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Sample records for documents gut decontamination

  1. Oral Gentamicin Gut Decontamination for Prevention of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections: Relevance of Concomitant Systemic Antibiotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tascini, Carlo; Sbrana, Francesco; Flammini, Sarah; Tagliaferri, Enrico; Arena, Fabio; Leonildi, Alessandro; Ciullo, Ilaria; Amadori, Francesco; Di Paolo, Antonello; Ripoli, Andrea; Lewis, Russell; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2014-01-01

    Gut colonization represents the main source for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) epidemic dissemination. Oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, was administered to 50 consecutive patients with gut colonization by gentamicin-susceptible KPC-Kp in cases of planned surgery, major medical intervention, or need for patient transfer. The overall decontamination rate was 68% (34/50). The median duration of gentamicin treatment was 9 days (interquartile range, 7 to 15 days) in decontaminated patients compared to 24 days (interquartile range, 20 to 30 days) in those with persistent colonization (P < 0.001). In the six-month period of follow-up, KPC-Kp infections were documented in 5/34 (15%) successfully decontaminated patients compared to 12/16 (73%) persistent carriers (P < 0.001). The decontamination rate was 96% (22/23) in patients receiving oral gentamicin only, compared to 44% (12/27) of those treated with oral gentamicin and concomitant systemic antibiotic therapy (CSAT) (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed CSAT and KPC-Kp infection as the variables associated with gut decontamination. In the follow-up period, KPC-Kp infections were documented in 2/23 (9%) of patients treated with oral gentamicin only and in 15/27 (56%) of those also receiving CSAT (P = 0.003). No difference in overall death rate between different groups was documented. Gentamicin-resistant KPC-Kp strains were isolated from stools of 4/16 persistent carriers. Peak gentamicin blood levels were below 1 mg/liter in 12/14 tested patients. Oral gentamicin was shown to be potentially useful for gut decontamination and prevention of infection due to KPC-Kp, especially in patients not receiving CSAT. The risk of emergence of gentamicin-resistant KPC-Kp should be considered. PMID:24419337

  2. Oral gentamicin gut decontamination for prevention of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections: relevance of concomitant systemic antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tascini, Carlo; Sbrana, Francesco; Flammini, Sarah; Tagliaferri, Enrico; Arena, Fabio; Leonildi, Alessandro; Ciullo, Ilaria; Amadori, Francesco; Di Paolo, Antonello; Ripoli, Andrea; Lewis, Russell; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Menichetti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Gut colonization represents the main source for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) epidemic dissemination. Oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, was administered to 50 consecutive patients with gut colonization by gentamicin-susceptible KPC-Kp in cases of planned surgery, major medical intervention, or need for patient transfer. The overall decontamination rate was 68% (34/50). The median duration of gentamicin treatment was 9 days (interquartile range, 7 to 15 days) in decontaminated patients compared to 24 days (interquartile range, 20 to 30 days) in those with persistent colonization (P<0.001). In the six-month period of follow-up, KPC-Kp infections were documented in 5/34 (15%) successfully decontaminated patients compared to 12/16 (73%) persistent carriers (P<0.001). The decontamination rate was 96% (22/23) in patients receiving oral gentamicin only, compared to 44% (12/27) of those treated with oral gentamicin and concomitant systemic antibiotic therapy (CSAT) (P<0.001). The multivariate analysis confirmed CSAT and KPC-Kp infection as the variables associated with gut decontamination. In the follow-up period, KPC-Kp infections were documented in 2/23 (9%) of patients treated with oral gentamicin only and in 15/27 (56%) of those also receiving CSAT (P=0.003). No difference in overall death rate between different groups was documented. Gentamicin-resistant KPC-Kp strains were isolated from stools of 4/16 persistent carriers. Peak gentamicin blood levels were below 1 mg/liter in 12/14 tested patients. Oral gentamicin was shown to be potentially useful for gut decontamination and prevention of infection due to KPC-Kp, especially in patients not receiving CSAT. The risk of emergence of gentamicin-resistant KPC-Kp should be considered. PMID:24419337

  3. Environmental restoration and decontamination & decommissioning safety documentation. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.L.; Frauenholz, L.H.; Kerr, N.R.

    1993-05-18

    This document presents recommendations of a working group designated by the Environmental Restoration and Remediation (ER) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) subcommittees of the Westinghouse M&O (Management and Operation) Nuclear Facility Safety Committee. A commonalty of approach to safety documentation specific to ER and D&D activities was developed and is summarized below. Allowance for interpretative tolerance and documentation flexibility appropriate to the activity, graded for hazard category, duration, and complexity, was a primary consideration in development of this guidance.

  4. Decontamination.

    PubMed

    Houston, Marc; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2005-10-01

    Decontamination is the removal or reduction of chemical, biologic, or radiologic agents from the patient's skin, mucosa, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. Decontamination is an important step in decreasing the clinical effects of the agent on the patient, as well as protecting coworkers from exposure. For most agents and the vast majority of scenarios, the removal of clothing and a simple 5- to 6-minute shower with soap and water is sufficient to eliminate the risks to the patient and hospital staff. In rare circumstances, additional steps in decontamination including gastric lavage, broncho-alveolar lavage, surgical removal of wound foreign bodies, and administration of activated charcoal, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution, and radioisotope binding agents, may be necessary. PMID:16168307

  5. Removing external DNA decontamination from arthropod predators destined for molecular gut-content analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular gut-content analysis enables detection of arthropod predation with minimal disruption of ecosystem processes. Field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that mass-collection methods, such as sweep-netting, vacuum sampling, and foliage beating, can lead to contamination of fed pred...

  6. 360 DEGREE PHOTOGRAPHY TO DOCUMENT & TRAIN & ORIENT PERSONNEL FOR DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2001-11-12

    360{sup o} photo technology is being used to document conditions, especially hazardous conditions, at US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that are being closed. Traditional efforts to document the condition of rooms and cells, especially those difficult to enter due to the hazards present, using engineering drawings, documents, ''traditional flat'' photographs or videos, don't provide perspective. These miss items or quickly pan across areas of interest with little opportunity to study details. Therefore, it becomes necessary to make multiple entries into these hazardous areas resulting in work activities taking longer and increasing exposure and the risk of accidents. High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques, make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and down, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound files providing audio information; flat photos providing additional detail or information about what is behind a panel or around a comer; and text information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards present but not readily visible. The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached to create a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area or room to room. The user is able to stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, work planning and orientation, and training. Documentation is developed during facility closure so people involved in follow-on activities can gain a perspective of the area, focus on points of interest and discuss what they would do or how they would respond to and manage conditions. Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) planners and workers can make use of the tour to plan work and decide ahead of time, while looking at the areas of interest, what and how tasks will

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  8. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  9. Environmental decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  10. Application and utilization of a space chamber for the drying and decontamination of books, documents and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koesterer, M. G.; Geating, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Truckloads of materials such as rare books, papers, engineering drawings, blue prints, art work, leather objects such as shoes, and clothing were successfully dried, decontaminated and impregnated against future infestation by microorganisms in a large 12 x 24 foot vacuum chamber designed originally for testing unmanned spacecraft. The process is unique in that it allows either frozen or wet material, soaked by some castastrophic event to be dried and sterilized in the same chamber with a minimum of handling and transportation.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-11

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand-1 Decontamination Pad, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 252 consists of only one Corrective Action Site (25-07-04, Decontamination Pad). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary at CAU 252. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because the potential contaminants of concern were either not detected during the corrective action investigation or were only present at naturally occurring concentrations. Based on the field results, neither corrective action or a corrective action plan is required at this site. A Notice of Completion to DOE/NV is being requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 252, as well as a request that this site be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. Further, no use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU.

  12. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  13. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  14. [Selective bowel decontamination].

    PubMed

    Szántó, Zoltán; Pulay, István; Kotsis, Lajos; Dinka, Tibor

    2006-04-01

    Infective complications play major role in mortality of high risk patients demanding intensive care. Selective Bowel Decontamination prevents endogenous infections by reducing the number of potentially pathogen microbes (aerobic bacteria, fungi) in the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract, saving anaerobic bacteria. It had been used 20 years ago for the first time. Authors survey it's literature ever since. Selective Bowel Decontamination is performed by the mixture of antibiotics and antimycotic drug, administered orally in hydrogel, and suspension form in nasojejunal tube. The number of Gram negative optional aerobic bacteria and fungi decrease significantly in the gut, and the microbial translocation is following this tendency. Foreign authors achieved good results in acute necrotizing pancreatitis, after liver transplant, in polytrauma, in serious burn and in haematological malignancies. According to the literature Selective Bowel Decontamination shows advantages in selected groups of high risk surgical patients. In some studies the administration took few months, but the minimum time was one week. There was no report of increasing MRSA appearance. Regular bacteriological sampling is highly recommended in order to recognize any new antibiotic resistance in time. PMID:16711371

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities of decontamination and decommissioning at ORNL. Topics discussed include general problems, waste types, containment, robotics automation and decontamination processes.

  16. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  17. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  18. The gut is the epicentre of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gut contains very large numbers of bacteria. Changes in the composition of the gut flora, due in particular to antibiotics, can happen silently, leading to the selection of highly resistant bacteria and Candida species. These resistant organisms may remain for months in the gut of the carrier without causing any symptoms or translocate through the gut epithelium, induce healthcare-associated infections, undergo cross-transmission to other individuals, and cause limited outbreaks. Techniques are available to prevent, detect, and treat the carriage of resistant organisms in the gut. However, evidence on these techniques is scant, the only exception being selective digestive decontamination (SDD), which has been extensively studied in neutropenic and ICU patients. After the destruction of resistant colonizing bacteria, which has been successfully obtained in several studies, the gut could be re-colonized with normal faecal flora or probiotics. Studies are warranted to evaluate this concept. PMID:23181506

  19. Role of Gut Microbiota in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Brenner, David A; Paik, Yong-Han; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Many lines of research have established a relationship between the gut microbiome and patients with liver disease. For example, patients with cirrhosis have increased bacteremia, increased blood levels of lipopolysaccharide, and increased intestinal permeability. Patients with cirrhosis have bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. Selective intestinal decontamination with antibiotics is beneficial for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In experimental models of chronic liver injury with fibrosis, several toll-like receptors (TLR) are required to make mice sensitive to liver fibrosis. The presumed ligand for the TLRs are bacterial products derived from the gut microbiome, and TLR knockout mice are resistant to liver inflammation and fibrosis. We and others have characterized the association between preclinical models of liver disease in mice with the microbial diversity in their gut microbiome. In each model, including intragastric alcohol, bile duct ligation, chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), administration, and genetic obesity, there is a significant change in the gut microbiome from normal control mice. However, there is not a single clear bacterial strain or pattern that distinguish mice with liver injury from controlled mice. So how can the gut microbiota affect liver disease? We can identify at least 6 changes that would result in liver injury, inflammation, and/or fibrosis. These include: (1) changes in caloric yield of diet; (2) regulation of gut permeability to release bacterial products; (3) modulation of choline metabolism; (4) production of endogenous ethanol; (5) regulation of bile acid metabolism; and (6) regulation in lipid metabolism. PMID:26447960

  20. NPOx Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.; Demmer, R.; Argyle, M.; Ancho, M.; Hai-Pao, J.

    2002-02-25

    The nitric acid/potassium permanganate/oxalic acid (NPOx) Phase II system is being prepared for remote operation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Several tests have been conducted to prepare the system for remote operation. This system performs very well with high decontamination efficiencies and very low quantities of waste generated during decontamination.

  1. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOEpatents

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  2. Concrete decontamination scoping tests

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete.

  3. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  4. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  5. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  6. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  7. Decontamination: back to basics.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true. PMID:18710126

  8. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  9. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  10. SUSY GUT Model Building

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Stuart

    2008-11-23

    In this talk I discuss the evolution of SUSY GUT model building as I see it. Starting with 4 dimensional model building, I then consider orbifold GUTs in 5 dimensions and finally orbifold GUTs embedded into the E{sub 8}xE{sub 8} heterotic string.

  11. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, Everett L.

    1984-11-06

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  12. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  13. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF{sub 6}, which is generated from the reaction of ClF{sub 3} with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps.

  14. Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, G S

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

  15. Repainting decontaminated canyon cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-23

    The paint on the H-area hot canyon crane is expected to be at least partially removed during the planned decontamination with high pressure Freon/reg sign/ blasting. Tests to evaluate two candidate finishes, DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, March 1984. Three types of 304L stainless steel surface finishes were included in the test (ASTM No. 1, bead blasted ASTM No. 1, and ASTM No. 2B). Two types of contamination were used (diluted dissolver solution, the type of contamination encountered in existing canyons; and raw sludge plus volatiles, the type of contamination expected in DWPF). Some specimens were coated with the type of grease (Mystic JT-6) used on cranes in SRP separations areas. The results of the test indicate that smoother surfaces are easier to decontaminate than rougher surfaces. Statistical analysis of the data from this experiment by R.L. Postles leads to the following conclusions: There is no statistical difference between the decontamination properties of DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and DuPont Colar/reg sign/ epoxy; DuPont Imron/reg sign/ polyurethane enamel and perhaps Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 2B surface finish are easier to decontaminate than Type 304L stainless steel with an ASTM No. 1 surface finish; dilute dissolver solution is harder to remove than raw sludge plus volatiles; specimens with grease are easier to decontaminate than specimens with no grease; and, Freon/reg sign/ blasting pressure has no statistically significant effect. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    PubMed

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants. PMID:23914512

  17. Decontamination of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  18. Decontamination of radioisotopes

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  19. APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim

    2015-01-01

    This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796

  20. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. The primary objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a means to achieve ``release levels`` which could be consistent with unrestricted use of a decontaminated building. The secondary objectives were: To establish process parameters; to quantify the economics; to ascertain the ALARA considerations; and to evaluate wasteform and waste volume. The work carried out to this point has achieved promising results to the extent that ISOTRON{reg_sign} has been authorized to expand the planned activity to include the fabrication of a prototype version of a commercial device.

  1. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity. PMID:26459447

  2. Gut microbiome, gut function, and probiotics: Implications for health.

    PubMed

    Hajela, Neerja; Ramakrishna, B S; Nair, G Balakrish; Abraham, Philip; Gopalan, Sarath; Ganguly, Nirmal K

    2015-03-01

    New insights from a rapidly developing field of research have ushered in a new era of understanding of the complexity of host-microbe interactions within the human body. The paradigm shift from culturing to metagenomics has provided an insight into the complex diversity of the microbial species that we harbor, revealing the fact that we are in fact more microbes than human cells. The largest consortium of these microbes resides in the gut and is called the gut microbiota. This new science has expanded the ability to document shifts in microbial populations to an unparalleled degree. It is now understood that signals from the microbiota provide trophic, nutritional, metabolic, and protective effects for the development and maintenance of the host digestive, immune, and neuroendocrine system. Evidence linking changes in the gut microbiota to gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and celiac disease have begun to emerge recently. Probiotics act through diverse mechanisms positively affecting the composition and/or function of the commensal microbiota and alter host immunological responses. Well-controlled intervention trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence for the benefit of probiotics in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal as well as extraintestinal disorders. PMID:25917520

  3. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required.

  4. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  5. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  6. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  7. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  8. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PCB SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PROCESS-SELECTION FOR TEST AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a report describing the assessment of seven alternative treatment processes that show potential for decontaminating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments. The processes are KPEG, MODAR Supercritical Water Oxidation, Bio-Clean, Ultrasonics/UV, C...

  9. Foam and gel decontamination techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is investigating decontamination technology to improve current decontamination techniques, and thereby reduce radiation exposure to plant personnel, reduce uptake of radioactive material, and improve safety during decontamination and decommissioning activities. When decontamination chemicals are applied as foam and gels, the contact time and cleaning ability of the chemical increases. Foam and gel applicators apply foam or gel that adheres to the surface being decontaminated for periods ranging from fifteen minutes (foam) to infinite contact (gel). This equipment was started up in a cold environment. The desired foam and gel consistency was achieved, operators were trained in its proper maintenance and operation, and the foam and gel were applied to walls, ceilings, and hard to reach surfaces. 17 figs.

  10. Innovative Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Winston C. H.

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination. Another aim is to make this surface decontamination technology becomes economically feasible for large scale decontamination.

  11. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  12. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  13. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  14. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  15. Gut-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been among the leading causes of cirrhosis and liver-related death worldwide for decades. Early discoveries in alcoholic liver disease identified increased levels of bacterial endotoxin in the portal circulation, suggesting a role for gut-derived toxins in ALD. Indeed, alcohol consumption can disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier and result in increased gut permeability that increasingly is recognized as a major factor in ALD. Bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide, is a prototypic microbe-derived inflammatory signal that contributes to inflammation in ALD through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4. Recent studies also have shown that alcohol consumption is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome, and the dysbalance of pathogenic and commensal organisms in the intestinal microbiome may contribute to the abnormal gut-liver axis in ALD. Indeed, bacterial decontamination improves ALD both in human and animal models. This short review summarizes recent findings and highlights emerging trends in the gut-liver axis relevant to ALD. PMID:25447847

  16. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination. PMID:22851522

  17. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

  18. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  19. Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bush, S.A.; Marsh, G.C.; Henson, H.M.; Box, W.D.; Morgan, I.L.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent contaminant buildup in the solution and to minimize the amount of LLRW generated. We have confirmed the removal of uranium (and infer the removal of {sup 99}Tc) from previously contaminated concrete surfaces. In a typical experimental configuration, a stainless steel mesh is placed in an electrolyte solution contained within a diked cell to serve as the negative electrode (cathode) and contaminant collection medium, respectively, and an existing metal penetration (e.g., piping, conduit, or rebar reinforcement within the concrete surface) serves as the positive electrode (anode) to complete the cell. Typically we have achieved 70 to >90% reductions in surface activity by applying <400 V and <1 A for 1--3 h (energy consumption of 0.4--12 kWh/ft{sup 2}).

  20. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  1. Hadronic EDMs in SUSY GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizaki, Mitsuru

    2005-12-02

    We investigate the constraints from the null results of the hadronic electric dipole moment (EDM) searches on supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). Especially we focus on (i) SUSY SU(5) GUTs with right-handed neutrinos and (ii) orbifold GUTs, where the GUT symmetry and SUSY are both broken by boundary conditions in the compactified extra dimensions. We demonstrate that the hadronic EDM experiments severely constrain SUSY GUT models. The interplay between future EDM and LFV experiments will probe the structures of the GUTs and the SUSY breaking mediation mechanism.

  2. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  3. Gut solutions to a gut problem: bacteriocins, probiotics and bacteriophage for control of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mary C; Alemayehu, Debebe; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and imposes a considerable financial burden on health service providers in both Europe and the USA. The incidence of CDI has dramatically increased in recent years, partly due to the emergence of a number of hypervirulent strains. The most commonly documented risk factors associated with CDIs are antibiotic usage leading to alterations of the gut microbiota, age >65 years and long-term hospital stay. Since standard therapies for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and CDI have limited efficacy, there is now an urgent need for alternative therapeutics. In this review, we outline the current state of play with regard to the potential of gut-derived bacteriocins, probiotics and phage to act as antimicrobial agents against CDI in the human gut. PMID:23699066

  4. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  5. The mucus layer is critical in protecting against ischemia-reperfusion-mediated gut injury and in the restitution of gut barrier function.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U; Sharpe, Susan M; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, Dazhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2011-03-01

    It is well documented that the gut injury plays a critical role in the development of systemic inflammation and distant organ injury in conditions associated with splanchnic ischemia. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms leading to gut injury is important. In this context, recent work suggests a protective role for the intestinal mucus layer and an injury-inducing role for luminal pancreatic proteases. Thus, we explored the role of the mucus layer in gut barrier function by observing how the removal of the mucus layer affects ischemia-reperfusion-mediated gut injury in rats as well as the potential role of luminal pancreatic proteases in the pathogenesis of gut injury. Ischemia was induced by the ligation of blood vessels to segments of the ileum for 45 min, followed by up to 3 h of reperfusion. The ileal segments were divided into five groups. These included a nonischemic control, ischemic segments exposed to saline, the mucolytic N-acetylcysteine (NAC), pancreatic proteases, or NAC + pancreatic proteases. Changes in gut barrier function were assessed by the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (molecular weight, 4,000 d) in ileal everted sacs. Gut injury was measured morphologically and by the luminal content of protein, DNA, and hemoglobin. The mucus layer was assessed functionally by measuring its hydrophobicity and morphologically. Gut barrier function was promptly and effectively reestablished during reperfusion, which was accompanied by the restoration of the mucus layer. In contrast, treatment of the gut with the mucolytic NAC for 10 min during ischemia resulted in a failure of mucus restitution and further increases in gut permeability and injury. The presence of digestive proteases by themselves did not exacerbate gut injury, but in combination with NAC, they caused an even greater increase in gut injury and permeability. These results suggest that the mucus layer not only serves as a barrier between the luminal contents and gut surface

  6. Gut feeling is electric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide

    2011-06-01

    Although "gut feeling" is a cliché in English parlance, there are neuro-physiological basis for registration of emotions in the gut. Control of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is by an integration of neuro-hormonal factors from the local myogenic to the central nervous system. Gastric contractile activity, which is responsible for the motor properties of the stomach, is regulated by this integrated complex. Signatures of the activity include gastric electrical activity (GEA) and bowel sounds. GEA has two distinct components: a high-frequency spike activity or post depolarization potential termed the electrical response activity superimposed on a lower frequency, rhythmic depolarization termed the control activity. These signatures are measured in the clinic with contact sensors and well understood for diagnosis of gut dysmotility. Can these signatures be measured at standoff and employed for purposes of biometrics, malintent and wellness assessment?

  7. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-08-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents.

  8. ITP Filter Particulate Decontamination Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1993-05-21

    A new test method was developed which showed the installed In- Tank Precipitation Filter Unit {number_sign}3 provided at least 40, 000 x decontamination of the precipitated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) during the cold chemical runs.This filter is expected to meet the needed 40,000 x hot cesium decontamination requirements, assuming that the cesium precipitate, CsTPB, behaves the same as KTPB. The new method permits cold chemicals field testing of installed filters to quantify particulate decontamination and verify filter integrity before going hot. The method involves a 1000 x concentration of fine particulate KTPB in the filtrate to allow direct analysis by counting for naturally radioactive isotope K-40 using the underground SRTC gamma spectroscopy facility. The particulate concentration was accomplished by ultra filtration at Rhone-Poulenc, NJ, using a small cross-flow bench facility, followed by collection of all suspended solids on a small filter disc for K analysis.

  9. Gut chemosensing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Psichas, Arianna; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    The enteroendocrine system is the primary sensor of ingested nutrients and is responsible for secreting an array of gut hormones, which modulate multiple physiological responses including gastrointestinal motility and secretion, glucose homeostasis, and appetite. This Review provides an up-to-date synopsis of the molecular mechanisms underlying enteroendocrine nutrient sensing and highlights our current understanding of the neuro-hormonal regulation of gut hormone secretion, including the interaction between the enteroendocrine system and the enteric nervous system. It is hoped that a deeper understanding of how these systems collectively regulate postprandial physiology will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25664852

  10. Characteristics of low-level radioactive decontamination waste

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Morcos, N. )

    1993-02-01

    This document addresses the work performed during fiscal year 1992 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste -- Decontamination Waste Program (FIN A6359), which is funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program evaluates the physical stability and leachability of solidified waste streams generated in the decontamination process of primary coolant systems in operating nuclear power stations. The data in this document include the chemical composition and characterization of waste streams from Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3 and from Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant Unit 1. The results of compressive strength testing on immersed and unimmersed solidified waste-form specimens from peach Bottom, and the results of leachate analysis are addressed. Cumulative fractional release rates and leachability indexes of those specimens were calculated and are included in this report.

  11. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  12. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1)...

  13. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  14. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  15. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  16. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  2. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination. PMID:22823588

  3. NOVEL LASER ABLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel Laser Ablation Decontamination in Liquid (LADIL) technology for surface decontamination and safe removal of radioactive and/or toxic contaminants. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary conta...

  4. Philosophy with Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…

  5. The Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Hermie J M; de Goffau, Marcus C

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota in our gut performs many different essential functions that help us to stay healthy. These functions include vitamin production, regulation of lipid metabolism and short chain fatty acid production as fuel for epithelial cells and regulation of gene expression. There is a very numerous and diverse microbial community present in the gut, especially in the colon, with reported numbers of species that vary between 400 and 1500, for some those we even do not yet have culture representatives.A healthy gut microbiota is important for maintaining a healthy host. An aberrant microbiota can cause diseases of different nature and at different ages ranging from allergies at early age to IBD in young adults. This shows that our gut microbiota needs to be treated well to stay healthy. In this chapter we describe what we consider a healthy microbiota and discuss what the role of the microbiota is in various diseases. Research into these described dysbiosis conditions could lead to new strategies for treatment and/or management of our microbiota to improve health. PMID:27161353

  6. Gut microbiome phenotypes driven by host genetics affect arsenic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Mahbub, Ridwan; Cable, Peter Hans; Ru, Hongyu; Parry, Nicola M A; Bodnar, Wanda M; Wishnok, John S; Styblo, Miroslav; Swenberg, James A; Fox, James G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2014-02-17

    Large individual differences in susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases are well-documented and frequently associated with different patterns of arsenic metabolism. In this context, the role of the gut microbiome in directly metabolizing arsenic and triggering systemic responses in diverse organs raises the possibility that gut microbiome phenotypes affect the spectrum of metabolized arsenic species. However, it remains unclear how host genetics and the gut microbiome interact to affect the biotransformation of arsenic. Using an integrated approach combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing and HPLC-ICP-MS arsenic speciation, we demonstrate that IL-10 gene knockout leads to a significant taxonomic change of the gut microbiome, which in turn substantially affects arsenic metabolism. PMID:24490651

  7. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  8. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO/sub 3/-HF and H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated.

  9. Obesity and the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Flint, Harry J

    2011-11-01

    Gut microorganisms have the potential to influence weight gain and fat deposition through a variety of mechanisms. One factor is the ability of microorganisms in the large intestine to release energy by fermenting otherwise indigestible components of the diet ("energy harvest"). This energy becomes available to the host indirectly through the absorption of microbially produced short-chain fatty acids. Energy recovery from fiber will be largely determined by dietary intake and gut transit, but can also depend on the makeup of the gut microbiota. The species composition of the gut microbiota changes with diet composition, as has been shown in studies with obese individuals after reduced carbohydrate weight loss diets, or diets containing different nondigestible carbohydrates. There is conflicting evidence, however, on the extent to which gut microbiota composition differs between obese and nonobese humans. In contrast, there is increasing evidence to suggest that gut microorganisms and their metabolic products can influence gut hormones, inflammation, and gut motility. Any changes in gut microbiota composition that influence energy expenditure, satiety, and food intake have the potential to alter weight gain and weight loss, but a better understanding of the impact of different members of the gut microbial community upon host physiology is needed to establish these relationships. PMID:21992951

  10. Decontamination and inspection plan for phase 2 closure of the 300-Area waste acid treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-02-06

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 2 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 2, the second phase of three proposed phases of closure for WATS, provides for closure of all WATS portions of the 334-A Building and some, but not all, WATS portions of the 333 and 303-F Buildings. Closure of the entire unit will not occur until all three closure phases have been completed. The DIP also describes the designation and management-process for waste and debris generated during Phase 2 closure activities. Information regarding the decontamination and verification methods for Phase 1 closure can be found in Decontamination and Inspection Plan, for Phase 1 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System, 21 WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001. Information regarding Phase 3 closure will be provided in later documents.

  11. Endocannabinoids in the Gut

    PubMed Central

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been used medicinally for centuries to treat a variety of disorders, including those associated with the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery of our bodies’ own “cannabis-like molecules” and associated receptors and metabolic machinery – collectively called the endocannabinoid system – enabled investigations into the physiological relevance for the system, and provided the field with evidence of a critical function for this endogenous signaling pathway in health and disease. Recent investigations yield insight into a significant participation for the endocannabinoid system in the normal physiology of gastrointestinal function, and its possible dysfunction in gastrointestinal pathology. Many gaps, however, remain in our understanding of the precise neural and molecular mechanisms across tissue departments that are under the regulatory control of the endocannabinoid system. This review highlights research that reveals an important – and at times surprising – role for the endocannabinoid system in the control of a variety of gastrointestinal functions, including motility, gut-brain mediated fat intake and hunger signaling, inflammation and gut permeability, and dynamic interactions with gut microbiota. PMID:27413788

  12. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  13. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  14. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  15. Filming in decontamination by mopping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Toole, P.A.

    1993-09-28

    Technical assistance was provided High Level Waste Engineering in the investigation and prevention of filming during decontamination by mopping. After mopping operations in a Tank Farm application, a film of the cleaning agent sometimes remained on the surface being cleaned which interfered with monitoring to detect the presence of radioactive material. Scoping tests were conducted to investigate filming characteristics of two cleaning materials. In addition, rinsing test were conducted to demonstrate how filming can be prevented.

  16. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  17. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J.

    2006-07-01

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  18. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2015-06-01

    Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:26124989

  19. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  20. Properties and solidification of decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.

    1983-01-01

    LWRs will require one or more chemical decontaminations to achieve their designed lifetimes. Primary system decontamination is designed to lower radiation fields in areas where plant maintenance personnel must work. Chemical decontamination methods are either hard (concentrated chemicals, approximately 5 to 25 weight percent) or soft (dilute chemicals less than 1 percent by weight). These methods may have different chemical reagents, some tailor-made to the crud composition and many methods are and will be proprietary. One factor common to most commercially available processes is the presence of organic acids and chelates. These types of organic reagents are known to enhance the migration of radionuclides after disposal in a shallow land burial site. The NRC sponsors two programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory that are concerned with the management of decontamination wastes which will be generated by the full system decontamination of LWRs. These two programs focus on potential methods for degrading or converting decontamination wastes to more acceptable forms prior to disposal and the impact of disposing of solidified decontamination wastes. The results of the solidification of simulated decontamination resin wastes will be presented. Recent results on combustion of simulated decontamintion wastes will be described and procedures for evaluating the release of decontamination reagents from solidified wastes will be summarized.

