HDL particle numbers, therefore, bear a potential for the improved assessment of cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, such measurement can be relevant for the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches targeting HDL. Modern in-depth analyses of HDL particle profile may further improve evaluation of cardiovascular risk. Although clinical relevance of circulating concentrations of HDL subpopulations to cardiovascular disease remains controversial, the negative relationship between the number of large HDL particles and cardiovascular disease suggests that assessment of HDL particle profile can be clinically useful. Reduced mean HDL size is equally associated with cardiovascular disease in large-scale clinical studies. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those established for plasma levels of HDL particles, HDL-C, and large HDL. The epidemiological data thereby suggest that HDL particle number may represent a more relevant therapeutic target as compared to HDL-C. PMID:26500551

  1. Is Approximate Number Precision a Stable Predictor of Math Ability?

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that children’s ability to estimate numbers of items using their Approximate Number System (ANS) predicts later math ability. To more closely examine the predictive role of early ANS acuity on later abilities, we assessed the ANS acuity, math ability, and expressive vocabulary of preschoolers twice, six months apart. We also administered attention and memory span tasks to ask whether the previously reported association between ANS acuity and math ability is ANS-specific or attributable to domain-general cognitive skills. We found that early ANS acuity predicted math ability six months later, even when controlling for individual differences in age, expressive vocabulary, and math ability at the initial testing. In addition, ANS acuity was a unique concurrent predictor of math ability above and beyond expressive vocabulary, attention, and memory span. These findings of a predictive relationship between early ANS acuity and later math ability add to the growing evidence for the importance of early numerical estimation skills. PMID:23814453

  2. Evaluation of six ionospheric models as predictors of TEC

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D.; Daniell, R.E.; Fox, M.W.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Doherty, P.H.

    1990-05-03

    The authors have gathered TEC data from a wide range of latitudes and longitudes for a complete range of solar activity. This data was used to evaluate the performance of six ionospheric models as predictors of Total Electron Content (TFC). The TEC parameter is important in correcting modern DOD space systems, which propagate radio signals from the earth to satellites, for the time delay effects of the ionosphere. The TEC data were obtained from polarimeter receivers located in North America, the Pacific, and the East Coast of Asia. The ionospheric models evaluated are: (1) the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI); (2) the Bent model; (3) the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) model; (4) the Penn State model; (5) the Fully Analytic Ionospheric Model (FAIM, a modification of the Chiu model); and (6) the Damen-Hartranft model. They will present extensive comparisons between monthly mean TEC at all local times and model TEC obtained by integrating electron density profiles produced by the six models. These comparisons demonstrate that even thought most of the models do very well at representing f0F2, none of them do very well with TEC, probably because of inaccurate representation of the topside scale height. They suggest that one approach to obtaining better representations of TEC is the use of f0E2 from coefficients coupled with a new slab thickness developed at Boston University.

  3. Risk factors and predictors of mortality for proximal humeral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Benjamin WT; Manning, Paul A; Wallace, W Angus; Geoghegan, John M

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors for mortality after proximal humeral fracture, including socioeconomic status, are poorly defined. This retrospective review of prospectively collected data defines the epidemiology and predictors of mortality in association with proximal humeral fractures. Methods Patients who sustained proximal humeral fractures were identified from fragility fracture and trauma databases between May 2001 and September 2012. Results In total, 1880 patients with a mean age of 69 years and a male to female ratio of 2 : 3 were identified. Socioeconomic distribution is skewed towards the lowest and highest quintiles. Low-energy mechanisms caused 88% of fractures. Men sustain fractures when they are aged 10 years younger and via higher-energy mechanisms. In total, 536 patients (29%) died within the study period with a 1-year mortality of 9.8%, rising to 28.2% at 5 years. Female gender, increasing age, pathological fracture and increased number of co-morbidities were independent variables for increased mortality. Conclusions The present study, which was conducted over an 11-year period, is the first to combine the epidemiology and risk factors for mortality with socioeconomic rank. One-year mortality risk is twice that of the background matched population. Patient counselling with respect to increased mortality should be considered, especially in higher-risk elderly females with multiple co-morbidities.

