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1

Making Space for Place-Making Pedagogies: Stretching Normative Mandated Literacy Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of normative standardised literacy curriculum continuing to make space for culturally responsive literacy pedagogy is on ongoing challenge for early childhood educators. Collaborative participatory research and ethnographic studies of teachers who accomplish innovative and inclusive early childhood education in culturally diverse high…

Comber, Barbara

2011-01-01

2

Is expected utility theory normative for medical decision making?  

PubMed

Expected utility theory is felt by its proponents to be a normative theory of decision making under uncertainty. The theory starts with some simple axioms that are held to be rules that any rational person would follow. It can be shown that if one adheres to these axioms, a numerical quantity, generally referred to as utility, can be assigned to each possible outcome, with the preferred course of action being that which has the highest expected utility. One of these axioms, the independence principle, is controversial, and is frequently violated in experimental situations. Proponents of the theory hold that these violations are irrational. The independence principle is simply an axiom dictating consistency among preferences, in that it dictates that a rational agent should hold a specified preference given another stated preference. When applied to preferences between lotteries, the independence principle can be demonstrated to be a rule that is followed only when preferences are formed in a particular way. The logic of expected utility theory is that this demonstration proves that preferences should be formed in this way. An alternative interpretation is that this demonstrates that the independence principle is not a valid general rule of consistency, but in particular, is a rule that must be followed if one is to consistently apply the decision rule "choose the lottery that has the highest expected utility." This decision rule must be justified on its own terms as a valid rule of rationality by demonstration that violation would lead to decisions that conflict with the decision maker's goals. This rule does not appear to be suitable for medical decisions because often these are one-time decisions in which expectation, a long-run property of a random variable, would not seem to be applicable. This is particularly true for those decisions involving a non-trivial risk of death. PMID:8717589

Cohen, B J

1996-01-01

3

Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

1984-01-01

4

''Leaky'' Rationality How Research on Behavioral Decision Making Challenges Normative Standards of Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 30 years, decision-making re- search has documented that people often violate various principles of rationality, some of which are so fundamental that theorists of rationality rarely bother to state them. We take these characteristics of decision making as a given but argue that it is problematic to conclude that they typically represent departures from rationality. The very

Daniel J. Keys; Barry Schwartz

5

Documentation Panel: The "Making Learning Visible" Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observation and documentation are integral to the early childhood classroom. Observation provides the information necessary for adults to build meaningful relationships with individual children. Documentation panels including photographs, teacher's notes, transcriptions, and artifacts, artfully and prominently displayed, serve as a visual archive…

Kline, Lynn S.

2008-01-01

6

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft Excel 2007  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible Microsoft E?cel 2007 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must

7

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft Excel 2003  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible Microsoft E?cel 2003 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must

8

Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for verbal span, visuospatial span, letter and number sequencing, trail making test, and symbol digit modalities test.  

PubMed

As part of the Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for the following instruments: verbal span (digits), visuospatial span (Corsi's test), letter-number sequencing (WAIS-III), trail making test, and symbol digit modalities test. The sample consists of 354 participants who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling, and age ranging from 50 to 90 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spanish people. These data may be of considerable use for comparisons with other normative studies. Limitations of these normative data are mainly related to the techniques of recruitment and stratification employed. PMID:19661109

Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Quintana-Aparicio, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Badenes, Dolors; Molinuevo, José Luis; Torner, Laura; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Villanueva, Clara; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Sanz, Azucena; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

2009-06-01

9

Education for sustainable development and normativity: a transactional analysis of moral meaning?making and companion meanings in classroom communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present article is to present and illustrate two different ways of analysing the normativity and discursivity of classroom communication during education for sustainable development (ESD). The two types of analysis can provide important knowledge for discussions of ESD in relation to morals and democracy. Both methods are based on pragmatism and the later works of Wittgenstein.

Leif Östman

2010-01-01

10

38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

2010-07-01

11

Notable Government Documents 2001: What a Difference a Year Makes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of notable government documents published in 2001 and lists agencies and distributors for federal, state and local, and international documents. Discusses changes in U.S. government publications since the September 11 terrorist attacks, including agencies shutting down their Web sites, requests to destroy materials, and…

Jobe, Margaret M.

2002-01-01

12

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2010-01-01

13

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2011-01-01

14

Making Handwritten Archives Documents Accessible to Public with a Generic System of Document Image Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present annotations needed for handwritten archive document retrieval by content. We propose two complementary ways of producing those annotations: automatically by using document image analysis and collectively by using Internet and a manual input by users. A platform for managing those annotations is presented as well as examples of automatic annotations on civil status registers, military forms (tested on

Bertrand Coüasnon; Jean Camillerapp; Ivan Leplumey

2004-01-01

15

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft Word 2007  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Doc?ments Accessible Microsof? Word 2007 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must be

16

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft Word 2003  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Doc?ments Accessible Microsof? Word 2003 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must be

17

Making sense of an Electronic Document - Visualization Strategies for Concept Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic documents are increasingly becoming the norm today. Electronic document management systems solve many of the storage and retrieval problems inherent in paper filing systems while reducing business costs. However, with conversion of paper documents to electronic form, and an increasing amount of data being produced in electronic form, an employee today is hard-pressed in time simply trying to make

Naresh Kumar Agarwal; Danny C. C. Poo

2006-01-01

18

Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Norms for Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Animal Naming, Token Test, Wrat-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data for older African Americans are presented for several clinical neuropsychological measures, including Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Token Test, WRAT-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 309 cognitively normal, community-dwelling individuals, aged 56 through 94, participating in Mayo's

John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Tanis J. Ferman; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

19

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft PowerPoint 2003  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible Microsoft Po?erPoint 2003 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information

20

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft PowerPoint 2007  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible Microsoft Po?erPoint 2007 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information

21

Resolving conflicts between personal and normative goals in normative agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for resolving conflicts between personal and normative goals in normative agent systems. The conflicts occur in the decision making process of time-constrained tasks of those goals. The agents observe the environment, generate the tasks based on their obligation to an authority, their desires, and intentions. They select and execute the tasks from a

Azhana Ahmad; Mohad Zaliman; Mohd Yusof; Mohd. Sharifuddin Ahmad; Moamin Ahmed; Aida Mustapha

2011-01-01

22

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2010-10-01

23

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2011-10-01

24

Can Participation in Documentation Influence Experiences of Involvement in Care Decision-Making?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Patients have the right to influence the care they receive, but their wish to participate in care decision-making is unclear. Aim: This study investigates whether participation in nursing documentation influences patient participation in care decision-making, mastery, self-esteem, empowerment and depressive feelings among adult in-patients with chronic disease. Materials and Methodology: Adult patients (n=39) with chronic diseases were randomized. The intervention group participated in nursing documentation. Upon departure, patients filled in questionnaires about participation in care decision-making, mastery, self-esteem, empowerment and depressive feelings. Results: The majority of the patients preferred a collaborative or passive role regarding care decision-making. Lack of knowledge was one reason for non-participation. Having been diagnosed more than five years previously meant stronger empowerment. Conclusion: It is a challenge for nurses to find strategies to assess patients’ wishes regarding participation in care decision-making. Nurses must support patients’ knowledge of their disease and empowerment. PMID:23802031

Vestala, Hanna; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman

2013-01-01

25

Age and Gender Trends in Adults' Normative Moral Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of moral reasoning may be conceived of as having a dualistic nature, with moral decision-making termed either empirical morality or normative morality. Although it has been tacitly assumed that normative moral values can be inferred from empirical morality methods of investigation, there exists data to suggest that this may not be…

Leon, Marjorie Roth; Lynn, Tracey; McLean, Patricia; Perri, Lynn

26

Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a course on documentation. The six sessions of the course cover the following topics: (1) general principles of procedure writing; (2) principles of clear communication (clarity, audience, visuals) and identification of systems types, accounts, and customer requests;…

Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

27

Normative Dimensions of Sustainable Energy Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing a link between energy policy and sustainable development, this paper explores the normative dimensions of policy analysis that inform energy sector decision-making, and how these norms fall short of incorporating adequate considerations of sustainability. The discussion focuses on the obligations that our present generation has to conserve for future generations, the decision of which discount rate to use, and

Sanya Carley

2011-01-01

28

Normative social influence is underdetected.  

PubMed

The present research investigated the persuasive impact and detectability of normative social influence. The first study surveyed 810 Californians about energy conservation and found that descriptive normative beliefs were more predictive of behavior than were other relevant beliefs, even though respondents rated such norms as least important in their conservation decisions. Study 2, a field experiment, showed that normative social influence produced the greatest change in behavior compared to information highlighting other reasons to conserve, even though respondents rated the normative information as least motivating. Results show that normative messages can be a powerful lever of persuasion but that their influence is underdetected. PMID:18550863

Nolan, Jessica M; Schultz, P Wesley; Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J; Griskevicius, Vladas

2008-07-01

29

The Effect of Structured Decision-Making Techniques and Gender on Student Reaction and Quality of Written Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experimental groups used four decision-making techniques--reverse brainstorming (RS), dialectical inquiry (DI), devil's advocacy (DA), and consensus--in evaluating writing assignments. Control group produced a better quality document. Student reaction to negative features of RS, DI, and DA were not significant. (SK)

Neal, Joan; Echternacht, Lonnie

1995-01-01

30

Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

31

The carrot and the stick: how to make sure your documentation's correct.  

PubMed

With federal fraud investigators labeling discharge planning a risk area in their model compliance plans, case managers are finding themselves on the front lines of the corporate compliance wars. Experts warn that how well you document your work could affect your hospital's accreditation and ability to participate in Medicare. When poor documentation exists in the discharge planning process, it's probably because case managers didn't receive adequate training in discharge planning, experts say. Poor documentation also can result from lax oversight on the part of supervisors. To prevent documentation errors in discharge planning, case managers can become compliance officers for their departments. After all, experts say, compliance is just another form of quality improvement. PMID:10182862

1998-09-01

32

Multivariate normative comparisons.  

PubMed

In neuropsychological evaluations and single case research generally a number of tests are administered, since the interest is not in a single, but in multiple characteristics of a patient. The typical problem is to decide whether or not a patient is different from normal controls with respect to one or more of these characteristics. Consideration of each characteristic separately entails an increased risk of a false positive decision (a wrongful decision that the patient is abnormal, or a type 1 error). From a statistical point of view this calls for a multivariate analysis. In this paper, we propose two approaches to perform normative comparisons for such multivariate data: Bonferroni corrected univariate comparisons and a multivariate comparison. Both approaches allow for the testing of unidirectional (two-sided) as well as directional (one-sided) hypothesis, i.e. the hypothesis that a patient deviates in a negative sense from the norm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to check if the type I error of both approaches is adequately controlled, and to investigate the power of both approaches to detect deviation from the norm. The results indicate that the type I error rate of both approaches is correct, even in small samples. The results also indicate that the power is higher for the univariate approach if the normative sample size is very small (i.e. just exceeds the number of tests administered). In larger samples, the multivariate comparison has in general increased power. We illustrate both approaches with a clinical example of patients with Parkinson disease, who received deep brain stimulation to alleviate motor symptoms, and who were neuropsychologically evaluated to detect possible cognitive side effects. PMID:17451757

Huizenga, Hilde M; Smeding, Harriet; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Schmand, Ben

2007-06-18

33

Making Learning Visible in Kindergarten Classrooms: Pedagogical Documentation as a Formative Assessment Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated interactions between pedagogical documentation--a formative assessment technique and instructional intervention designed to increase student learning by recording children's experiences--and kindergarten children, families and teachers in the UAE. The study sample comprised six teachers in six kindergarten classrooms, 141…

Buldu, Mehmet

2010-01-01

34

36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...follow our microfilm handling instructions in § 1254.42. (g) You may use a hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the research room attendant. (h) You...

2010-07-01

35

36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?  

...hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the research...copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures, maps and architectural drawings, or aerial photographic...

2014-07-01

36

36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the research...copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures, maps and architectural drawings, or aerial photographic...

2011-07-01

37

Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) phase II: 930 new normative photos.  

PubMed

Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

Brodeur, Mathieu B; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

2014-01-01

38

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Doc?ments Accessible Adobe Acroba? 9 Pro Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must be

39

Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport.  

PubMed

How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

McKillop, Heather

2005-04-12

40

Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport  

PubMed Central

How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

McKillop, Heather

2005-01-01

41

Imprecision in normative domains  

E-print Network

Being rational and being moral can be difficult. However, some theories of rationality and morality make living up to these ideals too difficult by imposing requirements which are excessively rigid. In this dissertation, ...

Schoenfield, Miriam

2012-01-01

42

Why do children overimitate? Normativity is crucial.  

PubMed

Recent research has documented that children readily engage in overimitation, that is, the reproduction of causally irrelevant elements within a bigger action sequence. Different explanations have been put forward. Affiliation accounts claim that children overimitate to affiliate with the model. Causal confusion accounts claim that children mistakenly perceive causally irrelevant elements as causally relevant and, thus, imitate them. Normativity accounts claim that overimitation arises when children view causally irrelevant elements as an essential part of an overarching conventional activity. To test among these accounts, we had children watch a model produce some effect by performing a sequence of causally irrelevant and relevant acts, with the latter resulting in some effect. In two conditions, the model presented the action sequence as focused either more on the method or more on the goal, with the normativity account predicting that children should interpret the causally irrelevant element as essential more often in the method condition than in the goal condition. Three measures were used: (a) children's own overimitation, (b) their spontaneous responses to a puppet engaging in or refraining from overimitation, and (c) their explicit judgments about the puppet's behavior. Results revealed that overimitation was frequent in both conditions. In addition, however, children protested against the puppet only when she did not overimitate, they did so more in the method condition than in the goal condition, and they explicitly judged omission of the irrelevant actions to be a mistake in the method condition. These results are not readily compatible with affiliation and causal confusion accounts, and they speak in favor of normativity accounts. PMID:23933292

Keupp, Stefanie; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

2013-10-01

43

Navigating the Normative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

Hlebowitsh, Peter

2009-01-01

44

Toward a Practical and Normative Ethics for Librarianship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just about everything that librarians do as professionals carries ethical implications. Matters of intellectual freedom are most commonly recognized as loci for ethics-based decision making, but the totality of individual and collective conduct is in need of practical, normative ethical structure. What is argued for here is a framework founded on…

Budd, John M.

2006-01-01

45

Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting  

PubMed Central

When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a “financial guide” detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to “expert” advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified. PMID:23596504

Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

2013-01-01

46

Self-Regulation of Normative and Non-Normative Developmental Challenges1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article develops the argument that successful management of normatively less expected life events and transitions requires from the individual a greater degree of self-regulatory skills than the management of normative events. It is argued that, based on recent historical change, individuals have to master both normative and non-normative developmental demands. With regard to the mastery of non-normative developmental demands,

Carsten Wrosch; Alexandra M. Freund

2001-01-01

47

Decision Making in the Curriculum Development Process and Raising the Quality of Academic Standards: What Does a Review of Australian Curriculum Documents Tell Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, to which factors in the process of decision making involved in curriculum development in Australia, have determined the quality of curriculum documents. Searches on web sites of education organisations and electronic databases of educational literature were conducted to identify source documents

Watt, Michael G.

2008-01-01

48

Unreasonable reasons: normative judgements in the assessment of mental capacity  

PubMed Central

The recent Mental Capacity Act (2005) sets out a test for assessing a person's capacity to make treatment choices. In some cases, particularly in psychiatry, it is unclear how the criteria ought to be interpreted and applied by clinicians. In this paper, I argue that this uncertainty arises because the concept of capacity employed in the Act, and the diagnostic tools developed to assist its assessment, overlook the inherent normativity of judgements made about whether a person is using or weighing information in the decision-making process. Patients may fail on this criterion to the extent that they do not appear to be handling the information given in an appropriate way, on account of a mental impairment disrupting the way the decision process ought to proceed. Using case law and clinical examples, I describe some of the normative dimensions along which judgements of incapacity can be made, namely epistemic, evaluative and affective dimensions. Such judgements are complex and the normative standards by which a clinician may determine capacity cannot be reduced to a set of criteria. Rather, in recognizing this normativity, clinicians may better understand how clinical judgements are structured and what kinds of assumption may inform their assessment. PMID:22995005

Banner, Natalie F

2012-01-01

49

PHP Script Documentation for .include Pages in CODA Repositories To be able to make this work for you, your web server must be php-enabled. Please contact  

E-print Network

PHP Script Documentation for .include Pages in CODA Repositories To be able to make this work for you, your web server must be php-enabled. Please contact your web administrator about this. This PDF of the script preceding the ".include". To be able to make this work for you, your browser must have PHP scripts

Koch, Christof

50

The Ethics of Care: Normative Structures and Empirical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I argue that the ethics of care provides us with a novel reading of human relations, and therefore makes possible\\u000a a fresh approach to several empirical challenges. In order to explore this connection, I discuss some specific normative features\\u000a of the ethics of care—primarily the comprehension of the moral agent and the concept of care—as these two

Tove Pettersen

2011-01-01

51

The Presence of Norms in the Absence of Groups? The Impact of Normative Influence under Hidden-Profile Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of normative and informational influence with respect to research on hidden profiles, which occur when the members of a group individually hold information favoring a low-quality decision but collectively have the information necessary to make a high-quality decision. Finds that when normative and informational influences are…

Cruz, Michael G.; Henningsen, David Dryden; Williams, Mary Lynn Miller

2000-01-01

52

The rise and fall of normative control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widely-publicized breaches of professional norms among accountants in the United States have kindled their interest in the problem of norms and normative control. This article discusses the current literature on norms. It suggests that normative control, which is always problematic, is especially so when agents are subject to the control of two or more principals having divergent interests. It is

Michael Hechter

2008-01-01

53

Normativity and Rationality in Delusional Psychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric treatment and diagnosis rests upon a richer conception of normativity than, for example, cognitive neuropsychology. This paper explores the role that considerations of rationality can play in defining this richer conception of normativity. It distinguishes two types of rationality (procedural and epistemic) and considers how each type can break down in different ways in delusional psychiatric disorders. Both psychiatry

Jose L. Bermudez

2001-01-01

54

Using normative scenarios in landscape ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normative landscape scenario is one of many types of scenario methods that are used by landscape ecologists. We describe how normative landscape scenarios are different from other types and how these differences create special potential for engaging science to build landscape policy and for exploring scientific questions in realistic simulated landscapes. We describe criteria and a method for generating

Joan Iverson Nassauer; Robert C. Corry

2004-01-01

55

42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits. 110.51 Section 110.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility §...

2013-10-01

56

Use of Information and Documentation for Planning and Decision-Making. Summary Report and Proceedings of Joint ESAMI/PADIS/DSE Seminar (Salisbury, Zimbabwe, August 3-7, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this seminar was twofold: to make senior civil servants of Zimbabwe aware of the importance of information and documentation for planning and decision-making, and to introduce the concept of a national information and documentation center (NIDC) as designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Pan-African Documentation

Moeller, T.; Mushonga, B. L. B.

57

Preliminary normative neuropsychological data for an elderly chinese population.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological testing is key to diagnosing and assessing for dementia but there is a dearth of normative neuropsychological data for ethnic Chinese older persons, particularly for non-English-speaking individuals with low education. The aim of this study was to establish a set of age-specific, education-specific, and culture-appropriate norms on measures of cognitive function for a population of cognitively normal community-dwelling Chinese elderly, and explore the effects of age and education on test performance. Results showed decreasing test performances with increasing age and very poor performance in the most poorly educated strata. However, the age-associated decline in test performance was not uniform across different education groups, indicating a more complex association. The present findings highlight a need for normative data that are applicable to lower educated elderly people as this group makes up a substantial proportion of the Asian elderly. PMID:22288384

Lee, Cheryl K Y; Collinson, Simon L; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin

2012-01-01

58

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01...decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION...which is likely to significantly affect the quality of the human environment; and (d)...