  1. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  2. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. PMID:25084793

  3. Decontamination pays off for nuke owners

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1984-11-01

    As radiation levels build up in aging reactors, decontamination is rapidly becoming a routine maintenance procedure. The industry is coping with the problem with improved technology and with the support by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Decontamination of subsystems does not require public hearings or special licenses. Dilute chemical solvents remove radioactive deposits while lessening the problems of corrosion and waste disposal. Utility representatives shared experiences at a conference with decontamination of both light water and pressurized water reactors. They agreed that the next step should be full primary coolant system decontamination to improve savings even more. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  5. GUTs and TOEs

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-01-20

    Albert Einstein said that what he wanted to know was “God’s thoughts,” which is a metaphor for the ultimate and most basic rules of the universe. Once known, all other phenomena would then be a consequence of these simple rules. While modern science is far from that goal, we have some thoughts on how this inquiry might unfold. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells what we know about GUTs (grand unified theories) and TOEs (theories of everything).

  6. The giant panda gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed. PMID:26143242

  7. Metagenomic surveys of gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Saha, Sudipto; Das, Santasabuj

    2015-06-01

    Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe-microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe-microbe interaction networks. PMID:26184859

  8. Metagenomic Surveys of Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Saha, Sudipto; Das, Santasabuj

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota of higher vertebrates is host-specific. The number and diversity of the organisms residing within the gut ecosystem are defined by physiological and environmental factors, such as host genotype, habitat, and diet. Recently, culture-independent sequencing techniques have added a new dimension to the study of gut microbiota and the challenge to analyze the large volume of sequencing data is increasingly addressed by the development of novel computational tools and methods. Interestingly, gut microbiota maintains a constant relative abundance at operational taxonomic unit (OTU) levels and altered bacterial abundance has been associated with complex diseases such as symptomatic atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as an important field of research in order to ultimately achieve better health. In addition, there is a spontaneous, non-linear, and dynamic interaction among different bacterial species residing in the gut. Thus, predicting the influence of perturbed microbe–microbe interaction network on health can aid in developing novel therapeutics. Here, we summarize the population abundance of gut microbiota and its variation in different clinical states, computational tools available to analyze the pyrosequencing data, and gut microbe–microbe interaction networks. PMID:26184859

  9. Off-site consequences of radiological accidents: methods, costs and schedules for decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.; Harrer, B.J.; Currie, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report documents a data base and a computer program for conducting a decontamination analysis of a large, radiologically contaminated area. The data base, which was compiled largely through interviews with knowledgeable persons both in the public and private sectors, consists of the costs, physical inputs, rates and contaminant removal efficiencies of a large number of decontamination procedures. The computer program utilizes this data base along with information specific to the contaminated site to provide detailed information that includes the least costly method for effectively decontaminating each surface at the site, various types of property losses associated with the contamination, the time at which each subarea within the site should be decontaminated to minimize these property losses, the quantity of various types of labor and equipment necessary to complete the decontamination, dose to radiation workers, the costs for surveying and monitoring activities, and the disposal costs associated with radiological waste generated during cleanup. The program and data base are demonstrated with a decontamination analysis of a hypothetical site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 155 tabs.

  10. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and the role of microbiota as a "peacekeeper" in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27014255

  11. Technology needs for decommissioning and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Kennerly, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) technology needs for the US Department of Energy facilities for which the D & D programs are the responsibility of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The source of information used in this assessment was a survey of the D & D program managers at each facility. A summary of needs presented in earlier surveys of site needs in approximate priority order was supplied to each site as a starting point to stimulate thinking. This document reflects a brief initial assessment of ongoing needs; these needs will change as plans for D & D are finalized, some of the technical problems are solved through successful development programs, and new ideas for D and D technologies appear. Thus, this assessment should be updated and upgraded periodically, perhaps, annually. This assessment differs from others that have been made in that it directly and solely reflects the perceived need for new technology by key personnel in the D & D programs at the various facilities and does not attempt to consider the likelihood that these technologies can be successfully developed. Thus, this list of technology needs also does not consider the cost, time, and effort required to develop the desired technologies. An R & D program must include studies that have a reasonable chance for success as well as those for which there is a high need. Other studies that considered the cost and probability of successful development as well as the need for new technology are documented. However, the need for new technology may be diluted in such studies; this document focuses only on the need for new technology as currently perceived by those actually charged with accomplishing D & D.

  12. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  13. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  14. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis. PMID:19122437

  15. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  16. Gnome site decontamination and decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Orcutt, J.A.; Sorom, E.R.

    1982-08-01

    In July 1977, DOE/Headquarters directed DOE/NV to design a decontamination and decommissioning plan for the Gnome site, 48 kilometers southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The plan incorporated three distinct phases. During Phase I, both aerial and ground radiological surveys were conducted on the site. Radiological decontamination criteria were established, and a decontamination plan was developed based on the radiological survey results. During Phase II, site preparatory and rehabilitation work was completed. The actual land area decontamination was accomplished during Phase III with conventional earthmoving equipment. A gravity water injection system deposited 36,700 metric tons of contaminated soil and salt in the Gnome cavity. After completion of the decontamination and decommissioning operations, the Gnome site was returned to the Bureau of Land Management for unrestricted surface use.

  17. Electrochemical decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J.L.; Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1997-12-31

    Electrochemical technology for the decontamination of metallic surfaces has been successfully demonstrated. Highly enriched uranium and stainless steel surfaces are readily decontaminated to Low Level Waste (LLW) criteria using this process. This process is similar to electropolishing and utilizes the anodic dissolution of the substrate material to generate a clean surface. The surface contaminants are thus removed and collected along with the stripped substrate material as a compact precipitate. This separation allows the electrolyte to be recycled indefinitely. Using an alkaline Sodium Sulfate electrolyte solution, we are able to decontaminate to low levels of alpha activity, gloveboxes previously used in Actinide processing. Surfaces with contamination levels > 1,000,000 cpm alpha activity have been decontaminated to levels as low as 7,000. The process is rapid with decontamination occurring at a rate of over 3 square cm/sec.

  18. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Johnson, Colleen; Corneil, Wayne

    2010-11-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, foodborne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, healthcare and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. PMID:20924122

  19. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal “superorganism” seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host’s immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of “metabolic endotoxemia”, leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use. PMID:25473159

  20. Flipped GUT inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Gonzalo, Tomás E.; Harz, Julia; Huang, Wei-Chih

    2015-03-23

    We analyse the prospects for constructing hybrid models of inflation that provide a dynamical realisation of the apparent closeness between the supersymmetric GUT scale and the possible scale of cosmological inflation. In the first place, we consider models based on the flipped SU(5)×U(1) gauge group, which has no magnetic monopoles. In one model, the inflaton is identified with a sneutrino field, and in the other model it is a gauge singlet. In both cases we find regions of the model parameter spaces that are compatible with the experimental magnitudes of the scalar perturbations, A{sub s}, and the tilt in the scalar perturbation spectrum, n{sub s}, as well as with an indicative upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio, r. We also discuss embeddings of these models into SO(10), which is broken at a higher scale so that its monopoles are inflated away.

  1. A fatty gut feeling

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The absorptive epithelium of the proximal small intestine converts oleic acid released during fat digestion into oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous high-affinity agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). OEA interacts with this receptor to cause a state of satiety characterized by prolonged inter-meal intervals and reduced feeding frequency. The two main branches of the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, contribute to this effect: the former by enabling OEA mobilization in the gut and the latter by relaying the OEA signal to brain structures, such as the hypothalamus, that are involved in feeding regulation. OEA signaling may be a key component of the physiological system devoted to the monitoring of dietary fat intake, and its dysfunction might contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23567058

  2. The gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Actis, Giovanni C

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery and use of the microscope in the 17(th) century, we know that we host trillions of micro-organisms mostly in the form of bacteria indwelling the "barrier organs" skin, gut, and airways. They exert regulatory functions, are in a continuous dialogue with the intestinal epithelia, influence energy handling, produce nutrients, and may cause diabetes and obesity. The human microbiome has developed by modulating or avoiding inflammatory responses; the host senses bacterial presence through cell surface sensors (the Toll-like receptors) as well as by refining mucous barriers as passive defense mechanisms. The cell density and composition of the microbiome are variable and multifactored. The way of delivery establishes the type of initial flora; use of antibiotics is another factor; diet composition after weaning will shape the adult's microbiome composition, depending on the subject's life-style. Short-chain fatty acids participate in the favoring action exerted by microbiome in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes and obesity. Clinical observation has pinpointed a sharp rise of various dysimmune conditions in the last decades, including IBD and rheumatoid arthritis, changes that outweigh the input of simple heritability. It is nowadays proposed that the microbiome, incapable to keep up with the changes of our life-style and feeding sources in the past few decades might have contributed to these immune imbalances, finding itself inadequate to handle the changed gut environment. Another pathway to pathology is the rise of directly pathogenic phyla within a given microbiome: growth of adherent E. coli, of C. concisus, and of C. jejuni, might be examples of causes of local enteropathy, whereas the genus Prevotella copri is now suspected to be linked to rise of arthritic disorders. Inflammasomes are required to shape a non colitogenic flora. Treatment of IBD and infectious enteritides by the use of fecal transplant is warranted by this knowledge. PMID

  3. Links between diet, gut microbiota composition and gut metabolism.

    PubMed

    Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Scott, Karen P; Louis, Petra

    2015-02-01

    The gut microbiota and its metabolic products interact with the host in many different ways, influencing gut homoeostasis and health outcomes. The species composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to respond to dietary change, determined by competition for substrates and by tolerance of gut conditions. Meanwhile, the metabolic outputs of the microbiota, such as SCFA, are influenced both by the supply of dietary components and via diet-mediated changes in microbiota composition. There has been significant progress in identifying the phylogenetic distribution of pathways responsible for formation of particular metabolites among human colonic bacteria, based on combining cultural microbiology and sequence-based approaches. Formation of butyrate and propionate from hexose sugars, for example, can be ascribed to different bacterial groups, although propionate can be formed via alternative pathways from deoxy-sugars and from lactate by a few species. Lactate, which is produced by many gut bacteria in pure culture, can also be utilised by certain Firmicutes to form butyrate, and its consumption may be important for maintaining a stable community. Predicting the impact of diet upon such a complex and interactive system as the human gut microbiota not only requires more information on the component groups involved but, increasingly, the integration of such information through modelling approaches. PMID:25268552

  4. GUTs and supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    This talk is intended as background material for many of the other talks treating the possible applications of GUTs to the very early universe. I start with a review of the present theoretical and phenomenological status of GUTs before going on to raise some new issues for their prospective cosmological applications which arise in supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The first section is an update on conventional GUTs, which is followed by a reminder of some of the motivations for going supersymmetric. There then follows a simple primer on susy and a discussion of the structure and phenomenology of simple sysy GUTs. Finally we come to the cosmological issues, including problems arising from the degeneracy of susy minima, baryosynthesis and supersymmetric inflation, the possibility that gravity is an essential complication in constructing susy GUTs and discussing their cosmology, and the related question of what mass range is allowed for the gravitino. Several parts of this write-up contain new material which has emerged either during the Workshop or subsequently. They are included here for completeness and the convenience of the prospective reader. Wherever possible, these anachronisms will be flagged so as to keep straight the historical record.

  5. Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

  6. The mucus layer is critical in protecting against ischemia/reperfusion-mediated gut injury and in the restitution of gut barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U.; Sharpe, Susan M.; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, Dazhong; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the gut injury plays a critical role in the development of systemic inflammation and distant organ injury in conditions associated with splanchnic ischemia. Consequently understanding the mechanisms leading to gut injury is important. In this context, recent work suggests a protective role for the intestinal mucus layer and an injury-inducing role for luminal pancreatic proteases. Thus, we explored the role of the mucus layer in gut barrier function by observing how the removal of the mucus layer affects ischemia/reperfusion-mediated gut injury in rats as well as the potential role of luminal pancreatic proteases in the pathogenesis of gut injury. Ischemia was induced by the ligation of blood vessels to segments of the ileum for 45 min, followed by up to three hours of reperfusion. The ileal segments were divided into 5 groups. These included a non-ischemic control, ischemic segments exposed to saline, the mucolytic N-acetylcholine (NAC), pancreatic proteases or NAC plus pancreatic proteases. Changes in gut barrier function were assessed by the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (MW 4000 Da; FD4) in ileal everted sacs. Gut injury was measured morphologically and by the luminal content of protein, DNA and hemoglobin. The mucus layer was assessed functionally by measuring its hydrophobicity and morphologically. Gut barrier function was promptly and effectively re-established during reperfusion, which was accompanied by the restoration of the mucus layer. In contrast, treatment of the gut with the mucolytic NAC for 10 min during ischemia resulted in a failure of mucus restitution and further increases in gut permeability and injury. The presence of digestive proteases by themselves did not exacerbate gut injury but in combination with NAC, they caused an even greater increase in gut injury and permeability. These results suggest that the mucus layer not only serves as a barrier between the luminal contents and gut surface

  7. Gut Microbiota: The Brain Peacekeeper

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulates intestinal and extraintestinal homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may also regulate brain function and behavior. Results from animal models indicate that disturbances in the composition and functionality of some microbiota members are associated with neurophysiological disorders, strengthening the idea of a microbiota–gut–brain axis and the role of microbiota as a “peacekeeper” in the brain health. Here, we review recent discoveries on the role of the gut microbiota in central nervous system-related diseases. We also discuss the emerging concept of the bidirectional regulation by the circadian rhythm and gut microbiota, and the potential role of the epigenetic regulation in neuronal cell function. Microbiome studies are also highlighted as crucial in the development of targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27014255

  8. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  9. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  10. Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, O.L.

    1983-08-30

    Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly and the rinse tank assembly are each separately mounted on pallets to facilitate moving. The filter systems of the electro-polishing tank and the rinse tank are designed to remove the radioactive contamination from the fluids in those tanks. Heavy items or highly contaminated items are handled with the divot crane constructed of stainless steel. The electro- polishing tank and the rinse tank are also made of stainless steel. The ventilation system on the electro- polishing tank exhausts acid fumes resulting from the tank heaters and the electro-polishing process. Inside the electro-polishing tank are two swinging arms that carry two stainless steel probes that hang down in the electrolyte fluid. These negative DC probes and are electrically isolated from the tank and the rest of the system. Across the top center of the tank is a copper pipe, which is also electrically isolated from the tank. This is the positive side of the DC system. To decontaminate a metal object, it is suspended from the positive copper pipe, with good electrical contact, into the electrolyte fluid. The negative probes are then moved on their swinging arms to a close proximity to the object being decontaminated, without making contact.

  11. Gut Microbiome and Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Dulal, Santosh; Keku, Temitope O.

    2015-01-01

    The trillions of bacteria that naturally reside in the human gut collectively constitute the complex system known the gut microbiome, a vital player for the host’s homeostasis and health. However, there is mounting evidence that dysbiosis, a state of pathological imbalance in the gut microbiome is present in many disease states. In this review, we present recent insights concerning the gut microbiome’s contribution to the development of colorectal adenomas and the subsequent progression to colorectal cancer (CRC). In the United States alone, CRC is the second leading cause of cancer deaths. As a result, there is a high interest in identifying risk factors for adenomas, which are intermediate precursors to CRC. Recent research on CRC and the microbiome suggest that modulation of the gut bacterial composition and structure may be useful in preventing adenomas and CRC. We highlight the known risk factors for colorectal adenomas and the potential mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may contribute to the etiology of CRC. We also underscore novel findings from recent studies on the gut microbiota and colorectal adenomas along with current knowledge gaps. Understanding the microbiome may provide promising new directions towards novel diagnostic tools, biomarkers, and therapeutic interventions for CRC. PMID:24855012

  12. Gut Microbes, Diet, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  13. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required. PMID:27433087

  14. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health.

    PubMed

    Butel, M-J

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is a huge complex ecosystem where microbiota, nutrients, and host cells interact extensively, a process crucial for the gut homeostasis and host development with a real partnership. The various bacterial communities that make up the gut microbiota have many functions including metabolic, barrier effect, and trophic functions. Hence, any dysbiosis could have negative consequences in terms of health and many diseases have been associated to impairment of the gut microbiota. These close relationships between gut microbiota, health, and disease, have led to great interest in using probiotics (i.e. live micro-organisms), or prebiotics (i.e. non-digestible substrates) to positively modulate the gut microbiota to prevent or treat some diseases. This review focuses on probiotics, their mechanisms of action, safety, and major health benefits. Health benefits remain to be proven in some indications, and further studies on the best strain(s), dose, and algorithm of administration to be used are needed. Nevertheless, probiotic administration seems to have a great potential in terms of health that justifies more research. PMID:24290962

  15. Gut microbes, diet, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hullar, Meredith A J; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Lampe, Johanna W

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  16. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required. PMID:27433087

  17. Gut Microbiota and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xuemei; Wang, Ning; Qin, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of liver diseases such as those related to viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The gut-liver axis is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for the progression of HCC. Here, we will review the data from the published literature to address the association between HCC and gut microbiota. Summary The presence of high levels of endotoxemia in the blood results in portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocyte damage, thus leading to the development of HCC. Probiotics can be used to treat or prevent the progression of HCC, because they may decrease the counts of gut microbiota and thus improve the endotoxemia. Key Message Increased bacterial translocation can result in endotoxemia, which may play a critical role in the progression of HCC. Modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention in HCC. Practical Implications Breakdown in intestinal barrier function and bacterial overgrowth are main events in the development of HCC. When the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amounts of bacterial products can enter the liver and induce inflammation through their receptors, leading to liver diseases. Altering the gut microflora has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy to reduce bacterial translocation and prevent progression of HCC. The purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship between gut microbiota and HCC in both pathogenesis and treatment by probiotics. PMID:26673641

  18. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed.

  19. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  20. Foam process for application of decontamination agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Miller, J.R.; Frazier, R.S.; Walter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results and observations of a study performed by the authors to parametrically evaluate the performance characteristics of a foam process for application of decontamination agents. The initial tests were established to assess foam quality. Subsequent tests determined the ability of the foam as a carrier of chemical systems, and established system operating parameters. The technique was then applied in an actual decontamination task to verify effectiveness of these established parameters and to determine decontamination reduction factors. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Nutrigenomics and gut health.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Shelling, Andrew N; Lauren, Denis; Heyes, Julian A; McNabb, Warren C

    2007-09-01

    Recognition of the interplay between genes and diet in development of disease and for maintenance of optimal metabolism has led to nutrigenomic or nutrigenetic approaches to personalising or individualising nutrition, with the potential of preventing, delaying, or reducing the symptoms of chronic diseases. Some of the development work has focussed on cardiovascular disease or type II diabetes mellitus, where various groups have identified potential diet-gene interactions. However, the available studies also emphasise the exponential increase in numbers of subjects necessary to recruit for clinical evaluation if we are to successfully provide informative high-dimensional datasets of genetic, nutrient, metabolomic (clinical), and other variables. There is also a significant bioinformatics challenge to analyze these. To add to the complexity, many of the pioneering studies had assumed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were the main source of human variability, but an increasing evidence base suggests the importance of more subtle gene regulatory mechanisms, including copy number variants. As an example, the risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is associated with the inheritance of a number of contributory SNPs as well as with copy number variants of certain other genes. The variant forms of genes often result in disruptions to bacterial homeostasis mechanisms or to signal transduction of the intestinal epithelial cell of the host, and thereby to altered intestinal barrier function, and/or adaptive immune responses. The human gut microbiota is altered in individuals suffering from disorders such as IBD, and probiotic or prebiotic therapies or elemental diets may be beneficial to a high proportion of individuals through modifying the gut microbiota, and also modulating immune responses. New putative foods or dietary therapies may be identified through novel tissue culture screens, followed by further testing with in vivo animal models of human disease. A

  2. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-06

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

  3. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-06-12

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  4. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is to be used for mixing pesticides, it shall not be used for decontamination or eye flushing, unless the tank is equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent movement...

  5. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Gye-Nam Kim; Wang-Kyu Choi; Chong-Hun Jung; Won-Zin Oh

    2006-07-01

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  6. Decontamination of laryngoscopes in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bucx, M J; Dankert, J; Beenhakker, M M; Harrison, T E

    2001-01-01

    In this study the decontamination procedures of laryngoscopes in Dutch hospitals are described, based on a structured telephone questionnaire. There were substantial differences between decontamination procedures in Dutch hospitals and the standards of the APIC (Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology), CDC (Centers of Disease Control) and ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) were met in full in 19.4% of the hospitals. The standards of manual decontamination, used in 78% of the 139 hospitals, were particularly disappointing; manual cleaning was considered inadequate in 22.9% of these hospitals and manual disinfection did not meet the standards of the APIC, CDC or ASA in any of these hospitals. Decontamination by instrument cleaning machines as a standard procedure was used in 30 (22%) hospitals. In three of these hospitals the blades were subsequently sterilized. We suggest adherence to the infection control guidelines of the CDC, APIC and ASA, until the safety of less conservative infection control practices are demonstrated. PMID:11575419

  7. Testing and comparison of seventeen decontamination chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of seventeen decontamination chemicals. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, overall corrosion potential for plant equipment, interim waste generation and final waste generation.

  8. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  9. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Decontaminating breast pump kits: new guidance.

    PubMed

    Oxtoby, Kathy

    Various methods can be used to decontaminate breast pump milk collection kits and items related to infant feeding but they have some drawbacks and risks. In 2015, the Joint Working Group of the Healthcare Infection Society and Infection Prevention Society published guidance to support the safe decontamination of this equipment at home and in hospital. This article summarises its recommendations for health professionals to use and communicate to other groups, such as parents and carers. PMID:27400623

  10. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  11. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  12. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D.; James, Dean B.; Melaika, Edward A.; Peterson, Jr., John P.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  13. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  14. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ``smearable`` contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles.

  15. Decontamination Systems Information and Reseach Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Echol E

    1998-04-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the first quarter of 1998 (January 1 - March 31). These tasks have been granted a continuation from the 1997 work and will all end in June 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final reports for all of the 1997 projects will be submitted afterwards as one document. During this period, groundwater extraction operations were completed on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data have been evaluated and graphs are presented. The plot of TCE Concentration versus Time shows that the up-gradient groundwater monitoring well produced consistent levels of TCE contamination. A similar trend was observed for the down-gradient wells via grab samples tested. Groundwater samples from the PVD test pad Zone of Influence showed consistent reductions in TCE concentrations with respect to time. In addition, a natural pulse frequency is evident which will have a significant impact on the efficiency of the contaminant removal under natural groundwater advection/diffusion processes. The relationships between the PVD Extraction Flow Rate versus Cumulative Time shows a clear trend in flow rate. Consistent values between 20 to 30 g.p.m. at the beginning of the extraction duration, to less than 10 g.p.m. by the end of the extraction cycle are observed. As evidenced by the aquifer's diminishing recharge levels, the PVD extraction is affecting the response of the aquifer's natural attenuation capability. Progress was also marked on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs task. Data reduction from this sequence of testing is ongoing. Work planned for next quarter includes completing the Injection / Extraction of potable water task and beginning the Surfactant Injection and removal task.

  16. Gut microbiota and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Radha K

    2013-06-01

    There is a strong relationship between liver and gut; while the portal venous system receives blood from the gut, and its contents may affect liver functions, liver in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion. There is robust evidence that the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is linked to alterations in gut microbiota and their by-products such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles, endotoxins, etc. In the setting of intestinal barrier and immune dysfunction, these by-products are involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis including HE and systemic inflammation plays an important role. Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics may exhibit efficacy in the treatment of HE by modulating the gut flora. They improve derangement in flora by decreasing the counts of pathogenic bacteria and thus improving the endotoxemia, HE and the liver disease. Current evidence suggest that the trials evaluating the role of probiotics in the treatment of HE are of not high quality and all trials had high risk of bias and high risk of random errors. Therefore, the use of probiotics for patients with HE cannot be currently recommended. Further RCTs are required. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut flora and HE, both in terms of the pathogenesis and the treatment of HE. PMID:23463489

  17. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. PMID:26872544

  18. Gut Microbiota and Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Giovanni; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Ravaioli, Federico; Scaioli, Eleonora; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence regarding celiac disease has increasingly shown the role of innate immunity in triggering the immune response by stimulating the adaptive immune response and by mucosal damage. The interaction between the gut microbiota and the mucosal wall is mediated by the same receptors which can activate innate immunity. Thus, changes in gut microbiota may lead to activation of this inflammatory pathway. This paper is a review of the current knowledge regarding the relationship between celiac disease and gut microbiota. In fact, patients with celiac disease have a reduction in beneficial species and an increase in those potentially pathogenic as compared to healthy subjects. This dysbiosis is reduced, but might still remain, after a gluten-free diet. Thus, gut microbiota could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, as described by studies which link dysbiosis with the inflammatory milieu in celiac patients. The use of probiotics seems to reduce the inflammatory response and restore a normal proportion of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Additional evidence is needed in order to better understand the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, and the clinical impact and therapeutic use of probiotics in this setting. PMID:26725064

  19. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Stratilo, Chad W.; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes. PMID:26394165

    1. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

      PubMed

      Stratilo, Chad W; Crichton, Melissa K F; Sawyer, Thomas W

      2015-01-01

      Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes. PMID:26394165

    2. Decontamination and inspection plan for Phase 3 closure of the 300 area waste acid treatment system

      SciTech Connect

      LUKE, S.N.

      1999-02-01

      This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 3 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 3 is the third phase of three WATS closure phases. Phase 3 attains clean closure conditions for WATS portions of the 334 and 311 Tank Farms (TF) and the 333 and 303-F Buildings. This DIP also describes designation and management of waste and debris generated during Phase 3 closure activities. Information regarding Phase 1 and Phase 2 for decontamination and verification activities closure can be found in WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001 and HNF-1784, respectively. This DIP is provided as a supplement to the closure plan (DOE/RL-90-11). This DIP provides the documentation for Ecology concurrence with Phase 3 closure methods and activities. This DIP is intended to provide greater detail than is contained in the closure plan to satisfy Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 requirement that closure documents describe the methods for removing, transporting, storing, and disposing of all dangerous waste at the unit. The decontamination and verification activities described in this DIP are based on the closure plan and on agreements reached between Ecology and the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during Phase 3 closure activity workshops and/or project manager meetings (PMMs).

    3. The Gut Microbiome and Obesity.

      PubMed

      John, George Kunnackal; Mullin, Gerard E

      2016-07-01

      The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an important role in human metabolism. Animal and human studies have implicated distortion of the normal microbial balance in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alteration in the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes leads to the development of obesity, but this has been recently challenged. It is likely that the influence of gut microbiome on obesity is much more complex than simply an imbalance in the proportion of these phyla of bacteria. Modulation of the gut microbiome through diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics, surgery, and fecal transplantation has the potential to majorly impact the obesity epidemic. PMID:27255389

    4. Natural GUT and the cosmology

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Maekawa, Nobuhiro

      2012-07-01

      In the natural GUT, not only realistic quark and lepton mass matrices can be obtained but also the most serious problem in the SUSY GUT, which is called the doublet-triplet splitting problem, can be solved under the natural assumption that all the interactions which are allowed by the symmetry are introduced with O(1) coefficients (including the higher dimensional operators). In this manuscript, we examine several cosmological aspects which are related with the natural GUT, B - L-genesis, non-thermal production of dark matter (DM), vacuum selection by particle production, and the inflation after the trapping. These works are based on several papers[1, 2, 3] collaborated with S. Enomoto, S. Iida, Y. Kurata, and T. Matsuda.

    5. Natural GUT and the cosmology

      SciTech Connect

      Maekawa, Nobuhiro

      2012-07-27

      In the natural GUT, not only realistic quark and lepton mass matrices can be obtained but also the most serious problem in the SUSY GUT, which is called the doublet-triplet splitting problem, can be solved under the natural assumption that all the interactions which are allowed by the symmetry are introduced with O(1) coefficients (including the higher dimensional operators). In this manuscript, we examine several cosmological aspects which are related with the natural GUT, B - L-genesis, non-thermal production of dark matter (DM), vacuum selection by particle production, and the inflation after the trapping. These works are based on several papers[1, 2, 3] collaborated with S. Enomoto, S. Iida, Y. Kurata, and T. Matsuda.

    6. Global F-theory GUTs

      SciTech Connect

      Blumenhagen, Ralph; Grimm, Thomas W.; Jurke, Benjamin; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

      2010-08-26

      We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.

    7. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

      SciTech Connect

      Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

      1993-02-01

      The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

    8. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

      PubMed

      Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

      2012-08-01

      Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

    9. Dynamic phages in the swine gut ecosystem

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Phages are important drivers of ecosystem functions, yet they are often overlooked in gut microbiome studies. Inclusion of phages in gut microbiome analyses is essential to deciphering complex gut ecology under both normal and disturbed conditions. To assess the effect of antibiotics on phage activi...

    10. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflam...

    11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

      SciTech Connect

      C. M. Obi

      2000-12-01

      The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document.

    12. Declassified Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Karen M.

      Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

    13. Termination Documentation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

      2014-01-01

      In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

    14. Laboratory Demonstration of Radiological Decontamination Using Radpro

      SciTech Connect

      Lear, P.; Greene, R.; Isham, J.; Martin, R.; Norton, C.