  4. Brain Functional and Structural Predictors of Language Performance.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-05-01

    The relation between brain function and behavior on the one hand and the relation between structural changes and behavior on the other as well as the link between the 2 aspects are core issues in cognitive neuroscience. It is an open question, however, whether brain function or brain structure is the better predictor for age-specific cognitive performance. Here, in a comprehensive set of analyses, we investigated the direct relation between hemodynamic activity in 2 pairs of frontal and temporal cortical areas, 2 long-distance white matter fiber tracts connecting each pair and sentence comprehension performance of 4 age groups, including 3 groups of children between 3 and 10 years as well as young adults. We show that the increasing accuracy of processing complex sentences throughout development is correlated with the blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation of 2 core language processing regions in Broca's area and the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus. Moreover, both accuracy and speed of processing are correlated with the maturational status of the arcuate fasciculus, that is, the dorsal white matter fiber bundle connecting these 2 regions. The present data provide compelling evidence for the view that brain function and white matter structure together best predict developing cognitive performance. PMID:25770126

  5. Predictors of Drug Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Pahl, Tine; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association of frequency of illegal drug use with five groups of factors: environmental stressors; parental drug use; parental child rearing; peer drug use; and adolescent personal attributes. Methods: 1468 male (45%) and female (55%) adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years (mean=14.76, S.D.=1.51), were interviewed at home in Durban and Capetown, South Africa. Independent measures assessed environmental stressors, parental child rearing, parental drug use, peer drug use, and adolescent personal attributes. The dependent variable was the adolescents’ frequency of illegal drug use. Results: Regression analyses showed that personal attributes and peer substance use explained the largest percentage of the variance in the adolescents’ frequency of illegal drug use. In addition, both parental factors and environmental stressors contributed to the explained variance in adolescent drug use above and beyond the two more proximal domains at a statistically significant level. Conclusions: Knowing the contribution of more proximal versus more distal risk factors for illegal drug use is useful for prioritizing targets for interventions. Targeting changes in the more proximal predictors (e.g., adolescent personal attributes) may be more effective as well as more feasible than trying to produce change in the more distal factors such as environmental stressors. PMID:16387245

  6. Working posture and its predictors in hospital operating room nurses

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahzade, Farahnaz; Mohammadi, Fariba; Dianat, Iman; Asghari, Elnaz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Sokhanvar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate working posture of operating room nurses and its relationship with demographic and job details of this group. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 147 operating room nurses in Tabriz, Iran using a questionnaire and the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) checklist. The data were analyzed with SPSS.16 using t test, Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for univariate analysis and the linear regression test for multivariate analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of REBA score was 7.7 (1.9), which means a high risk level and highlights an urgent need to change the working postures of the studied nurses. There was significant relationship between working posture and age (P = 0.003), gender (P = 0.003), regular daily exercise (P = 0.048), work experience (P = 0.003), number of shifts per month (P = 0.006) and type of operating rooms (P < 0.001) in univariate analyses. Gender and type of operating room were the predictors of working posture of nurses in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The findings highlight the need for ergonomic interventions and educational programs to improve working posture of this study population, which can consequently lead to promotion of health and well-being of this group. PMID:27123432

  7. Incidence and Predictors of Radial Artery Occlusion Associated Transradial Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Tuncez, Abdullah; Kaya, Zeynettin; Aras, Dursun; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Gül, Enes Elvin; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Karakaş, Mehmet Fatih; Kısacık, Halil Lütfü

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to assess the incidence and predictors of radial artery occlusion (RAO), which is a significant complication of transradial cardiac catheterization. We prospectively evaluated the results of 106 patients who underwent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) via the transradial approach (TRA). At the 3rd h of intervention, the radial artery was checked by palpation; color doppler ultrasonography was performed at the 24th h. Fluoroscopy duration, procedure success, and complications of the radial artery were recorded. The procedure was successfully completed in all patients. RAO was detected in eight female and two male patients. In terms of RAO, there was a statistically significant difference between males and females (p=0.019). Other parameters did not show a significant correlation with RAO. Altough did not have any effect on procedural success, eight patients developed transient radial artery spasm. Gender was not associated with radial arterial spasms (p=0.19). TRA in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease has shown high procedural success and low complication rates; it addition, it presents a low economic burden. It should be used widely and be involved in the routine cardiology residency program. PMID:24151442

  8. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  9. Predictors of Healthcare Service Utilization for Mental Health Reasons

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Ngamini Ngui, André; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Caron, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to identify: (1) predictors of 12-month healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons, framed by the Andersen model, among a population cohort in an epidemiological catchment area; and (2) correlates associated with healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons among individuals with and without mental disorders respectively. Analyses comprised univariate, bivariate, and multiple regression analyses. Being male, having poor quality of life, possessing better self-perception of physical health, and suffering from major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social phobia, and emotional problems predicted healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons. Among individuals with mental disorders, needs factors (psychological distress, impulsiveness, emotional problems, victim of violence, and aggressive behavior) and visits to healthcare professionals were associated with healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons. Among individuals without mental disorders, healthcare service utilization for mental health reasons is strongly associated with enabling factors such as social support, income, environmental variables, and self-perception of the neighborhood. Interventions facilitating social cohesion and social solidarity in neighborhood settings may reduce the need to seek help among individuals without mental disorders. Furthermore, in their capacity as frontline professionals, general practitioners should be more sensitive in preventing, detecting, and treating mental disorders in routine primary care. PMID:25321874