2013-10-01

59

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01...decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION...which is likely to significantly affect the quality of the human environment; and (d)...

2012-10-01

60

Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

@cwi.nl Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.11 [Distributed Artificial Intelligence]: Multiagent systems General. NORMATIVE SYSTEMS AS AGENTS Normative systems that control and regulate behavior are autonomous, they react as the properties of autonomous or intelligent agents [6], normative systems may be called normative agents

van der Torre, Leon

61

Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Normative Data for Commonly Used Clinical Neuropsychological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the methodology and sample characteristics of Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). These studies reflect a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort by investigators at Mayo Clinic to provide age-appropriate normative data for African American elders on commonly used neuropsychological tests. A sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals over age 55 contributed to the MOAANS sample. Norms were calculated for

Robert J. Ivnik; Floyd B. Willis; Tanis J. Ferman; Glenn E. Smith; Francine C. Parfitt; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

62

Young Children Attribute Normativity to Novel Actions without Pedagogy or Normative Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. "this is the way it goes"), along with pedagogical cues signaling…

Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

63

Normative beliefs and sexual risk in China.  

PubMed

We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners, while having multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with STIs. Normative beliefs regarding sexual behaviors may play an important role in individual risk behaviors. Future HIV/STI interventions must address community beliefs about the positive meaning of sexual risks, particularly among men with traditional beliefs about gender roles. PMID:20960047

Li, Li; Ding, Ying Ying; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guo, Sam

2011-08-01

64

A Normative Pragmatic Model of Making Fear Appeals  

E-print Network

.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/philosophy_and_rhetoric/v044/44.3.innocenti.pdf Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 7 "condemn all ad baculum arguments on the grounds that they are irrelevant in a critical discussion or informed deliberation of political issues" (2000, 199...

Innocenti, Beth

2011-01-01

65

Is Expected Utility Theory Normative for Medical Decision Making?  

Microsoft Academic Search

these axioms, the independence principle, is controversial, and is frequently violated in experimental situations. Proponents of the theory hold that these violations are irrational. The independence principle is simply an axiom dictating consistency among preferences, in that it dictates that a rational agent should hold a specified preference given another stated preference. When applied to preferences between lotteries, the independence

BRIAN J. COHEN

1996-01-01

66

Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback  

PubMed Central

College students have been shown to consistently overestimate the drinking of their peers. As a result, social norms approaches are effective in correcting these misperceived norms to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. In this review of literature, the authors critically evaluated the effectiveness of personalized normative feedback. In addition, the authors reviewed personalized normative feedback interventions and provided suggestions for increasing the efficacy of these interventions by making better use of salient referent group data. PMID:16450845

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

2008-01-01

67

Normative Consequences of Efficient Capital Market Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the influence exercised by the efficient market hypothesis on standard setting and, consequently, its normative consequences. It shows this influence through the analysis of a particular case: the design and implementation of the International Accounting Standard on financial instruments. In this case it is clear that the efficient market hypothesis was used as the main theoretical

Norio Sawabe

68

Multiple citizenship: normative ideals and institutional challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional suggestions for how to rethink democracy in response to changing state responsibilities and capabilities have been numerous and often mutually incompatible. This suggests that conceptual unclarity still reigns concerning how the normative ideal of democracy as collective self-determination, i.e. ‘rule by the people’, might best be brought to bear in a transnational and global context. The aim in this

Eva Erman; Andreas Follesdal

2012-01-01

69

Multiple citizenship: normative ideals and institutional challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional suggestions for how to rethink democracy in response to changing state responsibilities and capabilities have been numerous and often mutually incompatible. This suggests that conceptual unclarity still reigns concerning how the normative ideal of democracy as collective self-determination, i.e. ‘rule by the people’, might best be brought to bear in a transnational and global context. The aim in this

Eva Erman; Andreas Follesdal

2011-01-01

70

Normativity and The Metaphysics of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

I consider the metaphysical consequences of the view that propositional attitudes have essential normative properties. I argue that realism should take a weak rather than a strong form. I argue that expressivism cannot get off the ground. And I argue that eliminativism is self-refuting.

Nick Zangwill

2010-01-01

71

Normativity in logic May 9, 2011  

E-print Network

a departure of its own between iso- morphic objects, some becoming standard, the others non-standard. Besides universe is a by-product of normativity. Indeed, the question "what is standard?" is booby-trapped: it induces a meaningless dichotomy between standard, nor- mal, integers and non-standard, abnormal ones

Girard, Jean-Yves

72

Introduction to Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

systems. Since the use of norms is a key element of human social intelligence, norms may be essential too for artificial agents that collaborate with humans, or that are to display behavior comparable to human intelligent behavior. By integrating norms and individual intelligence normative multiagent systems provide

van der Torre, Leon

73

Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognized that communications that activate social norms can be effective in producing societally beneficial conduct. Not so well recognized are the circumstances under which normative information can backfire to produce the opposite of what a communicator intends. There is an understandable, but misguided, tendency to try to mobilize action against a problem by depicting it as regrettably

Robert B. Cialdini

2003-01-01

74

Full text provided by www.sciencedirect.com A normative perspective on motivation  

E-print Network

Full text provided by www.sciencedirect.com A normative perspective on motivation Yael Niv1 Unit, UCL, London, UK Understanding the effects of motivation on instrumental action selection making. Motivational states have been shown to `direct' goal-directed behavior rather straightforwardly

Dayan, Peter

75

Children's Normative Beliefs About Aggression and Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary

L. Rowell Huesmann; Nancy G. Guerra

1997-01-01

76

The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

2013-01-01

77

How Oedipus falsifies Popper: psychoanalysis as a normative science.  

PubMed

The scientific status of psychoanalysis has been the subject of continual debate. Influential philosophers of science have challenged the form of its theories and the nature of the evidence offered on their behalf. Some have concluded that the theories are beyond testing--i.e., they can neither be confirmed nor refuted, and psychoanalysis is thus intrinsically unscientific, akin to pseudosciences such as astrology. From that body of criticism, I have chosen for examination and rebuttal the issue of falsifiability. I refute the charge that psychoanalysis is not scientific because its theories are not "falsifiable." On the contrary, I show that psychoanalysis contains theories which make strong and unequivocal statements that are subject to the test of possible falsification. This capacity has been concealed and the falsifiability criticism rendered plausible because of the normative judgments which are latent in discussions of human development and human society. In explicating these judgments, I will move from the philosophy of science to the anthropology and sociology of science (and of the professions). The normative character of psychoanalytic science reinforces the ethical code of the therapeutic profession, a combination which imposes a disciplinary rigidity of the theoretical system. PMID:6856721

Wax, M L

1983-05-01

78

Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

Elias, John Z.; Tylen, Kristian

2014-01-01

79

Normative and microeconomic models of voluntary childlessness.  

PubMed

This paper employs microeconomic and normative variables rather than the more commonly used social psychological modesl to examine voluntary childlessness. The author uses religion, race, ruban versus sural residence, education, and region of residence as normative determinants of fertility; he hypothesizes that fewer Catholics will be childless and that urban dwellers, the well-educated, and those from the West, Midwest, and Northeast will be most likely to remain childless. Microeconomic theory, emphasizing the costs of children, assumes that income and fertility are directly related and that income and childlessness are inversely related. Because loss of wife's income is a greater factor than the direct costs of a child, childlessness should be more common when the wife's earning potential, or opportunity costs, is highest. In the microeconomic model, education is the most important determinant in the wife's opportunity costs. The findings indicate that husband's income is directly related to the first birth, and that wife's education (and opportunity costs) reduces the chances of a first birth. Microeconomic theory suggests that differences in child costs or in tastes could produce urban-rural, regional, or racial differences in childlessness. Demographic variables such as age, age at marriage, and marital duration also influence the likelihood of a first birth. The author uses data for 2182 intentionally childless black and white women, aged 20-34, from the 1965 National Fertility Survey to test his models. Study findings indicate that 1) marital duration greater than 15 years is the only significant demographic control variable, 2) normative variables generally meet expectations; only the coefficient for Catholicism is significant, and 3) financial satisfaction is positively associated with childlessness; husband's income is the only significant variable. Future research should 1) examine how Catholicism acts to discourage childlessness, 2) employ normative and microeconomic theories, and 3) examine data representative of the general population, even though childlessness in the samples may be rare. PMID:12339938

Dietz, T

1984-01-01

80

Arthrometric Measurement of Ankle-Complex Motion: Normative Values  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Valid and reliable measurements of ankle-complex motion have been reported using the Hollis Ankle Arthrometer. No published normative data of ankle-complex motion obtained from ankle arthrometry are available for use as a reference for clinical decision making. Objective: To describe the distribution variables of ankle-complex motion in uninjured ankles and to establish normative reference values for use in research and to assist in clinical decision making. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Both ankles of 50 men and 50 women (age = 21.78 ± 2.0 years [range, 19–25 years]) were tested. Intervention(s): Each ankle underwent anteroposterior (AP) and inversion-eversion (I-E) loading using an ankle arthrometer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Recorded anterior, posterior, and total AP displacement (millimeters) at 125 N and inversion, eversion, and total I-E rotation (degrees) at 4 Nm. Results: Women had greater ankle-complex motion for all variables except for posterior displacement. Total AP displacement of the ankle complex was 18.79 ± 4.1 mm for women and 16.70 ± 4.8 mm for men (U = 3742.5, P < .01). Total I-E rotation of the ankle complex was 42.10° ± 9.0° for women and 34.13° ± 10.1° for men (U = 2807, P < .001). All variables were normally distributed except for anterior displacement, inversion rotation, eversion rotation, and total I-E rotation in the women's ankles and eversion rotation in the men's ankles; these variables were skewed positively. Conclusions: Our study increases the available database on ankle-complex motion, and it forms the basis of norm-referenced clinical comparisons and the basis on which quantitative definitions of ankle pathologic conditions can be developed. PMID:21391797

Schwarz, Neil A.; Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Gubler-Hanna, Coral

2011-01-01

81

Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in medical students: Normative data  

PubMed Central

Background: The median nerve N20 component constitutes the initial response of the primary somatosensory cortex to somatosensory stimulation of the upper extremity. Knowledge of the underlying generators is important for basic understanding of the initial sequence of cortical activation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, normative data of cortical evoked potentials in particular of N20 wave onset and peak latencies by median nerve stimulation in a group of 100 medical students aged between 18 and 30 years were documented and the effect of physiological variables were studied. Descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used to analyze the healthy subjects and to compare N20 latencies for handedness, respectively. Regression analysis was used to show association between average N20 latencies and physiological variables from which regression formulae were calculated to predict normative values of these parameters. Results: The results of the study indicated that N20 onset and peak latency values are significantly affected by limb length at 95% confidence level. Height is showing as a significant factor affecting N20 onset latencies but it is probably because of high correlation of height with limb length. Age though on linear regression showed some significant correlation with N20 onset and peak latency, multiple regressions showed that it does not affect N20 onset and peak latencies in the presence of other variables. Handedness did not affect both N20 onset and peak latency values. Conclusion: Physiological variables do affect the N20 latencies and these should be standardized before usage for research in basic sciences at all age groups. PMID:24223371

Poornima, Siddaraju; Ali, Syed Sadat; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan; Shankar, Vinutha; Kutty, Karthiyanee

2013-01-01

82

Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

1996-01-01

83

42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible...60 Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible...eligible for Program benefits and who seeks payment or reimbursement...g., clinic, hospital, doctor, or pharmacy) and...

2012-10-01

84

42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible...60 Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible...eligible for Program benefits and who seeks payment or reimbursement...g., clinic, hospital, doctor, or pharmacy) and...

2013-10-01

85

The American white male: a normative stereotype  

E-print Network

1990 Major Subject: Psychology THE AMERICAN WHITE MALE: A NORMATIVE STEREOTYPE A Thesis by STELLA KALLIANTAS ROBERTS Approved as to style and content by: J ge en oza ( air o Committee ndy Stock Member) Jane A. Sell (Member) Stephen Worchel... jeopardy: To be black and female. New Generation, 1969, 51, 23-28. Bem, S. L. The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of ~cl d cl' ' 1 npvhl 2, 1974, 42, 155 ? 162. Bem, S. L. Probing the promise of androgyny. In A. G. Kaplan, & J. P. B (Rd...

Roberts, Stella Kalliantas

2012-06-07

86

Meaning and normativity in nurse-patient interaction.  

PubMed

It is a fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients think about themselves and the contexts they are in. According to modern theories of hermeneutics, a nurse and a patient must share the same concepts in order to communicate beliefs with the same content. But nurses and patients seldom understand medical concepts in exactly the same way, so how can this communicative aim be achieved in interaction involving medical concepts? The article uses a theory of concepts from recent cognitive science and philosophy of mind to argue that nurses and patients can share medical concepts despite the diversity of understanding. According to this theory, two persons who understand medical language in different ways will nevertheless possess the same medical concepts if they agree about the normative standards for the applications of the concepts. This entails that nurses and patients normally share medical concepts even though patients' conceptions of disease and illness are formed in idiosyncratic ways by their social and cultural contexts. Several practical implications of this argument are discussed and linked to case studies. One especially important point is that nurses should seek to make patients feel comfortable with deferring to a medical understanding. In many cases, an adequate understanding of patients presupposes that nurses manage to do this. Another implication is that deference-willingness to normative meaning is not equivalent to the actual application of concepts. Deference-willingness should rather be thought of as a pre-communicative attitude that it is possible for patients who are not fully able to communicate to possess. What is important is that nurses and patients have the intention of conforming to the same meaning. PMID:17238997

Nordby, Halvor

2007-01-01

87

HIV prevention, structural change and social values: the need for an explicit normative approach  

PubMed Central

Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well. PMID:22713355

Parkhurst, Justin O

2012-01-01

88

Regulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

employ the notion of a normative system regulat- ing an agent society. For example, norms allow to regu the construction of social reality one needs, besides regulative norms like obligations, prohibi- tionsRegulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella Dipartimento di

Torino, Università di

89

Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges  

E-print Network

Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges Javier V´azquez-Salceda institute;Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges Javier V´azquez-Salceda 1 Abstract. The use of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) in health-care domains is increasing. Such Agent-mediated Medical Systems are designed

Utrecht, Universiteit

90

Normative Stress and Young Families: Adaptation and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses upon number and spacing of children as perpetrators of normative stress. Effects are summarized and a typology of normative stress based on level of family impact is offered. Growth-enhancing aspects of stress are suggested in the context of the family as a system of mutual influences. (Author)

Bell, Colleen S.; And Others

1980-01-01

91

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

92

Implicit measures: A normative analysis and review.  

PubMed

Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the processes by which the attribute causes the outcome, and (c) whether these processes operate automatically. This normative analysis provides a heuristic framework for organizing past and future research on implicit measures. The authors illustrate the heuristic function of their framework by using it to review past research on the 2 implicit measures that are currently most popular: effects in implicit association tests and affective priming tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19379018

De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes

2009-05-01

93

42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Program Benefits...

2011-10-01

94

Guidelines for Document Designers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to improve the quality of public documents by making them clearer to the people who use them, this book contains document design principles concerned with writing documents that are visually distinct, attractive, and easily understood. Following an introduction, the major portion of the book presents the 25 principles, each of which…

Felker, Daniel B.; And Others

95

Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

2014-01-01

96

The importance of normative beliefs to the self-prophecy effect.  

PubMed

Asking people to predict whether they will undertake a target behavior increases their probability of performing that behavior. Now referred to as the self-prophecy effect, this phenomenon has been demonstrated across several contexts. Although theoretical explanations for the effect have been offered, empirical evidence for proposed accounts is sparse. The current research tests the theoretically relevant precondition for the effect that normative beliefs--evaluations of what is socially desirable or appropriate--underlie manifestation of the self-prophecy effect. Results of 2 experiments for different behaviors indicate that the act of making a prediction is most effective when normative beliefs are strong. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to theoretical explanations for the effect and successful use of self-prophecy to promote socially desirable behaviors. PMID:12814292

Sprott, David E; Spangenberg, Eric R; Fisher, Robert

2003-06-01

97

Normative values for testicular descent from infancy to adulthood.  

PubMed

Measurements of testicular descent and volume were performed on 100 newborns and 144 older children and adults. Mean values of testicular descent were determined for age as well as for Tanner pubertal stage, establishing normative values. We later used these normative values for testicular descent to evaluate subjects who had undergone treatment for cryptorchidism many years previously. These normative values are useful both for the evaluation and follow-up of cryptorchid, suboptimally descended, and retractile testes, as well as for the evaluation and follow-up of therapy, and may prove especially useful in the decision for therapeutic intervention with suboptimally descended testes. PMID:7903267

Sack, J; Reichman, B; Fix, A

1993-01-01

98

Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

Funk, Ken

1991-01-01

99

Patient satisfaction and normative decision theory.  

PubMed Central

This article explores the application of normative decision theory (NDT) to the challenge of facilitating and measuring patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is the appraisal, by an individual, of the extent to which the care provided has met that individual's expectations and preferences. Classic decision analysis provides a graphic and computational strategy to link patient preferences for outcomes to the treatment choices likely to produce the outcomes. Multiple criteria models enable the complex judgment task of measuring patient satisfaction to be decomposed into elemental factors that reflect patient preferences, thus facilitating evaluation of care in terms of factors relevant to the individual patient. Through the application of NDT models, it is possible to use patient preferences as a guide to the treatment planning and care monitoring process and to construct measures of patient satisfaction that are meaningful to the individual. Nursing informatics, with its foundations in both information management and decision sciences, provides the tools and data necessary to promote care provided in accord with patient preferences and to ensure appraisal of satisfaction that aptly captures the complex, multidimensional nature of patient preferences. PMID:7583649

Brennan, P F

1995-01-01

100

Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

Lowe, N. K., Ed.

101

Making the Grade: Challenges and Successes in Providing Educational Opportunities for Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Bridging the Gap between Home and School. A Position Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of the 1995-96 implementation of the Stewart B. McKinney Act's Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Programs in 37 states are presented in this document. In these 37 states, at least 173,082 homeless children and youth were served through programs funded by the McKinney Act, and at least 465 local education agencies received…

National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

102

Olfactory event-related potentials and aging: normative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the clinical usages of evoked potentials (e.g. brain stem auditory evoked potentials for the assessment of auditory function), normative data for the olfactory event-related potential (OERP) have been unavailable. The principal objective was to establish normative data across the human life span for OERPs with a given set of parameters. Participants were 140 persons from seven age groups (16–19,

Claire Murphy; Charlie D Morgan; Mark W Geisler; Spencer Wetter; James W Covington; Michael D Madowitz; Steven Nordin; John M Polich

2000-01-01

103

Normative Beliefs About Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator

Rebecca P. Ang; Kit-Aun Tan; Abu Talib Mansor

2011-01-01

104

Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

Fimyar, Olena

2008-01-01

105

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

106

Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator  

PubMed Central

Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmerus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

2009-01-01

107

The Concept Shifting Test: Adult Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Concept Shifting Test (CST) is a newly developed Trail Making Type test that measures concept shifting and executive functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CST performance was affected by age, gender, educational level, or handedness and to establish the normal range of test performance. The CST was…

Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

2006-01-01

108

Making pain visible: an audit and review of documentation to improve the use of pain assessment by implementing pain as the fifth vital sign.  