      2007-07-01

      In the event of terrorist activity involving the explosive dispersion of radioactive materials (a 'dirty' bomb), a number of different types of surfaces and substrates, including concrete, granite, brick, cinder block, tile, asphalt, wood, glass, plastic, iron, and steel, may become radiologically contaminated. Incident cleanup is assumed to involve decontamination of these surfaces. Laboratory testing was conducted using samples of concrete, ferrous metal, steel, aluminum, lead, tin, glass, lexan, vinyl, asphalt shingle, wood, and rubber surfaces. The surfaces were sprayed with Cs-137 or Co-60 solutions to simulate contamination. The entire surface area of the samples was surveyed using a Ludlum Model 2360 scaler/ratemeter with Ludlum Model 43-93-2 100 cm{sup 2} open area alpha/beta scintillation probe. The surfaces were then decontaminated using RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology that is currently field proven and ready to deploy. The entire surface area of the samples was re-surveyed following decontamination. The RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology was able to remove virtually all of the removable contamination and over 90% of the fixed contamination from these surfaces during the laboratory testing. (authors)

    15. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

      SciTech Connect

      Cheng, Chung H.

      2004-06-01

      Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.

    16. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

      SciTech Connect

      Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

      2007-02-01

      The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

    17. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

      SciTech Connect

      1996-10-01

      The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

    18. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at SRS

      SciTech Connect

      Smith, R.H. Jr.; Hootman, H.E.

      1994-01-01

      There has been very little, documented decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) experience on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at SRS and other DOE sites. A portion of the HB-Line, a plutonium-238 processing facility at SRS, has been undergoing D&D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been project has demonstrated effective methods of accumulated, and the performing D&D work, and has demonstrated cleanup equipment and techniques under conditions of high contamination. Plutonium facilities where D&D is already underway provide an opportunity for` timely field testing of characterization, size reduction, and decontamination techniques. Some data are presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned ``Integrated D&D Demonstration`` managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D&D and surplus facilities deactivation. Both the remainder of this project and the Integrated D&D Demonstration Program can benefit from a joint effort, and the, overall costs should be reduced.

    19. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

      SciTech Connect

      Halter, J M; Sullivan, R G; Bevan, J L

      1982-08-01

      This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft/sup 2/ of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations.

    20. Document control and document management.

      PubMed

      Djemal, K K

      1999-12-01

      Most schemes for the accreditation (e.g. United Kingdom Accreditation Service) and certification (e.g. BS EN ISO 9002) of laboratories include a requirement to establish and maintain procedures for the management and control of documents generated internally. Such documents include policy statements, procedures, specifications, and some notices and memoranda. Organisations benefit from using agreed and approved information and from knowing that staff are using agreed and approved methods in their operating procedures. Document control systems are likely to become compulsory as accreditation schemes, such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA) for clinical microbiology laboratories, align with international standards. The Technical Services Division (TSD) in PHLS Headquarters has been developing a control system for various documents that it issues to the PHLS and control of documentation that forms the TSD quality system. The document control system has recently developed into a document management system that provides a mechanism for managing all documents generated or received by the division. TSD's approach is described here to provide laboratories and other organisations with ideas for how they could set up or develop their own document management system to improve accessibility to information. PMID:10598395

    1. Gut indigenous microbiota and epigenetics

      PubMed Central

      Shenderov, Boris Arkadievich

      2012-01-01

      This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled us first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low-molecular-weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that are responsible for the mammalian genome reprograming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance caused by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The authors substantiate the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics investigations as well as in disease prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although the discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies. PMID:23990811

    2. [Current view on gut microbiota].

      PubMed

      Bourlioux, P

      2014-01-01

      Gut microbiota is more and more important since metagenomic research have brought new knowledge on this topic especially for human health. Firstly, gut microbiota is a key element for our organism he lives in symbiosis with. Secondly, it interacts favorably with many physiological functions of our organism. Thirdly, at the opposite, it can be an active participant in intestinal pathologies linked to a dysbiosis mainly in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis but also in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and more prudently in autism and behavioral disorders. In order to keep a good health, it is essential to protect our gut microbiota as soon as our young age and maintain it healthy. Face to a more and more important number of publications for treating certain digestive diseases with fecal microbial transplantation, it needs to be very careful and recommend further studies in order to assess risks and define standardized protocols. Gut microbiota metabolic capacities towards xenobiotics need to be developed, and we must take an interest in the modifications they induce on medicinal molecules. On the other hand, it is essential to study the potent effects of pesticides and other pollutants on microbiota functions. PMID:24438664

    3. Gut microbiota and related diseases: clinical features.

      PubMed

      Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Antonucci, Alexandra; Gabusi, Veronica; Frisoni, Chiara; De Giorgio, Roberto; Grasso, Valentina; Serra, Mauro; Corinaldesi, Roberto

      2010-10-01

      Intestinal microbiota is essential for gut homeostasis. Specifically, the microorganisms inhabiting the gut lumen interact with the intestinal immune system, supply key nutrients for the major components of the gut wall, and modulate energy metabolism. Host-microbiome interactions can be either beneficial or deleterious, driving gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue activities and shaping gut wall structures. This overview briefly focuses on the potential role played by abnormalities in gut microbiota and relative responses of the gastrointestinal tract in the determination of important pathological conditions such as the irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. PMID:20865476

    4. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

      SciTech Connect

      Rieck, R.H.

      1994-09-29

      Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

    5. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs.

      PubMed

      Plantinga, Nienke L; Bonten, Marc J M

      2015-01-01

      Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective decontamination (SDD/SOD) in areas where multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are endemic is less clear. It will be important to determine whether SDD/SOD improves patient outcome in such settings and how these measures affect the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here we review the current evidence on the effects of SDD/SOD on antibiotic resistance development in individual ICU patients as well as the effect on ICU ecology, the latter including both ICU-level antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance development during long-term use of SDD/SOD. PMID:26104045

    6. PYROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION METHOD FOR REACTOR FUEL

      DOEpatents

      Buyers, A.G.

      1959-06-30

      A pyro-chemical method is presented for decontaminating neutron irradiated uranium and separating plutonium therefrom by contact in the molten state with a metal chloride salt. Uranium trichloride and uranium tetrachloride either alone or in admixture with alkaline metal and alkaline eanth metal fluorides under specified temperature and specified phase ratio conditions extract substantially all of the uranium from the irradiated uranium fuel together with certain fission products. The phases are then separated leaving purified uranium metal. The uranium and plutonium in the salt phase can be reduced to forin a highly decontaminated uraniumplutonium alloy. The present method possesses advantages for economically decontaminating irradiated nuclear fuel elements since irradiated fuel may be proccessed immediately after withdrawal from the reactor and the uranium need not be dissolved and later reduced to the metallic form. Accordingly, the uranium may be economically refabricated and reinserted into the reactor.

    7. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

      SciTech Connect

      Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

      1996-04-01

      Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

    8. Characteristics of low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Annual report for Fiscal Year 1992: Volume 3

      SciTech Connect

      Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Morcos, N.

      1993-02-01

      This document addresses the work performed during fiscal year 1992 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste -- Decontamination Waste Program (FIN A6359), which is funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program evaluates the physical stability and leachability of solidified waste streams generated in the decontamination process of primary coolant systems in operating nuclear power stations. The data in this document include the chemical composition and characterization of waste streams from Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3 and from Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant Unit 1. The results of compressive strength testing on immersed and unimmersed solidified waste-form specimens from peach Bottom, and the results of leachate analysis are addressed. Cumulative fractional release rates and leachability indexes of those specimens were calculated and are included in this report.

    9. Radio-decontamination efficacy and safety studies on optimized decontamination lotion formulation.

      PubMed

      Rana, S; Bhatt, S; Dutta, M; Khan, A W; Ali, J; Sultana, S; Kotta, S; Ansari, S H; Sharma, R K

      2012-09-15

      Objective of the present study was to optimize decontamination lotion and to evaluate its relative decontamination efficacy using three radio-isotopes (Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201) as contaminants with varying length of contaminant exposure (0-1h). Experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley rat's intact skin and human tissue equivalent models. Rat's hair was removed by using depilator after trimming with scissors. Relative decontamination efficacy of the optimized lotion was investigated and compared with water as control. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Measured decontamination efficacy (DE) values were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test (p value<0.05) and were found statistically significant. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion was observed to be 90 ± 5%, 80 ± 2% and 85 ± 2%, for the (131)I, (201)Tl and (99m)Tc radio-contaminants respectively on skin. Reduced contaminant removal was recorded for the skin which was cleaned by depilator (50-60%). Skin decontamination was found more efficacious for rat skin decontamination than the human tissue equivalent model. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion against (99m)Tc was recorded 70 ± 15% at 0-1h on the tissue equivalent model. In vitro chelation efficacy of the lotion was also established by using the instant thin layer chromatography-slica gel (ITLC-SG) and >95% of (99m)Tc was recorded. Neither erythema nor edema was scored in the primary skin irritancy test visually observed for two weeks. PMID:22609966

    10. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

      2005-10-01

      Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

    11. DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL

      DOEpatents

      Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

      1959-12-22

      A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

    12. Decontamination of metals using chemical etching

      DOEpatents

      Lerch, Ronald E.; Partridge, Jerry A.

      1980-01-01

      The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

    13. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

    14. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

    15. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

    16. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning. Final report

      SciTech Connect

      Moser, C.L.

      1993-02-01

      The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis`, and D&D plans` were prepared in 1991. Physical D&D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D&D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred.

    17. The gut in spondyloarthritis.

      PubMed

      Wendling, Daniel

      2016-07-01

      The links between the bowel and spondyloarthritis, although demonstrated many years ago, have been placed under the spotlight by recent findings. Thus, studies have established that bowel inflammation is associated with the joint disease activity, sacroiliac joint inflammation by magnetic resonance imaging, and elevated levels of biomarkers for bowel inflammation (S100 proteins) or antimicrobial antibodies (anti-flagellin). IL-23/Th17 pathway activation originating in the bowel has been documented in studies demonstrating that lymphoid cells expressing the IL-23 receptor can migrate to the bloodstream, bone marrow, and joints, via a mechanism involving adhesion molecules. Bacteria present in the bowel are increasingly emerging as major players. Thus, dysbiosis of the bowel microbiota can induce IL-23 production and local inflammatory responses. These new data suggest avenues of research for future treatments. PMID:27149918

    18. PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Dodd, E.N. III

      1995-01-01

      The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of PUREX at the Hanford Site, and to preserve that configuration for a 10-year horizon. The 10-year horizon is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents they typical time duration expended to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. This document was prepared to increase attention to worker safety issues during the deactivation project and, as such, identifies the documentation and programs associated with PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety.

    19. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

      SciTech Connect

      Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

      1994-10-01

      This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

    20. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.

      2002-03-01

      There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment.

    1. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

      EPA Science Inventory

      The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

    2. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1978-01-01

      Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

    3. Biological Decontamination Using Pulsed Filamentary Microplasma Jet

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Keil, Gernot; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

      Microplasma jet for the generation of pulsed filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure has been devised for biological decontamination as well as for modification of surface properties. Long plasma-filament is generated inside a quartz tube and characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, current voltage measurements, numerical simulations and microphotography. Efficiency of our plasma source for the decontamination on inner surface of the tube as well as on objects placed in proximity of plasma effluent is studied. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (Gram-positive bacteria) are used for the decontamination studies. Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which are layered on PET polymer material, and placed in the proximity of plasma effluent, shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of 3.67 for the treatment time of 120 s. Inactivation of Escherichia coli coated on inner surface of the tube shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of about 5 for the treatment time of 30 s. In addition to this, inhibition studies of bacteria coated on agar plate are also carried out. It shows plasma effluent generated in our plasma source is very effective for the inhibition of bacterial colonization.

    4. Document Monitor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1988-01-01

      The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

    5. GUT implications from neutrino mass

      SciTech Connect

      Carl H. Albright

      2001-06-26

      An overview is given of the experimental neutrino mixing results and types of neutrino models proposed, with special attention to the general features of various GUT models involving intra-family symmetries and horizontal flavor symmetries. Many of the features are then illustrated by a specific SO (10) SUSY GUT model formulated by S.M. Barr and the author which can explain all four types of solar neutrino mixing solutions by various choices of the right-handed Majorana mass matrix. The quantitative nature of the model's large mixing angle solution is used to compare the reaches of a neutrino super beam and a neutrino factory for determining the small U{sub e3} mixing matrix element.

    6. Arabinoxylans, gut microbiota and immunity.

      PubMed

      Mendis, Mihiri; Leclerc, Estelle; Simsek, Senay

      2016-03-30

      Arabinoxylan (AX) is a non-starch polysaccharide found in many cereal grains and is considered as a dietary fiber. Despite their general structure, there is structural heterogeneity among AX originating from different botanical sources. Furthermore, the extraction procedure and hydrolysis by xylolytic enzymes can further render differences to theses AX. The aim of this review was to address the effects of AX on the gut bacteria and their immunomodulatory properties. Given the complex structure of AX, we also aimed to discuss how the structural heterogeneity of AX affects its role in bacterial growth and immunomodulation. The existing literature indicates the role of fine structural details of AX on its potential as polysaccharides that can impact the gut associated microbial growth and immune system. PMID:26794959

    7. Waste and decontamination services FY 94 Multi-Year Program Plan Phase II WBS No. 1.2.3

      SciTech Connect

      Cruz, E.A.

      1994-05-01

      During the remediation of the Hanford Site large volumes of radioactive and mixed solid waste are expected to be produced, thus creating the need for subsequent decontamination, treatment, storage, and/or waste disposal. The program mission is to manage current and future contaminated solid waste streams in a safe, responsible, cost effective and legally compliant manner. This document presents the strategy and technical requirements, along with key objectives and deliverables for the waste and decontamination services program for fiscal year 1994. Time schedules, cost estimates, and justification for each proposed activity are given in tables and charts.

    8. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

      SciTech Connect

      Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

      1998-12-31

      Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of {le}20 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} swipable and {le}500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product.

    9. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

      SciTech Connect

      Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

      1998-12-31

      Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate.

    10. Cospeciation of gut microbiota with hominids.

      PubMed

      Moeller, Andrew H; Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Mjungu, Deus; Georgiev, Alexander V; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

      2016-07-22

      The evolutionary origins of the bacterial lineages that populate the human gut are unknown. Here we show that multiple lineages of the predominant bacterial taxa in the gut arose via cospeciation with humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas over the past 15 million years. Analyses of strain-level bacterial diversity within hominid gut microbiomes revealed that clades of Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae have been maintained exclusively within host lineages across hundreds of thousands of host generations. Divergence times of these cospeciating gut bacteria are congruent with those of hominids, indicating that nuclear, mitochondrial, and gut bacterial genomes diversified in concert during hominid evolution. This study identifies human gut bacteria descended from ancient symbionts that speciated simultaneously with humans and the African apes. PMID:27463672

    11. Scientific Documentation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Pieper, Gail W.

      1980-01-01

      Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

    12. The GOCE User Toolbox (GUT) and Tutorial

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bingham, R. J.; Benveniste, J.; Knudsen, P.

      2015-12-01

      The GOCE User Toolbox (GUT) is an integrated suite of tools for the analysis and use of GOCE Level 2 gravity products. GUT supports applications in geodesy, oceanography and solid earth physics. The accompanying GUT tutorial provides information and guidance on how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications within each of these domains. An important motivation for the development of GUT has been the desire that users should be able to exploit the GOCE gravity products to calculate derived products relevant to their particular domains without necessarily needing to understand the technicalities of particular geodetic concepts and algorithms. As such, GUT is also suitable for use as an aid to the teaching of geophysics. A comprehensive and up-to-date set of a-priori data and models are supplied with the toolbox, together with a range of pre-defined workflows, allowing the user to immediately calculate useful geophysical quantities. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. GUT is cross-platform and may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux workstations and Macs. GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and, besides some bug-fixes, the capability to calculate the simple Bouguer anomaly was added. Recently, GUT version 3 has been released. Through a collaborative effort between the relevant scientific communities, this version has built on earlier releases by further extending the functionality of the toolbox within the fields of geodesy, oceanography and solid earth physics. Additions include the ability to work directly with gravity gradients, anisotropic diffusive filtering, and the computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. The interface between the user and the toolbox has also been greatly improved and GUT version 3 now includes an attractive and intuitive Graphical User Interface. An associated GUT VCM tool for analysing the GOCE variance covariance matrices is also available.

    13. Role of the normal gut microbiota

      PubMed Central

      Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Reddy, D Nageshwar

      2015-01-01

      Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual’s life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

    14. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

      PubMed

      Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

      2015-08-01

      Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

    15. Gut Microbiota of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

      PubMed

      Abdou, Reham M; Zhu, Lixin; Baker, Robert D; Baker, Susan S

      2016-05-01

      The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been rapidly increasing worldwide. It has become a leading cause of liver transplantation. Accumulating evidence suggests a significant role for gut microbiota in its development and progression. Here we review the effect of gut microbiota on developing hepatic fatty infiltration and its progression. Current literature supports a possible role for gut microbiota in the development of liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. We also review the literature on possible interventions for NAFLD that target the gut microbiota. PMID:26898658

    16. Gut inflammation and microbiome in spondyloarthritis.

      PubMed

      Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Sandhya, Pulukool; Danda, Debashish

      2016-04-01

      Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is chronic inflammatory disease involving joints and the spine. Bowel inflammation is common in SpA, which may be classified as acute or chronic. Chronic gut inflammation is most common in SpA patients with axial involvement as compared to those presenting with peripheral involvement alone. The pathogenesis of gut inflammation in SpA could be explained by two factors-over-activation of immunological cells and altered gut microbiome. This is exemplified by SpA animal models, namely HLA-B27-expressing transgenic animals and SKG mice models. Immunological mechanisms include homing of activated T cells from gut into synovium, excess pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion by immune cells such as IL-23 and genetic variations in immunological genes. The evidence for role of gut microbiome in SpA is gradually emerging. Recently, metagenomic study of gut microbiome by sequencing of microbial nucleic acids has enabled identification of new microbial taxa and their functions in gut of patients with SpA. In SpA, the gut microbiome could emerge as diagnostic and prognostic marker of disease. Modulation of gut microbiome is slated to have therapeutic potential as well. PMID:26719306

    17. Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes

      PubMed Central

      Vaarala, Outi

      2012-01-01

      The gut immune system has a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes, and factors that control the gut immune system are also regulators of beta-cell autoimmunity. Gut microbiota modulate the function of the gut immune system by their effect on the innate immune system, such as the intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells, and on the adaptive immune system, in particular intestinal T cells. Due to the immunological link between gut and pancreas, e.g. the shared lymphocyte homing receptors, the immunological changes in the gut are reflected in the pancreas. According to animal studies, changes in gut microbiota alter the development of autoimmune diabetes. This has been demonstrated by antibiotics that induce changes in the gut microbiota. Furthermore, gut-colonizing microbes may modify the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in animal models. Deficient toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, mediating microbial stimulus in immune cells, prevents autoimmune diabetes, which appears to be dependent on alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Although few studies have been conducted in humans, recent studies suggest that the abundance of Bacteroides and lack of butyrate-producing bacteria in fecal microbiota are associated with beta-cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. It is possible that altered gut microbiota are associated with immunological aberrancies in type 1 diabetes. The changes in gut microbiota could lead to alterations in the gut immune system, such as increased gut permeability, small intestinal inflammation, and impaired tolerance to food antigens, all of which are observed in type 1 diabetes. Poor fitness of gut microbiota could explain why children who develop type 1 diabetes are prone to enterovirus infections, and do not develop tolerance to cow milk antigens. These candidate risk factors of type 1 diabetes may imply an increased risk of type 1 diabetes due to the presence of gut microbiota that do not support health. Despite the complex

    18. The role of gut peptides in the gut-brain-axis of livestock

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Gut peptides are small hormones produced within the gut that are involved in many biological processes including, but not limited to, appetite regulation, mucosal growth, and metabolism regulation. Some peptides, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and xenin-25 may affect appetite by altering gut motilit...

    19. Conceptual Decontamination and Decommissioning Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

      SciTech Connect

      Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division, now Washington TRU Solutions LLC

      1995-01-30

      The Conceptual Decontamination and Decommissioning Plan (D&D) was developed as a concept for progressing from the final actions of the Disposal Phase, through the Decontamination and Decommissioning Phase, and into the initiation of the Long-Term Monitoring Phase. This plan was written in a manner that coincides with many of the requirements specified in DOE Order 5820.2A. Radioactive Waste Management; ASTM El 167 87, Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations; and other documents listed in Attachment 3 of the D&D Plan. However, this conceptual plan does not meet all of the requirements necessary for a Decontamination and Decommissioning plan necessary for submission to the U.S. Congress in accordance with the Land Withdrawal Act (P.L. 102-579). A complete D&D plan that will meet the requirements of all of these documents and of the Land Withdrawal Act will be prepared and submitted to Congress by October 1997.

    20. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

      PubMed

      Wagner, George W

      2015-03-17

      Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

    1. The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in Arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts.

      PubMed

      Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Maraldo, Kristine; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Wang, Yiming V; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M

      2016-09-01

      Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts have been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make up for dietary insufficiencies of macronutrients such as essential amino acids (EAA). Documenting whether gut symbionts also function as partners for symbiotic EAA supplementation is important because the question of how some detritivores are able to subsist on nutritionally insufficient diets has remained unresolved. To answer this poorly understood nutritional aspect of symbiont-host interactions, we studied the enchytraeid worm, a bulk soil feeder that thrives in Arctic peatlands. In a combined field and laboratory study, we employed stable isotope fingerprinting of amino acids to identify the biosynthetic origins of amino acids to bacteria, fungi and plants in enchytraeids. Enchytraeids collected from Arctic peatlands derived more than 80% of their EAA from bacteria. In a controlled feeding study with the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus, EAA derived almost exclusively from gut bacteria when the worms fed on higher fibre diets, whereas most of the enchytraeids' EAA derived from dietary sources when fed on lower fibre diets. Our gene sequencing results of gut microbiota showed that the worms harbour several taxa in their gut lumen absent from their diets and substrates. Almost all gut taxa are candidates for EAA supplementation because almost all belong to clades capable of biosynthesizing EAA. Our study provides the first evidence of extensive symbiotic supplementation of EAA by microbial

    2. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

      SciTech Connect

      Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

      2000-02-01

      Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

    3. Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals

      SciTech Connect

      Shurte, E.A.; Rankin, W.N.

      1988-01-01

      The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled laboratory tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the product was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

    4. Decontamination technology assessments - who assesses the assessments?

      PubMed

      Smith, A J

      2013-07-01

      The driver to improve surgical instrument decontamination has been the introduction of vCJD into the UK population over the last two decades, although concerns over transmission of other infectious agents remain valid. Though significant improvements have been made in primary care, this is usually in spite of limited access to technical advice on decontamination equipment. A technology assessment for key elements of equipment and processes used in this environment should be welcomed. However, two reports by the Scottish Health Technology Assessment Panel are flawed in estimating costs associated with wrapping instruments, omission of appropriate references and inaccurate data in the costing models. These assessments contribute little to health economics debates, confuse practitioners and frustrate technical experts. PMID:23887525

    5. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

      2000-03-01

      Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

    6. Decontamination systems information and research program. Quarterly report, January 1996--March 1996

      SciTech Connect

      1996-04-01

      West Virginia University (WVU) and the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement in August 1992 titled {open_quotes}Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs{close_quotes} (DOE Instrument No.: DE-FC21-92MC29467). Requirements stipulated by the Agreement require WVU to submit quarterly Technical Progress reports. This report contains the efforts of the research projects comprising the Agreement for the 1st calendar quarter of 1996. For the period January 1 through December 31, 1996 twelve projects have been selected for funding, and the Kanawha Valley will continue under a no-cost extension. Three new projects have also been added to the program. This document describes these projects involving decontamination, decommissioning and remedial action issues and technologies.

    7. Altered gut transcriptome in spondyloarthropathy

      PubMed Central

      Laukens, D; Peeters, H; Cruyssen, B V; Boonefaes, T; Elewaut, D; De Keyser, F; Mielants, H; Cuvelier, C; Veys, E M; Knecht, K; Van Hummelen, P; Remaut, E; Steidler, L; De Vos, M; Rottiers, P

      2006-01-01

      Background Intestinal inflammation is a common feature of spondyloarthropathy (SpA) and Crohn's disease. Inflammation is manifested clinically in Crohn's disease and subclinically in SpA. However, a fraction of patients with SpA develops overt Crohn's disease. Aims To investigate whether subclinical gut lesions in patients with SpA are associated with transcriptome changes comparable to those seen in Crohn's disease and to examine global gene expression in non‐inflamed colon biopsy specimens and screen patients for differentially expressed genes. Methods Macroarray analysis was used as an initial genomewide screen for selecting a comprehensive set of genes relevant to Crohn's disease and SpA. This led to the identification of 2625 expressed sequence tags that are differentially expressed in the colon of patients with Crohn's disease or SpA. These clones, with appropriate controls (6779 in total), were used to construct a glass‐based microarray, which was then used to analyse colon biopsy specimens from 15 patients with SpA, 11 patients with Crohn's disease and 10 controls. Results 95 genes were identified as differentially expressed in patients with SpA having a history of subclinical chronic gut inflammation and also in patients with Crohn's disease. Principal component analysis of this filtered set of genes successfully distinguished colon biopsy specimens from the three groups studied. Patients with SpA having subclinical chronic gut inflammation cluster together and are more related to those with Crohn's disease. Conclusion The transcriptome in the intestine of patients with SpA differs from that of controls. Moreover, these gene changes are comparable to those seen in patients with Crohn's disease, confirming initial clinical observations. On the basis of these findings, new (genetic) markers for detection of early Crohn's disease in patients with SpA can be considered. PMID:16476712

    8. DESCALING AND DECONTAMINATING METHOD FOR METALS

      DOEpatents

      Baybarz, R.D.

      1961-04-25

      Oxide scale is removed from the surface of stainless steels and similar metals by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute sulfuric acid solution containing chromous sulfate. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M chromous sulfate and 0.4 to 0.6 M sulfuric acid. This process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogsneous nuclear reactor systems.

    9. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

      DOEpatents

      Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

      2003-01-01

      A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

    10. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

      SciTech Connect

      Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

      1994-06-01

      The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

    11. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

      SciTech Connect

      Ekechukwu, Amy A.

      2008-06-10

      A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

    12. Decontamination and Decommisioning Equipment Tracking System

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

      1994-08-26

      DDETS is Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) which incorporates 1-D (code 39) and 2-D (PDF417) bar codes into its equipment tracking capabilities. DDETS is compatible with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS), and has add, edit, delete and query capabilities for tracking equipment being decontaminated and decommissioned. In addition, bar code technology is utilized in the inventory tracking and shipping of equipment.

    13. Clostridial disease of the gut.

      PubMed

      Borriello, S P

      1995-06-01

      Clostridia are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Some of the most common clostridial infections are those of the gut. The primary infections in humans are Clostridium perfringens food poisoning and Clostridium difficile-mediated antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. Less common but important infections include non-food poisoning C. perfringens nosocomial diarrhea and C. perfringens type C necrotizing jejunitis (pig-bel). C. perfringens is also the dominant cause of gastrointestinal infections in animals, although Clostridium septicum causing braxy in sheep, Clostridium colinum causing ulcerative enteritis is avian species, and Clostridium spiroforme causing enterotoxemia in rabbits are important exceptions. PMID:7548565

    14. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

      PubMed

      Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

      2016-06-01

      Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26970682

    15. Decontamination of radionuclides from skin: an overview.

      PubMed

      Tazrart, Anissa; Bérard, Philippe; Leiterer, Alexandra; Ménétrier, Florence

      2013-08-01

      The accident in Fukushima has emphasized the need to increase the capacity of health protection for exposed workers, first responders, and the general public in a major accident situation with release of radioactivity. Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents, but this risk also exists and incidents can happen in industry, research laboratories, or in nuclear medicine departments. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the products currently used after skin contamination in order to highlight the needs and ways to improve the medical management of victims. From this review, it can be observed that the current use of these radiological decontamination products is essentially based on empiricism. In addition, some of these products are harsh and irritating, even toxic, possibly damaging the skin barrier. In some emergency situations in which clean water is in short supply, most of the current products cannot be used. Research on the mechanisms of action of decontaminating products is needed to develop a decontamination strategy. PMID:23799505

    16. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

      PubMed

      Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

      2009-01-01

      Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

    17. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

      2014-02-01

      Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

    18. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

      SciTech Connect

      Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

      1980-12-01

      This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

    19. GUT MICROBIOTA DYSBIOSIS IS LINKED TO HYPERTENSION

      PubMed Central

      Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M.; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

      2015-01-01

      Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota is critical in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension since genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut microbiota and blood pressure. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples of two rat models of hypertension and a small cohort of patients was used for bacterial genomic analysis. We observed a significant decrease in microbial richness, diversity, and evenness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, in addition to an increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These changes were accompanied with decreases in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, the microbiota of a small cohort of human hypertension patients was found to follow a similar dysbiotic pattern, as it was less rich and diverse than that of control subjects. Similar changes in gut microbiota were observed in the chronic angiotensin II infusion rat model, most notably decreased microbial richness and an increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. In this model, we evaluated the efficacy of oral minocycline in restoring gut microbiota. In addition to attenuating high blood pressure, minocycline was able to rebalance the dysbiotic hypertension gut microbiota by reducing the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These observations demonstrate that high BP is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension. PMID:25870193

    20. Gut dysbiosis is linked to hypertension.

      PubMed

      Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

      2015-06-01

      Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota is critical in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension because genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut microbiota and blood pressure. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples of 2 rat models of hypertension and a small cohort of patients was used for bacterial genomic analysis. We observed a significant decrease in microbial richness, diversity, and evenness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, in addition to an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These changes were accompanied by decreases in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria. In addition, the microbiota of a small cohort of human hypertensive patients was found to follow a similar dysbiotic pattern, as it was less rich and diverse than that of control subjects. Similar changes in gut microbiota were observed in the chronic angiotensin II infusion rat model, most notably decreased microbial richness and an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. In this model, we evaluated the efficacy of oral minocycline in restoring gut microbiota. In addition to attenuating high blood pressure, minocycline was able to rebalance the dysbiotic hypertension gut microbiota by reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These observations demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension. PMID:25870193

    1. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

      PubMed

      Landman, C; Quévrain, E

      2016-06-01

      The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. PMID:26749318

    2. Chemical and Biological Substances Decontamination Study for Mars Missions and Terrestrial Applications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pottage, Thomas; Walker, James; Bennett, Allan; Vrublevskis, John; Hovland, Scott

      This study, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and undertaken by the Health Protec-tion Agency, UK supported by Systems Engineering and Assessment Ltd., was devised to select suitable current decontamination technologies for development for future manned missions to the Moon and Mars. There is a requirement to decontaminate the habitat module due to the concerns about astronaut ill health, microbial deterioration of materials and potential forward contamination in the case of Mars. In the case of the MIR space station, biodeterioration of components and materials occurred, and dangerous levels of airborne microorganisms were detected during air sampling procedures which lead to the introduction of microbial exposure limits (as MORD SSP 50260) to ensure the health of the crew. COSPAR planetary protection guidelines highlight the need to reduce any potential forward or backwards contamination issues that may occur through the use of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suits whilst on Mars. Decontamination of the suit exterior must be completed before any EVA activity on Mars, whilst a further decontamination cycle must be completed after entry to the airlock following EVA. Technologies and techniques have also been investigated for the microbial reduction of the interior surfaces of the EVA suit to stop biodeterioration of the materials and protect the user from pathogenic microbe accumulation. The first work package reviewed the systems description and requirements as detailed in the statement of work. The requirements were broken down into 12 further requirement sections, where they were updated and expanded, resulted in Technical Note (TN) 1 which was then used as the base document for WP2 and WP3. WP2 investigated the current technologies available for the decontamination of the habitat module interior on missions of up to 6 months and missions that have durations of greater than 6 months. A comprehensive review was carried out for the different methods that

    3. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

      SciTech Connect

      Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

      1994-05-01

      A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

    4. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

      SciTech Connect

      Reutzel, T.; Manhardt, J.