  10. Disability predictors in chronic low back pain after aquatic exercise.

    PubMed

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Artero, Enrique G; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps < 0.01) were found. Changes in pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy. PMID:24887967

  11. Predictors of Gait Speed in Patients after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Rebecca L.; Lopopolo, Rosalie; Tomlinson, James D.; Brenneman, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Following hip fracture, patients demonstrate greatly reduced walking speeds 1 year later compared with age-matched elders. The purpose of our study was to examine the factors that relate to gait speed in patients after hip fracture. Methods: Forty-two men and women (mean age 79 ± 7.5 years) who sustained a hip fracture participated in this study. Linear regression analysis was used to determine a statistical model that best predicted gait speed, the dependent variable. Gait speed was measured with a computerized gait mat. The independent variables were age, sex, height, weight, time post-fracture, medications, mental status, depression, balance confidence, Medical Outcome Studies, Short Form (SF-36), balance, and lower extremity isometric force. All subjects were discharged from physical therapy services, and measurements were taken, on average, 17 weeks post-fracture. Results: Using stepwise regression, 72% of the variance in gait speed was explained by summed lower extremity strength normalized by body weight, general health (SF-36), and balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale). Conclusions: Impairments (summed lower extremity strength) and risk factors (perception of general health and balance confidence) are important predictors of gait speed in elders after hip fracture. PMID:20145738

  12. Manifest dream content as a possible predictor of suicidality.

    PubMed

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status. PMID:25494585

  13. Application of Interval Predictor Models to Space Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy,Daniel P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for predicting the uncertainty range of an output variable given input-output data. These models are called Interval Predictor Models (IPM) because they yield an interval valued function of the input. This paper develops IPMs having a radial basis structure. This structure enables the formal description of (i) the uncertainty in the models parameters, (ii) the predicted output interval, and (iii) the probability that a future observation would fall in such an interval. In contrast to other metamodeling techniques, this probabilistic certi cate of correctness does not require making any assumptions on the structure of the mechanism from which data are drawn. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs having minimal spread while containing all the data are developed. Constraints for bounding the minimum interval spread over the continuum of inputs, regulating the IPMs variation/oscillation, and centering its spread about a target point, are used to prevent data over tting. Furthermore, we develop an approach for using expert opinion during extrapolation. This metamodeling technique is illustrated using a radiation shielding application for space exploration. In this application, we use IPMs to describe the error incurred in predicting the ux of particles resulting from the interaction between a high-energy incident beam and a target.

  14. Predictors of Pain Management among American Indian Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi; Cadogan, Mary; Itty, Tracy; Warda, Umme; Martinez, Fernando; Quan, Ann

    2016-01-01

    There is little research on cancer symptom management among Indigenous populations. This paper reports on the predictors of cancer pain management among American Indian cancer patients/survivors and their caregivers/family. The intervention was a symptom management toolkit delivered via traditional talking circles vs. standard care (control) at eight randomized reservation and urban clinic sites in the Southwest. Participants (N=184) were American Indian adults diagnosed with cancer and/or caregiver/family members. The primary outcome measure collected via pre-test and post-test questionnaires was the ability to manage cancer pain. Significant differences at post-test were the ability to manage cancer-related pain (p=.02) and a close relationship (p=.0018) that proved significant for intervention participants and was instrumental in fostering their ability to manage pain. The study also showed improvement in the desire and ability to improve cancer pain management among intervention participants. Programs targeting American Indians should use culturally appropriate education to improve management of cancer-related symptoms. PMID:27180700

  15. Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Hua

    2014-07-01

    In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species. PMID:25017756

  16. Predictors of obesity bias among exercise science students.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jody; Rukavina, Paul; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate particular psychosocial predictors of obesity bias in prehealth professionals, which include the internalization of athletic and general body ideals, perceived media pressure and information, and achievement goal orientations. Exercise science undergraduate students (n= 242) filled out a survey containing questions of demographic characteristics, achievement goals, social-cultural attitudes toward appearance (using Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3), and obesity bias measurements (using the antifat attitudes test and fat phobia scale). The results indicated that students were explicitly biased toward overweight and obese individuals, held had high task and ego goals, and had high internalization of an athletic body type ideal, as determined by mean scores being above the median values for each scale. Internalization of the athletic body type predicted obesity bias for fat phobia, weight control blame, and physical/romantic attractiveness. In conclusion, exercise science students may enter programs socialized from society and sport, and, potentially, these psychosocial attitudes and beliefs may have implications to working with future clients, especially for those of the general population and those whose body shape and size are different than themselves. PMID:27068990