PubMed

Pain has been promoted as the fifth vital sign for a decade, but there is little empirical evidence to suggest that doing so has affected the care of individuals suffering pain. This was a three-stage audit of pain assessment in one large teaching hospital in the Northwest of England. Stage one measured the baseline pain assessment activity on surgical and medical wards and identified that the pain assessment tool was not visible to nurses. Stage two redesigned the patient observation charts held at the end of the bed and piloted two versions for clinical utility. Version 2 which had pain assessment alongside the early warning score was adopted and introduced throughout the hospital. Stage three audited pain assessment and management 8 months after the introduction of the new charts. Pain was assessed more regularly at the stage three audit than at the baseline audit. On average, pain was assessed alongside other routine observations 70% of the time across surgical and medical wards. Medical wards appeared to improve their pain assessment using the philosophy of pain being the fifth vital sign better than surgical wards, because they assessed pain alongside routine observations in >90% of cases. Stage three identified that where a high pain score was recorded, analgesia was delivered in the majority of cases (88%). Introducing the philosophy of pain as the fifth vital sign and making pain assessment more visible on the patient observation chart improved the uptake of pain assessment. Pain management strategies were stimulated when high pain scores were identified. PMID:24602432

Purser, Liz; Warfield, Kelly; Richardson, Cliff

2014-03-01

109

Normative Publication Productivity of Communication Scholars at Selected Career Milestones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study builds on past research on normative publication practices in the communication discipline by exploring rates of contribution to the discipline's literature as represented in the Communication Institute for Online Scholarship's ComAbstracts database. The ComAbstracts database, spanning 90 years and more than 46,000 publications,…

Stephen, Timothy; Geel, Renee

2007-01-01

110

Counseling for Normative and Nonnormative Influences on Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how concepts from fields of lifespan developmental psychology and human development could be usefully applied to career intervention. Conceptualizes career counseling as human development intervention to allow a more differentiated and comprehensive view of normative and nonnormative factors that affect career development. (Author/ABL)

Vondracek, Fred W.; Schulenberg, John

1992-01-01

111

The Determinants of Spouses' Normative Preferences for Family Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both static and dynamic models are developed which hypothesize effects of background characteristics, socioeconomic factors and family life-cycle stages on three dimensions of normative preferences. The most striking result is the failure of the husband's preferences to dominate the wife's. (Author)

Cronkite, Ruth C.

1977-01-01

112

Computers and a normative model of the policy process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper begins with a simple normative model of the policy process in terms of the information and authority relationships and flows required to meet two assumed criteria: those of democracy (informed citizen participation) and intelligence (anticipation and learning). The model contains four actors: elite, public, anticipatory unit, and monitoring unit. The paper continues with a descriptive summary of the

Davis B. Bobrow

1970-01-01

113

Normative Misperceptions and Temporal Precedence of Perceived Norms and Drinking*  

PubMed Central

Objective Previous research has shown that students overestimate the drinking of their peers, and that perceived norms are strongly associated with drinking behavior. Explanations for these findings have been based largely on cross-sectional data, precluding the ability to evaluate the stability of normative misperceptions or to disentangle the direction of influence between perceived norms and drinking. The present research was designed to evaluate (1) the stability of normative misperceptions and (2) temporal precedence of perceived norms and drinking. Method Participants were college students (N = 164; 94 women) who completed assessments of perceived norms and reported behavior for drinking frequency and weekly quantity. Most participants (68%) completed the same measures again two months later. Results Results indicated large and stable overestimations of peer drinking for frequency and weekly quantity. Results also showed that for weekly quantity, perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking also predicted later perceived norms. Results for frequency revealed perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking did not predict later perceived norms. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of longitudinal designs in evaluating normative influences on drinking. The present findings suggest that normative misperceptions are stable, at least over a relatively short time period. Findings support a mutual influence model of the relationship between perceived norms and drinking quantity but are more strongly associated with conformity explanations for the relationship between perceived norms and drinking frequency. Results are discussed in terms of implications for prevention interventions. PMID:16562412

NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; DILLARD, AMANDA J.; LEWIS, MELlSSA A.; BERGSTROM, ROCHELLE L.; NEIL, TERYL A.

2008-01-01

114

Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

2010-01-01

115

A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

Deaver, Sarah P.

2009-01-01

116

Attitude-Normative Belief Interactions in Predicting Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Additive and interactive models of attitudes and normative beliefs were compared in a survey of smoking, drinking, and drug use among post-primary students from Dublin, Ireland. It was hypothesized that contingent consistency interactions would be found: (1) when predicting drug use, but not smoking or alcohol use; (2) for younger, but not older…

Grube, Joel W.; Morgan, Mark

117

Seeking New Civilizations: Race Normativity in the Star Trek Franchise  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with many science fiction works, the Star Trek franchise uses allegory to address contemporary social issues. Taking a liberal humanistic stance, it addresses race and racism using aliens as allegorical stand-ins for humanity. However, the producers of the Star Trek franchise were inadvertently perpetuating the racism they were advocating against. Operating within the framework of normative Whiteness, the producers

Allen Kwan

2007-01-01

118

Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

Jensen, Dwight Wm.

119

Personal Normative Beliefs, Antisocial Behavior, and Residential Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 177 residents in two Mexican cities responded to an instrument assessing (a) personal normative beliefs about water conservation, (b) beliefs about the efficacy of water conservation laws, (c) the tendency to break social norms (antisocial behavior), and (d) privatewater conservation behavior (self-reported). The data were processed within a structural equation model that specified the above effects. Results

Víctor Corral-Verdugo; Martha Frías-Armenta

2006-01-01

120

IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems  

E-print Network

IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems (Demonstration) Javier Morales1. In this paper we present the Intelligent Robust On-line Norm Synthesis Machine (IRON), a system whose goal is the automated synthesis of norms. IRON is capable of synthesising norms that are at the same time effective (to

López-Sánchez, Maite

121

Normative and Deviant Violence from a Conflict Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holds that social violence can best be understood from a perspective of inequality and conflict. Argues against previous theory that views violence by the powerful as normative and violence by the powerless as deviant. Discusses parental violence and differential rates of male and female violence from this new perspective. (GC)

Ball-Rokeach, S. J.

1980-01-01

122

The Normativity of Law in Law and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Normativity of Law in Law and Economics Péter Cserne* 1. Introduction This paper is about some theoretical and methodological problems of law and economics (economic analysis of law, EAL). More specifically, I will use game theoretical insights to answer the question, relevant both for law and economics and legal philosophy, how should a social scientific analysis of law account

Péter Cserne

123

Are Past Normative Behaviors Predictive of Future Behavioral Intentions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We acknowledge the limitations in measures of moral reasoning and pursue an alternative technique by investigating past behaviors as they relate to present behavioral intentions. Our purpose is to evaluate the merits of patterned normative behavior for predicting present and future, morally relevant outcomes. Participants (N = 177) completed a policy capturing experimental design responding to questions that orthogonally varied

George W. Watson; Thomas Douglas; Robyn Berkley; Ram Madapulli; Yuping Zeng

2009-01-01

124

Body Hair Removal: The ‘Mundane’ Production of Normative Femininity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although women’s body hair removal is strongly normative across contemporary Western cultures, only two studies of ‘mundane’ depilation have been published, and they were based on data from the US (Basow, 1991) and Australia (Tiggemann & Kenyon, 1998), respectively. The present survey, comprised of a sample of 678 women, extends this work. We investigated UK practices, a wider array of

Merran Toerien; Sue Wilkinson; Precilla Y. L. Choi

2005-01-01

125

Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with 336 mother--child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment.…

Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmerus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

2005-01-01

126

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative, Psychiatric, and Sexual Abuse Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative sample of 1,114 children was contrasted with a sample of 620 sexually abused children and 577 psychiatric outpatients on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a 38-item behavior checklist assessing sexual behavior in children 2 to 12 years old. The CSBI total score and each individual item differed significantly between the three groups after controlling for age, sex,

William N. Friedrich; Jennifer L. Fisher; Carrie Anne Dittner; Robert Acton; Lucy Berliner; Judy Butler; Linda Damon; W. Hobart Davies; Alison Gray; John Wright

2001-01-01

127

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative and Clinical Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative sample of 880 children was contrasted with a sample of 276 sexually abused children on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a 35-item behavior checklist assessing sexual behavior in children 2–12 years old. The CSBI total score differed significantly between the 2 groups after controlling for age, sex, maternal education, and family income, with sexually abused children showing

William N. Friedrich; Patricia Grambsch; Linda Damon; Sandra K. Hewitt; Catherine Koverola; Reuben A. Lang; Vicki Wolfe; Daniel Broughton

1992-01-01

128

POSITIVE AND NORMATIVE APPROACHES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to show how normative appro- aches to scientific research and technological development (R&D) policies have shaped positive analysis. It presents a general overview of those contributions from decision makers and researchers to the early debates that founded social studies of research and develop- ment in mid 40s. Moreover, this article uses the distinction between

Pilar Rico-Castro; Rafael Morera Cuesta

2009-01-01

129

The Empirical Development of the Normative Message Processing Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on five studies on the development, conceptual validation, and behavioral validation of the Normative Message Processing Scale (NMPS). Compares the conceptual and predictive validity of the NMPS to related trait information-processing instruments. Argues for the need to develop an instrument that distinguishes between the tendency to…

Aune, R. Kelly; Reynolds, Rodney A.

1994-01-01

130

Normative Standards for Wildlife Viewing in Parks and Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing public interest in wildlife watching, there is a need to develop methods to better inform management of quality viewing opportunities. In this study, normative methods using indicators and standards of quality are applied at two diverse parks\\/protected areas: a popular national park in Alaska and a lesser known wildlife refuge in New Hampshire. Three potential indicators of quality

Laura E. Anderson; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Jeffrey C. Hallo

2010-01-01

131

Normative Features of Black Infant-Parent Attachment Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristic patterns of infant-parent relationships were examined in a sample of Black infants presumed to be at low risk for psychopathological development. Infant responses toward parents and a stranger in a structured laboratory play session were analyzed to determine normative patterns of Black infant-parent attachments. Infant exploratory…

Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

132

A Normative Pragmatic Perspective on Appealing to Emotions in Argumentation  

E-print Network

of the perspective by analyzing and evaluating some argumentation from Frederick Douglass's "What to the Slave is the Fourth of July." I conclude that a normative pragmatic perspective offers a more complete account of appealing to emotions in argumentation than a...

Innocenti, Beth

2006-01-01

133

Research article Using normative scenarios in landscape ecology  

E-print Network

for agricultural watersheds in Iowa, USA. Introduction Applying landscape ecology research to policy, plan- ningResearch article Using normative scenarios in landscape ecology Joan Iverson Nassauer1,* and Robert and landscape ecology research. Finally, we describe how the method and criteria apply to an interdisciplinary

Nassauer, Joan Iverson

134

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

135

Normative Justifications for Liberal Nationalism: Justice, Democracy and National Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay examines a prominent normative defence of nationalism, which links shared nationality with the attainment of the goods of liberal justice and democratic governance. The essay first considers the argument that liberal values, and especially the value of social justice, will best be promoted in states whose members share a common nationality. In its strong form, this argument is

Margaret Moore

2001-01-01

136

Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

Hennessey, Jessica

2014-01-01

137

The Policy Impact of PISA: An Exploration of the Normative Effects of International Benchmarking in School System Performance. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 71  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has been done into how the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) affect national educational reform and policy-making. This paper examines the normative impact of PISA by investigating how, and the extent to which , national policy actors use PISA in policies and practices, to evaluate and improve…

Breakspear, Simon

2012-01-01

138

A Critique of Non-normative Sport Sociology in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

American sport sociology is in a crisis state. Non-normative sport sociolo gists perceive themselves as the vanguard out of the present wilderness. It has been argued here that the normative center (nee non-normative) investigators have actually contributed to the crisis. They have distorted the proper under standing of methodology, both because they were mimicking ideas once extant in mainstream sociology

David A. Rose

1982-01-01

139

Who is the typical college student? Implications for personalized normative feedback interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalized normative feedback approaches focus on correcting overestimated peer drinking norms in order to reduce problematic drinking among college students. Generally, personalized normative feedback utilizes the “typical college student” as a normative referent. Prior research has found these interventions to be less effective for women and has suggested the implementation of the typical student referent as one possible explanation. The

Melissa A. Lewis; Clayton Neighbors

2006-01-01

140

Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

2011-01-01

141

Condom Use among U.S. Students: The Importance of Confidence in Normative and Attitudinal Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study examining whether confidence in the correctness of one's perceptions of normative pressure to use a condom influences the correspondence between those perceptions and intentions to perform the behavior. Finds that perceptions of normative pressure strongly predicted their intentions to use condoms when there was extreme normative

Trafimow, David

2001-01-01

142

[Normative needs for care of schizophrenics: a useful concept for community psychiatric planning?].  

PubMed

One step in a public health research project focuses on the analysis of the individual (expert-based) normative needs for mental health care of chronic schizophrenic patients (n = 115) in the Dresden Region during the first year post hospital release and the extent to which this can be met by the current established level of complementary care. It is an exemplary contribution to the evaluation of community psychiatry as restructured in the Free State of Saxony following German reunification. The results of the study can be condensed to the following interpreting essential statements. Schizophrenics' normative needs for care are not a statistical issue. The single case analysis corroborates a high rate of relevant fluctuations, above all within the clinical sector (e.g. concerning "dyskinesias and other side effects"), that pose a particular challenge to the flexibility of a system of community psychiatry. This includes that the consequence for the practice of care implies then that when diagnosing course, attention must be paid to shifts in the content of the needs for mental health care (e.g. increasing importance of factors, which contain impairments of basic social competences) in order to orient to them any health care measures already initiated.--With the aid of the used research instrument (Needs for Care Assessment) deficits in meeting the needs for care can be identified. In the Dresden Region considerable deficits persist apparently in the subsections recreational activities and occupational and communication skills, which can be ascribed to the lack of appropriate institutions of care in the area.--The normative needs for care of schizophrenic patients cannot be determined simply on the basis of a few, quickly identifiable markers. Rather it demands individualized analysis incorporating variables pertaining to psychopathology, subjective coping, social competence and the course of the disorder. The development of the needs for care over the period of one year can apparently be predicted by trends in the social sector that are already visible within the first months. With regard to aspects of care planning this finding illustrates the limited ability of cross-section surveys to make definitive statements, as well as the predominance of social disabilities over the entire spectrum of the normative needs for psychiatric care. PMID:11006864

Kallert, T W; Leisse, M

2000-08-01

143

Document Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue the case for abstract document structure as a separate descriptive level in the analysis and generation of written texts. The purpose of this representation is to mediate between the message of a text (i.e., its discourse structure) and its physical presentation (i.e., its organization into graphical constituents like sections, paragraphs, sentences, bulleted lists, figures, and footnotes). Abstract document

Richard Power; Donia Scott; Nadjet Bouayad-Agha

2003-01-01

144

Declassified Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

Brown, Karen M.

145

NACA documents database project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

Smith, Ruth S.

1991-01-01

146

Assessment battery for communication (ABaCo): normative data.  

PubMed

The Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo) was introduced to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with cerebral lesions. The battery is organized into five evaluation scales focusing on separate components of pragmatic competence. In the present study, we present normative data for individuals 15-75 years of age (N = 300). The sample was stratified by age, sex, and years of education, according to Italian National Institute of Statistics indications in order to be representative of the general national population. Since performance on the ABaCo decreases with age and lower years of education, the norms were stratified for both age and education. The ABaCo is a valuable tool in clinical practice; the normative data provided here will enable clinicians to determine different kinds and specific levels of communicative impairments more precisely. PMID:22180102

Angeleri, Romina; Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

2012-09-01

147

The normative constitution of professional power.  

PubMed

This article concerns the manner in which we think and talk about power in health care policy and regulation, and the political and social practices allied with that discourse. I assert that in health care policy and practice we speak of and live within the era of countervailing power. In this language and practice power is a force exercised by one actor to enforce its will against another actor against whom power is exerted. I contend that this language inculcates an individual and social passivity in which citizens rely upon various types of representatives to constitute health care for them in a manner in which they do not and cannot participate. However, this language of power and the political and social practice with which it is associated is merely a contingent, historical product. I claim that an alternative discourse of power is possible, in which power consists of the social interactions in which all of us mutually participate but no one of us can control. Power in this sense is participatory by nature, and because no one is in control, it makes no sense to relegate tasks to specialized, nonparticipatory domains. This alternative discourse of power, therefore, might call forth participatory practices in health care and a concomitant diminution of specialization and expansion of the public sphere. The result would be to blur the lines separating politics from everyday interaction, politics from economy, professionals from patients, and insurers from insureds. Participation would mean much more than casting a vote or writing a check but would also include the mutual sharing of time and energy in the tasks that need to be done: long-term and short-term care, practices of prevention, caring for the chronically ill, and monitoring bureaucratic and professional activities. PMID:9057126

Frankford, D M

1997-02-01

148

Normative vibrotactile thresholds measured at five European test centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo compare vibrotactile thresholds between five international test centres, to determine causes of variability, and to provide normative data for use by health professionals.MethodsVibrotactile thresholds were measured on various fingers in 1,008 subjects at 31.5 Hz (2,531 measurements) and at 125 Hz (2,807 measurements). Three centres used the up-and-down method of limits, rate of change of stimulus 3dB\\/s, to obtain vibrotactile thresholds.

Christopher J. Lindsell; Michael J. Griffin

2003-01-01

149

Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Health-Related Behavior or Normative Transgression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among measures of adolescent behavior were examined to determine whether cigarette smoking fits into a structure of problem behaviors—behaviors that involve normative transgression—or a structure of health-related behaviors, or both. In an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1782 male and female high school adolescents, four first-order problem behavior latent variables—sexual intercourse experience, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and

Mark S. Turbin; Richard Jessor; Frances M. Costa

2000-01-01

150

Normativity and context in young children's pretend play  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies 3-year-olds’ understanding of the context-specificity of normative rules was investigated through games of pretend play. In the first study, children protested against a character who joined a pretend game but treated the target object according to its real function. However, they did not protest when she performed the same action without having first joined the game. In

Emily Wyman; Hannes Rakoczy; Michael Tomasello

2009-01-01

151

Revised NEO Personality Inventory normative data for police officer selection.  

PubMed

The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) has demonstrated utility in the personnel selection context. Its use in police officer selection has been relatively limited, in part, because there are no published normative data for the NEO PI-R for police officer applicants. The authors present normative data on NEO PI-R domain and facet scores for a large sample (N = 288) of police officer applicants in a large, urban, Midwestern police department who completed the NEO PI-R as part of a preemployment psychological evaluation. Applicants reported low levels of Neuroticism and high levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scores were strongly and consistently correlated with the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) research validity scale of the NEO PI-R. Extraversion and Agreeableness scores were moderately and less consistently correlated with PPM. These data may serve as a normative comparison group for professionals and researchers who use or may want to use the NEO PI-R in the police officer selection context. PMID:23398091

Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T

2013-11-01

152

A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.  

PubMed Central

Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

2004-01-01

153

A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

E-print Network

fractionation, within the lava flows. In contrast, the younger ($3.25 Ga) olivine-normative basalts experienced, the older ($3.35 Ga) quartz-normative basalts, with lower TiO2 experienced olivine, chromite, and Cr ($4.0 to 2.8 Ga; e.g., Snyder et al., 2000) and composition- ally different from that of Earth (Taylor

Perfect, Ed

154

CERN Document Server: Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters for various exhibitions and workshops at CERN, the Swiss-based European Laboratory for Particle Physics, are now available within the Multimedia collection of the CERN Document Server. At this site, over 220 posters can be searched (keyword, title, or date) or browsed by title. The posters cover CERN projects such as the L3 detector and the End-cap Muon system and exhibitions including "Crystals of China" and "Collaborating through the Cold War." They display labeled diagrams of equipment, specifications, and historical facts. Because the online CERN Document Server is set to provide thorough information about documents in its database, users can find the top ten keywords for each poster, get detailed file format information (.pdf, .gif, .ps), extract figures, and receive documents by email. The printable color posters provide an interesting look into the history of CERN research and outreach and make nice office decorations for science geeks such as this editor.