      1994-05-01

      This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO{sub 2} blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS.

    5. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

      SciTech Connect

      Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

      1995-03-01

      Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.

    6. The gut microbiome: scourge, sentinel or spectator?

      PubMed Central

      Korecka, Agata; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan

      2012-01-01

      The gut microbiota consists of trillions of prokaryotes that reside in the intestinal mucosa. This long-established commensalism indicates that these microbes are an integral part of the eukaryotic host. Recent research findings have implicated the dynamics of microbial function in setting thresholds for many physiological parameters. Conversely, it has been convincingly argued that dysbiosis, representing microbial imbalance, may be an important underlying factor that contributes to a variety of diseases, inside and outside the gut. This review discusses the latest findings, including enterotype classification, changes brought on by dysbiosis, gut inflammation, and metabolic mediators in an attempt to underscore the importance of the gut microbiota for human health. A cautiously optimistic idea is taking hold, invoking the gut microbiota as a medium to track, target and treat a plethora of diseases. PMID:22368769

    7. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome.

      PubMed

      Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Sonne, Si Brask; Xia, Zhongkui; Qiu, Xinmin; Li, Xiaoping; Long, Hua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dongya; Liu, Chuan; Fang, Zhiwei; Chou, Joyce; Glanville, Jacob; Hao, Qin; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Licht, Tine Rask; Wu, Donghai; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Liang, Qiaoyi; Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Lan, Zhou; Tremaroli, Valentina; Dworzynski, Piotr; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Doré, Joël; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Lin, John C; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

      2015-10-01

      We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies. PMID:26414350

    8. Gut microbiota, obesity and diabetes.

      PubMed

      Patterson, Elaine; Ryan, Paul M; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

      2016-05-01

      The central role of the intestinal microbiota in the progression and, equally, prevention of metabolic dysfunction is becoming abundantly apparent. The symbiotic relationship between intestinal microbiota and host ensures appropriate development of the metabolic system in humans. However, disturbances in composition and, in turn, functionality of the intestinal microbiota can disrupt gut barrier function, a trip switch for metabolic endotoxemia. This low-grade chronic inflammation, brought about by the influx of inflammatory bacterial fragments into circulation through a malfunctioning gut barrier, has considerable knock-on effects for host adiposity and insulin resistance. Conversely, recent evidence suggests that there are certain bacterial species that may interact with host metabolism through metabolite-mediated stimulation of enteric hormones and other systems outside of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the endocannabinoid system. When the abundance of these keystone species begins to decline, we see a collapse of the symbiosis, reflected in a deterioration of host metabolic health. This review will investigate the intricate axis between the microbiota and host metabolism, while also addressing the promising and novel field of probiotics as metabolic therapies. PMID:26912499

    9. Gut failure in the ICU.

      PubMed

      Puleo, Francesco; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Van Gossum, André; Preiser, Jean-Charles

      2011-10-01

      The role of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure (MOF) complicating the course of critically ill patients has been suspected for more than 40 years. However, several hypotheses have been proposed and sometimes refuted to establish a link. This review summarizes the current knowledge on gastrointestinal physiology and recapitulates existing evidence on the link between gastrointestinal dysfunction and MOF. The gastrointestinal tract has various functions apart from digestion. It produces hormones with local and systemic effects, plays a major role in immunological function, and serves as a barrier against antigens within its lumen. Gastrointestinal dysfunction or gut failure is frequently encountered in critical care patients and is associated with bacterial translocation, which can lead to the development of sepsis, initiation of a cytokine-mediated systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and death. The aim of this manuscript is to define gut failure, to review physiopathological mechanisms and clinical implications, and, finally, to suggest preventive measures. PMID:21989698

    10. Antibiotics and the gut microbiota

      PubMed Central

      Modi, Sheetal R.; Collins, James J.; Relman, David A.

      2014-01-01

      Antibiotics have been a cornerstone of innovation in the fields of public health, agriculture, and medicine. However, recent studies have shed new light on the collateral damage they impart on the indigenous host-associated communities. These drugs have been found to alter the taxonomic, genomic, and functional capacity of the human gut microbiota, with effects that are rapid and sometimes persistent. Broad-spectrum antibiotics reduce bacterial diversity while expanding and collapsing membership of specific indigenous taxa. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment selects for resistant bacteria, increases opportunities for horizontal gene transfer, and enables intrusion of pathogenic organisms through depletion of occupied natural niches, with profound implications for the emergence of resistance. Because these pervasive alterations can be viewed as an uncoupling of mutualistic host-microbe relationships, it is valuable to reconsider antimicrobial therapies in the context of an ecological framework. Understanding the biology of competitive exclusion, interspecies protection, and gene flow of adaptive functions in the gut environment may inform the design of new strategies that treat infections while preserving the ecology of our beneficial constituents. PMID:25271726

    11. Decontamination after a release of B. anthracis spores.

      PubMed

      Campbell, Chris G; Kirvel, Robert D; Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Miles, Robin; Schweickert, Jerry; Sutton, Mark; Raber, Ellen

      2012-03-01

      Decontaminating civilian facilities or large urban areas following an attack with Bacillus anthracis poses daunting challenges because of the lack of resources and proven technologies. Nevertheless, lessons learned from the 2001 cleanups together with advances derived from recent research have improved our understanding of what is required for effective decontamination. This article reviews current decontamination technologies appropriate for use in outdoor environments, on material surfaces, within large enclosed spaces, in water, and on waste contaminated with aerosolized B. anthracis spores. PMID:22352747

    12. Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study

      SciTech Connect

      FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

      1980-11-01

      The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

    13. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

      SciTech Connect

      Wickramanayake, G.B. )

      1990-01-01

      Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

    14. Orbitmpi Documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Lisa L. Lowe

      2000-10-05

      Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

    15. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children.

      PubMed

      Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

      2015-02-01

      Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident. PMID:25455662

    16. Nucleon decay in GUT and nonGUT SUSY models

      SciTech Connect

      Murayama, Hitoshi

      1996-06-30

      I first emphasize the importance of searching for nucleon decay in the context of supersymmetric models. The status of minimal SUSY SU(5) model is reviewed, which can be definitively ruled out by a combination of superKamiokande andLEP-2 experiments. Non-minimal models may provide some suppression in the nucleon decay rates, but there is still a good chance for superKamiokande. I point out that the operators suppressed even by the Planck-scale are too large. We need a suppression mechanism for the operators at the level of 10-7, and the mechanism, I argue, may well be a flavor symmetry. A particular example predicts p --> K0e+ to be the dominant mode which does not arise in GUT models.

    17. Beyond the gut bacterial microbiota: The gut virome.

      PubMed

      Columpsi, Paola; Sacchi, Paolo; Zuccaro, Valentina; Cima, Serena; Sarda, Cristina; Mariani, Marcello; Gori, Andrea; Bruno, Raffaele

      2016-09-01

      The gastrointestinal tract is colonized with a highly different population of bacterial, viral, ad fungal species; viruses are reported to be dominant. The composition of gut virome is closely related to dietary habits and surrounding environment. Host and their intestinal microbes live in a dynamic equilibrium and viruses stimulate a low degree of immune responses without causing symptoms (host tolerance). However, intestinal phages could lead to a rupture of eubiosis and may contribute to the shift from health to disease in humans and animals. Viral nucleic acids and other products of lysis of bacteria serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and could trigger specific inflammatory modulations. At the same time, phages could elicit innate antiviral immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) operated as innate antiviral immune sensors and their activation triggers signaling cascades that lead to inflammatory response. J. Med. Virol. 88:1467-1472, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26919534

    18. Individual diet has sex-dependent effects on vertebrate gut microbiota

      PubMed Central

      Bolnick, Daniel I.; Snowberg, Lisa K.; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Lauber, Christian L.; Org, Elin; Parks, Brian; Lusis, Aldons J.; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard

      2014-01-01

      Vertebrates harbour diverse communities of symbiotic gut microbes. Host diet is known to alter microbiota composition, implying that dietary treatments might alleviate diseases arising from altered microbial composition (‘dysbiosis’). However, it remains unclear whether diet effects are general or depend on host genotype. Here we show that gut microbiota composition depends on interactions between host diet and sex within populations of wild and laboratory fish, laboratory mice and humans. Within each of two natural fish populations (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch), among-individual diet variation is correlated with individual differences in gut microbiota. However, these diet–microbiota associations are sex dependent. We document similar sex-specific diet–microbiota correlations in humans. Experimental diet manipulations in laboratory stickleback and mice confirmed that diet affects microbiota differently in males versus females. The prevalence of such genotype by environment (sex by diet) interactions implies that therapies to treat dysbiosis might have sex-specific effects. PMID:25072318

    19. Support for the delisting of decontaminated liquid chemical surety materials as listed hazardous waste from specific sources (state) MD02 in COMAR 10. 51. 02. 16-1. Technical report, December 1987-February 1988

      SciTech Connect

      Durst, H.D.; Sarver, E.W.; Yurow, H.W.; Beaudry, W.T.; D'Eramo, P.A.

      1988-11-01

      Maryland recently enacted regulations that listed decontaminated residues of certain chemical warfare agents as hazardous wastes. The State would consider delisting if the Army document the effects of its decontamination procedures. Army specialists at U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, have had exhaustive experience in this area since 1918 when chemical agents were first used in combat in World War I. Competence accrued during this 70-year legacy includes destruction of laboratory and training wastes, combat decontamination, and largescale demilitarization of unserviceable and obsolete agent-filled munitions. The facts and circumstances enumerated in this document indicate that current decontamination practices are safe, scientifically valid, and result in the total destruction of agents in questions.

    20. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

      SciTech Connect

      Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

      1996-09-01

      The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

    1. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

      2013-07-01

      Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×103 CFU/cm2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (Dmin) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments.

    2. Testing GUTs: where do monopoles fit

      SciTech Connect

      Ellis, J.

      1982-10-01

      The report shows why the inadequacies of the standard model of elementary particles impel some theorists toward embedding the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in a simple GUT group, and explains why the grand unification scale and hence the GUM (Grand Unified Monopoles) mass are expected to be so large (greater than or equal to 10/sup 14/ GeV). It goes on to describe some model GUTs, notably minimal SU(5) and supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The grand unified analogues of generalized Cabibbo mixing angles are introduced relevant to the prediction of baryon decay modes in different theories as well as to the Decay modes catalyzed by GUMs. Phenomenologies of conventional and susy GUTs are contrasted including the potential increase in the grand unification scale as well as possible different baryon decay modes in susy GUTs. The phenomenology of GUMs is discussed, principally their ability to catalyze baryon decays. Some of the astrophysical and cosmological constraints on GUMs, GUMs, which make it difficult to imagine ever seeing a GUM and may impose serious restrictions on GUT model-building via their behavior in the very early universe are introduced. Finally, the reasons why GUMs are crucial aspects and tests of GUTs are summarized.

    3. Arthritis susceptibility and the Gut Microbiome

      PubMed Central

      Taneja, Veena

      2014-01-01

      Summary Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology though both genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to be involved in its pathogenesis. While infections and other environmental factors like smoking have been studies extensively and show some association, a direct link between all the factors has been difficult to prove. With the recent advances in technology, it has become possible to sequence the commensals that are residing in our gut. The gut microbiome may provide the missing link to this puzzle and help solve the mystery of many leaky gut syndromes. The gut commensals are involved in maintaining host immune homeostasis and function suggesting that they might be critical in altering the immune system that leads to autoimmune diseases like RA. Mouse models support the role of the gut microbiota in predisposition to RA. If that is true, the power of gut-derived commensal can be harnessed to our benefit by generating a biomarker profile along with genetic factors to define individuals at risk and by altering the gut microbial composition using various means. PMID:24873878

    4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and Probiotics

      PubMed Central

      Lee, Beom Jae

      2011-01-01

      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. PMID:21860817

    5. Role of bombesin on gut mucosal growth.

      PubMed Central

      Chu, K U; Evers, B M; Ishizuka, J; Townsend, C M; Thompson, J C

      1995-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effects of exogenous bombesin (BBS) on gut mucosal growth in chow-fed rats and the mucosal regeneration after gut atrophy brought about by feeding an elemental diet and after intestinal injury produced by methotrexate (MTX). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bombesin is one of many gastrointestinal peptides implicated in the regulation of gut mucosal growth. Although BBS is known to stimulate growth of normal pancreatic tissue, the trophic effect of BBS on gut mucosa is less clear and its exact role in gut mucosal regeneration and repair is not known. METHODS: Rats were fed a regular chow diet (control) or an elemental diet plus either saline or BBS (10 micrograms/kg). In another experiment, rats fed a chow diet and treated with saline or BBS were given MTX (20 micrograms/kg) or a single intraperitoneal injection. In all experiments, small and large bowel mucosa and pancreas were removed and analyzed for BBS-mediated proliferation. RESULTS: Bombesin produced significant mucosal proliferation of the small bowel at day 14, but not at day 7, in rats fed regular chow. In contrast, BBS treatment for 7 days produced significant proliferation in both the atrophic and injured gut mucosa of rats given elemental diet or MTX. CONCLUSIONS: Bombesin may be an important enterotrophic factor for normal mucosal proliferation and may be clinically beneficial as an agent to restore or maintain gut mucosa during periods of atrophy or injury. PMID:7618976

    6. Supersymmetric F-theory GUT models

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chung, Yu-Chieh

      F-theory is a twelve-dimensional geometric version of string theory and is believed to be a natural framework for GUT model building. The aim of this dissertation is to study how gauge theories realized by F-theory can accommodate GUT models. In this dissertation, we focus on local and semi-local GUT model building in F-theory. For local GUT models, we build SU(5) GUTs by using abelian U(1) fluxes via theSU6) gauge group. Doing so, we obtain non-minimal spectra of the MSSM with doublet-triplet splitting by switching on abelian U(1)2 fluxes. We also classify all supersymmetric U(1)2 fluxes by requiring an exotic-free bulk spectrum. For semi-local GUT models, we start with an E8 singularity and obtain lower rank gauge groups by unfolding the singularity governed by spectral covers. In this framework, the spectra can be calculated by the intersection numbers of spectral covers and matter curves. In particular, we useSU4) spectral covers and abelian U(1)X fluxes to build flippedSU5) models. We show that three-generation spectra of flippedSU5) models can be achieved by turning on suitable fluxes. To construct E6 GUTs, we consider SU3) spectral covers breaking E8 down to E6. Also three-generation extended MSSM can be obtained by using non-abelian SU2) x U(1)2 fluxes.

    7. ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED AEROSOL DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM FOR SMALL BUILDING DECONTAMINATION - PHASE I

      EPA Science Inventory

      Existing decontamination procedures are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and produce low-yielding results, and they have a high risk of personnel exposure and equipment damage. Foster-Miller, Inc., has teamed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other reagent suppl...

    8. Cyclodextrines as functional agents for decontamination of the skin contaminated by nerve agents.

      PubMed

      Cabal, Jirí; Kuca, Kamil; Sevelová-Bartosová, Lucie; Dohnal, Vlastimil

      2004-01-01

      Three decontamination solutions of beta-cyclodextrines were prepared. Their abilities to decontamine rat skin contamined with nerve agent soman were tested. Decontamination efficacy of the tested cyclodextrine solutions was compared with the same decontamination means but without the cyclodextrines. The efficacy of tested decontaminants was evaluated by the assessment of the ID50 values. Two decontamination prescriptions with cyclodextrines (tetraborate buffer and tetraborate buffer with acetone) do not show significantly better decontamination efficacies in comparison with prescriptions without cyclodextrines. Only in case of aqueous solution of 2-aminoethanol the addition of beta-cyclodextrine resulted in significant increase (32%) in decontamination efficacy. PMID:15446361

    9. Diet, gut microbiome, and bone health.

      PubMed

      Weaver, Connie M

      2015-04-01

      Interactions between the environment, the gut microbiome, and host characteristics that influence bone health are beginning to be explored. This is the first area where functional benefits from diet-induced changes in the gut microbiome have been reported for healthy people. Several prebiotics that reach the lower intestine have resulted in an altered gut microbiome that is thought to enhance fermentation of the fibers to produce short-chain fatty acids. These changes are positively correlated with increases in fractional calcium absorption in adolescents and with increases in measures of bone density and strength in animal models. New methodologies are available to explore mechanisms and to refine intervention strategies. PMID:25616772

    10. Mosquito gut antiparasitic and antiviral immunity.

      PubMed

      Saraiva, Raúl G; Kang, Seokyoung; Simões, Maria L; Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I; Dimopoulos, George

      2016-11-01

      Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases with a serious impact on global human health, such as malaria and dengue. All mosquito-transmitted pathogens complete part of their life cycle in the insect gut, where they are exposed to mosquito-encoded barriers and active factors that can limit their development. Here we present the current understanding of mosquito gut immunity against malaria parasites, filarial worms, and viruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, and West Nile. The most recently proposed immune mediators involved in intestinal defenses are discussed, as well as the synergies identified between the recognition of gut microbiota and the mounting of the immune response. PMID:26827888

    11. Diet, Gut Microbiome, and Bone Health

      PubMed Central

      2016-01-01

      Interactions between the environment, the gut microbiome, and host characteristics that influence bone health are beginning to be explored. This is the first area where functional benefits from diet-induced changes in the gut microbiome have been reported for healthy people. Several prebiotics that reach the lower intestine have resulted in an altered gut microbiome that is thought to enhance fermentation of the fibers to produce short-chain fatty acids. These changes are positively correlated with increases in fractional calcium absorption in adolescents and with increases in measures of bone density and strength in animal models. New methodologies are available to explore mechanisms and to refine intervention strategies. PMID:25616772

    12. Evolution of host specialization in gut microbes: the bee gut as a model

      PubMed Central

      Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

      2015-01-01

      Bacterial symbionts of eukaryotes often give up generalist lifestyles to specialize to particular hosts. The eusocial honey bees and bumble bees harbor two such specialized gut symbionts, Snodgrassella alvi and Gilliamella apicola. Not only are these microorganisms specific to bees, but different strains of these bacteria tend to assort according to host species. By using in-vivo microbial transplant experiments, we show that the observed specificity is, at least in part, due to evolved physiological barriers that limit compatibility between a host and a potential gut colonizer. How and why such specialization occurs is largely unstudied for gut microbes, despite strong evidence that it is a general feature in many gut communities. Here, we discuss the potential factors that favor the evolution of host specialization, and the parallels that can be drawn with parasites and other symbiont systems. We also address the potential of the bee gut as a model for exploring gut community evolution. PMID:26011669

    13. Gut Microbiota and Extreme Longevity.

      PubMed

      Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

      2016-06-01

      The study of the extreme limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we provide for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and extreme longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560

    14. Lasers for the radioactive decontamination of concrete

      SciTech Connect

      Cannon, N.S.; Flesher, D.J.

      1993-10-01

      The use of lasers for removing radioactive contamination from concrete surfaces is being investigated at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. A major advantage of a laser decontamination process is that no additional waste is generated. Test results using 50- and 600-W YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) lasers have been extrapolated to more powerful commercially available units. The minimum removal rate for concrete in air is estimated at 420 cm{sup 2}/h (0.45 ft{sup 2}/h) to a depth of 0.64 cm (0.25 in.); underwater rates would be considerably reduced.

    15. Investigation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

      SciTech Connect

      DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Morgan, I.L.; Ally, M.R.

      1995-12-31

      Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of cesium than strontium, while some positive results were obtained for the transport of cobalt through concrete using EDTA and for uranium using carbonate.

    16. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

      2016-01-01

      A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

    17. Process for Descaling and Decontaminating Metals

      DOEpatents

      Baybarz, R. D.

      1961-04-25

      The oxide scale on the surface of stainless steels and similar metals is removed by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute H/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ solution containing CrSO/sub 4/. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M CrSO/sub 4/ and 0.5 to 0.6 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor systems. (AEC)

    18. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

      DOEpatents

      Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

      2007-09-18

      Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

    19. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

      SciTech Connect

      Tennessen, Kristin; Pati, Amrita

      2014-03-21

      Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

    20. Evaluation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

      SciTech Connect

      Rankin, W.N.; Reiff, D.J.; Fink, S.D. ); Luckenbach, R.L. )

      1990-01-01

      Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, more fire resistant, less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 5 figs.

    1. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005

      SciTech Connect

      Agnihotri, Newal

      2005-07-15

      The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

    2. Large area cold plasma applicator for decontamination

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Konesky, G. A.

      2008-04-01

      Cold plasma applicators have been used in the Medical community for several years for uses ranging from hemostasis ("stop bleeding") to tumor removal. An added benefit of this technology is enhanced wound healing by the destruction of infectious microbial agents without damaging healthy tissue. The beam is typically one millimeter to less than a centimeter in diameter. This technology has been adapted and expanded to large area applicators of potentially a square meter or more. Decontamination applications include both biological and chemical agents, and assisting in the removal of radiological agents, with minimal or no damage to the contaminated substrate material. Linear and planar multiemitter array plasma applicator design and operation is discussed.

    3. Characterization of nuclear decontamination solutions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from 1982-1990

      SciTech Connect

      Zohner, S.K.

      1996-03-01

      This report represents possibly the single largest collection of operational decontamination data from a nuclear reprocessing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and perhaps anywhere in the world. The uniqueness of this data is due to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant`s (ICPP`s) ability to process different types of highly enriched nuclear fuel. The report covers an 8-year period, during which six campaigns were conducted to dissolve nuclear fuel clad in stainless steel, aluminum, graphite, and zirconium. Each fuel type had a separate head-end process with unique dissolution chemistry, but shared the same extraction process equipment. This report presents data about decontamination activities of the ICPP`s First Cycle extraction vessels, columns, piping, and aluminum dissolution vessels. Operating data from 1982 through 1990 has been collected, analyzed, and characterized. Chemicals used in the decontamination processes are documented along with quantities used. The chemical solutions are analyzed to compare effectiveness. Radioisotopic analysis is recorded, showing and quantifying what nuclides were removed by the various solutions. The original data is also provided to make it possible for researchers to address questions and test other hypotheses not discussed in this report.

    4. Omega documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

      1983-08-01

      OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

    5. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... disassembled electrical equipment), concrete, and non-porous surfaces covered with a porous surface, such as... person decontaminating porous surfaces other than concrete under paragraph (b)(4) of this section and non..., concrete, or non-porous surfaces. (1) The decontamination standard for water containing PCBs is: (i)...

    6. WRDA SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PILOT-SCALE DATA REPORT

      EPA Science Inventory

      Thermal and non-thermal decontamination technologies have been undergoing demonstrations at the bench through full/commercial-scale levels. The decontamination program is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Acts (92, 96) working in conjunction wi...

    7. [Air decontamination and the fine filtration system "Potok 150MK"].

      PubMed

      Kapustina, E A; Volodina, E V

      2004-01-01

      Longevity of space stations is dependent on efficiency and robustness of the life support systems. The article describes the principle of operation of air decontamination system Potok 150MK intended for providing microbial safety of the orbital station environment. High quality of air disinfection and decontamination has been demonstrated aboard SS Mir and the International space station. PMID:15233040

    8. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

      SciTech Connect

      Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

      1995-03-01

      The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost.

    9. [The gut microbiota in sickness and health].

      PubMed

      Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Nieuwdorp, Max; de Vos, Willem M; Wiersinga, W Joost

      2014-01-01

      The human gut microbiota, formerly known as 'gut flora', may be regarded as an external organ with many physiological functions in metabolism, development of the immune system and defense against pathogens. The adult gut microbiota consist of 1013-1014 micro-organisms. The aggregate genome of these, known as the microbiome, is 100 times larger than the human genome. The gut microbiotica may be involved in the pathogenesis of a range of syndromes, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus and atopic disorders. It should be noted that until now most of the studies conducted have been association studies, without proof of causality. This increasing insight has led to identification of new therapeutic strategies, which are currently being investigated in clinical studies. Although the implications of this knowledge for individual patients have yet to become clear, various interventions are conceivable, such as supplementation of nutritional elements, prebiotics or probiotics and feces transplantation. PMID:24780568

    10. Villification: How the Gut Gets Its Villi

      PubMed Central

      Shyer, Amy E.; Tallinen, Tuomas; Nerurkar, Nandan L.; Wei, Zhiyan; Gil, Eun Seok; Kaplan, David L.; Tabin, Clifford J.; Mahadevan, L.

      2014-01-01

      The villi of the human and chick gut are formed in similar step-wise progressions, wherein the mesenchyme and attached epithelium first fold into longitudinal ridges, then a zigzag pattern, and finally individual villi. We find that these steps of villification depend upon the sequential differentiation of the distinct smooth muscle layers of the gut, which restrict the expansion of the growing endoderm and mesenchyme, generating compressive stresses that lead to their buckling and folding. A quantitative computational model, incorporating measured properties of the developing gut, recapitulates the morphological patterns seen during villification in a variety of species. These results provide a mechanistic understanding of the formation of these elaborations of the lining of the gut, essential for providing sufficient surface area for nutrient absorption. PMID:23989955

    11. Gut microbial communities of social bees.

      PubMed

      Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

      2016-06-01

      The gut microbiota can have profound effects on hosts, but the study of these relationships in humans is challenging. The specialized gut microbial community of honey bees is similar to the mammalian microbiota, as both are mostly composed of host-adapted, facultatively anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. However, the microbial community of the bee gut is far simpler than the mammalian microbiota, being dominated by only nine bacterial species clusters that are specific to bees and that are transmitted through social interactions between individuals. Recent developments, which include the discovery of extensive strain-level variation, evidence of protective and nutritional functions, and reports of eco-physiological or disease-associated perturbations to the microbial community, have drawn attention to the role of the microbiota in bee health and its potential as a model for studying the ecology and evolution of gut symbionts. PMID:27140688

    12. [Multiple Sclerosis and Commensal Gut Flora].

      PubMed

      Yamamura, Takashi

      2016-06-01

      Although a symbiotic relationship between commensal gut microbiota and host is widely appreciated, recent works have indicated that normal gut flora functions to prevent inflammatory bowel diseases and obesity in the host, indicating a more mutualistic relationship. Dysbiosis of the commensal flora may lead to development of these disorders. Studies using experimental auto immune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model for studying multiple sclerosis (MS), revealed that onset of MS may be triggered by dysbiosis in the gut. We recently revealed a significant reduction in certain clostridia strains, which probably function to induce regulatory T cells, in the gut microbiota of patients with MS. Results from this study should be consideved when designing strategies for the prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:27279159

    13. Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota.

      PubMed

      Lange, Kathleen; Buerger, Martin; Stallmach, Andreas; Bruns, Tony

      2016-01-01

      The gut microbiota influences essential human functions including digestion, energy metabolism, and inflammation by modulating multiple endocrine, neural, and immune pathways of the host. Its composition and complexity varies markedly across individuals and across different sites of the gut, but provides a certain level of resilience against external perturbation. Short-term antibiotic treatment is able to shift the gut microbiota to long-term alternative dysbiotic states, which may promote the development and aggravation of disease. Common features of post-antibiotic dysbiosis include a loss of taxonomic and functional diversity combined with reduced colonization resistance against invading pathogens, which harbors the danger of antimicrobial resistance. This review summarizes the antibiotic-related changes of the gut microbiota and potential consequences in health and disease. PMID:27028893

    14. Go with your gut: microbiota meet microglia

      PubMed Central

      Mosher, Kira Irving; Wyss-Coray, Tony

      2016-01-01

      Discovering the environmental factors that control microglia is key to understanding and managing brain health. A new study finds that microbiota in the gut are essential for regulating microglia maturation and activation. PMID:26108718

    15. Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

      SciTech Connect

      M. A. Ebadian

      1997-08-06

      During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.

    16. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

      SciTech Connect

      Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

      1994-02-01

      Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ``Remote Decon`` robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms.