  17. Identifying Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon Ho-Ringo; Kim, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has begun to examine cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress and subsequent depression in adolescents. This research is critical as cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors likely shape expectations, perspectives, and interpretations of a given situation prior to the onset of a stressor. In the current study, adolescents (n=157; boys=64, girls=93), ages 12 to 18, participated in a 6-month, multi-wave longitudinal study examining the impact of negative cognitive style, self-criticism, and dependency on stress and depression. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel analyses indicate that depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite score and weakest link approach) and self-criticism predict dependent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress. Moreover, the occurrence of stress mediates the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms over time. At the same time, self-criticism predicts above and beyond depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite and weakest link approach). In contrast to our hypotheses, dependency does not contribute to the occurrence of stress, and additionally, no gender differences emerge. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-criticism may be a particularly damaging vulnerability factor in adolescence, and moreover, it may warrant greater attention in the context of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:24398789

  18. North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel rainfall.

    PubMed

    Li, Laifang; Schmitt, Raymond W; Ummenhofer, Caroline C; Karnauskas, Kristopher B

    2016-05-01

    Water evaporating from the ocean sustains precipitation on land. This ocean-to-land moisture transport leaves an imprint on sea surface salinity (SSS). Thus, the question arises of whether variations in SSS can provide insight into terrestrial precipitation. This study provides evidence that springtime SSS in the subtropical North Atlantic ocean can be used as a predictor of terrestrial precipitation during the subsequent summer monsoon in Africa. Specifically, increased springtime SSS in the central to eastern subtropical North Atlantic tends to be followed by above-normal monsoon-season precipitation in the African Sahel. In the spring, high SSS is associated with enhanced moisture flux divergence from the subtropical oceans, which converges over the African Sahel and helps to elevate local soil moisture content. From spring to the summer monsoon season, the initial water cycling signal is preserved, amplified, and manifested in excessive precipitation. According to our analysis of currently available soil moisture data sets, this 3-month delay is attributable to a positive coupling between soil moisture, moisture flux convergence, and precipitation in the Sahel. Because of the physical connection between salinity, ocean-to-land moisture transport, and local soil moisture feedback, seasonal forecasts of Sahel precipitation can be improved by incorporating SSS into prediction models. Thus, expanded monitoring of ocean salinity should contribute to more skillful predictions of precipitation in vulnerable subtropical regions, such as the Sahel. PMID:27386525

  19. Random Predictor Models for Rigorous Uncertainty Quantification: Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    This and a companion paper propose techniques for constructing parametric mathematical models describing key features of the distribution of an output variable given input-output data. By contrast to standard models, which yield a single output value at each value of the input, Random Predictors Models (RPMs) yield a random variable at each value of the input. Optimization-based strategies for calculating RPMs having a polynomial dependency on the input and a linear dependency on the parameters are proposed. These formulations yield RPMs having various levels of fidelity in which the mean, the variance, and the range of the model's parameter, thus of the output, are prescribed. As such they encompass all RPMs conforming to these prescriptions. The RPMs are optimal in the sense that they yield the tightest predictions for which all (or, depending on the formulation, most) of the observations are less than a fixed number of standard deviations from the mean prediction. When the data satisfies mild stochastic assumptions, and the optimization problem(s) used to calculate the RPM is convex (or, when its solution coincides with the solution to an auxiliary convex problem), the model's reliability, which is the probability that a future observation would be within the predicted ranges, is bounded rigorously.

  20. North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Li, Laifang; Schmitt, Raymond W.; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Water evaporating from the ocean sustains precipitation on land. This ocean-to-land moisture transport leaves an imprint on sea surface salinity (SSS). Thus, the question arises of whether variations in SSS can provide insight into terrestrial precipitation. This study provides evidence that springtime SSS in the subtropical North Atlantic ocean can be used as a predictor of terrestrial precipitation during the subsequent summer monsoon in Africa. Specifically, increased springtime SSS in the central to eastern subtropical North Atlantic tends to be followed by above-normal monsoon-season precipitation in the African Sahel. In the spring, high SSS is associated with enhanced moisture flux divergence from the subtropical oceans, which converges over the African Sahel and helps to elevate local soil moisture content. From spring to the summer monsoon season, the initial water cycling signal is preserved, amplified, and manifested in excessive precipitation. According to our analysis of currently available soil moisture data sets, this 3-month delay is attributable to a positive coupling between soil moisture, moisture flux convergence, and precipitation in the Sahel. Because of the physical connection between salinity, ocean-to-land moisture transport, and local soil moisture feedback, seasonal forecasts of Sahel precipitation can be improved by incorporating SSS into prediction models. Thus, expanded monitoring of ocean salinity should contribute to more skillful predictions of precipitation in vulnerable subtropical regions, such as the Sahel. PMID:27386525