2001-01-01

155

FES Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

156

FLT Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FLT documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast

157

FMISO Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FMISO documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a

158

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data  

PubMed Central

Summary In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normative data were obtained on small samples. The aim of this study was to determine normative values for the BCR in a large sample of men. We studied a large population (105 men; mean age 53 years, range 19–73 years) without central or peripheral neurological diseases. In each subject the sacral reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the base of the dorsum penis and recorded using a surface electrode from the BC muscle. We recorded the latency, calculated at onset, and the maximal amplitude of response, calculated peak to peak. We were able to detect the BCR in all the men. No correlation between BCR latency and age was found (r=0.136; p=0.160). The mean onset latency value was 33.0±4.85 ms (mean±2SD, range 26.8–39.4). The mean amplitude value was 16.53±12.21 ?V (mean±2SD, range 4.2–43.6). Our normative data on the BCR were similar to previously published data. PMID:24598398

Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca; Rossi, Fabiana; De Franco, Paola; Coraci, Daniele; Rossi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

159

Normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) characteristics of Brazilian male subjects.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out in order to obtain normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) data for 150 Brazilian Portuguese-speaking male subjects (mean age, 19.4; range, 17-30) in two different vocal tasks, i.e., oral reading and counting. Mean (+/- SD) SFF was 134.9 +/- 17.9 Hz for oral reading and 130.5 +/- 18.5 Hz for counting. The mean SFF values obtained in this investigation were similar to data reported in previous studies. PMID:7874033

Pegoraro-Krook, M I; Castro, V C

1994-07-01

160

Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: Evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly

Diana M. Doumas; Camille Workman; Diana Smith; Anabel Navarro

2011-01-01

161

Objective Measures of Behavior Manifestations in Adult ADHD and Differentiation from Participants with Bipolar II Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Participants with Disconfirmed ADHD as Well as Normative Participants  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants. Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD. Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms. PMID:23166565

Edebol, Hanna; Helldin, Lars; Norlander, Torsten

2012-01-01

162

Official Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stationery Office of the UK provides one-stop shopping for selected UK government publications. Stationery Office publications are available by date, title, or government department. There is also a selected list of publications available from other government departments. As it grows, this site should become a major repository of UK government documents. Note the difference between The Stationery Office and Her Majesty's Stationery Office (there is a link at the site).

1997-01-01

163

A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

1993-01-01

164

Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

165

LCS Content Document Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

Hochstadt, Jake

2011-01-01

166

Ethical decision making in neonatal units — The normative significance of vitality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will be concerned with the phenomenon of vitality, which emerged as one of the main findings in a larger grounded theory study about life and death decisions in hospitals'\\u000a neonatal units. Definite signs showing the new-born infant's energy and vigour contributed to the clinician's judgements about\\u000a life expectancy and the continuation or termination of medical treatment. In this

Berit Støre Brinchmann; Per Nortvedt

2001-01-01

167

Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Sterkowicz-Przybycie?, KL and Fukuda, DH. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 28(12): 3585-3593, 2014-Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition. PMID:24910957

Sterkowicz-Przybycie?, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

2014-12-01

168

Perceptions of document relevance  

PubMed Central

This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

2014-01-01

169

Normative and Instrumental Perspectives on Public ParticipationCitizen Summits in Washington, D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative literature in political science and public administration calls for enhanced citizen participation in public decisions. However, this approach overlooks the environment that shapes administrative behavior, an oversight likely to hamper reform efforts targeted at achieving the normative goals of participation. The administrative perspective is important because public managers shape participation forums and determine whether public input has an

Donald P. Moynihan

2003-01-01

170

Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

2009-01-01

171

Intrapersonal Variation in Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence: Toward a Better Understanding of Brand Choice Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on

Ulrich R. Orth; Lynn R. Kahle

2008-01-01

172

The Effects of Normative and Situational Consensus Information on Causal Attributions for Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interactive effects of implicit normative and explicit situational consensus information were examined regarding the processes of causal attribution and evaluation. Stimulus items were single sentence descriptions of antisocial and prosocial behaviors representing the extremes of high and low normative consensus in each behavior category, as…

Mower, Judith C.

173

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

174

The Normative Male Alexithymia Scale: Measurement of a Gender-Linked Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series of studies assessed the psychometric properties of the Normative Male Alexithymia Scale (NMAS), a brief scale designed to assess normative male alexithymia. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using separate samples (n = 248 and 467, respectively) indicated that the NMAS consisted of a single 20-item factor. Scores on the NMAS displayed very good internal consistency (? = .92–.93),

Ronald F. Levant; Glenn E. Good; Stephen W. Cook; James M. ONeil; K. Bryant Smalley; Karen Owen; Katherine Richmond

2006-01-01

175

Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

1980-01-01

176

Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of

Chris M. Hanna; Mark L. Fulcher; C. Raina Elley; Simon A. Moyes

2010-01-01

177

Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

Ressler, Paula

2005-01-01

178

Ovarian volume throughout life: a validated normative model. Thomas W. Kelsey1  

E-print Network

investigation as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume in screening for ovarian cancer [9]. We have shown a strong and positive correlation between ovarian volume1 Ovarian volume throughout life: a validated normative model. Thomas W. Kelsey1 , Sarah K. Dodwell

St Andrews, University of

179

Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the psychometric properties of the instrument. In Studies 1 and 2, the unique

Nicole E. Werner; Charisse L. Nixon

2005-01-01

180

The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

Somers, Mark John

2009-01-01

181

Toward an Empirical Delineation of a Normative Structure for College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If one understands the normative structure of a given peer group, one can begin to understand the type of influence that group has on the behavior of its members. Despite the centrality of norms to understanding student peer groups, little or no research has focused on the empirical delineation of normative structures of college students. Thus,…

Caboni, Timothy C.; Braxton, John M.; Deusterhaus, Molly Black; Mundy, Meaghan E.; McClendon, Shederick A.; Lee, Stephanie D.

2005-01-01

182

Drug Use Analysis Methodologies: Part I. Screening Methodology to Measure and Compare Normative and Criterial Drug Prescribing (An Example Using Schedule 2 Drug Products). Part II. Methodology to Forecast National Normative Drug Prescribing (An Example Using Schedule 2 Drugs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A screening methodology for the purpose of measuring and comparing normative and criterial drug prescribing is demonstrated. Another methodology for forecasting national normative drug prescribing is described. Examples using Schedule 2 drugs are given.

D. E. Knapp, D. L. Crosby, T. F. Morgan, C. S. Lao, J. S. Kennedy

1976-01-01

183

Comparing canadian and american normative scores on the wechsler adult intelligence scale-fourth edition.  

PubMed

Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. PMID:25313225

Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

2014-12-01

184

Underestimating protection and overestimating risk: examining descriptive normative perceptions and their association with drinking and sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms-behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms-behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Cronce, Jessica M; Blayney, Jessica A; Gilmore, Amanda K

2014-01-01

185

Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?  

PubMed

Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

2012-02-01

186

Hippocampal volumetry: Normative data in the Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative analysis of the hippocampus using volumetry is commonly being used in the diagnosis of MTS and is being used as a marker in prognostication of seizure control. Although normative data for hippocampal volume (HV) is available for the western population, no such data is available for the Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to establish normative data for HV for the Indian population, which can aid in the accurate diagnosis of MTS. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 200 healthy volunteers were acquired using a 3 Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Manual segmentation and volumetry was done using Siemens Syngo software. The data was analyzed using two tailed t-test to detect associations between HV and age, gender, and education. The data so obtained was also correlated with the data available from the rest of the world. Results: A mean HV of 2.411 cm3 (standard deviation -0.299) was found in the study, which was significantly smaller when compared to the data from the western population. The right hippocampus was larger than the left, with a mean volume of 2.424 cm3 and 2.398 cm3, respectively. HV was detected to be significantly higher in males. No association was found between HV and age and education. Conclusion: The values obtained in this study may be adopted as a standard in the evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:25221393

Mohandas, Aravind Narayan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Prathyusha, Parthipulli Vasuki; Gupta, Arun K.

2014-01-01

187

Wideband acoustic immittance normative data: ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation.  

PubMed

This article describes the effect of ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation on wideband acoustic immittance (WAI). This is an important topic to investigate as the goal of any audiological test is optimize the test's sensitivity and specificity. One way to improve the test's sensitivity and specificity is to reduce the variability of the normative data. The impact of the aforementioned demographic characteristics on WAI norms has been reviewed, and where applicable its potential impact on clinical outcome has been discussed. Overall, differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups in adults population may warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms especially for detection of otosclerosis; however, these differences in the school-aged children are not large enough to warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms. It is important to explore whether the observed differences between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups is due to body-size indices and whether these differences can be replicated in other East Asian ethnic groups that share similar body-size indices. The differences observed between school-aged children and adults could also potentially impact clinical decision analysis. Therefore, use of age-specific norm is recommended. The differences in WAI between different systems are not clinically significant, and the use of instrument-specific norms does not result in improved test performance at least for the detection of otosclerosis. However, measuring WAI at ambient pressure (static) or at pressure corresponding to the peak (dynamic mode) could potentially impact the normative data and may prove to be clinically useful in cases of negative and positive middle ear pressure. PMID:23900176

Shahnaz, Navid; Feeney, M Patrick; Schairer, Kim S

2013-07-01

188

Document creation, linking, and maintenance system  

DOEpatents

A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

Claghorn, Ronald (Pasco, WA)

2011-02-15

189

Omega documentation  

SciTech Connect

OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

1983-08-01

190

Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

2013-01-01

191

“Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined  

PubMed Central

This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

2009-01-01

192

Extremely secure identification documents  

SciTech Connect

The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1997-09-01

193

An STS Case Study about Students' Decision Making on the Waste Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses students' existing and developing decision-making ability against the background of a normative model of the decision making process. Results indicate that after a unit on household packaging waste the students' arguments about a decision making situation improved in terms of validity and clarity of the criteria used. Contains 16…

Kortland, Koos

1996-01-01

194

The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a norm as an exception and how the other agents react to the violation as exception handling. This paper concentrates on our formal model.

Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

1998-01-01

195

Digital Document Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Gladney has an established background in the field of digital document management, and he also holds a number of patents. Gladney started publishing the Digital Document Quarterly (DDQ) in 2002 as an online publication that covers everything from the information revolution to providing information about digital preservation solutions. Visitors to the site can read the introduction to the DDQ, and then make their way through all of the previous issues. It's easy to see why different information science professionals and librarians would find the archive useful, as the topics covered here include basic topics in digital preservation, preserving office records, information retrieval, and even the epistemology of digital preservation. The site is rounded out by a nice glossary of terms, which covers everything from "abstract" to "value".

2008-01-01

196

Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

2012-01-01

197

42 CFR 457.238 - Documentation of payment rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Documentation of payment rates. 457.238 Section 457...and Audits; Withholding for Failure to Comply; Deferral and Disallowance...238 Documentation of payment rates. The CHIP agency must maintain documentation of payment rates and make it available to...

2010-10-01

198

Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.  

PubMed

Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation. PMID:23454798

Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

2013-05-01

199

Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder  

PubMed Central

The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

Stier, Marco

2013-01-01

200

Visual evoked potential in young adults: a normative study.  

PubMed

It is important to acquire adequate normative data of visual evoked potential before using it as a diagnostic tool. A study using visual evoked potential with pattern (VEP-P) was conducted in Twenty male and seven female young healthy subjects of 17-35 years age. Ag/Agcl electrodes anchored on scalp with collodion at O1-A1, O2-A2 (10-20 system), with transition skin to electrode impedence kept at less than 5 K ohms were connected to MEB 5200 Evoked potential Recorder (Nihon Kohden, Japan). The evoked responses to 256 visual stimuli were recorded using transient pattern reversal (checker size 32'), frequency 1/sec and contrast between black and white checks 67%. The responses were averaged by the computer and absolute peak latency values for P100 alongwith other positive and negative waves worked out. P100 latency of 95.37 +/- 6.85, amp. 6.4 +/- 2.38 for males and 91.07 +/- 49 msec, amp. 6.88 +/- 2.79 microv for females are being reported. The P100 latency values of present study are similar to those reported in age and sex matched subjects of the western world, indicating that there are no ethnic variations in P100 of VEP. PMID:2620968

Tandon, O P; Sharma, K N

1989-01-01

201

Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.  

PubMed

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

2011-09-01

202

Normative Influences and Alcohol Consumption: The Role of Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the theory of normative social behavior by conceptualizing drinking refusal self-efficacy as an important moderator in the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking intentions and behavior. A study was conducted among Korean high school students (N?=?538) to assess their normative perceptions, drinking refusal self-efficacy, and drinking intentions. We found a significant association between self-efficacy and drinking intentions

Su Ahn Jang; Rajiv N. Rimal; NamAuk Cho

2012-01-01

203

Normative Beliefs in Fund-Raising OrganizationsLinking Culture to Organizational Performance and Individual Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative beliefs are investigated in 32 units of a nationwide voluntary service organization. Staff members (n = 263) completed the Organizational Culture Inventory (Cooke & Lafferty, 1989). Performance data on community fund-raising success were obtained archivally. Security-oriented normative beliefs are negatively related to both fund-raising success and to staff job attitudes. Team-work-oriented norms are positively related to staff attitudes.

Denise M. Rousseau

1990-01-01

204

Normative Ethics Does Not Need a Foundation: It Needs More Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that\\u000a science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to\\u000a provide input to the normative domain of ethics. Whereas defenders of a scientific normative ethics appeal to naturalism, its critics

Katinka Quintelier; Linda Van Speybroeck; Johan Braeckman

2011-01-01

205

Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men's health behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's health behaviors in predicting men's self-reported health behaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18–78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative health behaviors for

James R. Mahalik; Shaun M. Burns; Matthew Syzdek

2007-01-01

206

Taking Fiction Seriously: Young Children Understand the Normative Structure of Joint Pretence Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint pretence games are implicit rule-governed activities with a normative structure: Given shared fictional stipulations, some acts are appropriate moves, others are inappropriate (i.e., mistakes). The awareness of 2- and 3-year-old children of this normative structure was explored, as indicated by their ability to not only act according to the rules themselves but to spontaneously protest against 3rd party rule

Hannes Rakoczy

2008-01-01

207

Varying versions of moral relativism: the philosophy and psychology of normative relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among naturalist philosophers, both defenders and opponents of moral relativism argue that prescriptive moral theories (or\\u000a normative theories) should be constrained by empirical findings about human psychology. Empiricists have asked if people are\\u000a or can be moral relativists, and what effect being a moral relativist can have on an individual’s moral functioning. This\\u000a research is underutilized in philosophers’ normative theories

Katinka J. P. Quintelier; Daniel M. T. Fessler

208

Upper Extremity Performance Test for the Elderly (TEMPA): Normative Data for Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a clinical study designed to generate normative data. Normative data for subjects aged 60–94 years have been published for the Test d’Evaluation des Membres Supérieurs de Personnes Âgées (TEMPA), a performance-based evaluation. The purpose of the study was to develop norms for adults between 20 and 44 years of age for the TEMPA. Two hundred eighty-seven participants

Johanne Desrosiers

2011-01-01

209

Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

210

Effects of normative feedback for drinkers who consume less than the norm: Dodging the boomerang.  

PubMed

Several alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown to be effective in reducing drinking as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multicomponent intervention. This feedback is typically targeted to heavier drinkers to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations: two using computer-delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

Prince, Mark A; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-06-01

211

Effects of Normative Feedback for Drinkers Who Consume Less than the Norm: Dodging the Boomerang  

PubMed Central

A number of alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown effective in reducing drinking both as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multi-component intervention. Typically, this feedback is targeted to heavier drinkers, in order to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations, two employing computer delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

Prince, Mark A.; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B.; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-01-01

212

Document Update and Compare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

1983-01-01

213

Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition  

PubMed Central

Background Functional neuroimaging has great potential to inform clinical decisions, whether by identifying neural biomarkers of illness progression and severity, predicting therapeutic response, or selecting suitable patients for surgical interventions. Yet a persisting barrier to functional neuroimaging's clinical translation is our incomplete understanding of how normative variance in cognition, personality, and behavior shape the brain's structural and functional organization. We propose that modeling individual differences in these brain–behavior relationships is crucial for improving the accuracy of neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Methods We addressed this goal by initiating the Cognitive Connectome Project, which bridges neuropsychology and neuroimaging by pairing nine cognitive domains typically assessed by clinically validated neuropsychological measures with those tapped by canonical neuroimaging tasks (motor, visuospatial perception, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision making, working memory, and executive function). To date, we have recruited a diverse sample of 53 participants (mean [SD], age = 32 [9.7] years, 31 females). Results As a proof of concept, we first demonstrate that our neuroimaging task battery can replicate previous findings that task performance recruits intrinsic brain networks identified during wakeful rest. We then expand upon these previous findings by showing that the extent to which these networks are recruited by task reflects individual differences in cognitive ability. Specifically, performance on the Judgment of Line Orientation task (a clinically validated measure of visuospatial perception) administered outside of the MRI scanner predicts the magnitude of task-induced activity of the dorsal visual network when performing a direct replication of this task within the MRI scanner. Other networks (such as default mode and right frontoparietal) showed task-induced changes in activity that were unrelated to task performance, suggesting these networks to not be involved in visuospatial perception. Conclusion These findings establish a methodological framework by which clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging may mutually inform one another, thus enhancing the translation of functional neuroimaging into clinical decision making. PMID:25328842

Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Kilts, Clinton D; James, George Andrew

2014-01-01

214

A MODEL AND PLATFORM FOR DOCUMENT VALIDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the trend toward e-business, the paper-based documents in enterprises are transformed into the electronic ones. In most real-world cases, the electronic documents are simply stored in an enterprise document repository. Owing to the high computation accuracy and efficiency, personal computers have been gradually used to assist domain experts in document authentication tasks (e.g., decision making or process control). Regarding

Jiang-Liang Hou; Chih-Hao Huang

2007-01-01

215

The elite sport and Christianity debate: shifting focus from normative values to the conscious disregard for health.  

PubMed

Scholars and theologians continue to debate whether or not God's intended purpose of elite sport violates the creational normativity for elite sport. However, while it is important to be aware of the contradictions between elite sport and Christianity, there is a need for more deep-seated discussions about emotions and health problems in elite sport and why so many Christian athletes continue to train for their sport at the expense of their health. This paper summaries the present debate regarding elite sport and Christianity and then shifts the reader to an exploration of the normalization of emotion, and the consequence of emotional suppression on athletes health. In doing so, the author presents the disregard of health problems as a more concrete measure of how far athletes should push themselves in elite sport. The author makes recommendations for emotion education and suggests directions for future research and practice. PMID:22447370

Lee Sinden, Jane

2013-03-01

216

Normative Results of Healthy Older Adults on Standard Clinical Vestibular Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment. PMID:24136315

Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri

2014-01-01

217

Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing supporting documentation bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document has been prepared to make the listing of documentation used to develop, or in support of Project W-320, readily retrievable. All documents are sorted by document number and list the document type. Tank 241-C-106 has been included on the High Heat Load Watch List.

Bailey, J.W.

1998-08-06

218

BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up the BIP…

Dageforde, Mary L.

219

Document Management on Display.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

Grimshaw, Anne

1998-01-01

220

Pivoted document length normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic information retrieval systems have to deal with documents of varying lengths in a text collection. Document length normalization is used to fairly retrieve documents of all lengths. In this study, we ohserve that a normalization scheme that retrieves documents of all lengths with similar chances as their likelihood of relevance will outperform another scheme which retrieves documents with chances

Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Manclar Mitra

1996-01-01

221

Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.  

PubMed

Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. PMID:23632008

Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

2014-09-01

222

Genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability: unraveling the normativeness problem.  

PubMed

The present study is the first to disentangle the genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability. Spanning a period of 10 years, we analyzed the etiology of 3 aspects of profile stability (overall profile stability, distinctive profile stability, and profile normativeness) using self- and peer reports from 539 identical and 280 fraternal twins reared together. This 3-wave multirater twin design allowed us to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on latent true scores of the 3 aspects of profile stability while controlling for method effects and random error. Consistent biometric results were only found for profile normativeness, whereas overall and distinctive profile stability scores turned out to be biased. Over time, we found personality profile normativeness to be relatively stable. This stability was due to both stable genetic and nonshared environmental effects, whereas innovative variance was completely explained by nonshared environmental effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the different aspects of profile stability, since overall and distinctive stability scores are likely biased due to the normativeness problem. Yet indicating a person's similarity to the average person, the normativeness of a personality profile itself has a psychological meaning beyond socially desirable responding. PMID:22092116

Bleidorn, Wiebke; Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M

2012-08-01

223

Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding.  