    17. Radiation decontamination unit for the community hospital.

      PubMed

      Waldron, R L; Danielson, R A; Shultz, H E; Eckert, D E; Hendricks, K O

      1981-05-01

      "Freestanding" radiation decontamination units including surgical capability can be developed and made operational in small/medium sized community hospitals at relatively small cost and with minimal plant reconstruction. Because of the development of nuclear power plants in relatively remote areas and widespread transportation of radioactive materials it is important for hospitals and physicians to be prepared to handle radiation accident victims. The Radiological Assistance Program of the United States Department of Energy and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site of Oak Ridge Associated Universities are ready to support individual hospitals and physicians in this endeavor. Adequate planning rather than luck, should be used in dealing with potential radiation accident victims. The radiation emergency team is headed by a physician on duty in the hospital. It is important that the team leader be knowledgeable in radiation accident management and have personnel trained in radiation accident management as members of this team. The senior administrative person on duty is responsible for intramural and extramural communications. Rapid mobilization of the radiation decontamination unit is important. Periodic drills are necessary for this mobilization and the smooth operation of the unit. PMID:6784538

    18. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators

      PubMed Central

      Bergman, Michael S.; Eimer, Benjamin C.; Shaffer, Ronald E.

      2009-01-01

      Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP

    19. Decontamination of nuclear systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

      SciTech Connect

      Weed, R.D.; Baker, K.R.

      1996-12-31

      Early in 1994 Management at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station realized that a potential decontamination of several reactor systems was needed to maintain the commitments to the {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) program. There was a substantial amount of planned outage work required to repair and replace some internals in loop isolation valves and there were inspections and other outage work that needed to be accomplished as it had been postponed from previous outages because of the radiation exposure levels in and around the system equipment. Management scheduled for the procurement specification to be revised to incorporate additional boundary areas which had not been previously considered. The schedule included the period for gathering bids, awarding a contract, and reviewing the contractor`s procedures and reports and granting approval for the decontamination to proceed during the upcoming outage. In addition to the reviews required by the engineering group for overall control of the process, the plant system engineers had to prepare procedures at the system level to provide for a smooth operation to be made during the decontamination of the systems. The system engineers were required to make certain that the decontamination fluids would be contained within the systems being decontaminated and that they would not cross contaminate any other system not being decontaminated. Since these nuclear stations do not have the provisions for decontaminating these systems with using additional equipment, the equipment required is furnished by the contractor as skid mounted packaged units which can be moved into the area, set up near the system being decontaminated, and after the decontamination is completed, the skid mounted packages are removed as part of the contract. Figure 1 shows a typical setup in block diagram required to perform a reactor system decontamination. 1 fig.

    20. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling (EHS). Final report

      SciTech Connect

      1997-10-01

      Contamination of concrete structures by radionuclides, hazardous metals and organic substances (including PCB`s) occurs at many DOE sites. The contamination of concrete structures (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) varies in type, concentration, and especially depth of penetration into the concrete. In many instances, only the surface layer of concrete is contaminated, up to a depth of one inch, according to estimates provided in the R and D ID document. Then, removal of the concrete surface layer (scabbling) is considered to be the most effective decontamination method. Textron Systems Corp. (TSC) has developed a scabbling concept based on electro-mechanical phenomena accompanying strong electric pulses generated by applying high voltage at the concrete/water interface. Depending on the conditions, the electric discharge may occur either through a waste layer or through the concrete body itself. This report describes the development, testing, and results of this electro-mechanical process. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of the process for the controlled removal of a thin layer of contaminated concrete. Phase 2 designed, fabricated, and tested an integrated subscale unit. This was tested at Fernald. In Phase 3, the scabbling unit was reconfigured to increase its power and processing rate. Technology transfer to an engineering contracting company is continuing.

    1. Gut-liver axis and sensing microbes.

      PubMed

      Szabo, Gyongyi; Bala, Shashi; Petrasek, Jan; Gattu, Arijeet

      2010-01-01

      'Detoxification' of gut-derived toxins and microbial products from gut-derived microbes is a major role of the liver. While the full repertoire of gut-derived microbial products that reach the liver in health and disease is yet to be explored, the levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacteria, is increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver diseases. Increased gut permeability and LPS play a role in alcoholic liver disease where alcohol impairs the gut epithelial integrity through alterations in tight junction proteins. In addition, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is also associated with increased serum LPS levels and activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade plays a central role in disease progression. Microbial danger signals are recognized by pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Increasing evidence suggests that TLR4-mediated signaling via the MyD88-dependent or MyD88-independent pathways may play different roles in liver diseases associated with increased LPS exposure of the liver as a result of gut permeability. For example, we showed that in alcoholic liver disease, the MyD88-independent, IRF3-dependent TLR4 cascade plays a role in steatosis and inflammation. Our recent data demonstrate that chronic alcohol exposure in the liver leads to sensitization of Kupffer cells to LPS via a mechanism involving upregulation of microRNA-155 in Kupffer cells. Thus, understanding the cell-specific recognition and intracellular signaling events in sensing gut-derived microbes will help to achieve an optimal balance in the gut-liver axis and ameliorate liver diseases. PMID:21525758

    2. Seasonal Variation in Human Gut Microbiome Composition

      PubMed Central

      Davenport, Emily R.; Mizrahi-Man, Orna; Michelini, Katelyn; Barreiro, Luis B.; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

      2014-01-01

      The composition of the human gut microbiome is influenced by many environmental factors. Diet is thought to be one of the most important determinants, though we have limited understanding of the extent to which dietary fluctuations alter variation in the gut microbiome between individuals. In this study, we examined variation in gut microbiome composition between winter and summer over the course of one year in 60 members of a founder population, the Hutterites. Because of their communal lifestyle, Hutterite diets are similar across individuals and remarkably stable throughout the year, with the exception that fresh produce is primarily served during the summer and autumn months. Our data indicate that despite overall gut microbiome stability within individuals over time, there are consistent and significant population-wide shifts in microbiome composition across seasons. We found seasonal differences in both (i) the abundance of particular taxa (false discovery rate <0.05), including highly abundant phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and (ii) overall gut microbiome diversity (by Shannon diversity; P = 0.001). It is likely that the dietary fluctuations between seasons with respect to produce availability explain, at least in part, these differences in microbiome composition. For example, high levels of produce containing complex carbohydrates consumed during the summer months might explain increased abundance of Bacteroidetes, which contain complex carbohydrate digesters, and decreased levels of Actinobacteria, which have been negatively correlated to fiber content in food questionnaires. Our observations demonstrate the plastic nature of the human gut microbiome in response to variation in diet. PMID:24618913

    3. The Gut Microbiome in the NOD Mouse.

      PubMed

      Peng, Jian; Hu, Youjia; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

      2016-01-01

      The microbiome (or microbiota) are an ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that outnumber the cells of the human body tenfold. These microorganisms are most abundant in the gut where they play an important role in health and disease. Alteration of the homeostasis of the gut microbiota can have beneficial or harmful consequences to health. There has recently been a major increase in studies on the association of the gut microbiome composition with disease phenotypes.The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an excellent mouse model to study spontaneous type 1 diabetes development. We, and others, have reported that gut bacteria are critical modulators for type 1 diabetes development in genetically susceptible NOD mice.Here we present our standard protocol for gut microbiome analysis in NOD mice that has been routinely implemented in our research laboratory. This incorporates the following steps: (1) Isolation of total DNA from gut bacteria from mouse fecal samples or intestinal contents; (2) bacterial DNA sequencing, and (3) basic data analysis. PMID:27032947

    4. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

      PubMed

      Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

      2015-08-01

      Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. PMID:26175487

    5. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders

      PubMed Central

      Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

      2016-01-01

      The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders. PMID:26755882

    6. [Why could gut microbiota become a medication?].

      PubMed

      Bourlioux, P; Megerlin, F; Corthier, G; Gobert, J-G; Butel, M-J

      2014-09-01

      The gut microbiota (or gut flora) is a set of bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Strictly associated with the intestinal tract and interacting with it, the gut microbiota is not a tissue nor an organ, but a supra-organism. A disruption of dialogue between bacteria and human cells is a risk factor or a possible cause of various diseases. The restoration of this dialogue, thanks to the transfer of the gut microbiota of a healthy individual to a patient whose balance of gut flora has been broken, is a new therapeutic approach. If its exact effect still eludes scientific understanding, its clinical benefit is well established for an indication, and is recently being tested for many others. The proven contribution of gut microbiota in the human physiological balance calls for intensifying research throughout the world about the state of knowledge and technologies, as well as on the legal and ethical dimension of fecal microbiota transfer. This didactic paper updates the questions in relation with this therapeutic act. PMID:25220228

    7. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond

      PubMed Central

      Vyas, Usha; Ranganathan, Natarajan

      2012-01-01

      The human intestinal tract has been colonized by thousands of species of bacteria during the coevolution of man and microbes. Gut-borne microbes outnumber the total number of body tissue cells by a factor of ten. Recent metagenomic analysis of the human gut microbiota has revealed the presence of some 3.3 million genes, as compared to the mere 23 thousand genes present in the cells of the tissues in the entire human body. Evidence for various beneficial roles of the intestinal microbiota in human health and disease is expanding rapidly. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota may lead to chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, colon cancers, gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, functional bowel diseases, and obesity. Restoration of the gut microbiota may be difficult to accomplish, but the use of probiotics has led to promising results in a large number of well-designed (clinical) studies. Microbiomics has spurred a dramatic increase in scientific, industrial, and public interest in probiotics and prebiotics as possible agents for gut microbiota management and control. Genomics and bioinformatics tools may allow us to establish mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, health status, and the effects of drugs in the individual. This will hopefully provide perspectives for personalized gut microbiota management. PMID:23049548

    8. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

      PubMed

      Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

      2015-09-01

      The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology. PMID:25936531

    9. Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome.

      PubMed

      Koenig, Jeremy E; Spor, Aymé; Scalfone, Nicholas; Fricker, Ashwana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Knight, Rob; Angenent, Largus T; Ley, Ruth E

      2011-03-15

      The colonization process of the infant gut microbiome has been called chaotic, but this view could reflect insufficient documentation of the factors affecting the microbiome. We performed a 2.5-y case study of the assembly of the human infant gut microbiome, to relate life events to microbiome composition and function. Sixty fecal samples were collected from a healthy infant along with a diary of diet and health status. Analysis of >300,000 16S rRNA genes indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of the microbiome increased gradually over time and that changes in community composition conformed to a smooth temporal gradient. In contrast, major taxonomic groups showed abrupt shifts in abundance corresponding to changes in diet or health. Community assembly was nonrandom: we observed discrete steps of bacterial succession punctuated by life events. Furthermore, analysis of ≈ 500,000 DNA metagenomic reads from 12 fecal samples revealed that the earliest microbiome was enriched in genes facilitating lactate utilization, and that functional genes involved in plant polysaccharide metabolism were present before the introduction of solid food, priming the infant gut for an adult diet. However, ingestion of table foods caused a sustained increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes, elevated fecal short chain fatty acid levels, enrichment of genes associated with carbohydrate utilization, vitamin biosynthesis, and xenobiotic degradation, and a more stable community composition, all of which are characteristic of the adult microbiome. This study revealed that seemingly chaotic shifts in the microbiome are associated with life events; however, additional experiments ought to be conducted to assess how different infants respond to similar life events. PMID:20668239

    10. Superresolution Imaging Captures Carbohydrate Utilization Dynamics in Human Gut Symbionts

      PubMed Central

      Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S.; Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Martens, Eric C.; Koropatkin, Nicole M.

      2014-01-01

      ABSTRACT Gut microbes play a key role in human health and nutrition by catabolizing a wide variety of glycans via enzymatic activities that are not encoded in the human genome. The ability to recognize and process carbohydrates strongly influences the structure of the gut microbial community. While the effects of diet on the microbiota are well documented, little is known about the molecular processes driving metabolism. To provide mechanistic insight into carbohydrate catabolism in gut symbionts, we studied starch processing in real time in the model Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) by single-molecule fluorescence. Although previous studies have explored Sus protein structure and function, the transient interactions, assembly, and collaboration of these outer membrane proteins have not yet been elucidated in live cells. Our live-cell superresolution imaging reveals that the polymeric starch substrate dynamically recruits Sus proteins, serving as an external scaffold for bacterial membrane assembly of the Sus complex, which may promote efficient capturing and degradation of starch. Furthermore, by simultaneously localizing multiple Sus outer membrane proteins on the B. thetaiotaomicron cell surface, we have characterized the dynamics and stoichiometry of starch-induced Sus complex assembly on the molecular scale. Finally, based on Sus protein knockout strains, we have discerned the mechanism of starch-induced Sus complex assembly in live anaerobic cells with nanometer-scale resolution. Our insights into the starch-induced outer membrane protein assembly central to this conserved nutrient uptake mechanism pave the way for the development of dietary or pharmaceutical therapies to control Bacteroidetes in the intestinal tract to enhance human health and treat disease. PMID:25389179

    11. It's a gut feeling: how the gut microbiota affects the state of mind.

      PubMed

      Farmer, Adam D; Randall, Holly A; Aziz, Qasim

      2014-07-15

      Common human experience shows that stress and anxiety may modulate gut function. Such observations have been combined with an increasing evidence base that has culminated in the concept of the brain-gut axis. Nevertheless, it has not been until recently that the gut and its attendant components have been considered to influence higher cerebral function and behaviour per se. Moreover, the proposal that the gut and the bacteria contained therein (collectively referred to as the microbiota) can modulate mood and behaviours, has an increasing body of supporting evidence, albeit largely derived from animal studies. The gut microbiota is a dynamic and diverse ecosystem and forms a symbiotic relationship with the host. Herein we describe the components of the gut microbiota and mechanisms by which it can influence neural development, complex behaviours and nociception. Furthermore, we propose the novel concept of a 'state of gut' rather than a state of mind, particularly in relation to functional bowel disorders. Finally, we address the exciting possibility that the gut microbiota may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention across a diverse array of both affective and gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:24665099

    12. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

      PubMed Central

      Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

      2011-01-01

      Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

    13. Gut microbiota, probiotics and diabetes

      PubMed Central

      2014-01-01

      Diabetes is a condition of multifactorial origin, involving several molecular mechanisms related to the intestinal microbiota for its development. In type 2 diabetes, receptor activation and recognition by microorganisms from the intestinal lumen may trigger inflammatory responses, inducing the phosphorylation of serine residues in insulin receptor substrate-1, reducing insulin sensitivity. In type 1 diabetes, the lowered expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium favours a greater immune response that may result in destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and increased expression of interleukin-17, related to autoimmunity. Research in animal models and humans has hypothesized whether the administration of probiotics may improve the prognosis of diabetes through modulation of gut microbiota. We have shown in this review that a large body of evidence suggests probiotics reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as increase the expression of adhesion proteins within the intestinal epithelium, reducing intestinal permeability. Such effects increase insulin sensitivity and reduce autoimmune response. However, further investigations are required to clarify whether the administration of probiotics can be efficiently used for the prevention and management of diabetes. PMID:24939063

    14. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

      SciTech Connect

      Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

      1983-06-01

      Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

    15. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

      SciTech Connect

      Geuther, W.J.

      1995-04-03

      This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

    16. Benefits of automated surface decontamination of a radioiodine ward.

      PubMed

      Westcott, Eliza; Broadhurst, Alicia; Crossley, Steven; Lee, Lloyd; Phan, Xuyen; Scharli, Rainer; Xu, Yan

      2012-02-01

      A floor-washing robot has been acquired to assist physicists with decontamination of radioiodine therapy ward rooms after discharge of the patient at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The effectiveness of the robot in decontaminating the ward has been evaluated. A controlled experiment was performed by deliberately contaminating a polyvinyl chloride flooring offcut with 131I followed by automated decontamination with the robot. The extent of fixed and removable contamination was assessed before and after decontamination by two methods: (1) direct Geiger-Mueller counting and (2) beta-counting wipe tests. Surface contamination was also assessed in situ on the ward by Geiger-Mueller counting and wipe testing. Contamination maps confirmed that contamination was removed rather than spread around by the robot. Wipe testing revealed that the robot was successful in clearing approximately 60-80% of removable contamination. The robotic floor-washing device was considered suitable to provide effective automated decontamination of the radioiodine ward. In addition, the robot affords other benefits: the time spent by the physicists decontaminating the room is greatly reduced offering financial and occupational safety and health benefits. The robot has also found utility in other decontamination applications in the healthcare environment. PMID:22249471

    17. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

    18. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

    19. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

    20. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

    1. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

    2. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Gut Microbiome.

      PubMed

      Boursier, Jerome; Diehl, Anna Mae

      2016-05-01

      Recent progress has allowed a more comprehensive study of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota helps in health maintenance and gut dysbiosis associates with chronic metabolic diseases. Modulation of short-chain fatty acids and choline bioavailability, lipoprotein lipase induction, alteration of bile acid profile, endogenous alcohol production, or liver inflammation secondary to endotoxemia result from gut dysbiosis. Modulation of the gut microbiota by pre/probiotics gives promising results in animal, but needs to be evaluated in human before use in clinical practice. Gut microbiota adds complexity to the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but represents an opportunity to discover new therapeutic targets. PMID:27063268

    3. Convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.

      PubMed

      Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob

      2014-03-01

      Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages. PMID:24118574

    4. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions

      PubMed Central

      Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Rbin M.; Burgess, Helen J.; Swanson, Garth R.; Keshavarzian, Ali

      2015-01-01

      The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20–30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyper-permeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in ClockΔ19 mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

    5. Clinical use of selective decontamination: the concept.

      PubMed

      van der Waaij, D; Manson, W L; Arends, J P; de Vries-Hospers, H G

      1990-01-01

      Infections can be classified according to: (1) the type of offending microorganism (virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites), (2) according to the clearance by the defence system (T cell dependent/independent) and (3) in case bacteria are the causative agents in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections. The latter classification in Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections has appeared to have a practical consequence. Gram-negative bacteria, often involved in major infections and yeasts, appear to play practically no role in the intestinal ecological system. Consequently, it is nowadays increasingly attempted to eliminate Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts selectively from the digestive tract with antimicrobial agents. Selective suppression of Gram-positive bacteria may severely affect the ecosystem of the digestive tract. This selective suppression of Gram-negatives must be continued as long as patients are immunocompromised (locally or systemically) and is called selective decontamination of the digestive tract. PMID:2289993

    6. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

      SciTech Connect

      1994-12-31

      One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

    7. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

      PubMed

      Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

      2016-06-01

      Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed. PMID:26906002

    8. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

      DOEpatents

      Simpson, William E.

      1982-01-01

      Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

    9. The ROVCO2 surface decontamination system

      SciTech Connect

      Resnick, A.M.; Reed, M.; Lopez-Yanes, O.

      1996-12-31

      DOE needs to decontaminated over one million square feet of nuclear contaminated concrete surfaces. The 1000 lb ROVCO2 system, which automates blasting functions and eliminates secondary blasting waste, integrates a remotely operated vehicle and an enhanced commercial CO{sub 2} blasting system with an Oceaneering-developed work arm and control system. The remote operation protects the operation from contamination and supports functional automation of tedious tasks. The blasting system shoots pellets of dry ice propelled by pressurized gas at the surface to be cleaned. Impact of the pellets fractures and scales off a layer of the contaminated surface. At impact, the pellets return to a gaseous state which is vacuumed up with the debris. The CO{sub 2} gas and debris are passed through the vacuum filter, leaving only the removed material for waste disposal. Phase 2 testing achieved nearly all of the success criteria, with the exception of the commercial workhead`s performance.

    10. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

      SciTech Connect

      Agnihotri, Newal

      2008-07-15

      The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

    11. Enhancement of electrokinetic decontamination with EDTA.

      PubMed

      Karim, M A; Khan, L I

      2012-01-01

      The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) during electrokinetic decontamination (EKD) was investigated in this research. EDTA is a ligand that can form soluble complexes with precipitated heavy metals inside soil pores. Millpond sludge, primarily contaminated with lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), was subjected to EKD with and without the presence of EDTA. Dilute EDTA solutions with strengths of 0.05 M and 0.125 M were injected into the millpond sludge by electroosmosis. Several beneficial effects of using EDTA were observed in this research. One was that the presence of EDTA substantially increased the electroosmotic (EO) flow in the millpond sludge indicating that it could significantly reduce the duration of EKD. Another advantage was that a significantly higher percentage of Pb and Zn removal was achieved from the solid phase due to the complexation of EDTA with these heavy metals. Also, EDTA was able to prevent the precipitation of metals at the cathode electrode, typically observed in EKD process. PMID:23393970

    12. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

      SciTech Connect

      M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

      1999-01-01

      In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

    13. Surface Decontamination Using Laser Ablation Process - 12032

      SciTech Connect

      Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier; Damerval, Frederique

      2012-07-01

      A new decontamination method has been investigated and used during two demonstration stages by the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA. This new method is based on the use of a Laser beam to remove the contaminants present on a base metal surface. In this paper will be presented the type of Laser used during those tests but also information regarding the efficiency obtained on non-contaminated (simulated contamination) and contaminated samples (from the CEA and La Hague facilities). Regarding the contaminated samples, in the first case, the contamination was a quite thick oxide layer. In the second case, most of the contamination was trapped in dust and thin grease layer. Some information such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. Laser technology appears to be an interesting one for the future of the D and D applications. As shown in this paper, the results in terms of efficiency are really promising and in many cases, higher than those obtained with conventional techniques. One of the most important advantages is that all those results have been obtained with no generation of secondary wastes such as abrasives, chemicals, or disks... Moreover, as mentioned in introduction, the Laser ablation process can be defined as a 'dry' process. This technology does not produce any liquid waste (as it can be the case with chemical process or HP water process...). Finally, the addition of a vacuum system allows to trap the contamination onto filters and thus avoiding any dissemination in the room where the process takes place. The next step is going to be a commercial use in 2012 in one of the La Hague buildings. (authors)

    14. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

      SciTech Connect

      White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

      1995-04-01

      The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm{sup 2}/s and 4.9 cm{sup 3}/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard.

    15. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

      SciTech Connect

      Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

      1998-01-01

      The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

    16. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

      SciTech Connect

      C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

      2004-09-10

      In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

    17. Long term decontamination at the Hanford Site: A case study

      SciTech Connect

      Geuther, W.J.; Hansen, G.E.

      1995-02-01

      This paper describes an engineering study that evaluates decontamination requirements at Hanford and the potential reutilization of the first plutonium processing production facility as a decontamination facility. The logic used to develop the study, the options available for a long-term decontamination mission, and the resultant strategy recommended in the study are presented. The paper provides a starting point for other similar study efforts. The process flowsheets, regulatory restrictions, and preconceptual designs developed in this study are common throughout the nuclear waste industry.

    18. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

      SciTech Connect

      Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

      2009-06-30

      In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

    19. An alternative simple method in laryngoscope blade decontamination.

      PubMed

      Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Saygun, Onur; Güzeldemir, M Erdal

      2002-06-01

      The cleaning and disinfection of laryngoscope blades is controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two different chemical disinfectant agents and tap water where the laryngoscope blades were contaminated by different microorganisms and try to create a simple, effective and easy decontamination method. The results of our study demonstrate that the decontamination of the laryngoscope blades, which are cleansed with tap water, is not a reliable approach. In conclusion, mechanical cleaning of blades with water and the immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine for 10 minutes is an effective method for decontamination of laryngoscope blades. PMID:12138517

    20. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

      SciTech Connect

      Kochen, R.L.

      1986-02-17

      A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

    1. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

      PubMed

      Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

      2015-05-01

      In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols. PMID:25791764

    2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

      SciTech Connect

      U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

      1999-08-20

      This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation

    3. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

      SciTech Connect

      Ellis, John; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

      2011-08-12

      We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

    4. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

      PubMed Central

      Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

      2015-01-01

      Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light–dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23 kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light–dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s) as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut-derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini review is to summarize the existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish. PMID:26257705

    5. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

      PubMed

      Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

      2015-03-01

      Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease. PMID:25689247

    6. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

      PubMed Central

      Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

      2014-01-01

      Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota. PMID:25546278

    7. The Gut Microbiota: Ecology and Function

      SciTech Connect

      Willing, B.P.; Jansson, J.K.

      2010-06-01

      The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is teeming with an extremely abundant and diverse microbial community. The members of this community have coevolved along with their hosts over millennia. Until recently, the gut ecosystem was viewed as black box with little knowledge of who or what was there or their specific functions. Over the past decade, however, this ecosystem has become one of fastest growing research areas of focus in microbial ecology and human and animal physiology. This increased interest is largely in response to studies tying microbes in the gut to important diseases afflicting modern society, including obesity, allergies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. Although the importance of a resident community of microorganisms in health was first hypothesized by Pasteur over a century ago (Sears, 2005), the multiplicity of physiological changes induced by commensal bacteria has only recently been recognized (Hooper et al., 2001). The term 'ecological development' was recently coined to support the idea that development of the GI tract is a product of the genetics of the host and the host's interactions with resident microbes (Hooper, 2004). The search for new therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers has escalated the need to understand the identities and functions of the microorganisms inhabiting the gut. Recent studies have revealed new insights into the membership of the gut microbial community, interactions within that community, as well as mechanisms of interaction with the host. This chapter focuses on the microbial ecology of the gut, with an emphasis on information gleaned from recent molecular studies.

    8. The Gut Microbiome and the Brain

      PubMed Central

      Galland, Leo

      2014-01-01

      Abstract The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system. (3) Bacterial enzymes may produce neurotoxic metabolites such as D-lactic acid and ammonia. Even beneficial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids may exert neurotoxicity. (4) Gut microbes can produce hormones and neurotransmitters that are identical to those produced by humans. Bacterial receptors for these hormones influence microbial growth and virulence. (5) Gut bacteria directly stimulate afferent neurons of the enteric nervous system to send signals to the brain via the vagus nerve. Through these varied mechanisms, gut microbes shape the architecture of sleep and stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. They influence memory, mood, and cognition and are clinically and therapeutically relevant to a range of disorders, including alcoholism, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and restless legs syndrome. Their role in multiple sclerosis and the neurologic manifestations of celiac disease is being studied. Nutritional tools for altering the gut microbiome therapeutically include changes in diet, probiotics, and prebiotics. PMID:25402818

    9. Engineering the gut microbiota to treat hyperammonemia

      PubMed Central

      Shen, Ting-Chin David; Albenberg, Lindsey; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Chen, Ying-Yu; Judge, Colleen A.; Chau, Lillian; Ni, Josephine; Sheng, Michael; Lin, Andrew; Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Buza, Elizabeth L.; Lewis, James D.; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc; Bushman, Frederic D.; Wu, Gary D.

      2015-01-01

      Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota can be altered to ameliorate or prevent disease states, and engineering the gut microbiota to therapeutically modulate host metabolism is an emerging goal of microbiome research. In the intestine, bacterial urease converts host-derived urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, contributing to hyperammonemia-associated neurotoxicity and encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Here, we engineered murine gut microbiota to reduce urease activity. Animals were depleted of their preexisting gut microbiota and then inoculated with altered Schaedler flora (ASF), a defined consortium of 8 bacteria with minimal urease gene content. This protocol resulted in establishment of a persistent new community that promoted a long-term reduction in fecal urease activity and ammonia production. Moreover, in a murine model of hepatic injury, ASF transplantation was associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. These results provide proof of concept that inoculation of a prepared host with a defined gut microbiota can lead to durable metabolic changes with therapeutic utility. PMID:26098218

    10. Engineering the gut microbiota to treat hyperammonemia.

      PubMed

      Shen, Ting-Chin David; Albenberg, Lindsey; Bittinger, Kyle; Chehoud, Christel; Chen, Ying-Yu; Judge, Colleen A; Chau, Lillian; Ni, Josephine; Sheng, Michael; Lin, Andrew; Wilkins, Benjamin J; Buza, Elizabeth L; Lewis, James D; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc; Bushman, Frederic D; Wu, Gary D

      2015-07-01

      Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota can be altered to ameliorate or prevent disease states, and engineering the gut microbiota to therapeutically modulate host metabolism is an emerging goal of microbiome research. In the intestine, bacterial urease converts host-derived urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, contributing to hyperammonemia-associated neurotoxicity and encephalopathy in patients with liver disease. Here, we engineered murine gut microbiota to reduce urease activity. Animals were depleted of their preexisting gut microbiota and then inoculated with altered Schaedler flora (ASF), a defined consortium of 8 bacteria with minimal urease gene content. This protocol resulted in establishment of a persistent new community that promoted a long-term reduction in fecal urease activity and ammonia production. Moreover, in a murine model of hepatic injury, ASF transplantation was associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. These results provide proof of concept that inoculation of a prepared host with a defined gut microbiota can lead to durable metabolic changes with therapeutic utility. PMID:26098218

    11. Host adaptive immunity alters gut microbiota.

      PubMed

      Zhang, Husen; Sparks, Joshua B; Karyala, Saikumar V; Settlage, Robert; Luo, Xin M

      2015-03-01

      It has long been recognized that the mammalian gut microbiota has a role in the development and activation of the host immune system. Much less is known on how host immunity regulates the gut microbiota. Here we investigated the role of adaptive immunity on the mouse distal gut microbial composition by sequencing 16 S rRNA genes from microbiota of immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) mice, versus wild-type mice, under the same housing environment. To detect possible interactions among immunological status, age and variability from anatomical sites, we analyzed samples from the cecum, colon, colonic mucus and feces before and after weaning. High-throughput sequencing showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated mouse gut bacterial communities. Rag1(-) mice had a distinct microbiota that was phylogenetically different from wild-type mice. In particular, the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila was highly enriched in Rag1(-/-) mice compared with the wild type. This enrichment was suppressed when Rag1(-/-) mice received bone marrows from wild-type mice. The microbial community diversity increased with age, albeit the magnitude depended on Rag1 status. In addition, Rag1(-/-) mice had a higher gain in microbiota richness and evenness with increase in age compared with wild-type mice, possibly due to the lack of pressure from the adaptive immune system. Our results suggest that adaptive immunity has a pervasive role in regulating gut microbiota's composition and diversity. PMID:25216087

    12. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

      PubMed

      Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

      2015-01-01

      Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota. PMID:25546278

    13. Fixed-Price Subcontracting for Decontamination and Decommissioning of Small Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

      SciTech Connect

      Harper, M. A.; Julius, J. F. K.; McKenna, M. K.