PubMed

In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

Klaczynski, Paul A

2014-01-01

224

Back | Next Sample Documents  

E-print Network

Back | Next Home Experience Details Sample Documents Research Calculator Project Info Printable Details Sample Documents Research Calculator Project Info Printable Quick Reference Outline First Steps Details Sample Documents Research Calculator Project Info First Steps | Preliminary Tower Locations | Pre

Minnesota, University of

225

Wind system documentation  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

1993-01-15

226

Generic safety documentation model  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

Mahn, J.A.

1994-04-01

227

21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.  

PubMed

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2008-06-01

228

21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking: Evaluation of a Personalized Normative Feedback Card Intervention  

PubMed Central

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N = 281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2009-01-01

229

Extensible layout in functional documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

2006-02-01

230

Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

Goldenberg, Maya J

2005-01-01

231

Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice  

PubMed Central

Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

2012-01-01

232

[On the issue of enhancement of public health normative legal base of Voronejskaya oblast].  

PubMed

The data is discussed concerning the public health normative legal base of in Voronejskaya oblast as related to the processes sector development following the public policy and current legislation. It is emphasized that the adoption of normative legal acts and their implementation permitted not only to legitimate and define concretely the activities of all executive authorities in public health and ambulatory polyclinic institutions but also to achieve factual positive results in decreasing morbidity of managed and feral nidal infection on the territory of Voronejskaya oblast. PMID:22611984

Ivanov, M V; Shchepin, V O

2011-01-01

233

TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

234

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

235

Cognitive Akrasia in Moral Psychology and Normative Motivation  

E-print Network

explored by Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Hume, Hare, and Davidson. My account of akrasia appeals to our best current research in order to develop an account of how someone could have knowledge of the good without attending to that knowledge, or could make...

Gillette, Brandon S.

2013-12-31

236

Dalle prime normative al Fondo unico per lo spettacolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author makes preliminary observations that are essential to addressing the principal theme of this issue. He starts from the inexorable decline of the impresario's role between the 17th and 20th centuries, which reflected the evolving demands made by the public as well as transformations in theatrical productions, principally in consequence of Wagner's innovations. The author next describes the transition

Trezzini Lamberto

2006-01-01

237

Hailfinder: Tools for and Experiences With Bayesian Normative Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayes Nets (BNs) and Influence Diagrams (IDs), new tools that use graphic user interfaces to facilitate representation of complex inference and decision structures, will be the core elements of new computer technologies that will make the 21st century the Century of Bayes. BNs are a way of representing a set of related uncertainties. They facilitate Bayesian inference by separating structural

Ward Edwards

1998-01-01

238

Computer software documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

Comella, P. A.

1973-01-01

239

Document Length Normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the TREC collection—a large full-text experimental text collection with widely varying document lengths—we observe that the likelihood of a document being judged relevant by a user increases with the document length. We show that a retrieval strategy, such as the vector-space cosine match, that retrieves documents of different lengths with roughly equal chances, will not optimally retrieve useful documents

Amit Singhal; Gerard Salton; Mandar Mitra; Chris Buckley

1996-01-01

240

Solution Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The documents presented here as URLs are a selection from a larger course, offered at Madison Area Technical College, designed to improve the ability of students to complete the various types of math problems commonly encountered in the biotechnology laboratory. The contentof the complete course is described in the flier on the final page of this document. This unit focuses on thepreparation of laboratory solutions â simple solutions with only one solute, and more complex solutions containing multiple solutes.

Kraus, Mary E.

2008-10-27

241

Probabilistic Approaches to the Document Retrieval Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

My paper today deals with probabilistic approaches to the document retrieval problem: why probability must play a central role, and how probability should be interpreted and used in the design of advanced document retrieval systems. However, before I get into some of the technical details, I would like to make a few personal remarks about Information Science, Information Technology and

M. E. Maron

1982-01-01

242

Contextual restoration of severely degraded document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach to restore severely degraded document images using a probabilistic context model. Unlike traditional approaches that use previously learned prior models to restore an image, we are able to learn the text model from the degraded document itself, making the approach independent of script, font, style, etc. We model the contextual relationship using an MRF. The ability

Jyotirmoy Banerjee; Anoop M. Namboodiri; C. V. Jawahar

2009-01-01

243

Contextual restoration of severely degraded document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach to restore severely degraded document images using a probabilistic context model. Un- like traditional approaches that use previously learned prior models to restore an image, we are able to learn the text model from the degraded document itself, making the approach independent of script, font, style, etc. We model the contextual relationship using an MRF. The

Jyotirmoy Banerjee; Anoop M. Namboodiri; C. V. Jawahar

2009-01-01

244

Dual processing model of medical decision-making  

PubMed Central

Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the large extent dominated by expected utility theory. The model also provides a platform for reconciling two groups of competing dual processing theories (parallel competitive with default-interventionalist theories). PMID:22943520

2012-01-01

245

Decision making under uncertain categorization  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475

Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

2014-01-01

246

FIRO-BC normative and psychometric data on 9- through 13-year-old children.  

PubMed

Study concerned principally with the need to provide normative and psychometric data for the FIRO-BC questionnaire. Reported are the means, standard deviations, test-retest reliability coefficients, and interscale correlation coefficients. Data are reported separately for boys and girls (N = 282). In addition, techniques of FIRO-BC data analyses are reviewed and alternatives are discussed. PMID:6746986

Burton, S A; Goggin, W C

1984-05-01

247

FIRO-BC Normative and Psychometric Data on 9- through 13-year-old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressed the need to provide normative and psychometric data for the FIRO-BC questionnaire. Reported are the means, standard deviations, test-retest reliability coefficients, and interscale correlation coefficients. Data are reported separately for boys and girls (N=282). In addition, techniques of FIRO-BC data analyses are reviewed and…

Burton, Stephen A.; Goggin, William C.

1984-01-01

248

Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

2013-01-01

249

Adults Who Play Violent Video Games and Their Normative Beliefs About Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence regarding the relationship between playing violent video games and subsequent aggression has been mixed. This study further examined the relationship between normative beliefs about the acceptability of both physical and verbal aggression and playing violent video games. A total of 87 participants (27 males and 60 females), ranging in age from 19 to 49, completed three online surveys regarding

Ashely A. Kjos

2008-01-01

250

The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-04-01

251

Gender stereotypes and normative heterosexuality in matrimonial ads from globalizing India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrimonial ads serve as unobtrusive sites to observe the construction and perpetuation of normative heterosexuality through socio-cultural discourses. The current study focuses on gendered spousal expectations and sex role preferences in 1065 matrimonial ads from two popular newspapers in India. Gender differences in ad type, financial stability, physical attractiveness, fairness, slimness, personality traits, and occupational preferences were examined. Results found

Srividya Ramasubramanian; Parul Jain

2009-01-01

252

Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

2009-01-01

253

Normative data on the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, parietal lobe battery, and the boston naming Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes normative data for the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the “Parietal Lobe Battery” (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972), and the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1978). These tests were administered to 147 neurologically normal adult males, who were right-handed and native English-speaking. For each age and education group, means, standard deviations, and the range are reported. The

Joan C. Borod; Harold Goodglass; Edith Kaplan

1980-01-01

254

Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

2010-01-01

255

Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

2011-01-01

256

Information Technology, Regime Stability and Democratic Meaningfulness: A Normative Evaluation of Present and Potential Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inquiry explores the normative impact that the rise of Information Technology is having on society as viewed through the lenses of Social Choice and Democratic Theory. Information technology has drastically increased the amount of available information by increasing information about users, the flow of information to users and the flow of information between users through digital connectivity. This has

David A Fraga

2007-01-01

257

The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent  

E-print Network

The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent structure The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, & Maylor, 2000�275 # 2003 Psychology Press Ltd http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/09658211.html DOI:10

Crawford, John R.

258

Normative Assumptions in Educational Policy Research: The Case of Jencks's Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jencks's argument is fundamentally misdirected because he is unaware of the normative implications of both the position he is attacking and the position he is advocating. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

Joseph, Lawrence B.

1977-01-01

259

Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

2012-01-01

260

Implicit Normativity in Evidence-Based Medicine: A Plea for Integrated Empirical Ethics Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges the traditional assumption that descriptive and prescrip- tive sciences are essentially distinct by presenting a study on the implicit nor- mativity of the production and presentation of biomedical scientific facts within evidence-based medicine. This interdisciplinary study serves as an illustration of the potential worth of the concept of implicit normativity for bioethics in gen- eral and for

A. C. Molewijk; A. M. Stiggelbout; W. Otten; H. M. Dupuis; J. Kievit

2003-01-01

261

Do Normative Data from the Full WCST Extend to the Abbreviated WCST?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (S. Heaton and others, 1993) was compared to a 64-card version (WCST-64) using normative data and results from 350 neuropsychological patients. The WCST-64 was found useful only for respondents obtaining five or more categories by the end of the first deck. (SLD)

Axelrod, Bradley N.; Abraham, Elizabeth; Paolo, Anthony M.

1997-01-01

262

Normative data and validation of a regression based summary score for assessing meaningful neuropsychological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable detection and quantification of longitudinal cognitive change are of considerable importance in many neurological disorders, particularly to monitor central nervous system effects of disease progression and treatment. In the current study, we developed normative data for repeated neuropsychological (NP) assessments (6 testings) using a modified standard regression-based (SRB) approach in a sample that includes both HIV-uninfected (HIV–, N =

Lucette A. Cysique; Donald Franklin Jr; Ian Abramson; Ronald J. Ellis; Scott Letendre; Ann Collier; David Clifford; Benjamin Gelman; Justin McArthur; Susan Morgello; David Simpson; J. Allen McCutchan; Igor Grant; Robert K. Heaton

2011-01-01

263

Away with Linguists! Normativity, Inequality and Metascientific Reflexivity in Sociolinguistic Fieldwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the fact that in spite of the descriptive and well-intentioned ambitions of much sociolinguistic-ethnographic research, members of studied groups often continue to interpret such research as a largely vertically organized socio-political activity that communicates a prescriptive social and linguistic normativity the researcher…

Jaspers, Jürgen; Meeuwis, Michael

2013-01-01

264

Orthodontic concerns of Brazilian children and their parents compared to the normative treatment need  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the interest of both children and parents towards orthodontic treatment and compare it to the normative treatment need as well as to determine the factors related to such an interest. The sample consisted of 407 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 12 years and their parents from Nova Friburgo (Rio de Janeiro),

Patricia F. Dias; Rogerio Gleiser

2010-01-01

265

MAINSTREAM THEORIES ON NORMATIVE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: ANALYSIS FROM CATHOLIC SOCIAL THOUGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the variety and complexity of approaches related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), there are some proposals which have become mainstream theories on normative in this field. Among them the following stand out: a) Corporate Social Performance Theory, b) Fiduciary Capitalism Theory, c) Stakeholder Theory, d) Corporate Citizenship Theory. Those theories generally include a certain vision of the

Domènec Melé

266

Affective and Normative Commitment to Organization, Supervisor, and Coworkers: Do Collectivist Values Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employees' commitment to their organization is increasingly recognized as comprising of different bases (affect-, obligation-, or cost-based) and different foci (e.g., supervisor, coworkers). Two studies investigated affective and normative commitment to the organization, supervisor and coworkers in the Turkish context. The results of Study 1…

Wasti, S. Arzu; Can, Ozge

2008-01-01

267

Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6–9 participated. Results showed that more positive attitudes regarding role of

Ana Almeida; Isabel Correia; Sylvie Marinho

2009-01-01

268

Targeting Misperceptions of Descriptive Drinking Norms: Efficacy of a Computer-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated the efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 252 students who were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group following a baseline assessment. Immediately after completing measures of…

Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lewis, Melissa A.

2004-01-01

269

Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

Carr, Paul R.

2010-01-01

270

The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

2013-01-01

271

A Normative Multi-Agent Systems Approach to the Use of Conviviality for Digital Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conviviality is a mechanism to reinforce social cohesion and a tool to reduce mis-coordination between individuals, groups and in- stitutions in web communities, for example in digital cities. We use a two-fold definition of conviviality as a condition for social interactions and an instrument for the internal regulation of social systems. In this paper we discuss the use of normative

Patrice Caire

2007-01-01

272

Through the lens of hetero-normative assumptions: re-thinking attitudes towards gay parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explored the attitudes and beliefs of nine heterosexual adults towards gay male and female couples parenting children. We conceptualised participants' perceptions as one primary lens through which gay parenting is viewed. Based on the narratives provided, this lens comprised hetero-normative, homophobic or heterosexist assumptions and coloured the way in which participants perceived aspects of the concept

Jarred Pennington; Tess Knight

2011-01-01

273

LITERACY-BASED NORMATIVE DATA FOR LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AFRICAN AMERICANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical neuropsychology relies on the use of appropriate test norms. Normative studies frequently stratify based on age, education, sex, and race. None to date has reported norms based on literacy, despite the substantial evidence that literacy impacts cognitive functioning. Some researchers have suggested that literacy is a more accurate reflection of academic achievement and quality of education than years of

Vonetta M. Dotson; Melissa Kitner-Triolo; Michele K. Evans; Alan B. Zonderman

2008-01-01

274

Literacy-based normative data for low socioeconomic status African Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical neuropsychology relies on the use of appropriate test norms. Normative studies frequently stratify based on age, education, sex, and race. None to date has reported norms based on literacy, despite the substantial evidence that literacy impacts cognitive functioning. Some researchers have suggested that literacy is a more accurate reflection of academic achievement and quality of education than years of

Vonetta M. Dotson; Melissa Kitner-Triolo; Michele K. Evans; Alan B. Zonderman

2008-01-01

275

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: A Comparison Between Latino and Normative Samples of Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years

Maureen C. Kenny; Sandy K. Wurtele

2012-01-01

276

Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

2009-01-01

277

The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

Serna, Gabriel

2014-01-01

278

Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

279

Impact of Multiple Normative Systems on Organization Performance of International Joint Ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on international joint ventures (IJV) reveals difficulties in managing cross-cultural teams. Our research aims to understand how cultural differences between Japanese and American firms in IJV projects effect team performance through computational experimentation. We focus on and characterize culturally- driven normative systems as a central role of cultural differences, composed of two dimensions: cultural values and cultural practices. Cultural

Tamaki Horii; Yan Jin; Raymond E. Levitt

2005-01-01

280

The Role of Community Service in Identity Development: Normative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified predictors of normative, unconventional, and deviant identity orientations among youth in a nationally representative sample of 13,000 high school seniors. Found that frequency of community service substantially increased predictability of identity orientation above background characteristics and part-time work involvement. Most…

Youniss, James; McLellan, Jeffrey A.; Su, Yang; Yates, Miranda

1999-01-01

281

The predictability of normative organizational commitment for turnover in Chinese companies: a cultural perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many researchers have shown that affective organizational commitment is the most valuable predicator for organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, the value of normative organizational commitment in predicting working behaviour needs to be clarified. Additionally, indices of organizational outcomes used in prior studies were almost always the employees' perceptions of and attitudes towards organizations, rather than actual behaviour. The

Xiang Yao; Lei Wang

2006-01-01

282

Effects of Prior Experience on Judgments of Normative Word Frequency: Automatic Bias and Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments examined repetition priming effects on judgments of normative word frequency. Experiment 1a found reliable priming, but only when words were studied under conditions of full attention; divided attention eliminated the effect. Experiment 1b replicated the attention effects and found that frequency and recognition judgments could be dissociated as a function of study repetition. Experiment 2 showed that Levels

Jeffrey P. Toth; Karen A. Daniels

2002-01-01

283

Performing an Archive of Resistance: Challenging Normative Life Narratives through Literary Reading and Memoir Writing Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological…

Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

2011-01-01

284

Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…

Middlemiss, Wendy

2004-01-01

285

The Dual Quality of Norms and Governance beyond the State: Sociological and Normative Approaches to ‘Interaction’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay develops a critique of modern constructivist approaches to norms in international relations theory. It distinguishes between a behaviourist and a societal perspective on norms. The former explains compliance with norms and\\/or norm diffusion via the logic of appropriateness and the logic of arguing, respectively, the latter understands divergence in normative meaning via the logic of contestedness. Using Habermas's

Antje Wiener

2007-01-01

286

The Spanos Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire: Psychometric Characteristics and Normative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a

Leonard S. Milling

2012-01-01

287

The Boston Naming Test and Swedish children: Normative Data and response analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study concerns responses to the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a sample of native Swedish-speaking children between the ages of 6 and 15. Normative data are presented not only for the number of correct responses but also for the frequency of types of substitutive responses on the BNT. The study involved 152 children and adolescents from four different

Katarina Brusewitz; Ing-Mari Tallberg

2010-01-01

288

A normative value pilot study: Levels of uranium in urine samples from UK civilians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative study of the levels of urinary uranium in the general UK population is needed for comparison with levels in UK military and ex-military personnel who served where munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used. As preparation, this pilot study trialled the process of collecting 24-h samples from adult male civilians, and compared the measurements from 24-h samples with

A. D.. Jones; B. G. Miller; S. Walker; J. Anderson; A. P. Colvin; P. A. Hutchison; C. A. Soutar

2007-01-01

289

The AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale--Public School Version: A Normative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This normative study of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale--Public School Version was based on 291 Texas public school children divided into 12 categories. The categories were: age, ethnic, or racial group (white or non-white), and assignment to regular classes or special education classes for the educable…

Boyd, Lenore A.; Chissom, Brad

290

Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes

Joseph W. LaBrie; Joel R. Grossbard; Justin F. Hummer

2009-01-01

291

National Normative and Reliability Data for the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop normative data for the revision of the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the scale was administered to 4,972 children, ages 6 to 19 years, representing all geographic regions of the United States. Reliability was satisfactory for all groups except Black females below age 12 years. (Author/BW)

Reynolds, Cecil R.; Paget, Kathleen D.

1983-01-01

292

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

293

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2013-01-01

294

An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

1990-01-01

295

Minimality and Simplicity in the On-line Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems  

E-print Network

at design time) or online design. Online synthesis techniques aim to construct norms for a system while but it suf- fers from serious drawbacks: (i) it needs too much information; (ii) it ignores issuesMinimality and Simplicity in the On-line Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems Javier Morales1

Woolridge, Mike

296

The Availability of Normative Data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers. Method: The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural…

Mohr, Caroline; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John; Einfeld, Stewart L.

2012-01-01

297

Normative values for the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index: Benchmarking disability in the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) has been commonly used in rheumatology to quantify functional disability in patient groups, but current general population values of this index are not available. This study was undertaken to establish normative values for the HAQ DI in a general population and to analyze its correlates. Methods. The HAQ DI (range of

Eswar Krishnan; Tuulikki Sokka; Helen Hubert; Pekka Hannonen

2004-01-01

298

Data Sharing and Science: Legal, Normative, and Social Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of scientific data, and the interconnectedness of the systems under study, makes integration of data a necessity. For example, life scientists must integrate data from across biology and chemistry to comprehend disease and discover cures, and climate change scientists must integrate data from wildly diverse disciplines to understand our current state and predict the impact of new policies. The technical challenge of such integration is significant, although emerging technologies appear to be helping. But the forest of terms and conditions around data make integration difficult to legally perform in many cases. One approach might be to develop and recommend a single license: any data with this license can be integrated with any other data under this license. But this approach, which implicitly builds on intellectual property rights and the ideas of licensing as understood in software and culture, is difficult to scale for scientific uses. There are too many databases under too many terms already, and it is unlikely that any one license or suite of licenses will have the correct mix of terms to gain critical mass and allow massive- scale machine integration of data. This talk will instead lay out principles for open access data and a protocol for implementing those principles, as well as describe various international efforts to make data and databases legally and technically interoperable.

Wilbanks, J.; Parsons, M.

2008-12-01

299

What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse  

SciTech Connect

Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

Coutant, C.C.

1998-09-23

300

Practice Makes Perfect Despite Imperfect Theory 89 Practice Makes Perfect  

E-print Network

Practice Makes Perfect Despite Imperfect Theory 89 Practice Makes Perfect Despite Imperfect Theory and Power highlight the difficulties theory encounters when practice progresses at a rapid pace. The effect sense of that effect. While the books ably document the changes in pedagogy, they do not take the logic

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

301

Not all automatic associations are created equal: How implicit normative evaluations are distinct from implicit attitudes and uniquely predict meaningful behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new construct (implicit normative evaluations) that purports to measure automatic associations about societal evaluations. We develop a new measure of this construct based on a modification of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and describe how it is related to but not redundant with implicit attitudes and explicit normative evaluations. Study 1 provided evidence that implicit normative evaluations

Emiko Yoshida; Jennifer M. Peach; Mark P. Zanna; Steven J. Spencer

302

Intranet Document Management Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

1998-01-01

303

"Supporting" Beginning Secondary Science Teachers through Induction: A Multi-Case Study of Their Meaning Making and Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the induction experiences of beginning secondary science teachers, including their afforded and enacted identities-in-practice and their meaning making. I applied a model of identities and meaning making that considered the iterative nature of the (a) normative science teacher identities afforded by…

Webb, Angela W.

2012-01-01

304

JSC document index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

1988-01-01

305

Social network document ranking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search engines, ranking algorithms measure the importance and relevance of documents mainly based on the contents and relationships between documents. User attributes are usually not considered in ranking. This user-neutral approach, however, may not meet the diverse interests of users, who may demand different documents even with the same queries. To satisfy this need for more personalized ranking, we

Liang Gou; Hung-Hsuan Chen; Jung-Hyun Kim; C. Lee Giles

2010-01-01

306

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

307

Documents and Civic Duties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All of the documents featured in this article come from the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration. Primary source documents illustrate what is meant by responsible citizenship. The people who create documents as well as those who are featured in them can serve as models of civic behavior--both appropriate and…

Potter, Lee Ann

2005-01-01

308

Interactively Restructuring HTML Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

When editing Web pages, a user may desire to transform the documents as freely as with a word processor. But because Web documents must conform to a rigorous structure (defined by the HTML DTD), every transformation is not allowed and the editing system must perform some work to obtain valid HTML documents. This paper presents a solution to the problem

Stéphane Bonhomme; Cécile Roisin

1996-01-01

309

Automated Management Of Documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

Boy, Guy

1995-01-01

310

Documents in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Government Documents center provides a Documents in the News page. Taken from official sources, this page has full text documents on such subjects as Yitzhak Rabin's assassination, Bosnia, the Oklahoma City Bombing, the Ebola Virus, the United Nations Conference on Women, the G7 Summit, term limits, and the Unabomber, among many others.

York, Grace A.

1999-01-01

311

Structured Multimedia Document Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new statistical model for the classification of structured documents and consider its use for multimedia document classification. Its main originality is its ability to simultaneously take into account the structural and the content information present in a structured document, and also to cope with different types of content (text, image, etc). We present experiments on the classification

Ludovic Denoyer; Jean-Noel Vittaut; Patrick Gallinari; Sylvie Brunesseaux; Stephan Brunesseaux

2003-01-01

312

NaF Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaFWord file Contact Paula M. Jacobs, Ph.D., 301-435-9181, jacobsp@mail.nih.gov, for information. Print

313

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-print Network

COOLING TOWERS MAKE MONEY Robert Burger President ABSTRACT Question:-Why is the low bidder system a sacred cow? If contractors understand, by specifications, that the second low bidder will be awarded the contract all bidders will do... compliance and performanc are not safeguarded in the bid specification documents. With cooling towers, for instance, t e Wet Bulb Temperature criteria ofDesign is! extremely important. One or two degrees off can mean many dollars in costs...

Burger, R.

314

Making Electricity with Hydrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, which originally appeared in Home Power magazine, outlines how to make electricity using hydrogen. The material outlines using a "cookbook approach" to building a fuel cell. A step by step process for building a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is outlined. The article also includes some helpful photos and diagrams to help you understand the particulars of how a fuel cell may be built in this way. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2011-12-28

315

Proposal of a new analytical procedure for the measurement of water absorption by stone. Preliminary study for an alternative to the Italian technical normative NORMAL 07-81  

PubMed Central

Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion) by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material. PMID:22738248

2012-01-01

316

The David and Goliath principle: cultural, ideological, and attitudinal underpinnings of the normative protection of low-status groups from criticism.  

PubMed

Two studies documented the "David and Goliath" rule--the tendency for people to perceive criticism of "David" groups (groups with low power and status) as less normatively permissible than criticism of "Goliath" groups (groups with high power and status). The authors confirmed the existence of the David and Goliath rule across Western and Chinese cultures (Study 1). However, the rule was endorsed more strongly in Western than in Chinese cultures, an effect mediated by cultural differences in power distance. Study 2 identified the psychological underpinnings of this rule in an Australian sample. Lower social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with greater endorsement of the rule, an effect mediated through the differential attribution of stereotypes. Specifically, those low in SDO were more likely to attribute traits of warmth and incompetence to David versus Goliath groups, a pattern of stereotypes that was related to the protection of David groups from criticism. PMID:22539216

Jeffries, Carla H; Hornsey, Matthew J; Sutton, Robbie M; Douglas, Karen M; Bain, Paul G

2012-08-01

317

A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2014-01-01

318

Making Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor water activity, learners explore how to change the direction of water flow. Learners make puddles in dirt or use existing puddles and sticks to make water flow. Learners will use yarn to measure who can make the longest "river." Learners will also investigate how they can change the direction water flows by digging paths or building walls and dams. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 35 of the PDF.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-01-01

319

Between knowledge and power: Utilization of social science in public policy making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most conceptualizations of the linkage between science and politics have traditionally been informed by rationalist concepts of science and decision-making. The result has been a false dichotomy between (legitimate) rational research utilization and (illegitimate) political research utilization. This dichotomy must be overcome, on normative as well as empirical grounds. Scientifically generated knowledge constitutes an important, but on the whole unquantifiable

Erik Albæk

1995-01-01

320

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

321

Violin Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is devoted to violin making, care, and maintenance and was created by the violinmaker Hans Johannsson. In addition to the explanation of violin construction, the website also covers the topics of wood, varnish, glue, tools, and design as they relate to violin making. An article on violin sound includes sample sound clips in a variety of formats. This will prove valuable to those interested in the construction or repair of violins.

2006-12-26

322

ANOPP programming and documentation standards document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standards defining the requirements for preparing software for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) were given. It is the intent of these standards to provide definition, design, coding, and documentation criteria for the achievement of a unity among ANOPP products. These standards apply to all of ANOPP's standard software system. The standards encompass philosophy as well as techniques and conventions.

1976-01-01

323

The Five-Point Test: Reliability, Validity and Normative Data for Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

The present study provides normative data from a sample of 257 healthy children and 608 adults on a modified version of the Five-Point Test (5PT). The 5PT is a structured and standardized test measuring figural fluency functions. Interrater reliability, test-retest-reliability and construct validity of this measure were analyzed. The sensitivity of the task for cognitive disturbances of patients with neurological diseases was proven by analyzing the test performance in the 5PT of patients with Parkinson's disease. Finally, normative data stratified by age and corrected for education level is provided. The results of the present study confirm the value of the 5PT in the measurement of figural fluency functions in clinical examination and neuropsychological research. PMID:23029395

Tucha, Lara; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.

2012-01-01

324

A Normative Study of the Digit Span in an Educationally Diverse Elderly Population  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of demographic variables on Digit Span test (DS) performance in an educationally diverse elderly population and to provide normative information. Methods The DS was administered to 784 community-dwelling volunteers aged 60-90 years with an educational history of from zero to 25 years of full-time education. People with serious neurological, medical and psychiatric disorders (including dementia) were excluded. Results Age, education and gender were found to be significantly associated with performance on the DS. Based on the results obtained, DS norms were stratified by age (2 strata), education (3 strata), and gender (2 strata). Conclusion Our results on DS performance suggest that both attention and working memory are influenced by age, education and gender. The present study provides reasonably comprehensive normative information on the DS for an educationally diverse elderly population. PMID:24605122

Choi, Hyo Jung; Seo, Eun Hyun; Jo, Min Kyung; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choe, Young Min; Byun, Min Soo; Kim, Jee Wook; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Yoon, Jong Choul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Ki Woong; Woo, Jong Inn

2014-01-01

325

Emotional and physiological responses to normative and idiographic positive stimuli in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined differences in emotional responding among distinct types of positive stimuli. This is important to understand both for individuals characterized by extreme positive mood (i.e., bipolar disorder) and healthy adults. Methods Using a multi-method within-subjects design, the current study examined physiological, behavioral, and self-reported responses to normative (film) and idiographic (memory) happy stimuli in bipolar (BD; n=25) and healthy control groups (CTL; n=23). Results For both groups, the happy films were associated with greater self-reported and behavioral displays of positive emotion compared to the happy memory. Furthermore, the BD group displayed greater cardiac vagal tone – a putative marker of positive emotion – across both the film and memory. Conclusion Normative stimuli were more potent elicitors of positive emotion compared to idiographic stimuli. The study provided further evidence for cardiac vagal tone as a potential biomarker of extreme positive emotion in BD. PMID:21601926

Gruber, June; Dutra, Sunny; Eidelman, Polina; Johnson, Sheri L.; Harvey, Allison G.

2012-01-01

326

Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes  

PubMed Central

This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes and non-athletes. Gender-specific perceptions among male and female athletes exceeded actual self-reported use, and perceived marijuana use among male athletes was strongly associated with personal use. The findings demonstrate the salience of group-specific marijuana norms and present implications for normative feedback interventions among college athletes.

Labrie, Joseph W.; Grossbard, Joel R.; Hummer, Justin F.

2014-01-01

327

It's Not Just a "Woman Thing:" The Current State of Normative Discontent  

PubMed Central

This study assessed “normative discontent,” the concept that most women experience weight dissatisfaction, as an emerging societal stereotype for women and men (Rodin, Silberstein, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Participants (N = 472) completed measures of stereotypes, eating disorders, and body image. Normative discontent stereotypes were pervasive for women and men. Endorsing stereotypes varied by sex and participants’ own disturbance, with trends towards eating disorder symptomotology being positively correlated with stereotype endorsement. Individuals with higher levels of body image and eating disturbance may normalize their behavior by perceiving that most people share their experiences. Future research needs to test prevention and intervention strategies that incorporate the discrepancies between body image/eating-related stereotypes and reality with focus on preventing normalization of such experiences. PMID:21932970

TANTLEFF-DUNN, STACEY; BARNES, RACHEL D.; LAROSE, JESSICA GOKEE

2013-01-01

328

A Cognitive Model of Document Use during a Research Project. Study I. Document Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a model of document selection by real users of a bibliographic retrieval system. Reports on Part I of a longitudinal study of decision making on document use by academics (25 faculty and graduate students in Agricultural Economics). Examines what components are relevant to the users' decisions and what cognitive process may have occurred…

Wang, Peiling; Soergel, Dagobert

1998-01-01

329

New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model  

PubMed Central

There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

2014-01-01

330

Simulating rational social normative trust, predictive trust, and predictive reliance between agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program for the simulation of rational social normative trust, predictive `trust,' and predictive reliance between agents\\u000a will be introduced. It offers a tool for social scientists or a trust component for multi-agent simulations\\/multi-agent systems,\\u000a which need to include trust between agents to guide the decisions about the course of action. It is based on an analysis of\\u000a rational social

Maj Tuomela; Solveig Hofmann

2003-01-01

331

Adolescents' ideas of normative life span development and personal future goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how 57 adolescents (23 girls and 34 boys), aged 12 to 15 years, compared their idea of normative life span development to their personal future goals. A two-stage study (questionnaire and follow-up interview) included two open-ended “life paths”, measures for self-evaluation and self-other comparisons. Overlap of content categories in the life paths supported the relationship between individual goals

Lars-Erik Malmberg; Sonja Norrgard

1999-01-01

332

A normative study of levels of uranium in the urine of British Forces personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) controls a biological monitoring programme that includes testing for uranium in personnel who served in the conflict in Iraq in 2003. To help interpret the results, the MoD commissioned this study to quantify a normative reference distribution of urinary uranium concentrations in military personnel who had not served in that conflict.Methods:The study selected and

B G Miller; A P Colvin; P A Hutchison; H Tait; S Dempsey; D Lewis; C A Soutar

2008-01-01

333

Normative data for the Dutch version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worry is a common symptom in various psychiatric problems and the key symptom of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The Penn\\u000a State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is the most widely used self-report scale for measuring worry. The present study provides\\u000a normative data for the Dutch version of the PSWQ for a large community sample and a clinically referred sample of patients\\u000a with

Colin van der Heiden; Peter Muris; Arjan E. R. Bos; Henk van der Molen; Martijn Oostra

2009-01-01

334

Normative Data on the Validity of Canadian Substitute Items for the WAIS-R Information Subtest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten questions with culturally specific American content from the WAIS-R Information subtest were empirically examined for level of difficulty for 200 Canadian subjects. Rank order and chi square analyses showed that accuracy scores (p-values) for these questions differed significantly from the p-values of the WAIS-R (Wechsler, 1981) normative sample for five of these items for this sample. Ten substitutes with

George M. Pugh; Douglas P. Boer

1991-01-01

335

From Identity to Queer Politics: Shifts in the Social Logic of Normative Heterosexuality in Contemporary America  

E-print Network

heterosexuality,Andy's parent's heterosexuality is portrayed in ideal terms. They have been happily married for 50 years, are lovingly involved with their children and grandchildren, and are unconditionally accepting of Andy. Likewise, Joe represents... by normalizing controls. Moreover, I suggest that if we understand gay identity politics as a response to a repressive social logic of normative heterosexuality, a historically unique type of sexualpolitics, so called queer politics, can be viewed as a response...

Seidman, Steven

2001-04-01

336

Expanding the flexibility of normative patterns in youth sexuality and prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews normative ways of presenting sexual health in intervention programs for the sex education and health\\u000a care of young people in Latin America. These programs usually consider adolescence and youth as naturalizing categories and\\u000a can be described as strongly preventionist. Based on our activities in Brazil, ongoing research and training of health professionals\\u000a and activists, and inspiration from

Vera Paiva; José Ricardo Ayres; Ivan França Jr

2004-01-01

337

Rules, Agents and Norms: Guidelines for Rule-Based Normative Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this survey paper we focus on some requirements for developing normative multi-agent systems (NMAS). In particular, we\\u000a discuss Boella et al.’s guidelines proposed for NMAS. Finally, we deal with two more specific questions concerning the role of norms in rule-based\\u000a NMAS: the concepts of compliance and norm change.

Antonino Rotolo; Leendert van der Torre

338

Normative and idiosyncratic measures of positive and negative affect in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purposes of the study were to: (a) ascertain the degree of similarity amongst normative and idiosyncratic measures of affect; (b) test the notion of reversal effects on the functional impact and the hedonic tone of emotions; (c) analyse the differences on the intensity of facilitating-positive, facilitating-negative, inhibiting-positive, and inhibiting-negative performance emotion content categories, and (d) test whether competitive

Claudio Robazza; Laura Bortoli; Filippo Nocini; Giovanna Moser; Carlo Arslan

2000-01-01

339

The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3): reliability and normative comparisons of eating disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is a measure of one’s endorsement of societal appearance ideals. The measure has received extensive evaluation in normative samples, but only minimal evaluation in clinical groups. In this study, 440 patients with eating disorders completed the SATAQ-3. Internal consistencies were excellent for the four SATAQ-3 subscales. Groups did not differ by diagnosis on

Rachel M Calogero; William N Davis; J. Kevin Thompson

2004-01-01

340

Tobacco documents research methodology.  

PubMed

Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

2011-05-01

341

Toward Parallel Document Clustering  

SciTech Connect

A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

2011-09-01

342

The effects of normative classroom aggression and teacher support on changes in ethnically diverse elementary students' aggression  

E-print Network

This study examined the joint effects of the quality of teacher-student relationship support (TSRS) and normative levels of classroom aggression on individual aggression in a sample of 687 second-grade children who entered first grade...

Kuhns, Clarissa Ivette

2008-10-10

343

Demonstration of the need for cardiovascular and pulmonary normative data for cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Despite evidence that cancer and its treatments severely reduce cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), normative data for cancer survivors do not exist. The present study identifies age and gender-specific CRF distributions in a cancer population. The use of cancer-specific normative CRF data may help stratify initial fitness status and assess improvements in response to exercise interventions in cancer survivors. Data from 703 cancer survivors were analyzed for this study. Quintiles were compiled for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) for males and females in 5 age groups (19-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ?70 years of age). VO2peak values for the cancer population were significantly lower than the general US population. The cancer population average in each age group fell within the "very poor" classification of VO2peak values for the general population. FVC values in the cancer population were similar to the general population. Cancer survivors had very low age group-specific VO2peak values compared to the apparently healthy general US population. Previously, CRF values of cancer survivors were compared to normative values for the apparently healthy general population, which yielded imprecise classifications of initial fitness and changes in fitness, resulting in patient discouragement. PMID:24995960

Schneider, C M; Repka, C P; Brown, J M; Lalonde, T L; Dallow, K T; Barlow, C E; Hayward, R

2014-12-01

344

Investigation of the distribution of minerals in coals by normative analysis  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of minerals in 86 coals have been calculated from chemical analyses of high temperature ash (normative analysis) and the results compared with mineralogical analyses based on x-ray diffraction and IR spectrometry of low temperature ash. Our general conclusion is that, to the extent we can determine at present, the normative analysis does give a useful semiquantitative analysis of the minerals in coals - better than one might predict from the nature of the procedure. It could be used, and will be in the near future, to ascertain whether, for example, the distributions of minerals in coals formed in different provinces and basins show gross differences as a result of differing geology and geochemistry. It might also be useful in assessing whether these differences are important in the conversion of coals to gaseous and liquid fuels. We should point out that we do not consider normative analysis at all applicable to lignites or subbituminous coals, since with lignites, 30 to 50% or more of ash-forming constituents consist of cations attached to the organic matter in ion-exchangeable form on carboxyl groups or as chelate complexes; a similar, though less marked, situation obtains with subbituminous coals.

Given, P.H.; Weldon, D.; Suhr, N.

1980-01-01

345

Development of the Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: normative data.  

PubMed

The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years, 60 patients with stroke, and 60 patients with schizophrenia. The results indicated that with 12 items removed, the resulting 18-item scale was found to be unidimensional, with satisfactory internal consistency and no evidence of differential item functioning or bias for age, sex and educational level. There were significant differences between each of the two patient groups and normal controls on the scores of the Rasch-developed measure. All test-retest coefficients exceeded 90 in patient samples. As performance on the Chinese version decreases with age and lower years of education, regression-based normative data that took age and education into account were established. A cut-off score of 21.5, out of an x-y range, the higher the better, resulted in a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.68. The normative data presented here will enable clinicians to determine different levels of visuosynthetic impairments more precisely. PMID:22960881

Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

2013-03-01

346

Associations between adolescent seatbelt non-use, normative perceptions and screen media exposure: results from a national US survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFailure to use seatbelts in motor vehicles is a major source of youth injuries, and previous research has noted the widespread non-use of seatbelts in popular media.ObjectivesTo explore whether increased exposure to entertainment screen media was associated with inflated normative perceptions regarding seatbelt non-use, and to determine any associations between normative perceptions and seatbelt non-use.MethodsA nationally representative telephone survey of

Sally M Dunlop; Daniel Romer

2010-01-01

347

They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

2011-01-01

348

Making Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab, students work in groups to grow crystals in different conditions, and then make conclusions about how and why crystals form. This site contains a detailed procedure and materials list, as well as follow-up questions. A teacher's guide contains extension ideas and information for conducting this lab.