      2002-02-26

      Abandoned facilities were decontaminated and decommissioned in preparation for final remediation of Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facilities varied in age from approximately 5 years to more than 40 years, with radiological conditions ranging from clean to highly contaminated with fission products. A fixed-price subcontract (FPSC) was awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) Management and Integration (M&I) contractor for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of these facilities. Included in the FPSC scope were the following: preparation of pre-D&D regulatory documentation; demolition of surface structures to slab; stabilization of below-grade structures; waste management and disposal; and preparation of post-D&D regulatory documentation. Using stand-off techniques to the extent possible, building structures and ancillary equipment were prepared for demolition and demolished. A fixative coating system was used in conjunction with continuous water misting to control airborne contamination. Demolition waste consisted of two major streams: clean construction and demolition waste and low-level (radioactive) waste. The debris was size-reduced and packaged, again via remote means. At all times during the D&D, personnel safety, environmental compliance, and as low as reasonably achievable exposure considerations were paramount. Upon completion of D&D activities, each site was inspected and accepted by the M&I contractor. This project is a success story for fixed-price subcontracting of D&D work under DOE's M&I arrangement.

    14. Report on the Behavior of Fission Products in the Co-decontamination Process

      SciTech Connect

      Martin, Leigh Robert; Riddle, Catherine Lynn

      2015-09-30

      This document was prepared to meet FCT level 3 milestone M3FT-15IN0302042, “Generate Zr, Ru, Mo and Tc data for the Co-decontamination Process.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Lab-Scale Testing of Reference Processes FCT work package. This document reports preliminary work in identifying the behavior of important fission products in a Co-decontamination flowsheet. Current results show that Tc, in the presence of Zr alone, does not behave as the Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction (AMUSE) code would predict. The Tc distribution is reproducibly lower than predicted, with Zr distributions remaining close to the AMUSE code prediction. In addition, it appears there may be an intricate relationship between multiple fission product metals, in different combinations, that will have a direct impact on U, Tc and other important fission products such as Zr, Mo, and Rh. More extensive testing is required to adequately predict flowsheet behavior for these variances within the fission products.

    15. Independent verification of plutonium decontamination on Johnston Atoll (1992--1996)

      SciTech Connect

      Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Wilson, J.E.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Egidi, P.V.; Coleman, R.L.

      1998-05-01

      The Field Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (FCDSWA) (formerly FCDNA) contracted Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Technology Section (ETS) to conduct an independent verification (IV) of the Johnston Atoll (JA) Plutonium Decontamination Project by an interagency agreement with the US Department of Energy in 1992. The main island is contaminated with the transuranic elements plutonium and americium, and soil decontamination activities have been ongoing since 1984. FCDSWA has selected a remedy that employs a system of sorting contaminated particles from the coral/soil matrix, allowing uncontaminated soil to be reused. The objective of IV is to evaluate the effectiveness of remedial action. The IV contractor`s task is to determine whether the remedial action contractor has effectively reduced contamination to levels within established criteria and whether the supporting documentation describing the remedial action is adequate. ORNL conducted four interrelated tasks from 1992 through 1996 to accomplish the IV mission. This document is a compilation and summary of those activities, in addition to a comprehensive review of the history of the project.

    16. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

      SciTech Connect

      Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

      2013-07-01

      In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

    17. COMPILATION OF AVAILABLE DATA ON BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ALTERNATIVES

      EPA Science Inventory

      The report presents an analysis of selected technologies that have been tested for their potential effectiveness in decontaminating a building that has been attacked using biological or chemical warfare agents, or using toxic industrial compounds. The technologies selected to be ...

    18. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

      DOEpatents

      Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

      2011-09-06

      Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

    19. Decontamination of MMH- and NTO/MON-propellant Tanks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jokela, K.; Kaelsch, I.

      2004-10-01

      Decontamination of liquid propellant tanks, namely MMH and NTO/MON tanks, due to emergency off- loading of a spacecraft can cause damage to the propellant tank material if safety precautions are not taken into account. MMH (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine) reacts with water with an exothermic reaction that causes temperature rise and hydrous reaction product formation. NTO and MON (Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidiser / Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) react with water forming nitrous and nitric acid, which may cause corrosion and enhance Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the titanium tank material. To avoid these problems, a new procedure with a numerical prediction tool for decontamination of MMH tank has been developed, used and assessed to decontaminate the MMH tank of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft successfully. The ESA proposed procedure for MON oxidiser tank emergency off-loading and decontamination is also presented.

    20. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

      SciTech Connect

      Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

      1984-08-01

      The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

    1. Bionanoconjugate-based composites for decontamination of nerve agents.

      PubMed

      Borkar, Indrakant V; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Zhu, Guangyu; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

      2010-01-01

      We have developed enzyme-based composites that rapidly and effectively detoxify simulants of V- and G-type chemical warfare nerve agents. The approach was based on the efficient immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase onto carbon nanotubes to form active and stable conjugates that were easily entrapped in commercially available paints. The resulting catalytic-based composites showed no enzyme leaching and rendered >99% decontamination of 10 g/m(2) paraoxon, a simulant of the V-type nerve agent, in 30 minutes and >95% decontamination of diisopropylfluorophosphate, a simulant of G-type nerve agent, in 45 minutes. The formulations are expected to be environmentally friendly and to offer an easy to use, on demand, decontamination alternative to chemical approaches for sustainable material self-decontamination. PMID:20859933

    2. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

      SciTech Connect

      Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

      1986-05-01

      This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

    3. Diminution of the gut resistome after a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention in obese children

      PubMed Central

      Wu, Guojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ruirui; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Menghui

      2016-01-01

      The gut microbiome represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Effective methods are urgently needed for managing the gut resistome to fight against the antibiotic resistance threat. In this study, we show that a gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention, which shifts the dominant fermentation of gut bacteria from protein to carbohydrate, significantly diminished the gut resistome and alleviated metabolic syndrome in obese children. Of the non-redundant metagenomic gene catalog of ~2 × 106 microbial genes, 399 ARGs were identified in 131 gene types and conferred resistance to 47 antibiotics. Both the richness and diversity of the gut resistome were significantly reduced after the intervention. A total of 201 of the 399 ARGs were carried in 120 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs) directly binned from the gene catalog across both pre-and post-intervention samples. The intervention significantly reduced several CAGs in Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia, which were the major hubs for multiple resistance gene types. Thus, dietary intervention may become a potentially effective method for diminishing the gut resistome. PMID:27044409

    4. It's a gut feeling: How the gut microbiota affects the state of mind

      PubMed Central

      Farmer, Adam D; Randall, Holly A; Aziz, Qasim

      2014-01-01

      Common human experience shows that stress and anxiety may modulate gut function. Such observations have been combined with an increasing evidence base that has culminated in the concept of the brain–gut axis. Nevertheless, it has not been until recently that the gut and its attendant components have been considered to influence higher cerebral function and behaviour per se. Moreover, the proposal that the gut and the bacteria contained therein (collectively referred to as the microbiota) can modulate mood and behaviours, has an increasing body of supporting evidence, albeit largely derived from animal studies. The gut microbiota is a dynamic and diverse ecosystem and forms a symbiotic relationship with the host. Herein we describe the components of the gut microbiota and mechanisms by which it can influence neural development, complex behaviours and nociception. Furthermore, we propose the novel concept of a ‘state of gut’ rather than a state of mind, particularly in relation to functional bowel disorders. Finally, we address the exciting possibility that the gut microbiota may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention across a diverse array of both affective and gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:24665099

    5. Effect of Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota, Gut Hormones and Glucose Metabolism

      PubMed Central

      Mikkelsen, Kristian H.; Frost, Morten; Bahl, Martin I.; Licht, Tine R.; Jensen, Ulrich S.; Rosenberg, Jacob; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Holst, Jens J.; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K.

      2015-01-01

      Objective The gut microbiota has been designated as an active regulator of glucose metabolism and metabolic phenotype in a number of animal and human observational studies. We evaluated the effect of removing as many bacteria as possible by antibiotics on postprandial physiology in healthy humans. Methods Meal tests with measurements of postprandial glucose tolerance and postprandial release of insulin and gut hormones were performed before, immediately after and 6 weeks after a 4-day, broad-spectrum, per oral antibiotic cocktail (vancomycin 500 mg, gentamycin 40 mg and meropenem 500 mg once-daily) in a group of 12 lean and glucose tolerant males. Faecal samples were collected for culture-based assessment of changes in gut microbiota composition. Results Acute and dramatic reductions in the abundance of a representative set of gut bacteria was seen immediately following the antibiotic course, but no changes in postprandial glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or plasma lipid concentrations were found. Apart from an acute and reversible increase in peptide YY secretion, no changes were observed in postprandial gut hormone release. Conclusion As evaluated by selective cultivation of gut bacteria, a broad-spectrum 4-day antibiotics course with vancomycin, gentamycin and meropenem induced shifts in gut microbiota composition that had no clinically relevant short or long-term effects on metabolic variables in healthy glucose-tolerant males. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01633762 PMID:26562532

    6. Gut Bacteria May Hold Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

      MedlinePlus

      ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159905.html Gut Bacteria May Hold Clues to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Intestinal ... doctors -- may be influenced by a person's intestinal bacteria -- sometimes called gut microbiome, new research finds. "Patients ...

    7. Emerging Concepts on the Gut Microbiome and Multiple Sclerosis.

      PubMed

      Glenn, Justin D; Mowry, Ellen M

      2016-06-01

      Microbiota of the human body perform fundamental tasks that contribute to normal development, health, and homeostasis and are intimately associated with numerous organ systems, including the gut. Microbes begin gut inhabitance immediately following birth and promote proper gut epithelial construction and function, metabolism and nutrition, and immune system development. Inappropriate immune recognition of self-tissue can lead to autoimmune disease, including conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the immune system recognizes and attacks central nervous system tissue. Preclinical studies have demonstrated a requirement of gut microbiota for neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease in animal models, and a growing number of clinical investigations are finding associations between MS status and the composition of the gut microbiota. In this review, we examine current undertakings into better understanding the role of gut bacteria and their phages in MS development, review associations of the gut microbiota makeup and MS, and discuss potential mechanisms by which the gut microbiota may be manipulated for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27145057

    8. Human genetics shape the gut microbiome

      PubMed Central

      Goodrich, Julia K.; Waters, Jillian L.; Poole, Angela C.; Sutter, Jessica L.; Koren, Omry; Blekhman, Ran; Beaumont, Michelle; Van Treuren, William; Knight, Rob; Bell, Jordana T.; Spector, Timothy D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Ley, Ruth E.

      2014-01-01

      Summary Host genetics and the gut microbiome can both influence metabolic phenotypes. However, whether host genetic variation shapes the gut microbiome and interacts with it to affect host phenotype is unclear. Here, we compared microbiotas across > 1,000 fecal samples obtained from the TwinsUK population, including 416 twin-pairs. We identified many microbial taxa whose abundances were influenced by host genetics. The most heritable taxon, the family Christensenellaceae, formed a cooccurrence network with other heritable Bacteria and with methanogenic Archaea. Furthermore, Christensenellaceae and its partners were enriched in individuals with low body mass index (BMI). An obese-associated microbiome was amended with Christensenella minuta, a cultured member of the Christensenellaceae, and transplanted to germfree mice. C. minuta amendment reduced weight gain and altered the microbiome of recipient mice. Our findings indicate that host genetics influence the composition of the human gut microbiome and can do so in ways that impact host metabolism. PMID:25417156

    9. Rapamycin preserves gut homeostasis during Drosophila aging.

      PubMed

      Fan, Xiaolan; Liang, Qing; Lian, Ting; Wu, Qi; Gaur, Uma; Li, Diyan; Yang, Deying; Mao, Xueping; Jin, Zhihua; Li, Ying; Yang, Mingyao

      2015-11-01

      Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining the overall body health during aging. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exerts prolongevity effects in evolutionarily diverse species. However, its impact on the intestinal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin can slow down the proliferation rate of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the aging guts and induce autophagy in the intestinal epithelium in Drosophila. Rapamycin can also significantly affect the FOXO associated genes in intestine and up-regulate the negative regulators of IMD/Rel pathway, consequently delaying the microbial expansion in the aging guts. Collectively, these findings reveal that rapamycin can delay the intestinal aging by inhibiting mTOR and thus keeping stem cell proliferation in check. These results will further explain the mechanism of healthspan and lifespan extension by rapamycin in Drosophila. PMID:26431326

    10. Rapamycin preserves gut homeostasis during Drosophila aging

      PubMed Central

      Lian, Ting; Wu, Qi; Gaur, Uma; Li, Diyan; Yang, Deying; Mao, Xueping; Jin, Zhihua; Li, Ying; Yang, Mingyao

      2015-01-01

      Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining the overall body health during aging. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, exerts prolongevity effects in evolutionarily diverse species. However, its impact on the intestinal homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin can slow down the proliferation rate of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the aging guts and induce autophagy in the intestinal epithelium in Drosophila. Rapamycin can also significantly affect the FOXO associated genes in intestine and up-regulate the negative regulators of IMD/Rel pathway, consequently delaying the microbial expansion in the aging guts. Collectively, these findings reveal that rapamycin can delay the intestinal aging by inhibiting mTOR and thus keeping stem cell proliferation in check. These results will further explain the mechanism of healthspan and lifespan extension by rapamycin in Drosophila. PMID:26431326

    11. Adenocarcinoma associated with tail gut cyst

      PubMed Central

      Wise, Susannah; Maloney-Patel, Nell; Rezac, Craig; Poplin, Elizabeth

      2013-01-01

      Primary adenocarcinomas of the presacral (retrorectal) space are rare. The diagnosis is usually delayed because of non-specific symptoms, and is made after a biopsy or surgery. These carcinomas arise from cystic lesions developing from remnants of the embryological postanal gut containing mucous-secreting epithelium, known as tail gut cysts. The potential for infection, perianal fistulas and most importantly, malignant change warrants an early complete surgical resection. From an oncologist’s perspective, the management of these carcinomas has varied, and has included adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We describe here a rare case of adenocarcinoma associated with a tail gut cyst that was discovered incidentally and resected by a posterior approach (Kraske procedure). The patient has had clinical and periodic radiologic surveillance without any evidence of cancer recurrence for over a year and a half. PMID:23450681

    12. Metabolic tinkering by the gut microbiome

      PubMed Central

      Selkrig, Joel; Wong, Peiyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Pettersson, Sven

      2014-01-01

      Brain development is an energy demanding process that relies heavily upon diet derived nutrients. Gut microbiota enhance the host’s ability to extract otherwise inaccessible energy from the diet via fermentation of complex oligosaccharides in the colon. This nutrient yield is estimated to contribute up to 10% of the host’s daily caloric requirement in humans and fluctuates in response to environmental variations. Research over the past decade has demonstrated a surprising role for the gut microbiome in normal brain development and function. In this review we postulate that perturbations in the gut microbial-derived nutrient supply, driven by environmental variation, profoundly impacts upon normal brain development and function. PMID:24685620

    13. Prebiotics as gut microflora management tools.

      PubMed

      Gibson, Glenn R

      2008-07-01

      Functional foods is an often-used term applied to dietary ingredients that serve to improve consumer health. Over the last few decades, these foods have gained in popularity with sales continuing to increase rapidly. Recent scientific, and some lay, reports have shown the popularity of both probiotics and prebiotics. These serve to elicit changes in the gut microbiota composition that increase populations of purported beneficial gut bacterial genera, for example, lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Probiotics use live microbial feed additions, whereas prebiotics target indigenous flora components. As gastrointestinal disorders are prevalent in terms of human health, both probiotics and prebiotics serve an important role in the prophylactic management of various acute and chronic gut derived conditions. Examples include protection from gastroenteritis and some inflammatory conditions. PMID:18542038

    14. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

      SciTech Connect

      Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

      1995-10-01

      The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

    15. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

      DOEpatents

      Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

      1959-03-10

      A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

    16. METHOD AND COATING COMPOSITION FOR PROTECTING AND DECONTAMINATING SURFACES

      DOEpatents

      Overhold, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.

      1959-03-10

      A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is presented. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in waters allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

    17. Gut Microbiome and Kidney Disease in Pediatrics: Does Connection Exist?

      PubMed Central

      Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.; Singh, Ruchi

      2016-01-01

      Child development is a unique and continuous process that is impacted by genetics and environmental factors. Gut microbiome changes with development and depends on the stage of gut maturation, nutrition, and overall health. In spite of emerging data and active study in adults, the gut-renal axis in pediatrics has not been well considered and investigated. This review will focus on the current knowledge of gut microbiota impacts on kidney disease with extrapolation to the pediatric population. PMID:26973613

    18. Gut inflammation in chronic fatigue syndrome.

      PubMed

      Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kirchgessner, Annette

      2010-01-01

      Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue and a combination of accompanying symptoms the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Many CFS patients complain of gut dysfunction. In fact, patients with CFS are more likely to report a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional disorder of the gut, and experience IBS-related symptoms. Recently, evidence for interactions between the intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier function, and the immune system have been shown to play a role in the disorder's pathogenesis.Studies examining the microecology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have identified specific microorganisms whose presence appears related to disease; in CFS, a role for altered intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease has recently been suggested. Mucosal barrier dysfunction promoting bacterial translocation has also been observed. Finally, an altered mucosal immune system has been associated with the disease. In this article, we discuss the interplay between these factors in CFS and how they could play a significant role in GI dysfunction by modulating the activity of the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the gut.If an altered intestinal microbiota, mucosal barrier dysfunction, and aberrant intestinal immunity contribute to the pathogenesis of CFS, therapeutic efforts to modify gut microbiota could be a means to modulate the development and/or progression of this disorder. For example, the administration of probiotics could alter the gut microbiota, improve mucosal barrier function, decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines, and have the potential to positively influence mood in patients where both emotional symptoms and inflammatory immune signals are elevated. Probiotics also have the potential to improve gut motility, which is dysfunctional in many CFS patients. PMID:20939923

    19. Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes.

      PubMed

      Tito, Raul Y; Knights, Dan; Metcalf, Jessica; Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J; Cleeland, Lauren; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Reinhard, Karl; Sobolik, Kristin; Belknap, Samuel; Foster, Morris; Spicer, Paul; Knight, Rob; Lewis, Cecil M

      2012-01-01

      In an effort to better understand the ancestral state of the human distal gut microbiome, we examine feces retrieved from archaeological contexts (coprolites). To accomplish this, we pyrosequenced the 16S rDNA V3 region from duplicate coprolite samples recovered from three archaeological sites, each representing a different depositional environment: Hinds Cave (~8000 years B.P.) in the southern United States, Caserones (1600 years B.P.) in northern Chile, and Rio Zape in northern Mexico (1400 years B.P.). Clustering algorithms grouped samples from the same site. Phyletic representation was more similar within sites than between them. A Bayesian approach to source-tracking was used to compare the coprolite data to published data from known sources that include, soil, compost, human gut from rural African children, human gut, oral and skin from US cosmopolitan adults and non-human primate gut. The data from the Hinds Cave samples largely represented unknown sources. The Caserones samples, retrieved directly from natural mummies, matched compost in high proportion. A substantial and robust proportion of Rio Zape data was predicted to match the gut microbiome found in traditional rural communities, with more minor matches to other sources. One of the Rio Zape samples had taxonomic representation consistent with a child. To provide an idealized scenario for sample preservation, we also applied source tracking to previously published data for Ötzi the Iceman and a soldier frozen for 93 years on a glacier. Overall these studies reveal that human microbiome data has been preserved in some coprolites, and these preserved human microbiomes match more closely to those from the rural communities than to those from cosmopolitan communities. These results suggest that the modern cosmopolitan lifestyle resulted in a dramatic change to the human gut microbiome. PMID:23251439

    20. Insights from Characterizing Extinct Human Gut Microbiomes

      PubMed Central

      Tito, Raul Y.; Knights, Dan; Metcalf, Jessica; Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J.; Cleeland, Lauren; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce; Reinhard, Karl; Sobolik, Kristin; Belknap, Samuel; Foster, Morris; Spicer, Paul; Knight, Rob; Lewis, Cecil M.

      2012-01-01

      In an effort to better understand the ancestral state of the human distal gut microbiome, we examine feces retrieved from archaeological contexts (coprolites). To accomplish this, we pyrosequenced the 16S rDNA V3 region from duplicate coprolite samples recovered from three archaeological sites, each representing a different depositional environment: Hinds Cave (∼8000 years B.P.) in the southern United States, Caserones (1600 years B.P.) in northern Chile, and Rio Zape in northern Mexico (1400 years B.P.). Clustering algorithms grouped samples from the same site. Phyletic representation was more similar within sites than between them. A Bayesian approach to source-tracking was used to compare the coprolite data to published data from known sources that include, soil, compost, human gut from rural African children, human gut, oral and skin from US cosmopolitan adults and non-human primate gut. The data from the Hinds Cave samples largely represented unknown sources. The Caserones samples, retrieved directly from natural mummies, matched compost in high proportion. A substantial and robust proportion of Rio Zape data was predicted to match the gut microbiome found in traditional rural communities, with more minor matches to other sources. One of the Rio Zape samples had taxonomic representation consistent with a child. To provide an idealized scenario for sample preservation, we also applied source tracking to previously published data for Ötzi the Iceman and a soldier frozen for 93 years on a glacier. Overall these studies reveal that human microbiome data has been preserved in some coprolites, and these preserved human microbiomes match more closely to those from the rural communities than to those from cosmopolitan communities. These results suggest that the modern cosmopolitan lifestyle resulted in a dramatic change to the human gut microbiome. PMID:23251439

    1. Cosmology of F-theory GUTs

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tavanfar, Alireza; Vafa, Cumrun

      2010-04-01

      In this paper we study the interplay between the recently proposed F-theory GUTs and cosmology. Despite the fact that the parameter range for F-theory GUT models is very narrow, we find that F-theory GUTs beautifully satisfy most cosmological constraints without any further restrictions. The viability of the scenario hinges on the interplay between various components of the axion supermultiplet, which in F-theory GUTs is also responsible for breaking supersymmetry. In these models, the gravitino is the LSP and develops a mass by eating the axino mode. The radial component of the axion supermultiplet known as the saxion typically begins to oscillate in the early Universe, eventually coming to dominate the energy density. Its decay reheats the Universe to a temperature of ˜1GeV, igniting BBN and diluting all thermal relics such as the gravitino by a factor of ˜10-4 - 10-5 such that gravitinos contribute a sizable component of the dark matter. In certain cases, non-thermally produced relics such as the axion, or gravitinos generated from the decay of the saxion can also contribute to the abundance of dark matter. Remarkably enough, this cosmological scenario turns out to be independent of the initial reheating temperature of the Universe. This is due to the fact that the initial oscillation temperature of the saxion coincides with the freeze out temperature for gravitinos in F-theory GUTs. We also find that saxion dilution is compatible with generating the desired baryon asymmetry from standard leptogenesis. Finally, the gravitino mass range in F-theory GUTs is 10 - 100MeV, which interestingly coincides with the window of values required for the decay of the NLSP to solve the problem of 7 Li over-production.

    2. Bifidobacteria: their impact on gut microbiota composition and their applications as probiotics in infants.

      PubMed

      Di Gioia, Diana; Aloisio, Irene; Mazzola, Giuseppe; Biavati, Bruno

      2014-01-01

      This review is aimed at describing the most recent advances in the gut microbiota composition of newborns and infants with a particular emphasis on bifidobacteria. The newborn gut microbiota is quite unstable, whereas after weaning, it becomes more stable and gets closer to the typical adult microbiota. The newborn and infant gut microbiota composition is impaired in several enteric and non-enteric pathologies. The core of this review is the description of the most recent documented applications of bifidobacteria to newborns and infants for their prevention and treatment. Acute diarrhea is the most studied disease for which bifidobacteria are applied with great success, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium breve being the most applied species. Moreover, the most recent updates in the use of bifidobacteria for the prevention and treatment of pathologies typical of newborns, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, colics, and streptococcal infections, are presented. In addition, a number of not strictly enteric pathologies have in recent years evidenced a strict correlation with an aberrant gut microbiota in infants, in particular showing a reduced level of bifidobacteria. These diseases represent new potential opportunities for probiotic applications. Among them, allergic diseases, celiac disease, obesity, and neurologic diseases are described in this review. The preliminary use of bifidobacteria in in vitro systems and animal models is summarized as well as preliminary in vivo studies. Only after validation of the results via human clinical trials will the potentiality of bifidobacteria in the prevention and cure of these pathologies be definitely assessed. PMID:24287935

    3. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

      DOEpatents

      Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

      1980-06-06

      An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

    4. Application of Ultrasonic for Decontamination of Contaminated Soil - 13142

      SciTech Connect

      Vasilyev, A.P.; Lebedev, N.M.; Savkin, A.E.

      2013-07-01

      The trials of soil decontamination were carried out with the help of a pilot ultrasonic installation in different modes. The installation included a decontamination bath equipped with ultrasonic sources, a precipitator for solution purification from small particles (less than 80 micrometer), sorption filter for solution purification from radionuclides washing out from soil, a tank for decontamination solution, a pump for decontamination solution supply. The trials were carried out on artificially contaminated sand with specific activity of 4.5 10{sup 5} Bk/kg and really contaminated soil from Russian Scientific Center 'Kurchatovsky Institute' (RSC'KI') with specific activity of 2.9 10{sup 4} Bk/kg. It was established that application of ultrasonic intensify the process of soil reagent decontamination and increase its efficiency. The decontamination factor for the artificially contaminated soil was ∼200 and for soil from RSC'KI' ∼30. The flow-sheet diagram has been developed for the new installation as well as determined the main technological characteristics of the equipment. (authors)

    5. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

      SciTech Connect

      Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

      2008-09-12

      The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

    6. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

      SciTech Connect

      Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

      1995-12-01

      A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

    7. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

      SciTech Connect

      Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

      1997-05-01

      The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

    8. Schizophrenia and the gut-brain axis.

      PubMed

      Nemani, Katlyn; Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; McCormick, Beth; Fan, Xiaoduo

      2015-01-01

      Several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia can be linked through a common pathway in the intestinal tract. It is now increasingly recognized that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut that uses neural, hormonal, and immunological routes. An increased incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) barrier dysfunction, food antigen sensitivity, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome is seen in schizophrenia. These findings may be influenced by the composition of the gut microbiota. A significant subgroup of patients may benefit from the initiation of a gluten and casein-free diet. Antimicrobials and probiotics have therapeutic potential for reducing the metabolic dysfunction and immune dysregulation seen in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25240858

    9. What is Obesity Doing to Your Gut?

      PubMed

      Lee, Yeong Yeh

      2015-01-01

      Obesity is a fast-emerging epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, with numbers paralleling the rising global prevalence within the past 30 years. The landscape of gut diseases in Asia has been drastically changed by obesity. In addition to more non-specific abdominal symptoms, obesity is the cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, various gastrointestinal cancers (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer and gallbladder cancer) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Abnormal cross-talk between the gut microbiome and the obese host seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis, but more studies are needed. PMID:25892944

    10. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

      SciTech Connect

      Fellows, R.L.

      1993-02-26

      The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

    11. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

    12. Standard methods for research on Apis mellifera gut symbionts

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

    13. Functional roles of low calorie sweeteners on gut function.

      PubMed

      Meyer-Gerspach, A C; Wölnerhanssen, B; Beglinger, C

      2016-10-01

      This short review summarizes the effects of low calorie sweeteners (fructose, non-nutritive low calorie sweeteners) on gut functions focusing on the gut sweet taste receptor system. The effects of these molecules on secretion of gut peptides associated with glycemic homeostasis and appetite regulation is reviewed as well as effects on gastric emptying and glucose absorption. PMID:26861179

    14. The role of psychosocial factors in functional gut disease.

      PubMed

      Kamm, M A

      1998-01-01

      The link between psychological factors and functional gut disorders is indisputable. This review considers some of the mechanisms by which psychological state affect gut function, how these psychological factors and their effects on the gut might be measured, and how psychological treatments might benefit patients with functional disorders. PMID:10027671

    15. Document Management on Display.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Grimshaw, Anne

      1998-01-01

      Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

    16. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

      PubMed

      Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

      2015-07-01

      The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

    17. Skin contamination by radiopharmaceuticals and decontamination strategies.

      PubMed

      Bolzinger, M A; Bolot, C; Galy, G; Chabanel, A; Pelletier, J; Briançon, S

      2010-12-15

      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percutaneous penetration of five common radiopharmaceuticals ((99m)Tc, (67)Ga, (125)I, (111)In and (51)Cr) and to evaluate the effect of decontamination by a detergent solution dedicated to hospital institutions for that purpose. The skin kinetic profiles were established by using the in vitro Franz cell method over 24h. The skin distribution in each skin layer was quantified after 6h exposure time and the efficacy of the detergent solution to remove radionuclides was evaluated also after 6h. The most striking result was the repartition into two classes of kinetic profiles: (125)I and (99m)Tc permeated quickly (∼60% of applied activity after 24h) while the 3 other radionuclides permeated slowly (from ∼2.75% for (67)Ga to ∼10% of applied activity for (111)In). The lag times, i.e. the time necessary to cross the skin varied from 20min for (99m)Tc to 5h for (51)Cr, which accumulated in skin compartments. Skin washings with the detergent solution were particularly efficient for this radionuclide, contrary to the others for which the washing procedure should be applied earlier. The permeation of ions was dependent on their chemical and physical forms and on their salting-in or salting-out effects (coordination state and Hofmeister series). PMID:20888404

    18. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

      SciTech Connect

      Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

      1995-12-01

      Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes two technologies that are viable solutions for facility D&D.

    19. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

      SciTech Connect

      Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

      1993-10-01

      This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

    20. Decontamination & Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)

      SciTech Connect

      Cook, S.

      1994-07-01

      At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned.