Davidson, Michael

349

Making Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

2011-01-01

350

Making Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life. He states that overall his approach to teaching and researching is about "making sense" where inadequate or incongruous conceptions fall into place or are transformed so they are congruous and adequate. In his teaching the author applies the methods of philosophy to…

Golding, Clinton

2009-01-01

351

Making Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Campaign for Learning, with its partners NIACE and ContinYou, established the National Family Learning Network (NFLN) in 2001. Most of the expertise in any field, including family learning, exists at grassroots level, but all too often stays at the very local, even single-institutional, level, because structures make effective sharing on a…

Hartley, Tricia

2007-01-01

352

NASA Software Documentation Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

1991-01-01

353

Documenting Community Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet offers an introduction to keeping and documenting the history of community organizations. With their variety of purposes these organizations add texture and variety to a community's heritage. A knowledge of that heritage, provided by written documentation as well as oral tradition, proves valuable to members of the organization, to…

Central New York Library Resources Council, Syracuse.

354

Electronic Document Supply Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

Cawkell, A. E.

1991-01-01

355

Notable Documents Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 559 documents from local, state/provincial, and national governments, as well as from international organizations worldwide, that were received by libraries from mid-year 1988 through mid-year 1989. Some of the major issues covered by the documents include health care services, business and economic developments, and the environment. A…

Calhoun, Ellen; And Others

1989-01-01

356

Tobacco Industry Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced by US Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Donna E. Shalala on November 18, the day of the Great American Smokeout, this important new site will allow the public, for the first time, to conduct searches of key tobacco industry documents "made public by state lawsuits, congressional subpoenas, and the November 1998 master settlement agreement." The site is composed of four major sections. The most relevant of these for general users is the Minnesota Select Set, a full-text, searchable database with about 350,000 pages of viewable documents selected by Minnesota lawyers as key to the state's trial. Second is the searchable citation index, or the 4B Index. The 4B Index represents approximately 4 million documents, totalling 27 million pages, that are stored at the Minnesota Depository. Users may submit requests online or by fax for hard copies. Some of the cited documents may also be found via the collection of annotated links to sites that hold tobacco industry documents, most of which are maintained by the various tobacco companies and are supposed to mirror the documents in the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository, according to the Master Settlement Agreement. Background and search tips are provided to help users navigate these sites. The fourth major section is a collection of approximately 7,000 selected British American Tobacco Company documents from Guildford, England, which are stored in Minnesota as part of the Minnesota Select Set and may be viewed online.

357

Efficient privacy-preserving similar document detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar document detection plays important roles in many applications, such as file management, copyright protection, plagiarism\\u000a prevention, and duplicate submission detection. The state of the art protocols assume that the contents of files stored on\\u000a a server (or multiple servers) are directly accessible. However, this makes such protocols unsuitable for any environment\\u000a where the documents themselves are sensitive and cannot

Mummoorthy Murugesan; Wei Jiang; Chris W. Clifton; Luo Si; Jaideep Vaidya

2010-01-01

358

Legacy Tobacco Documents Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California, San Francisco Library and the American Legacy Foundation recently released the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL), a collection of more than 20 million previously private documents from tobacco industry files. Ranging from approximately the 1950s to recent years, LTDL offers searching, viewing, and downloading of documents, covering projects central to the tobacco industry like marketing, research and development, cigarette analysis and design, as well as industry efforts to establish business in developing countries. Within the next 18 months, more documents will be added to the already extensive collection. Currently, viewers may perform simple or advanced searches; view documents in Adobe Reader format (.pdf) or tagged image file format (.tif); or for a quick look, utilize the page-by-page option to view .gif images within the browser.

2002-01-01

359

Documents to the People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University has a number of worthy digital collections, and this particular archive will be of special interest to students of library and information science. The collection contains issues of the journal "DttP: Documents to the People" from 1972 to 2002. Drawn from the print holdings of the Stanford University Libraries, the journal documents both the organizational history of the Government Documents Round Table of the American Library Association and the emergence of the government documents specialization within the field of librarianship. Various items document the transition from a print- to a digital-publishing environment, and still others focus on barriers to citizen access to public information in the United States. Visitors can perform a simple search across these volumes, or also browse the collection by year.

360

Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

361

Document recognition serving people with disabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

Fruchterman, James R.

2007-01-01

362

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

363

Making Glyphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners discover a powerful way to display dataâusing a glyph. Learners create glyphs by drawing their own faces on paper plates. Making a glyph involves the logical skill of classification--a learner must decide which groups he or she belongs to in order to complete the picture. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Skipper, Edie; Williams, Patty

2008-01-01

364

Making the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

For operating system intensive applications, the ability o f designers to understand system call performance behavior is essential to achieving high performance. Conventional performance tools, such as monitoring tools and profilers, collect and present their information off-line or via out-o f- band channels. We believe that making this information first-class and exposing it to applications via in-band chan- nels on

Yaoping Ruan; Vivek S. Pai

2004-01-01

365

Making Mosaics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this archaeology meets art activity, learners make a mosaic and consider the ways in which art communicates. Educators can tie this activity to the study of the Petra site (an ancient city in the Middle East) or any ancient culture/site. Learners discuss the history and use of mosaics and then plan and construct their own mosaics out of cut paper. This can be a whole class activity as well, combining students' mosaics into a large display.

History, American M.

2003-01-01

366

Making Trains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses Cuisenaire Rods to develop flexibility and fluency with addition facts and to encourage systematic thinking. Several different challenges are posed, all involving making equivalent trains using a given number of rods of different colors. An interactive Flash Cuisenaire applet is provided as an alternative to using real rods. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related activity, Cuisenaire Counting (cataloged separately).

2005-10-01

367

Making Regolith  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate how micrometeoroid bombardment causes regolith formation, as seen on the moon, and develop a conclusion by making inferences, based upon their observations, about the properties of lunar regolith. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'What Would You Find on the Moon's Surface?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

368

Making Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article examines the reading comprehension strategy known as making connections. It involves linking what is being read (the text) to what is already known (schema, or background knowledge). The author provides links to four online resources that will help readers use the strategy in K-5 science and literacy classrooms. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which integrates science and literacy instruction.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-12-01

369

An Automated Document Filing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

TEXPROS (TEXt PROcessing System) is an automatic document processing system which supports text-based information representation and manipulation, conveying meanings from stored information within office document texts. A dual modeling approach is employed to describe office documents and support document search and retrieval. The frame templates for representing document classes are organized to form a document type hierarchy. Based on its

Xien Fan; Qianhong Liu; Peter Ng

1999-01-01

370

Making Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of a three-part E-Example from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics of the NCTM algebra standards and this applet is also used in an Illumination unit that highlights different aspects of students' understanding and use of patterns as they analyze relationships and make predictions. This example presents a task for students to complete using the interactive applet. Students can create pattern units of squares, predict how patterns with different numbers of squares will appear when repeated in a grid and then check their predictions. Instructions for using the applet are included and background information for the teacher is provided.

2011-01-01

371

Making Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.

Greb, Stephen

372

Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project  

SciTech Connect

As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

1998-09-01

373

Just the facts, please: a guide to effective documentation.  

PubMed

Although most health care professionals would wish it otherwise, documentation will never be eliminated completely. It can be ignored and complained about, but documentation will always be there to remind us, "If it wasn't documented, it wasn't done." Home care providers need to be cognizant of the imperative for effective documentation. Corporate compliance initiatives, fraud and abuse issues, and changes in reimbursement mechanisms make documentation more important than ever. Home care providers must create an environment conducive to effective documentation practices. PMID:11496263

Mahler, C L

2001-08-01

374

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

Not Available

1993-09-01

375

The Manhattan Project Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the establishment of a secret program?which came to be known as the Manhattan Project?to develop an atomic bomb, a powerful explosive nuclear weapon. Principal documents include: ?The Quebec Agreement,? The Roosevelt-Churchill "Tube Alloys" Deal, Interim Committee's Report, ?Report of the Committee on Political and Social Problems (The Franck Report), and ?Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (The Smyth Report).?

Griffith, Christopher

376

NORMATIVE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

377

Making of America Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Making of America (MOA) project at the University of Michigan is one of the oldest collaborative efforts designed to make a wide range of historical journals available online. Started in the fall of 1995, the project has successfully offered access to thousands of pages of journals and books that document American social history from the antebellum period through Reconstruction. With generous assistance from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the MOA digital archive has digitized numerous journals from this period, and made them widely accessible. Visitors will appreciate looking through such pieces as the "Anatomy of Selfishness" from the February 1887 of Catholic World, or the entire contents of the Southern Literary Messenger from November 1845.

378

Technical approach document  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC.

Not Available

1988-04-01

379

Normative Data on the Sleep Habits of Australian Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To provide normative sleep data on 9-18 year old Australians. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: 4032 Australians aged 9-18 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 48h use of time recall, comprising sleep data for one complete night. Sleep duration, bedtime and wake time were compared across age groups, between genders, and between school and non-school days using ANOVA. Sleep duration declined with age (P < 0.0001) at the rate of 12 min/ night per year of age on school days, and 4 min on non-school days. Girls slept slightly longer than boys (5 min/ night; P = 0.03). Non-school day sleep was 16 min longer than school day sleep (P < 0.0001), with the difference increasing with age. Bedtimes got later with age (P < 0.0001), however there were no differences in bedtimes between boys and girls. Bedtimes occurred 34 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Wake times were very similar across age groups on school days, but increased at the rate of 10 min/ year of age on non-school days. Wake times were similar for boys and girls, and occurred on average 82 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Overall, 17% of school days and 20% of non-school days failed to meet the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sleep duration guidelines. Conclusions: Normative sleep data will provide a valuable yardstick for health and education professionals when dealing with sleep-related issues. Citation: Olds T; Maher C; Blunden S; Matricciani L. Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents. SLEEP 2010;33(10):1381-1388. PMID:21061861

Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol; Blunden, Sarah; Matricciani, Lisa

2010-01-01

380

Anogenital Distance and Penile Length in Infants with Hypospadias or Cryptorchidism: Comparison with Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Background: Anogenital distance (AGD) in animals is a sensitive biomarker of fetal endocrine disruption and the associated testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). However, AGD in human infants with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, which are potential manifestations of TDS during childhood, is not clearly described. Objective: Our aim was to compare AGD in boys with cryptorchidism or hypospadias against normative data. Methods: Boys with isolated cryptorchidism (n = 71, age 13.4 ± 5.8 months) or hypospadias (n = 81, age 11.4 ± 6.2 months) were recruited from a tertiary center for measurement of AGD and penile length; they were compared with 487 healthy full-term boys from a birth cohort by deriving age-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). Results: Boys with cryptorchidism were older (p = 0.048) compared with boys with hypospadias. Boys with hypospadias had shorter mean AGD and penile length SDS than healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean AGD and penile length SDS values in boys with cryptorchidism were longer than mean values in boys with hypospadias (both p < 0.01) and shorter than mean values in healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean penile length SDS decreased as the severity of hypospadias increased (ptrend = 0.078). Conclusions: In the study population, AGD and penile length were reduced in boys with hypospadias or cryptorchidism relative to normative data derived from a longitudinal birth cohort. The findings support the use of AGD as a quantitative biomarker to examine the prenatal effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors on the development of the male reproductive tract. Citation: Thankamony A, Lek N, Carroll D, Williams M, Dunger DB, Acerini CL, Ong KK, Hughes IA. 2014. Anogenital distance and penile length in infants with hypospadias or cryptorchidism: comparison with normative data. Environ Health Perspect 122:207–211;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307178 PMID:24316680

Thankamony, Ajay; Lek, Ngee; Carroll, Dan; Williams, Martyn; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

2013-01-01

381

Ethnic differences in arterial wave reflections and normative equations for augmentation index.  

PubMed

Data regarding ethnic differences in wave reflections, which markedly affect the central pressure profile, are very limited. Furthermore, because age, heart rate, and body height are strong determinants of augmentation index, relating single measurements to normative data (in which augmentation index values correspond with average population values of its determinants) is challenging. We studied subject-level data from 10 550 adults enrolled in large population-based studies. In a healthy reference sample (n=3497), we assessed ethnic differences in augmentation index (ratio of second/first systolic peaks) and generated equations for adjusted z scores, allowing for a standardized comparison between individual augmentation index measurements and the normative population mean from subjects of the same age, sex, ethnic population, body height, and heart rate. After adjustment for age, body height, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure, African blacks (women: 154%; men: 138%) and Andean Hispanics (women: 152%; men: 133%) demonstrated higher central (aortic) augmentation index values than British whites (women: 140%; men: 128%), whereas American Indians (women: 133%; men: 122%) demonstrated lower augmentation index (all P<0.0001), without significant differences between Chinese and British whites. Similar results were found for radial augmentation index. Nonlinear ethnic/sex-specific equations for z scores were successfully generated to adjust individual augmentation index values for age, body height, and heart rate. Marked ethnic differences in augmentation index exist, which may contribute to ethnic differences in hypertensive organ damage. Our study provides normative data that can be used to complement the interpretation of individual hemodynamic assessments among men and women of various ethnic populations, after removing the effect of various physiological determinants. PMID:21536986

Chirinos, Julio A; Kips, Jan G; Roman, Mary J; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Li, Yan; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Norton, Gavin R; Yasmin; Van Bortel, Luc; Wang, Ji-Guang; Cockcroft, John R; Devereux, Richard B; Wilkinson, Ian B; Segers, Patrick; McEniery, Carmel M

2011-06-01

382

Normative data and validation of a regression based summary score for assessing meaningful neuropsychological change.  

PubMed

Reliable detection and quantification of longitudinal cognitive change are of considerable importance in many neurological disorders, particularly to monitor central nervous system effects of disease progression and treatment. In the current study, we developed normative data for repeated neuropsychological (NP) assessments (6 testings) using a modified standard regression-based (SRB) approach in a sample that includes both HIV-uninfected (HIV-, N = 172) and neuromedically stable HIV-infected (HIV+, N = 124) individuals. Prior analyses indicated no differences in NP change between the infected and uninfected participants. The norms for change included correction for factors found to significantly affect follow-up performance, using hierarchical regression. The most robust and consistent predictors of follow-up performance were the prior performance on the same test (which contributed in all models) and a measure of prior overall NP competence (predictor in 97% of all models). Demographic variables were predictors in 10-46% of all models and in small amounts; while test-retest interval contributed in only 6% of all models. Based on the regression equations, standardized change scores (z scores) were computed for each test measure at each interval; these z scores were then averaged to create a total battery change score. An independent sample of HIV- participants who had completed 8 of the 15 tests was used to validate an abridged summary change score. The normative data are available in an electronic format by e-mail request to the first author. Correction for practice effects based on normative data improved the consistency of NP impairment classification in a clinically stable longitudinal cohort after baseline. PMID:21391011

Cysique, Lucette A; Franklin, Donald; Abramson, Ian; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Collier, Ann; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

2011-06-01

383

Investigating the Success of Decision Making Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? A decision making process is made up of action-taking steps indicating how to make a decision. When linked to indicators of success, process provides the basis for building an action theory for decision making. The success of many different types of processes must be documented before such a theory can be constructed. In this research, processes called ‘idea imposition’

Paul C. Nutt

2008-01-01

384

22 CFR 201.72 - Making payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Making payments. 201.72 Section 201...Responsibilities of Banks § 201.72 Making payments. (a) Collection of documents...F and in the letter of commitment when making payment under a letter of credit...

2010-04-01

385

The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.

Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L. (University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Poison, MT)

2002-10-01

386

"Primary" rationing of health services in ageing societies--a normative analysis.  

PubMed

While most of the debate on "rationing in health care" focusses on the distribution of scarce medical resources among competing needs, which we propose to call "secondary rationing," this paper is concerned with "primary rationing," i.e., the conscious decision by society to limit the amount of resources devoted to a collectively financed health care system. Based upon a number of transparent normative criteria, we analyze whether primary rationing should be performed and, if so, what type should be chosen (hard vs. soft, explicit vs. implicit). Finally we discuss whether age should be used as a criterion in any systematic attempt at primary rationing of health care. PMID:14625993

Breyer, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Carlo

2002-11-01

387

The normative environment for drug use: comparisons among American Indian and white adolescents.  

PubMed

The current study examined the influence of descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived outcome expectancies, and ethnicity on marijuana and inhalant use among 2334 American Indian (AI) and White high school students who lived on or near reservations in the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with survey data collected during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Results suggest differences between ethnicities in the influence of the normative environment and outcome expectancies on both marijuana and inhalant use. Study limitations are noted, and future research is suggested. PMID:23768429

Dieterich, Sara E; Swaim, Randall C; Beauvais, Fred

2013-01-01

388

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

389

Homelessness outcome reporting normative framework: systems-level evaluation of progress in ending homelessness.  

PubMed

Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural determinants of homelessness. This information can inform the development of evidence-based strategies aimed at ending (rather than managing) homelessness. To aid in the development of homelessness report card creation, a systems-level Homelessness Outcome Reporting Normative Framework (the HORN Framework) was developed. This article provides an overview of the framework and its application. PMID:22522143

Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie

2012-02-01

390

Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043

Turiano, Nicholas A.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

2013-01-01

391

Making waves.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author takes the reader on a behind-the-scenes tour of his way of working. Along the way, one learns about how the author came upon his surprising findings and how he managed to avoid obstacles in his path. He introduces the reader to the wonders of the universe, from the submicroscopic, most minute - the workings of atoms and the even smaller particles that make them up - to the vast outer reaches of space. His tour takes one along paths Townes pioneered: quantum electronics, microwave spectroscopy and the frontiers of our galaxy where he explored the dark, rarefied clouds of gas and dust where new stars form. The book concludes with a uniquely personal coda in which Townes suggests that science and religion occupy the same terrain.

Townes, C. H.

392

Comparing post-concussive neurocognitive test data to normative data presents risks for under-classifying "above average" athletes.  

PubMed

We compared classification accuracy of post-concussion test data against baseline and normative data, accounting for baseline level of performance. Athletes (N = 250) completed baseline and post-concussion ImPACT assessments, within 7 days of concussion (verified by sports medicine professionals and self-reported symptoms). Athletes were classified as "below average," "average," or "above average" at baseline. Change from baseline was calculated using reliable change indices (RCIs) and regression-based measures (RBz), and comparison to normative data was achieved using z-scores. Normative comparisons identified fewer symptomatic, concussed athletes than RCIs and RBz. Both RCIs and RBz consistently identified "impairment" at 1 and 1.5 SD, regardless of baseline level, whereas normative comparisons identified 46-48% fewer athletes performing "above average" at baseline using a cut-off of 1 SD and 36-38% fewer using a cut-off of 1.5 SD. The use of normative comparisons may differentially classify concussed, symptomatic athletes who are outside the "average" range at baseline. PMID:25178629

Schatz, Philip; Robertshaw, Stacey

2014-11-01

393

What we've learned, and what we haven't PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making  

E-print Network

Summary What we've learned, and what we haven't PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making of disorders (drug abuse as learning gone awry, latent inhibition and schizophrenia) · extinction (latent cause animals behave? how should animals behave if they were optimal? How? Why? the BIG picture normative models

Niv, Yael

394

A model of reward- and effort-based optimal decision making and motor control.  