    1. Decontamination of radioactive milk--a review.

      PubMed

      Patel, A A; Prasad, S R

      1993-03-01

      The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in Russia in 1986 has further revealed the susceptibility of the environment to radioactive contamination. This can have serious implications for the safety of milk as well as other foods. Global fallout and other isotope releases can threaten to increase the radionuclide levels in milk alarmingly, and thus make it unfit for human consumption. Perception of such fears in the past resulted in considerable research efforts being directed towards radioactive decontamination of milk by different means. The holding of milk and milk products long enough to deactivate certain radioisotopes prior to consumption, conversion of milk into butter, and manufacturing cheese by using modified processes are some of the approaches in minimizing the radioactivity risk to consumers. Extensive studies carried out in the USA have shown that though somewhat expensive, ion-exchange treatment of milk in large-scale, automated plants can eliminate 90% or more of the radionuclides of concern, i.e. strontium-90, and iodine-131, and much of caesium-137. Various factors affecting the efficiency of the ion exchange process and properties of the treated milk are reviewed. Other processing techniques such as electrodialysis are also briefly discussed in relation to removal of radionuclides from milk. PMID:8095292

    2. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

      DOEpatents

      Tucker, Mark D.

      2010-07-06

      A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

    3. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Duarte, C. L.; Mori, M. N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M. H. O.

      2007-11-01

      The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry—GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

    4. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

      SciTech Connect

      Schreiber, J.

      1989-11-01

      To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

    5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

      SciTech Connect

      Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

      2014-09-01

      On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

    6. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

      SciTech Connect

      Osborn, J.; Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R.

      1995-10-01

      Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of. The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes a mobile workstation termed ROSIE, which provides remote work capabilities for D&D activities.

    7. ASTM standards in radiological decontamination and decommissioning

      SciTech Connect

      Meservey, R.H.

      1994-12-31

      The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E10.03 was formed following a steering committee meeting held in April 1980. The meeting was initiated as a result of labor union concern for the safety of workers on decommissioning projects. Of particular concern at that time was the need for proper training of the workers and a means of tracking worker radiation-exposure records as they traveled to various decommissioning job sites. The steering committee concluded not only that worker protection standards were necessary for decommissioning activities but also that all phases of a decommissioning project could benefit from the appropriate guides or standards. These would provide worker protection, technical guidance, and consistency for decommissioning work. It recommended that Subcommittee E10.03 be formed and dedicated to the preparation of guides and standards that would support all phases of nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning. Subcommittee E10.03 has met regularly on a semiannual basis since that time.

    8. Gut Bacteria in Health and Disease

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      A new era in medical science has dawned with the realization of the critical role of the “forgotten organ,” the gut micro-biota, in health and disease. Central to this beneficial interaction between the microbiota and host is the manner in which bacteria and most likely other microorganisms contained within the gut communicate with the host’s immune system and participate in a variety of metabolic processes of mutual benefit to the host and the microbe. The advent of high-throughput methodologies and the elaboration of sophisticated analytic systems have facilitated the detailed description of the composition of the microbial constituents of the human gut, as never before, and are now enabling comparisons to be made between health and various disease states. Although the latter approach is still in its infancy, some important insights have already been gained about how the microbiota might influence a number of disease processes both within and distant from the gut. These discoveries also lay the groundwork for the development of therapeutic strategies that might modify the microbiota (eg, through the use of probiot-ics). Although this area holds much promise, more high-quality trials of probiotics, prebiotics, and other microbiota-modifying approaches in digestive disorders are needed, as well as laboratory investigations of their mechanisms of action. PMID:24729765

    9. The Enigmatic Universe of the Herbivore Gut.

      PubMed

      Glass, N Louise

      2016-07-01

      The herbivore gut is a fascinating ecosystem exquisitely adapted to plant biomass degradation. Within this ecosystem, anaerobic fungi invade biomass and secrete hydrolytic enzymes. In a recent study, Solomon et al. characterized three anaerobic fungi by transcriptomics, proteomics, and functional analyses to identify novel components essential for plant biomass deconstruction. PMID:27257096

    10. The human gut virome: a multifaceted majority

      PubMed Central

      Ogilvie, Lesley A.; Jones, Brian V.

      2015-01-01

      Here, we outline our current understanding of the human gut virome, in particular the phage component of this ecosystem, highlighting progress, and challenges in viral discovery in this arena. We reveal how developments in high-throughput sequencing technologies and associated data analysis methodologies are helping to illuminate this abundant ‘biological dark matter.’ Current evidence suggests that the human gut virome is a highly individual but temporally stable collective, dominated by phages exhibiting a temperate lifestyle. This viral community also appears to encode a surprisingly rich functional repertoire that confers a range of attributes to their bacterial hosts, ranging from bacterial virulence and pathogenesis to maintaining host–microbiome stability and community resilience. Despite the significant advances in our understanding of the gut virome in recent years, it is clear that we remain in a period of discovery and revelation, as new methods and technologies begin to provide deeper understanding of the inherent ecological characteristics of this viral ecosystem. As our understanding increases, the nature of the multi-partite interactions occurring between host and microbiome will become clearer, helping us to more rationally define the concepts and principles that will underpin approaches to using human gut virome components for medical or biotechnological applications. PMID:26441861

    11. Diet, the Gut Microbiome, and Epigenetics

      PubMed Central

      Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Fu, Benjamin C.

      2014-01-01

      Increasingly, the gut microbiome is implicated in the etiology of cancer, not only as an infectious agent, but also by altering exposure to dietary compounds that influence disease risk. While the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet, the gut microbiome can also modify dietary exposures in ways that are beneficial or detrimental to the human host. The colonic bacteria metabolize macronutrients, either as specialists or in consortia of bacteria, in a variety of diverse metabolic pathways. Microbial metabolites of diet can also be epigenetic activators of gene expression that may influence cancer risk in humans. Epigenetic involves heritable changes in gene expression via post translational and post transcriptional modifications. Microbial metabolites can influence epigenetics by altering the pool of compounds used for modification or by directly inhibiting enzymes involved in epigenetic pathways. Colonic epithelium is immediately exposed to these metabolites, although some metabolites are also found in systemic circulation. In this review, we discuss the role of the gut microbiome in dietary metabolism and how microbial metabolites may influence gene expression linked to colon cancer risk. PMID:24855003

    12. Gut-liver axis: role of inflammasomes.

      PubMed

      Bawa, Manan; Saraswat, Vivek A

      2013-06-01

      Inflammasomes are large multiprotein complexes that have the ability to sense intracellular danger signals through special NOD-like receptors or NLRs. They include NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2 and NLRP6. They are involved in recognizing diverse microbial (bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites), stress and damage signals, which result in direct activation of caspase-1, leading to secretion of potent pro-inflammatory cytokines and pyroptosis. NLRP3 is the most studied antimicrobial immune response inflammasome. Recent studies reveal expression of inflammasomes in innate immune response cells including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. Inflammasome deficiency has been linked to alterations in the gastrointestinal microflora. Alterations in the microbiome population and/or changes in gut permeability promote microbial translocation into the portal circulation and thus directly to the liver. Gut derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a significant role in several liver diseases. Recent advancements in the sequencing technologies along with improved methods in metagenomics and bioinformatics have provided effective tools for investigating the 10(14) microorganisms of the human microbiome that inhabit the human gut. In this review, we examine the significance of inflammasomes in relation to the gut microflora and liver. This review also highlights the emerging functions of human microbiota in health and liver diseases. PMID:25755488

    13. 'Gut health': a new objective in medicine?

      PubMed Central

      2011-01-01

      'Gut health' is a term increasingly used in the medical literature and by the food industry. It covers multiple positive aspects of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as the effective digestion and absorption of food, the absence of GI illness, normal and stable intestinal microbiota, effective immune status and a state of well-being. From a scientific point of view, however, it is still extremely unclear exactly what gut health is, how it can be defined and how it can be measured. The GI barrier adjacent to the GI microbiota appears to be the key to understanding the complex mechanisms that maintain gut health. Any impairment of the GI barrier can increase the risk of developing infectious, inflammatory and functional GI diseases, as well as extraintestinal diseases such as immune-mediated and metabolic disorders. Less clear, however, is whether GI discomfort in general can also be related to GI barrier functions. In any case, methods of assessing, improving and maintaining gut health-related GI functions are of major interest in preventive medicine. PMID:21401922

    14. Isolation of methanotrophic bacteria from termite gut.

      PubMed

      Reuss, Julia; Rachel, Reinhard; Kämpfer, Peter; Rabenstein, Andreas; Küver, Jan; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

      2015-10-01

      The guts of termites feature suitable conditions for methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) with their permanent production of CH4 and constant supply of O2 via tracheae. In this study, we have isolated MOB from the gut contents of the termites Incisitermes marginipennis, Mastotermes darwiniensis, and Neotermes castaneus for the first time. The existence of MOB was indicated by detecting pmoA, the gene for the particulate methane monooxygenase, in the DNA of gut contents. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction supported those findings. The MOB cell titer was determined to be 10(2)-10(3) per gut. Analyses of the 16S rDNA from isolates indicated close similarity to the genus Methylocystis. After various physiological tests and fingerprinting methods, no exact match to a known species was obtained, indicating the isolation of new MOB species. However, MALDI-TOF MS analyses revealed a close relationship to Methylocystis bryophila and Methylocystis parvus. PMID:26411892

    15. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

      PubMed

      Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

      2016-07-01

      Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

    16. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

      PubMed

      Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

      2016-01-01

      The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

    17. Gut ecosystem: how microbes help us.

      PubMed

      Martín, R; Miquel, S; Ulmer, J; Langella, P; Bermúdez-Humarán, L G

      2014-09-01

      The human gut houses one of the most complex and abundant ecosystems composed of up to 1013-1014 microorganisms. Although the anthropocentric concept of life has concealed the function of microorganisms inside us, the important role of gut bacterial community in human health is well recognised today. Moreover, different microorganims, which are commonly present in a large diversity of food products, transit through our gut every day adding in some cases a beneficial effect to our health (probiotics). This crosstalk is concentrated mainly in the intestinal epithelium, where microbes provide the host with essential nutrients and modulation of the immune system. Furthermore, microorganisms also display antimicrobial activities maintaining a gut ecosystem stable. This review summarises some of the recent findings on the interaction of both commensal and probiotic bacteria with each other and with the host. The aim is to highlight the cooperative status found in healthy individuals as well as the importance of this crosstalk in the maintenance of human homeostasis. PMID:24583612

    18. Nutritional protective mechanisms against gut inflammation☆

      PubMed Central

      Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Yuan, Lijuan; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

      2013-01-01

      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness characterized by excessive inflammatory and effector mucosal responses leading to tissue destruction at the gastrointestinal tract. Interactions among the immune system, the commensal microbiota and the host genotype are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the precise etiology of IBD remains unknown. Diet-induced changes in the composition of the gut microbiome can modulate the induction of regulatory versus effector immune responses at the gut mucosa and improve health outcomes. Therefore, manipulation of gut microbiota composition and the local production of microbial-derived metabolites by using prebiotics, probiotics and dietary fibers is being explored as a promising avenue of prophylactic and therapeutic intervention against gut inflammation. Prebiotics and fiber carbohydrates are fermented by resident microflora into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. SCFAs then activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, a nuclear transcription factor with widely demonstrated anti-inflammatory efficacy in experimental IBD. The activation of PPARγ by naturally ocurring compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid, pomegranate seed oil-derived punicic acid, eleostearic acid and abscisic acid has been explored as nutritional interventions that suppress colitis by directly modulating the host immune response. The aim of this review is to summarize the status of innovative nutritional interventions against gastrointestinal inflammation, their proposed mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical efficacy as well as bioinformatics and computational modeling approaches that accelerate discovery in nutritional and mucosal immunology research. PMID:23541470

    19. The Gut Bacteria-Driven Obesity Development.

      PubMed

      Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

      2016-01-01

      It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for the overall health of the host, while a perturbation in gut microbial communities can contribute to disease susceptibility. Obesity is a complex process involving genetic and environmental factors with an epidemiological burden that makes it a major public health issue. Studies of germ-free or gnotobiotic mice provided evidence that the diversity, as well as the presence and relative proportion of different microbes in the gut play active roles in energy homeostasis. Similarly, human studies showed that both the diversity of the microbiota and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio are decreased in obese individuals. The 'obese microbiota' seems to be able to increase dietary energy harvest and favor weight gain and fat deposition. Although research in this field has just started and many of the available data are still conflicting, the results are providing exciting perspectives, and gut microbiota manipulation has already become a new target for both prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:27028448

    20. Gut Microbiota and Allergic Disease. New Insights.

      PubMed

      Lynch, Susan V

      2016-03-01

      The rapid rise in childhood allergies (atopy) in Westernized nations has implicated associated environmental exposures and lifestyles as primary drivers of disease development. Culture-based microbiological studies indicate that atopy has demonstrable ties to altered gut microbial colonization in very early life. Infants who exhibit more severe multisensitization to food- or aero-allergens have a significantly higher risk of subsequently developing asthma in childhood. Hence an emerging hypothesis posits that environment- or lifestyle-driven aberrancies in the early-life gut microbiome composition and by extension, microbial function, represent a key mediator of childhood allergic asthma. Animal studies support this hypothesis. Environmental microbial exposures epidemiologically associated with allergy protection in humans confer protection against airway allergy in mice. In addition, gut microbiome-derived short-chain fatty acids produced from a high-fiber diet have been shown to protect against allergy via modulation of both local and remote mucosal immunity as well as hematopoietic antigen-presenting cell populations. Here we review key data supporting the concept of a gut-airway axis and its critical role in childhood atopy. PMID:27027953

    1. Obesity Surgery and Gut-Brain Communication

      PubMed Central

      Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Shin, Andrew C.; Zheng, Huiyuan

      2011-01-01

      The prevalence of obesity, and the cluster of serious metabolic diseases it is associated with, continues to rise globally, and hopes for effective treatment with drugs have been considerably set back. Thus, success with bariatric surgeries to induce sustained body weight loss and effectively cure most of the associated co-morbidities appears almost “miraculous” and systematic investigation of the mechanisms at work has gained momentum. Here, we will discuss the basic organization of gut-brain communication and review clinical and pre-clinical investigations on the potential mechanisms by which gastric bypass surgery leads to its beneficial effects on energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Although a lot has been learned regarding changes in energy intake and expenditure, secretion of gut hormones, and improvement in glucose homeostasis, there has not yet been the “breakthrough observation” of identifying a key signaling component common to the beneficial effects of the surgery. However, given the complexity and redundancy of gut-brain signaling and gut signaling to other relevant organs, it is perhaps more realistic to expect a number of key signaling changes that act in concert to bring about the “miracle”. PMID:21315095

    2. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

      PubMed Central

      Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

      2016-01-01

      The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

    3. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

      PubMed

      Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

      2015-08-01

      Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. PMID:26208530

    4. Redefining the gut as the motor of critical illness

      PubMed Central

      Mittal, Rohit; Coopersmith, Craig M.

      2013-01-01

      The gut is hypothesized to play a central role in the progression of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Critical illness alters gut integrity by increasing epithelial apoptosis and permeability and by decreasing epithelial proliferation and mucus integrity. Additionally, toxic gut-derived lymph induces distant organ injury. Although the endogenous microflora ordinarily exist in a symbiotic relationship with the gut epithelium, severe physiologic insults alter this relationship, leading to induction of virulence factors in the microbiome, which, in turn, can perpetuate or worsen critical illness. This review highlights newly discovered ways in which the gut acts as the motor that perpetuates the systemic inflammatory response in critical illness. PMID:24055446

    5. Redefining the gut as the motor of critical illness.

      PubMed

      Mittal, Rohit; Coopersmith, Craig M

      2014-04-01

      The gut is hypothesized to play a central role in the progression of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Critical illness alters gut integrity by increasing epithelial apoptosis and permeability and by decreasing epithelial proliferation and mucus integrity. Additionally, toxic gut-derived lymph induces distant organ injury. Although the endogenous microflora ordinarily exist in a symbiotic relationship with the gut epithelium, severe physiological insults alter this relationship, leading to induction of virulence factors in the microbiome, which, in turn, can perpetuate or worsen critical illness. This review highlights newly discovered ways in which the gut acts as the motor that perpetuates the systemic inflammatory response in critical illness. PMID:24055446

    6. Regulation of energy balance by a gut-brain axis and involvement of the gut microbiota.

      PubMed

      Bauer, Paige V; Hamr, Sophie C; Duca, Frank A

      2016-02-01

      Despite significant progress in understanding the homeostatic regulation of energy balance, successful therapeutic options for curbing obesity remain elusive. One potential target for the treatment of obesity is via manipulation of the gut-brain axis, a complex bidirectional communication system that is crucial in maintaining energy homeostasis. Indeed, ingested nutrients induce secretion of gut peptides that act either via paracrine signaling through vagal and non-vagal neuronal relays, or in an endocrine fashion via entry into circulation, to ultimately signal to the central nervous system where appropriate responses are generated. We review here the current hypotheses of nutrient sensing mechanisms of enteroendocrine cells, including the release of gut peptides, mainly cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY, and subsequent gut-to-brain signaling pathways promoting a reduction of food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. Furthermore, this review highlights recent research suggesting this energy regulating gut-brain axis can be influenced by gut microbiota, potentially contributing to the development of obesity. PMID:26542800

    7. The Gut Epithelial Receptor LRRC19 Promotes the Recruitment of Immune Cells and Gut Inflammation.

      PubMed

      Cao, Shuisong; Su, Xiaomin; Zeng, Benhua; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yugang; Wang, Enlin; Yun, Huan; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Feifei; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Che, Yongzhe; Yang, Rongcun

      2016-02-01

      Commensal microbes are necessary for a healthy gut immune system. However, the mechanism involving these microbes that establish and maintain gut immune responses is largely unknown. Here, we have found that the gut immune receptor leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C19 is involved in host-microbiota interactions. LRRC19 deficiency not only impairs the gut immune system but also reduces inflammatory responses in gut tissues. We demonstrate that the LRRC19-associated chemokines CCL6, CCL9, CXCL9, and CXCL10 play a critical role in immune cell recruitment and intestinal inflammation. The expression of these chemokines is associated with regenerating islet-derived (REG) protein-mediated microbiotas. We also found that the expression of REGs may be regulated by gut Lactobacillus through LRRC19-mediated activation of NF-κB. Therefore, our study establishes a regulatory axis of LRRC19, REGs, altered microbiotas, and chemokines for the recruitment of immune cells and the regulation of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26776522

    8. Role of DUOX in gut inflammation: lessons from Drosophila model of gut-microbiota interactions

      PubMed Central

      Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Won-Jae

      2013-01-01

      It is well-known that certain bacterial species can colonize the gut epithelium and induce inflammation in the mucosa, whereas other species are either benign or beneficial to the host. Deregulation of the gut-microbe interactions may lead to a pathogenic condition in the host, such as chronic inflammation, tissue injuries, and even cancer. However, our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie gut-microbe homeostasis and pathogenesis remains limited. Recent studies have used Drosophila as a genetic model to provide novel insights into the causes and consequences of bacterial-induced colitis in the intestinal mucosa. The present review discusses the interactions that occur between gut-associated bacteria and host gut immunity, particularly the bacterial-induced intestinal dual oxidase (DUOX) system. Several lines of evidence showed that the bacterial-modulated DUOX system is involved in microbial clearance, intestinal epithelial cell renewal (ECR), redox-dependent modulation of signaling pathways, cross-linking of biomolecules, and discrimination between symbionts and pathogens. Further genetic studies on the Drosophila DUOX system and on gut-associated bacteria with a distinct ability to activate DUOX may provide critical information related to the homeostatic inflammation as well as etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, which will enhance our understanding on the mucosal inflammatory diseases frequently observed in the microbe-contacting epithelia of humans. PMID:24455491

    9. The Gut Epithelial Receptor LRRC19 Promotes the Recruitment of Immune Cells and Gut Inflammation

      PubMed Central

      Cao, Shuisong; Su, Xiaomin; Zeng, Benhua; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yugang; Wang, Enlin; Yun, Huan; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Feifei; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Che, Yongzhe; Yang, Rongcun

      2016-01-01

      Summary Commensal microbes are necessary for a healthy gut immune system. However, the mechanism involving these microbes that establish and maintain gut immune responses is largely unknown. Here, we have found that the gut immune receptor leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C19 is involved in host-microbiota interactions. LRRC19 deficiency not only impairs the gut immune system but also reduces inflammatory responses in gut tissues. We demonstrate that the LRRC19-associated chemokines CCL6, CCL9, CXCL9, and CXCL10 play a critical role in immune cell recruitment and intestinal inflammation. The expression of these chemokines is associated with regenerating islet-derived (REG) protein-mediated microbiotas. We also found that the expression of REGs may be regulated by gut Lactobacillus through LRRC19-mediated activation of NF-κB. Therefore, our study establishes a regulatory axis of LRRC19, REGs, altered microbiotas, and chemokines for the recruitment of immune cells and the regulation of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26776522

    10. COSMIC program documentation experience

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kalar, M. C.

      1970-01-01

      A brief history of COSMIC as it relates to the handling of program documentation is summarized; the items that are essential for computer program documentation are also discussed. COSMIC documentation and program standards handbook is appended.

    11. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

      SciTech Connect

      Powers, D.A.

      1997-05-01

      Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

    12. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

      SciTech Connect

      Lambright, T.M.; Montgomery, D.R.

      1980-04-01

      A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included.

    13. Generic safety documentation model

      SciTech Connect

      Mahn, J.A.

      1994-04-01

      This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

    14. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity

      PubMed Central

      Clarke, Siobhan F.; Murphy, Eileen F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka; Ross, Paul R.; Shanahan, Fergus; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.

      2012-01-01

      Obesity develops from a prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the relatively recent discovery that the composition and function of the gut microbiota impacts on obesity has lead to an explosion of interest in what is now a distinct research field. Here, research relating to the links between the gut microbiota, diet and obesity will be reviewed under five major headings: (1) the gut microbiota of lean and obese animals, (2) the composition of the gut microbiota of lean and obese humans, (3) the impact of diet on the gut microbiota, (4) manipulating the gut microbiota and (5) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can impact on weight gain. PMID:22572830

    15. Gut Microbiota and Brain Function: An Evolving Field in Neuroscience.

      PubMed

      Foster, Jane A; Lyte, Mark; Meyer, Emeran; Cryan, John F

      2016-05-01

      There is a growing appreciation of the importance of gut microbiota to health and disease. This has been driven by advances in sequencing technology and recent findings demonstrating the important role of microbiota in common health disorders such as obesity. Moreover, the potential role of gut microbiota in influencing brain function, behavior, and mental health has attracted the attention of neuroscientists and psychiatrists. At the 29(th) International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (CINP) World Congress held in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2014, a group of experts presented the symposium, "Gut microbiota and brain function: Relevance to psychiatric disorders" to review the latest findings in how gut microbiota may play a role in brain function, behavior, and disease. The symposium covered a broad range of topics, including gut microbiota and neuroendocrine function, the influence of gut microbiota on behavior, probiotics as regulators of brain and behavior, and imaging the gut-brain axis in humans. This report provides an overview of these presentations. PMID:26438800

    16. Assessing the Human Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Diseases

      PubMed Central

      Karlsson, Fredrik; Tremaroli, Valentina; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik

      2013-01-01

      Recent findings have demonstrated that the gut microbiome complements our human genome with at least 100-fold more genes. In contrast to our Homo sapiens–derived genes, the microbiome is much more plastic, and its composition changes with age and diet, among other factors. An altered gut microbiota has been associated with several diseases, including obesity and diabetes, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we discuss factors that affect the gut microbiome, how the gut microbiome may contribute to metabolic diseases, and how to study the gut microbiome. Next-generation sequencing and development of software packages have led to the development of large-scale sequencing efforts to catalog the human microbiome. Furthermore, the use of genetically engineered gnotobiotic mouse models may increase our understanding of mechanisms by which the gut microbiome modulates host metabolism. A combination of classical microbiology, sequencing, and animal experiments may provide further insights into how the gut microbiota affect host metabolism and physiology. PMID:24065795

    17. Validating hyperbilirubinemia and gut mucosal atrophy with a novel ultramobile ambulatory total parenteral nutrition piglet model.

      PubMed

      Jain, Ajay K; Wen, Joy X; Arora, Sumit; Blomenkamp, Keith S; Rodrigues, Jonathan; Blaufuss, Timothy A; Liou, Victor; Burrin, Douglas G; Long, John P; Teckman, Jeffery H

      2015-02-01

      Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides all nutrition intravenously. Although TPN therapy has grown enormously, it causes significant complications, including gut and hepatic dysfunction. Current models use animal tethering which is unlike ambulatory human TPN delivery and is cost prohibitive. We hypothesize that using ultramobile infusion pumps, TPN can be delivered cost-effectively, resulting in classical gut and hepatic injury, and we thus aim to establish a new model system. Neonatal pigs (n=8) were implanted with jugular vein and duodenal catheters. Animals were fitted in dual-pocket jackets. An ultramobile ambulatory pump was placed in one pocket and connected to the jugular vein or duodenal catheter. Isocaloric TPN or swine formula was placed in the other pocket. Rigorous Wifi-based video and scheduled monitoring was performed. After 14days, the animals were euthanized. The mean (±SD) daily weight gain (in grams) for enteral-fed control (EN) vs TPN animals was 102.4±10.8 and 91.03±12.1 respectively (P<.05). Total parenteral nutrition resulted in significant conjugated bilirubin elevation and hepatomegaly. Mean (±SD) serum conjugated bilirubin (in μmol/L) was 1.5±0.7 for EN and 6.3±2.8 for TPN (P<.05). Marked gut atrophy was noted with TPN. The mean (±SD) gut weight as a percent of body weight was 4.30±0.26 for EN and 2.62±0.48 for TPN (P<.05). Surgical sites healed well. All animals remained completely mobile. We thus established that TPN can be successfully delivered using ultramobile pumps and believe that this remains the first such description of an ambulatory piglet TPN model system. In addition to cholestasis and gut atrophy, classical TPN-induced injury was documented. PMID:25649660

    18. Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

      PubMed Central

      Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

      2015-01-01

      Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address 4 information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and 4 information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides are

    19. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

      PubMed

      Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

      2016-01-01

      Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

    20. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

      SciTech Connect

      Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

      1996-06-01

      Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site.

    1. Efficacy of common decontamination methods for cleaning contaminated wounds.

      PubMed

      Mannis, Daniel; Brandl, Alexander

      2015-02-01

      Emergency preparedness and response for work with hazardous materials, including radiological materials, necessarily have to involve injuries sustained by the workers. Removing radionuclide contamination from wounds in tissue is essential to minimizing the intake of radiological materials and the internal dose to the individual. This study compares the efficacy of common decontamination methods for removal of Co from contaminated wounds inflicted in pig tissue. The decontamination procedures investigated include a commercially available, non-prescription, surfactant-based, non-ionic wound cleanser spray; a physiologic saline solution spray; and a physiologic saline solution pour. Three different types of wounds are examined: smooth incision, jagged cut, and blunt force trauma wounds. The cleanser and saline sprays are more effective at decontaminating all three wounds than the saline pour. Within the statistical limitations of the study, the difference between the cleanser spray and the saline spray is not significant. However, the cleanser spray successfully decontaminates the wound to a lower mean value. The most noticeable impact in the decontamination process appears to be due to the spray pressure employed with the cleanser and saline sprays. PMID:25551653

    2. Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation

      PubMed Central

      Khan, Abdul Wadood; Kotta, Sabna; Rana, Sudha; Ansari, Shahid Husain; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Ali, Javed

      2013-01-01

      Background: Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected. Materials and Methods: Present work was planned to optimize and develop self-usable radiation decontamination cream formulation. Various pharmaceutical parameters were characterized. 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate was used as radiocontaminant. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography. Results: Decontamination efficacy of the cream was found to be 42% ± 3% at 0-0.5 h after the exposure. Primary skin irritancy test was satisfactory as no erythema or edema was observed visually after 2 weeks of the formulation application. Conclusion: The decontamination studies proved the potential of EDTA to remove the radiological contaminants effectively. PMID:23799206

    3. Decontamination in the Aftermath of a Radiological Attack

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yassif, Jaime

      2004-05-01

      Much of the damage caused by a radiological weapon would result from long-term contamination, yet the U.S. lacks a coherent plan for cleanup in the aftermath of an attack. A rapidly implemented decontamination strategy could minimize economic damage by restoring normal activity, when possible, and could ease the cleanup process, which can become more difficult as time passes. Loose dust particles can become trapped under layers of oxidized metal and organic materials or penetrate deeper into porous surfaces, and reactive elements, such as cesium-137, chemically bind to components of glass, asphalt and concrete. Decontamination planning requires identification of appropriate existing technologies that are transferable from small-scale tasks, such as nuclear facility decommissioning, and adaptable to urban-scale operations. Applicable technologies should effectively contain and remove fixed and loose contamination with α-, β- and γ-emitters without generating large quantities of secondary waste. Development of new technologies is also necessary, particularly to improve α-detection, as is research to test existing technologies for their effectiveness in large-scale operations. These techniques will be most effective if integrated into a broad strategy that identifies appropriate exposure limits, prioritizes decontamination tasks and assigns authority and responsibility for performing these tasks. This talk will address existing decontamination thresholds and suggest ways to modify them and will discuss appropriate, existing technologies that can decontaminate to the required levels.

    4. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

      PubMed Central

      Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

      2012-01-01

      In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

    5. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

      SciTech Connect

      Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

      1998-09-08

      The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste.

    6. Analysis of residual chemicals on filtering facepiece respirators after decontamination.

      PubMed

      Salter, W B; Kinney, K; Wallace, W H; Lumley, A E; Heimbuch, B K; Wander, J D

      2010-08-01

      The N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) is commonly used to protect individuals from infectious aerosols. Health care experts predict a shortage of N95 FFRs if a severe pandemic occurs, and an option that has been suggested for mitigating such an FFR shortage is to decontaminate and reuse the devices. Before the effectiveness of this strategy can be established, many parameters affecting respiratory protection must be measured: biocidal efficacy of the decontamination treatment, filtration performance, pressure drop, fit, and toxicity to the end user post treatment. This research effort measured the amount of residual chemicals created or deposited on six models of FFRs following treatment by each of 7 simple decontamination technologies. Measured amounts of decontaminants retained by the FFRs treated with chemical disinfectants were small enough that exposure to wearers will be below the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Toxic by-products were also evaluated, and two suspected toxins were detected after ethylene oxide treatment of FFR rubber straps. The results provide encouragement to efforts promoting the evolution of effective strategies for decontamination and reuse of FFRs. PMID:20526947

    7. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

      SciTech Connect

      M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

      2001-01-01

      Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

    8. Gas phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion process equipment

      SciTech Connect

      Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.; Neiswander, D.W.

      1994-03-01

      D&D of the process facilities at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) will be an enormous task. The EBASCO estimate places the cost of D&D of the GDP at the K-25 Site at approximately $7.5 billion. Of this sum, nearly $4 billion is associated with the construction and operation of decontamination facilities and the dismantlement and transport of contaminated process equipment to these facilities. In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile LJF6, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric C1F for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. This paper outlines the concept for applying LTLT gas phase decontamination, reports encouraging laboratory experiments, and presents the status of the design of a prototype mobile system. Plans for demonstrating the LTLT process on full-size gaseous diffusion equipment are also outlined briefly.

    9. Automated document analysis system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

      2002-08-01

      A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

    10. Individuals' diet diversity influences gut microbial diversity in two freshwater fish (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch)

      PubMed Central

      Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Hirsch, Philipp E; Lauber, Christian L; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard; Post, David

      2014-01-01

      Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship between diet diversity and microbial diversity. We tested this prediction within each of two fish species (stickleback and perch), in which individuals vary in their propensity to eat littoral or pelagic invertebrates or mixtures of both prey. Unexpectedly, in most cases individuals with more generalised diets had less diverse microbiota than dietary specialists, in both natural and laboratory populations. This negative association between diet diversity and microbial diversity was small but significant, and most apparent after accounting for complex interactions between sex, size and diet. Our results suggest that multiple diet components can interact non-additively to influence gut microbial diversity. PMID:24847735

    11. Can't do it, won't do it! Developing a theoretically framed intervention to encourage better decontamination practice in Scottish dental practices

      PubMed Central

      Bonetti, Debbie; Young, Linda; Black, Irene; Cassie, Heather; Ramsay, Craig R; Clarkson, Jan

      2009-01-01

      Background Guidance on the cleaning of dental instruments in primary care has recently been published. The aims of this study are to determine if the publication of the guidance document was enough to influence decontamination best practice and to design an implementation intervention strategy, should it be required. Methods A postal questionnaire assessing current decontamination practice and beliefs was sent to a random sample of 200 general dental practitioners. Results Fifty-seven percent (N = 113) of general dental practitioners responded. The survey showed large variation in what dentists self-reported doing, perceived as necessary or practical to do, were willing to do, felt able to do, as well as what they planned to change. Only 15% self-reported compliance with the five key guideline-recommended individual-level decontamination behaviours; only 2% reported compliance with all 11 key practice-level behaviours. The results also showed that our participants were almost equally split between dentists who were completely unmotivated to implement best decontamination practice or else highly motivated. The results suggested there was scope for further enhancing the implementation of decontamination guidance, and that an intervention with the greatest likelihood of success would require a tailored format, specifically targeting components of the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, perceived behavioural control, intention) and implementation intention theory (action planning). Conclusion Considerable resources are devoted to encouraging clinicians to implement evidence-based practice using interventions with erratic success records, or no known applicability to a specific clinical behaviour, selected mainly by means of researchers' intuition or optimism. The methodology used to develop this implementation intervention is not limited to decontamination or to a single segment of primary care. It is also in accordance with the preliminary stages of the framework

    12. Cognitive Impairment by Antibiotic-Induced Gut Dysbiosis: Analysis of Gut Microbiota-Brain Communication

      PubMed Central

      Fröhlich, Esther E.; Farzi, Aitak; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Reichmann, Florian; Jačan, Angela; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Bordag, Natalie; Magnes, Christoph; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Kashofer, Karl; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Holzer, Peter

      2016-01-01

      Emerging evidence indicates that disruption of the gut microbial community (dysbiosis) impairs mental health. Germ-free mice and antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis are two approaches to establish causality in gut microbiota-brain relationships. However, both models have limitations, as germ-free mice display alterations in blood-brain barrier and brain ultrastructure and antibiotics may act directly on the brain. We hypothesized that the concerns related to antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis can only adequately be addressed if the effect of intragastric treatment of adult mice with multiple antibiotics on (i) gut microbial community, (ii) metabolite profile in the colon, (iii) circulating metabolites, (iv) expression of neuronal signaling molecules in distinct brain areas and (v) cognitive behavior is systematically investigated. Of the antibiotics used (ampicillin, bacitracin, meropenem, neomycin, vancomycin), ampicillin had some oral bioavailability but did not enter the brain. 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed antibiotic-induced microbial community disruption, and metabolomics revealed that gut dysbiosis was associated with depletion of bacteria-derived metabolites in the colon and alterations of lipid species and converted microbe-derived molecules in the plasma. Importantly, novel object recognition, but not spatial, memory was impaired in antibiotic-treated mice. This cognitive deficit was associated with brain region-specific changes in the expression of cognition-relevant signaling molecules, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B, serotonin transporter and neuropeptide Y system. We conclude that circulating metabolites and the cerebral neuropeptide Y system play an important role in the cognitive impairment and dysregulation of cerebral signaling molecules due to antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis. PMID:26923630

    13. Cognitive impairment by antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis: Analysis of gut microbiota-brain communication.

      PubMed

      Fröhlich, Esther E; Farzi, Aitak; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Reichmann, Florian; Jačan, Angela; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Bordag, Natalie; Magnes, Christoph; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Kashofer, Karl; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Holzer, Peter

      2016-08-01

      Emerging evidence indicates that disruption of the gut microbial community (dysbiosis) impairs mental health. Germ-free mice and antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis are two approaches to establish causality in gut microbiota-brain relationships. However, both models have limitations, as germ-free mice display alterations in blood-brain barrier and brain ultrastructure and antibiotics may act directly on the brain. We hypothesized that the concerns related to antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis can only adequately be addressed if the effect of intragastric treatment of adult mice with multiple antibiotics on (i) gut microbial community, (ii) metabolite profile in the colon, (iii) circulating metabolites, (iv) expression of neuronal signaling molecules in distinct brain areas and (v) cognitive behavior is systematically investigated. Of the antibiotics used (ampicillin, bacitracin, meropenem, neomycin, vancomycin), ampicillin had some oral bioavailability but did not enter the brain. 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed antibiotic-induced microbial community disruption, and metabolomics revealed that gut dysbiosis was associated with depletion of bacteria-derived metabolites in the colon and alterations of lipid species and converted microbe-derived molecules in the plasma. Importantly, novel object recognition, but not spatial, memory was impaired in antibiotic-treated mice. This cognitive deficit was associated with brain region-specific changes in the expression of cognition-relevant signaling molecules, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B, serotonin transporter and neuropeptide Y system. We conclude that circulating metabolites and the cerebral neuropeptide Y system play an important role in the cognitive impairment and dysregulation of cerebral signaling molecules due to antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis. PMID:26923630

    14. Payload Documentation Enhancement Project

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Brown, Betty G.

      1999-01-01

      In late 1998, the Space Shuttle Program recognized a need to revitalize its payload accommodations documentation. As a result a payload documentation enhancement project was initiated to review and update payload documentation and improve the accessibility to that documentation by the Space Shuttle user community.

    15. Soil removal as a decontamination practice and radiocesium accumulation in tadpoles in rice paddies at Fukushima.

      PubMed

      Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Nunokawa, Masanori; Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuichi

      2014-04-01

      We investigated the biological accumulation of radiocesium in tadpoles [Rana (Pelophylax) porosa porosa] in rice paddies with and without decontamination practice at Fukushima. Radiocesium was accumulated in surface part of soils both in the control and decontaminated paddies one year after decontamination. Mean (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in tadpoles in the control and decontaminated paddies were 3000 and 4500, and 600 and 890 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Radiocesium concentrations in surface soil (0-5 cm depth) and tadpoles in the decontaminated paddy were five times smaller than in the control paddy. These results suggest that decontamination practice can reduce radiocesium concentrations in both soil and tadpoles. However, at the decontaminated paddy, radiocesium concentrations in surface soils became 3.8 times greater one year after decontamination, which indicates that monitoring the subsequent movement of radiocesium in rice paddies and surrounding areas is essential for examining contamination propagation. PMID:24463474

    16. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei sorbitol utilization genes requires DNA-binding transcriptional activator GutR and the conserved protein GutM.

      PubMed

      Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

      2008-09-01

      Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIB(Gat) domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIA(Mtl) domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBC(Gut) negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

    17. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

      SciTech Connect

      Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

      1996-12-31

      Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

    18. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

      SciTech Connect

      Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

      2010-11-01

      The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

    19. Treatment of spent NTA-based decontamination solutions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Pavlík, A.; Semelová, M.; John, J.; Černochová, K.; Šebesta, F.

      2006-01-01

      This study deals with potential treatment of spent NTA-containing decontamination solutions for final disposal. The method proposed is based on the degradation of organic substances followed by the separation of radionuclides. The influence of various parameters (pH value, irradiation time, temperature, catalyst amount, type and various combinations of catalysts) on photocatalytic degradation of NTA has been studied. Photo-Fenton reagent (Fe3+/H2O2) as a homogenous catalyst was found to be much more efficient than the TiO2-based heterogeneous catalyst Degussa P25. Under optimum conditions NTA in a simulant of a spent decontamination solution without or with hydrazine could be degraded within 5 or 9 hours, respectively. The study of sorption properties of a series of absorbers revealed that radiostrontium and radiosilver can be effectively removed from the simulant of a spent decontamination solution even in the presence of NTA, while total NTA degradation is necessary for effective radiocobalt separation.

    20. Release of organic reagents from solidified decontamination wastes

      SciTech Connect

      Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

      1985-01-01

      In order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory has measured the release of organic reagents from solidified simulated decontamination wastes. The waste streams consisted of either mixed-bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins equilibrated with EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid or simulated LOMI decontamination reagent. These simulated resin wastes were solidified in either cement or vinyl ester-styrene. Samples were tested by a fixed interval leach procedure or according to the standard ANS 16.1 procedure. The leachability indices, which were calculated as prescribed in ANS 16.1, varied with leach period for some of the composites tested. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

    1. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

      SciTech Connect

      Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

      2005-02-01

      A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

    2. Decontamination of actinides and fission products from stainless steel surfaces

      SciTech Connect

      Mertz, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Drockelman, D.; Kaminski, M.; Landsberger, S.; Stubbins, J.

      1996-04-01

      Seven in situ decontamination processes were evaluated as possible candidates to reduce radioactivity levels in nuclear facilities throughout the DOE complex. These processes were tested using stainless steel coupons (Type 304) contaminated with actinides (Pu and Am) or fission products (a mixture of Cs, Sr, and Gd). The seven processes were decontamination with nitric acid, nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid, fluoboric acid, silver(II) persulfate, hydrogen peroxide plus oxalic acid plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. Of the seven processes, the nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid solutions gave the best results; the decontamination factors for 3- to 6-h contacts at 80{degree}C were as high as 600 for plutonium, 5500 for americium, 700 for cesium, 15000 for strontium, and 1100 for gadolinium.

    3. The impact of early gut microbiota modulation on the risk of child disease: alert to accuracy in probiotic studies.

      PubMed

      Isolauri, E; Salminen, S

      2015-01-01

      The composition of the gut microbiota, and thus also the modification of the gut microbiota by specific probiotics or prebiotics early in life, may have an impact on the risk of disease in the child. Above the impact on gut microecology, probiotic effects have been attributed to restoration to normal of increased intestinal permeability, improvement of the intestine's immunological barrier functions, alleviation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and reduced generation of proinflammatory cytokines characteristic of local and systemic allergic inflammation. Recent demonstrations from experimental and clinical studies suggest that the gut microbiota is also involved in the control of body weight and energy metabolism, affecting the two main causes of obesity: energy acquisition and storage, and contributing to insulin resistance and the inflammatory state characterising obesity. Current research focuses both on characterising specific probiotic strains and on how the food matrix and the dietary content interacts with the most efficient probiotic strains. It is important to characterise each probiotic to species and strain level and to select strains with documented properties, the probiotic potential being strain-specific. As any proof of causality requires clinical intervention studies in humans in different populations, rigorous and detailed documentation will enhance reproducibility and circumvent confusion. PMID:25619446

    4. Computer software documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Comella, P. A.

      1973-01-01

      A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

    5. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

      SciTech Connect

      Raber, E; Burklund, A

      2010-02-16

      Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

    6. Lactic acid as a decontaminant in slaughter and processing procedures.

      PubMed

      Snijders, J M; van Logtestijn, J G; Mossel, D A; Smulders, F J

      1985-10-01

      An attempt was made to interrelate the data obtained in experiments conducted by our Department along beef, veal and pig slaughter lines, using lactic acid (LA) for the decontamination of carcasses, cold and hot boned primal cuts, slaughter byproducts, and butcher's knives. First and foremost it was observed, that provided Good Manufacturing Practices are strictly followed, the microbial load of carcass surfaces will be substantially reduced. LA-decontamination may result in an additional reduction. Since in the early post-mortem period bacteria are not yet attached to the meat surface, LA-decontamination should preferably be applied to the hot carcass. It was demonstrated that, dependent on mode and duration of application, LA sprays not exceeding 1% v/v (beef), 1.25% v/v (veal) and 1.5% v/v (pork) resulted in acceptable carcass colour scores. Blood spots, which are particularly prone to discolouration by lactic acid application, should be removed at an early post-mortem stage e.g. by strong showering. The difference in surface pH between LA-treated and control carcasses disappeared within 72 hours post-mortem. Veal longissimus chops treated with LA solutions up to 2% v/v were not identified by a consumer taste panel as significantly different from controls. The 'immediate' bactericidal effect of LA-decontamination for beef, veal and pig carcasses, as well as for pig liver and veal brain, amounted to approximately 1.5 log cycles for the aerobic colony counts, strongly dependent on substrate and conditions of decontamination. In addition, a 'delayed' bacteriostatic effect was observed during storage, which is probably the result of a prolonged lag phase of acid-injured micro-organisms surviving lactic acid decontamination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4071948

    7. A Comparative Study of Methods To Validate Formaldehyde Decontamination of Biological Safety Cabinets

      PubMed Central

      Munro, Kerry; Lanser, Janice; Flower, Robert

      1999-01-01

      Methods of validation of formaldehyde decontamination of biological safety cabinets were compared. Decontamination of metal strips inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, poliovirus, or Bacillus spp. spores was compared with the results obtained with three biological indicators. Conditions for successful decontamination, particularly relative humidity, were defined. The Attest 1291 biological indicator was the only biological indicator which was an aid in the detection of gross decontamination failure. PMID:9925635

    8. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

      PubMed

      West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

      2015-01-01

      Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention. PMID:25567038

    9. Effects of microcystin-LR on gut microflora in different gut regions of mice.

      PubMed

      Chen, Jing; Xie, Ping; Lin, Juan; He, Jun; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Jun

      2015-08-01

      To reveal the toxicological effects of the hepatotoxic microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) on gut microbial community composition in different gut regions, we conducted a subchronic exposure of BALB/c mice to MC-LR via intragastric administration. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was employed to profile the shifts of microbes after MC-LR treatment in the jejuno-ileum, caecum and colon. DGGE profiles analysis showed that MC-LR increased the microbial species richness (number of microbial bands) in the caecum and colon as well as microbial diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) in the caecum. The cluster analysis of DGGE profiles indicated that the microbial structures in the caecum and colon shifted significantly after MC-LR treatment, while that in the jejuno-ileum did not. All the relatively decreased gut microbes belonged to Clostridia in the Firmicutes phylum, and most of them were Lachnospiraceae. The increased ones derived from a variety of microbes including species from Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae in the Bacteroidetes phylum, as well as Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae in the Firmicutes phylum, and among which, the increase of Barnesiella in Porphyromonadaceae was most remarkable. In conclusion, subchronic exposure to MC-LR could disturb the balance of gut microbes in mice, and its toxicological effects varied between the jejuno-ileum and the other two gut regions. PMID:26165645

    10. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, gut microbes and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

      PubMed

      Stanisavljević, S; Lukić, J; Momčilović, M; Miljković, M; Jevtić, B; Kojić, M; Golić, N; Mostarica Stojković, M; Miljković, D

      2016-06-01

      Gut microbiota and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have been increasingly appreciated as important players in pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis that can be induced with an injection of spinal cord homogenate emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, but not in Albino Oxford (AO) rats. In this study, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), Peyer's patches (PP) and gut microbiota were analysed in these two rat strains. There was higher proportion of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in non-immunised DA rats in comparison to AO rats. Also, DA rat MLN and PP cells were higher producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17. Finally, microbial analyses showed that uncultivated species of Turicibacter and Atopostipes genus were exclusively present in AO rats, in faeces and intestinal tissue, respectively. Thus, it is clear that in comparison of an EAE-susceptible with an EAE-resistant strain of rats, various discrepancies at the level of gut associated lymphoid tissue, as well as at the level of gut microbiota can be observed. Future studies should determine if the differences have functional significance for EAE pathogenesis. PMID:26839070

    11. Gut Microbial Metabolites Fuel Host Antibody Responses.

      PubMed

      Kim, Myunghoo; Qie, Yaqing; Park, Jeongho; Kim, Chang H

      2016-08-10

      Antibody production is a metabolically demanding process that is regulated by gut microbiota, but the microbial products supporting B cell responses remain incompletely identified. We report that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by gut microbiota as fermentation products of dietary fiber, support host antibody responses. In B cells, SCFAs increase acetyl-CoA and regulate metabolic sensors to increase oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and fatty acid synthesis, which produce energy and building blocks supporting antibody production. In parallel, SCFAs control gene expression to express molecules necessary for plasma B cell differentiation. Mice with low SCFA production due to reduced dietary fiber consumption or microbial insufficiency are defective in homeostatic and pathogen-specific antibody responses, resulting in greater pathogen susceptibility. However, SCFA or dietary fiber intake restores this immune deficiency. This B cell-helping function of SCFAs is detected from the intestines to systemic tissues and conserved among mouse and human B cells, highlighting its importance. PMID:27476413

    12. Caspase deficiency alters the murine gut microbiome

      PubMed Central

      Brinkman, B M; Hildebrand, F; Kubica, M; Goosens, D; Del Favero, J; Declercq, W; Raes, J; Vandenabeele, P

      2011-01-01

      Caspases are aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that have an essential role in apoptosis and inflammation, and contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the intestine. These facts, together with the knowledge that caspases are implicated in host-microbe crosstalk, prompted us to investigate the effect of caspase (Casp)1, -3 and -7 deficiency on the composition of the murine gut microbiota. We observed significant changes in the abundance of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, in particular the Lachnospiraceae, Porphyromonodaceae and Prevotellacea families, when comparing Casp-1, -7 and -3 knockout mice with wild-type mice. Our data point toward an intricate relationship between these caspases and the composition of the murine gut microflora. PMID:22012254

    13. [Gut microbiota in health and disease].

      PubMed

      Icaza-Chávez, M E

      2013-01-01

      Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. PMID:24290319

    14. Constraining SUSY GUTs and Inflation with Cosmology

      SciTech Connect

      Rocher, Jonathan

      2006-11-03

      In the framework of Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), the universe undergoes a cascade of symmetry breakings, during which topological defects can be formed. We address the question of the probability of cosmic string formation after a phase of hybrid inflation within a large number of models of SUSY GUTs in agreement with particle and cosmological data. We show that cosmic strings are extremely generic and should be used to relate cosmology and high energy physics. This conclusion is employed together with the WMAP CMB data to strongly constrain SUSY hybrid inflation models. F-term and D-term inflation are studied in the SUSY and minimal SUGRA framework. They are both found to agree with data but suffer from fine tuning of their superpotential coupling ({lambda} (less-or-similar sign) 3 x 10-5 or less). Mass scales of inflation are also constrained to be less than M < or approx. 3 x 1015 GeV.

    15. Decontamination and Recycling of Radioactive Material from Retired Components

      SciTech Connect

      Bushart, S.P.; Wood, C.J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

      2007-07-01

      This paper describes the development of the EPRI DFDX (Decontamination For Decommissioning, electrochemical ion exchange) process for the chemical decontamination of reactor coolant systems and components. A US patent has been awarded and a plant, conforming to exacting nuclear industry standards, has been constructed to demonstrate the process at a number of sites. The plant has completed successful demonstration tests at Studsvik in Sweden and Dounreay in Scotland. The R and D phase for this technology is now complete, and the plant is now in commercial operation in the United Kingdom. (authors)

    16. Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination

      SciTech Connect

      Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

      1997-05-01

      Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald site where a concrete floor containing uranium was decontaminated. In the latter test, the unit operated without problems and reduced the counts per minute by more than 90%. Currently in Phase III, a larger 30 kW unit has been assembled and prepared for testing/demonstration.

    17. Dual enzymatic detergents: a safer way to decontaminate.

      PubMed

      Dernbach, C M

      1989-09-01

      1. Although the technology of mechanical equipment has advanced, manual cleaning of contaminated items has not been eliminated in the initial decontamination phase. 2. Proteolytic enzymes dissolve and lift the protein contaminate while detergents remove the dissolved organic particulate from the surface of the item. 3. A dual proteolytic enzyme detergent can be used over a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. 4. Dual enzymatic detergents reduce employee exposure through manual cleaning and assure the complete removal of gross organic debris during the initial decontamination phase. PMID:2675392

    18. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

      2005-10-01

      The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

    19. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

      SciTech Connect

      1994-11-01

      EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

    20. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

      PubMed

      Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

      2007-01-01

      Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients. PMID:17517363

    1. Orbifold SUSY GUT from the Heterotic String

      SciTech Connect

      Kyae, Bumseok

      2008-11-23

      From the string partition function, we discuss the mass-shell and GSO projection conditions valid for Kaluza-Klein (KK) as well as massless states in the heterotic string theory compactifled on a nonprime orbifold. Using the obtained conditions we construct a 4D string standard model, which is embedded in a 6D SUSY GUT by including KK states above the compactiflcation scale. We discuss the stringy threshold corrections to gauge couplings, including the Wilson line effects.

    2. Caenorhabditis microbiota: worm guts get populated.

      PubMed

      Clark, Laura C; Hodgkin, Jonathan

      2016-01-01

      Until recently, almost nothing has been known about the natural microbiota of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Reporting their research in BMC Biology, Dirksen and colleagues describe the first sequencing effort to characterize the gut microbiota of environmentally isolated C. elegans and the related taxa Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis remanei In contrast to the monoxenic, microbiota-free cultures that are studied in hundreds of laboratories, it appears that natural populations of Caenorhabditis harbor distinct microbiotas. PMID:27160265

    3. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

      PubMed Central

      Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

      2016-01-01

      Background and aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or promoting colonisation by pathogens. In this study, we investigated the influence of PPI use on the gut microbiome. Methods The gut microbiome composition of 1815 individuals, spanning three cohorts, was assessed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The difference in microbiota composition in PPI users versus non-users was analysed separately in each cohort, followed by a meta-analysis. Results 211 of the participants were using PPIs at the moment of stool sampling. PPI use is associated with a significant decrease in Shannon's diversity and with changes in 20% of the bacterial taxa (false discovery rate <0.05). Multiple oral bacteria were over-represented in the faecal microbiome of PPI-users, including the genus Rothia (p=9.8×10−38). In PPI users we observed a significant increase in bacteria: genera Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and the potentially pathogenic species Escherichia coli. Conclusions The differences between PPI users and non-users observed in this study are consistently associated with changes towards a less healthy gut microbiome. These differences are in line with known changes that predispose to C. difficile infections and can potentially explain the increased risk of enteric infections in PPI users. On a population level, the effects of PPI are more prominent than the effects of antibiotics or other commonly used drugs. PMID:26657899

    4. Decontamination and Decommissioning of the SPERT-II and SPERT-III reactors at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

      SciTech Connect

      Hine, R.E.

      1981-02-01

      This report describes the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the SPERT-II and SPERT-III reactor facilities performed during the period June through September 1980 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It includes a detailed description of the D and D accomplished and the post-D and D condition of the reactor facilities. The report also serves to document the radiological condition of the facilities after D and D, the waste volume generated and its disposition, and the project cost and schedule.

    5. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-10-01

      ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

    6. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

    7. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

    8. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

    9. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-10-01

      ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

    10. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-10-01

      ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

    11. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

    12. 41 CFR 102-75.955 - Who is responsible for decontaminating excess and surplus real property?

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Management of Excess and Surplus Real Property Decontamination § 102-75... responsible for all expenses to the Government and for the supervision of the decontamination of excess and... be exercised in the decontamination, management, and disposal of contaminated property in order...

    13. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-10-01

      ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

    14. 48 CFR 1523.303-71 - Decontamination of Government-furnished property.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-10-01

      ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decontamination of... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-71 Decontamination of..., Decontamination of Government-Furnished Property, when it is anticipated that a Contractor will use...

    15. Wet decontamination-induced stratum corneum hydration--effects on the skin barrier function to diethylmalonate.

      PubMed

      Loke, W K; U, S H; Lau, S K; Lim, J S; Tay, G S; Koh, C H

      1999-01-01

      Decontamination of chemical agents from the skin uses both dry and wet decontamination processes. Recent studies have shown that wet decontamination frequently results in stratum corneum hydration. To evaluate the hydration effect of wet decontamination on the skin barrier function and hence on the decontamination efficiency, a series of comparative studies were carried out on human skin contaminated with the nerve agent simulant diethylmalonate, using decontamination media having different salinity and surfactants. The results showed that, compared to non-decontaminated skin, remnant diethylmalonate on decontaminated skin penetrated at an accelerated rate in the immediate 2 h following decontamination. This transient enhancement effect, ranging from 20 to 98%, was depended on the nature of the decontamination media used and was more obvious in skin samples that were decontaminated 1 h postexposure. All decontamination media exhibited this effect, with the greatest enhancement observed in the following order: anionic surfactant > cationic surfactant > non-ionic surfactant > deionized water > 0.9% saline > 9% saline. PMID:10439344

    16. Process for decontaminating radioactive liquids using a calcium cyanamide-containing composition. [Patent application

      DOEpatents

      Silver, G.L.

      1980-09-24

      The present invention provides a process for decontaminating a radioactive liquid containing a radioactive element capable of forming a hydroxide. This process includes the steps of contacting the radioactive liquid with a decontaminating composition and separating the resulting radioactive sludge from the resulting liquid. The decontaminating composition contains calcium cyanamide.

    17. Degraded document image enhancement

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

      2007-01-01

      Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

    18. GUTs on Compact Type IIB Orientifolds

      SciTech Connect

      Blumenhagen, Ralph; Braun, Volker; Grimm, Thomas W.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

      2008-12-01

      We systematically analyze globally consistent SU(5) GUT models on intersecting D7-branes in genuine Calabi-Yau orientifolds with O3- and O7-planes. Beyond the well-known tadpole and K-theory cancellation conditions there exist a number of additional subtle but quite restrictive constraints. For the realization of SU(5) GUTs with gauge symmetry breaking via U(1)Y flux we present two classes of suitable Calabi-Yau manifolds defined via del Pezzo transitions of the elliptically fibred hypersurface P{sub 1,1,1,6,9}[18] and of the Quintic P{sub 1,1,1,1,1}[5], respectively. To define an orientifold projection we classify all involutions on del Pezzo surfaces. We work out the model building prospects of these geometries and present five globally consistent string GUT models in detail, including a 3-generation SU(5) model with no exotics whatsoever. We also realize other phenomenological features such as the 10 10 5{sub H} Yukawa coupling and comment on the possibility of moduli stabilization, where we find an entire new set of so-called swiss-cheese type Calabi-Yau manifolds. It is expected that both the general constrained structure and the concrete models lift to F-theory vacua on compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds.

    19. Gut microbiome and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases.

      PubMed

      Zhu, Lixin; Baker, Robert D; Baker, Susan S

      2015-01-01

      We review recent findings and hypotheses on the roles of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Microbial metabolites and cell components contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis and inflammation, key components of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the severe form of NAFLD. Altered gut microbiome can independently cause obesity, the most important risk factor for NAFLD. This capability is attributed to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), major gut microbial fermentation products. SCFAs account for a large portion of caloric intake of the host, and they enhance intestinal absorption by activating GLP-2 signaling. However, elevated SCFAs may be an adaptive measure to suppress colitis, which could be a higher priority than imbalanced calorie intake. The microbiome of NASH patients features an elevated capacity for alcohol production. The pathomechanisms for alcoholic steatohepatitis may apply to NASH. NAFLD/NASH is associated with elevated Gram-negative microbiome and endotoxemia. However, many NASH patients exhibited normal serum endotoxin indicating that endotoxemia is not required for the pathogenesis of NASH. These observations suggest that microbial intervention may benefit NAFLD/NASH patients. However, very limited effects were observed using traditional probiotic species. Novel probiotic therapy based on NAFLD/NASH specific microbial composition represents a promising future direction. PMID:25310763

    20. Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system.

      PubMed

      Di Marzo, V; Piscitelli, F

      2011-05-01

      Stemming from the centuries-old and well known effects of Cannabis on intestinal motility and secretion, research on the role of the endocannabinoid system in gut function and dysfunction has received ever increasing attention since the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. In this article, some of the most recent developments in this field are discussed, with particular emphasis on new data, most of which are published in Neurogastroenterology & Motility, on the potential tonic endocannabinoid control of intestinal motility, the function of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors in gastric function, visceral pain, inflammation and sepsis, the emerging role of cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors in the gut, and the pharmacology of endocannabinoid-related molecules and plant cannabinoids not necessarily acting via cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. These novel data highlight the multi-faceted aspects of endocannabinoid function in the GI tract, support the feasibility of the future therapeutic exploitation of this signaling system for the treatment of GI disorders, and leave space for some intriguing new hypotheses on the role of endocannabinoids in the gut. PMID:21481098