PubMed

Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

395

Document Concurrence System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

2004-01-01

396

Swiss Diplomatic Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Swiss Diplomatic Documents, a site maintained by the Swiss Federal Archives, provides public access to documents on Swiss foreign policy and international relations. This site contains two valuable information resources: the DoDiS database and a comprehensive bibliography. The DoDiS (Diplomatische Dokumente der Schweiz, or Documents Diplomatiques Suisses) database currently includes entries on over 2,000 foreign policy documents, 6,000 persons, 7,000 organizations, and 1,650 geographical terms. The database also contains international agreements, federal laws, and decisions of the Federal Council and of the Federal Assembly. DoDiS is searchable and provides detailed bibliographic data for each entry. Recently about one-fourth of the documents have also been made available in a full-text format (.pdf). The other significant resource at this site is a bibliography on Swiss international relations and foreign policy from 1945 to the present. The extensive bibliography is organized by subject and includes references in German, French, and English.

397

Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

Sanfilippo, Antonio (Richland, WA); Calapristi, Augustin J. (West Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L. (Richland, WA); Hetzler, Elizabeth G. (Kennewick, WA); Turner, Alan E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-12-22

398

Normative data for modified Box and Blocks test measuring upper-limb function via motion capture.  

PubMed

Motion analysis is an important tool for examining upper-limb function. Based on previous work demonstrating a modified Box and Blocks (BB) test with motion capture to assess prosthetic performance, we collected data in 16 nondisabled participants to establish normative kinematics for this test. Four motions of the modified BB test were analyzed to establish kinematic data for upper-limb and trunk motion. The test was repeated for right and left arms in standing and seated positions. Data were compared using a nonparametric Friedman test. No differences were found between right- and left-hand performance other than for task completion time. Small but significant differences were found for standing and seated performance, with slightly greater ranges in standing for axial trunk rotation, medial-lateral sternum displacement, and anterior-posterior hand displacement. The kinematic trajectories, however, were very consistent. The consistency in our nondisabled data suggests that normative kinematic trajectories can be defined for this task. This motion capture procedure may add to the understanding of movement in upper-limb impairment and may be useful for measuring the effect of interventions to improve upper-limb function. PMID:25356979

Hebert, Jacqueline S; Lewicke, Justin; Williams, Thomas R; Vette, Albert H

2014-01-01

399

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at six months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2014-01-01

400

Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.  

PubMed

To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

2014-03-01

401

A Normative Study of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) in Children and Adolescents.  

PubMed

Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool; SCAT2) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of "normal" or "impaired" score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption. PMID:25244434

Snyder, Aliyah R; Bauer, Russell M

2014-10-01

402

The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.  

PubMed

Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness. PMID:23799900

Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

2014-12-01

403

Both Odor Identification and ApoE-?4 Contribute to Normative Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ?4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features. PMID:21517181

Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.

2013-01-01

404

Normative Perceptions and Past-year Consequences as Predictors of Subjective Evaluations and Weekly Drinking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study with primary aims to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N=96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported – weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. PMID:23899424

Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.

2013-01-01

405

Individual, Social-Normative, and Policy Predictors of Smoking Cessation: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the prospective impact of individual, social-normative, and policy predictors of quit attempts and smoking cessation among Massachusetts adults. Methods. We interviewed a representative sample of current and recent smokers in Massachusetts by telephone in 2001 through 2002 and then again twice at 2-year intervals. The unit of analysis was the 2-year transition from wave 1 to wave 2 and from wave 2 to wave 3. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence of longer than 3 months were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Predictors included individual, social-normative, and policy factors. Results. Multivariate analyses of 2-year transitions showed that perceptions of strong antismoking town norms were predictive of abstinence (odds ratio = 2.06; P < .01). Household smoking bans were the only policy associated with abstinence, but smoking bans at one's worksite were significant predictors of quit attempts. Conclusions. Although previous research showed a strong relation between local policy and norms, we found no observable, prospective impact of local policy on smoking cessation over 2 years. Our findings provide clear support for the importance of strong antismoking social norms as a facilitator of smoking cessation. PMID:19696387

Hamilton, William L.; Siegel, Michael; Sullivan, Eileen M.

2010-01-01

406

Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS).  

PubMed

A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358

Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

2008-08-01

407

The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

2013-11-01

408

A normative framework for the study of second-order sensitivity in vision.  

PubMed

While the contrast sensitivity approach has been successful in evaluating the processing of first-order stimuli, there is a need to develop comparable ways of assessing second-order vision. Our purpose here is to establish normative data on second-order contrast-, orientation-, and motion-modulation sensitivity in humans. We propose a unified framework, applying the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method, which was recently developed for the rapid measurement of contrast sensitivity across the full spatial-frequency range (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), to measure both first- and second-order sensitivity functions. We first show that the qCSF methodology can be successfully adapted to different kinds of first- and second-order measurements. We provide a normative dataset for both first- and second-order sensitivity, and we show that the sensitivity to all these stimuli is equal in the two eyes. Our results confirm some strong differences between first- and second-order processing, in accordance with the classical filter-rectify-filter model. They suggest a common contrast detection mechanism but different second-order mechanisms. PMID:25096156

Reynaud, Alexandre; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F

2014-01-01

409

A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) with examples of petrologic problem solving  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.

Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, G.

1979-01-01

410

Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years  

PubMed Central

As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?normative cDVA data as a criterion reference to compare both the long (validated) and short versions of the test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

2014-01-01

411

Documents in Military History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

412

Customer Communication Document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

2009-01-01

413

Outcrop Documentation Lab Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stratigraphy students are tasked with documenting an outcrop (sketches, photographs, and rock descriptions) and providing a three panel display of the results. Students work on the lab in class and receive direct mentoring in rock and outcrop description, then for homework they craft digital professional quality reports to present the data to others. These reports are graded, then returned to everyone simultaneously so they can be placed side by side. Students directly observe how others interpreted the same deposits, which underscores the concepts of sound data documentation, and separating data from interpretations.

Evans, Thomas

414

Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences—(Survey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to "classical" mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical ("first order cybernetics") and modern ("second order cybernetics", "complexity theory") systems thinking in social sciences.

Mesjasz, Czes?aw

2000-05-01

415

Using Primary Source Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

Mintz, Steven

2003-01-01

416

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-print Network

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

417

Documentation of Employee Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the main purpose of a school district's evaluation system is to improve employees' performance, the evaluation procedures and the supporting documentation must also serve as evidence in the termination hearings of an unsatisfactory employee. Accordingly, this chapter provides practical advice to school administrators concerning…

Frels, Kelly; Cooper, Timothy

418

Dynamic Document Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dynamic Document Creator by Strategis (described in the December 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) assembles international market research reports according to user-defined specifications. Each report draws on US Department of Commerce data and any number of regions, countries, industry sectors, and keywords are available for selection.

419

Documents on Disarmament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

420

Documenting and Interpreting Conflict  

E-print Network

, a professor at Artuklu University at Mardin, collected oral histories of Armenians and Kurds in DiyarbakirDocumenting and Interpreting Conflict through Oral History A WORKING GUIDE Co-produced with TAARII Editors Mary Marshall Clark Columbia University Center for Oral History Research Terrell Frazier Columbia

Salzman, Daniel

421

Document Map Introduction  

E-print Network

Psychotherapist; Directorof Health & Recovery, St Mungo's; Directorof Homeless HealthcareCIC SPY Design Service for people who are homeless or vulnerably housed 62 Appendix 64 #12;Document Map Introduction amongst rough sleepers and young homeless people. There is growing evidence of the extent and range

Quartly, Graham

422

ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document  

E-print Network

ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document JANUARY 2006 Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term #12;Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long term #12;OUR ENERGY CHALLENGE ­ SECURING CLEAN, AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR THE LONG TERM ii Why is the government

423

Ocean Literacy Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted documents include 1) 2 pdf files that align key ocean concepts to National & California Science Standards, 2) the report from the first workshop on Public Ocean Literacy, and 3) an annotated bibliography of ocean related books for the K-12 audience.

424

CAPITAL ASSET DOCUMENT TRAINING  

E-print Network

KUALI CAPITAL ASSET MANAGEMENT DOCUMENT TRAINING Business and Financial Services, Property Management Presented by: Rachel Drenth #12;Sign On to the Training Site · CSU CAP (Campus Administration://padroni.is.colostate.edu:7778/portal/page/portal/CAPQA (THEN CHOOSE QUAL 2) · Non-production Applications: Training Kuali

425

Electronic document interchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

Erwin, Jim

1993-01-01

426

Electronic document interchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation and implementation tasks for the NASA-wide electronic publishing system known as networked DOCUTECH are examined and the system configuration is graphically depicted. DOCUTECH provides the capability to print on demand electronically stored documents. Use of the electronic publishing system in several applications has generated productivity gains ranging from 33 to 88 percent at geographically dispersed NASA centers.

Tuey, Dick

1993-01-01

427

Cuban Missile Crisis Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 15, 1962, the Soviet Union was discovered attempting to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. These missiles would have been capable of quickly reaching the United States. President Kennedy responded with a naval blockade. After several days of increasing tensions, the Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles.

Griffith, Christopher

428

Historical Documents and Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section features a collection of some of the documents and reports that have shaped the atomic age. Categories include: The Nuclear Age Begins, The Manhattan Project, The Trinity Test, The Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Developing the Hydrogen Bomb, The Oppenheimer Affair, Cuban Missile Crisis, Arms Control, Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation, and Missile Defense.

Griffith, Christopher

429

Normative data for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 in 7-yr.-old children in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Scores on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in a Czech sample recruited from mainstream urban elementary schools were compared with the U.S. normative sample. 315 children participated (152 boys, M age = 7.1 yr., SD = 0.3; 163 girls, M age = 7.0 yr., SD = 0.3). Differences in raw score means and percentiles were evaluated, showing differences between the Czech and the U.S. normative samples. Standardized U.S. norms for the TGMD-2 should not be generalized to the Czech population without further study. PMID:20865991

Cepicka, Ladislav

2010-06-01

430

Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

2010-01-01

431

Making biodiversity meaningful through environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity is an emerging theme in science, society and, more recently, education. There is no one single definition of biodiversity that is adequate in all situations. Both the knowledge base and the value base of biodiversity are variable and questionable. Because of these characteristics, biodiversity makes for an interesting vehicle for linking science and society, and the investigation of the normative underpinnings of 'science-in-the making'. Based on a 3-year study, this paper explores the crossroads between science education and environmental education and presents a framework for tapping the environmental education potential of biodiversity. Outlined are a number stepping stones for making biodiversity meaningful to learners. It is argued that, from the perspective of environmental education, the illdefined nature of biodiversity is a useful feature. Biodiversity is renewing the discourse on nature conservation issues by bringing together different groups in society that are searching for a common language to discuss nature conservation issues in relation to sustainability issues. The resulting debate allows the socio-scientific dispute character of 'science-in-the-making' to surface. Participation in such a dispute is an excellent opportunity to learn about a highly relevant, controversial, emotionally charged and debatable topic at the crossroads of science, technology and society

van Weelie, Daan

2002-11-01

432

Northeast Document Conservation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.

433

Content Documents Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

2011-01-01

434

Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

Liu, Changzheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-08-01

435

More than cheating: deception, IRB shopping, and the normative legitimacy of IRBs.  

PubMed

Deception, cheating, and loopholes within the IRB approval process have received significant attention in the past several years. Surveys of clinical researchers indicate common deception ranging from omitting information to outright lying, and controversy surrounding the FDA's decision not to ban "IRB shopping" (the practice of submitting protocols to multiple IRBs until one is found that will approve the protocol) has raised legitimate concerns about the integrity of the IRB process. While at first blush these practices seem to cast aspersions on the integrity of clinical researchers, the moral issues raised go deeper than the ethics of cheating. To the extent that these practices are common, or represent an IRB system that places unreasonable burdens on those seeking IRB approval, we should consider whether non-compliance reflects problems of normative legitimacy for the IRB system itself. PMID:23289700

Spellecy, Ryan; May, Thomas

2012-01-01

436

Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49.  

PubMed

There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernández, Isabel; Tárraga, Lluís; Becker, James T; Boada, Mercè

2012-01-01

437

Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junque, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernandez, Isabel; Tarraga, Lluis; Becker, James T.; Boada, Merce

2011-01-01

438

Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers  

PubMed Central

Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

Taylor, Catherine A.; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

2011-01-01

439

Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.  

PubMed

Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

2012-09-01

440

Critical issues in an electronic documentation system.  

PubMed

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system. PMID:18693944

Weir, Charlene R; Nebeker, Jonathan R

2007-01-01

441

Critical Issues in an Electronic Documentation System  

PubMed Central

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system. PMID:18693944

Weir, Charlene R.; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

2007-01-01

442

Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents  

E-print Network

Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents Improving the way of Transportation Paula Hammond Chief of Staff #12;Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents What's the problem on Environmental Quality #12;Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents EIS's can legally succeed and utterly fail

Minnesota, University of

443

Collaborative document production using quilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quilt is a computer-based tool for collaborative document production. It provides annotation, messaging, computer conferencing, and notification facilities to support communication and information sharing among the collaborators on a document. Views of a document tailored to individual collaborators or to other of the document's users are provided by Quilt based on the user's position in a permission hierarchy that reflects

Mary Diane Palmer Leland; Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut

1988-01-01

444

A Normative Study of the Disability Assessment for Dementia in Community-Dwelling Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated demographic influences on Korean version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD-K) performance and developed normative data for DAD-K. Methods The DAD-K was administered to 2362 normal controls (NCs), 296 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 293 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). MANOVA and ROC curve analysis were used to compare DAD-K performance and the diagnostic accuracy of DAD-K, respectively. The demographic influence on DAD-K scores was analyzed by multiple linear regression and ANOVA. Normative DAD-K data were calculated using natural logarithmic transformation. Results All DAD-K scores were significantly different among groups (p<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), executive function and DAD-K total scores began to decline significantly in the very mild stage of AD, whereas the basic activities of daily living (BADL) scores began to decline in the mild stage of AD. The area under the ROC curve differentiating MCI or AD from NC was 0.737 and that differentiating AD from MCI or NC was 0.911. IADL and planning and organization scores were influenced by age and education and performance and DAD-K total scores were influenced by education. Conclusion The demographic influences on DAD-K scores are not conspicuous and are mainly limited to the IADL and planning and organization scores. Unitary or minimally stratified norms for a specific population were developed for DAD-K application. Our results suggest that the DAD-K is useful for differentiating NC or MCI from AD but not as powerful for differentiating NC from MCI.

Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Chi, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Hyo Jung; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Joon Hyuk; Youn, Jong Chul; Kim, Jeong Lan; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Dong Young

2014-01-01

445

Left Ventricular Mass: Allometric Scaling, Normative Values, Effect of Obesity and Prognostic Performance  

PubMed Central

The need for left ventricular mass (LVM) normalization to body size is well recognized. Currently used allometric exponents to normalize LVM may not account for the confounding effect of gender. Since gender is a strong determinant of body size and LVM, we hypothesized that these are subject to potential bias. We analyzed data from 7,528 subjects enrolled in the Asklepios study (n=2,524) and the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA limited access dataset; n=5,004) in order to assess metric relationships between LVM and body size, generate normative data for indexed LVM and compare the ability of normalization methods to predict cardiovascular events. The allometric exponent that adequately described the LVM-body height relationship was 1.7 in both studies and significantly different from both the unity and 2.7, whereas the LVM-BSA relationship was approximately linear. LVM/height2.7 consistently demonstrated important residual relationships with body height and systematically misclassified subjects regarding the presence of LVH. LVH defined by LVM/height1.7 was more sensitive than LVM/BSA to identify obesity-related LVH and was most consistently associated with cardiovascular events and all-cause death. In contrast to current assumptions, LVM/height2.7 is not an adequate method to normalize LV mass for body size. We provide more appropriate normalization methods, normative data by 2-D-echocardiography and gradient-echo cardiac MRI, and cut-offs for defining LVH, along with prognostic validation data. PMID:20458004

Chirinos, Julio A.; Segers, Patrick; De Buyzere, Marc L.; Kronmal, Richard; Raja, Muhammad W.; De Bacquer, Dirk; Claessens, Tom; Gillebert, Thierry C.; St. John-Sutton, Martin; Rietzschel, Ernst R.

2011-01-01

446

Normative values of fetal nasal bone lengths of Turkish singleton pregnancies in the first trimester  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluation of nasal bone improves the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. In this retrospective study we aimed to determine normative values related to the measurement of nasal bone length of the Turkish population during the first trimester ultrasonographic fetal screening. Material and Methods Medical records of singleton pregnancies, whose first trimester fetal screening was performed between 2004 and 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. Pregnancies with any detected/suspicious anatomical or genetic fetal anomalies, biochemical abnormalities, increased nuchal translucency measurements, and pregnancies of artificial reproduction techniques were excluded from data analyses. Mean±standard deviation, median and percentile values of the length of nasal bone were calculated separately for 110–6, 120–6 and 130–6 gestational weeks Results Nasal bone could be visualized in 99.6% of the included 1762 singleton pregnancies. In 16.5% of the cases nasal bones were only noted as present or absent. Mean maternal age was 29.67±4.50 years and mean gestational age was 12.54±0.61 weeks. Median values of nasal bone lengths were 1.7, 1.9, and 2.2 mm for 110–6, 120–6 and 130–6 gestational weeks respectively. Nasal bone length (NBL) increased linearly with advancing gestational age and CRL. NBL (mm)=[0.298xGestational Age (week)]?1.779, R2=0.318; p<0.001; NBL (mm)= [0.023 × CRL (mm)] + 0.520, R2=0.331; p<0.001 Conclusion The present study presents normative values of nasal bone in the first trimester screening of normal singleton pregnancies of Turkish population. Nasal bone length increases with advancing gestational age and CRL. PMID:24591999

Yayla, Murat; Ergin, Rahime Nida; Goynumer, Gokhan

2011-01-01

447

A Study to Draw a Normative Database of Laryngopharynx pH Profile in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To draw a normative database of laryngopharynx pH profile in Chinese subjects. Methods Normal volunteers were recruited from “www.Ganji.com” and People’s hospital between May 2008 and December 2009. The Restech pH Probes were calibrated in pH 7 and pH 4 buffer solutions according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each volunteer was asked to wear the device for a 24-hour period and was encouraged to participate in normal daily activities. Results The healthy volunteers consisted of 20 males and 9 females with a median age of 23 years (interquartile range, 21 to 32 years). The 95th percentiles for % total times at pH < 4, pH < 4.5, pH < 5.0 and pH < 5.5 for the oropharynx pH catheter were 0.06%, 1.01%, 7.23% and 27.34%, respectively. The 95th percentile for number of reflux events within the 24-hour period at pH < 4, pH < 4.5, pH < 5.0 and pH < 5.5 were 2.0, 18.0, 107.5 and 284.5, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study to systematically assess the degree of reflux detected by the new pH probe in healthy asymptomatic Chinese volunteers and to report normative values in Chinese people. Using an oropharyngeal pH catheter to monitor laryngopharyngeal reflux indicated that in healthy Chinese, reflux should be considered normal if the percent time at pH less than 4.5 is no more than 1%. PMID:24948130

Feng, Guijian; Wang, Junyao; Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Yulan

2014-01-01

448

Political Divorce of Peoples: A Search for a Right to Secession in International Law and Normative International Relations Theory  

E-print Network

who are ethnic minorities sometimes become victims of ethnic cleansing and genocide campaigns. In fact, as impetus for establishing the Responsibility to Protect, the..., there are two separate ongoing conversations: one in international law scholarship and another in normative IR theory. At the very least, this work engages each subfield...

Randolph, Justice Hoover

2013-05-31

449

The Valuation of Knowledge and Normative Reflection in Teacher Qualification: A Comparison of Teacher Educators, Novice and Experienced Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from teacher education to work in schools has been described as an "epistemic clash". Teacher educators', novice teachers' and experienced teachers' valuation of the academic, practical and normative demands of teaching are compared using survey data from teacher education and schools. All groups value academic knowledge and…

Caspersen, Joakim

2013-01-01

450

Normative data on the Missouri Children's Picture Series and the Missouri Children's Behavior Checklist with southern black children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data are presented for Southern black children on two objective personality inventories for children: the Missouri Children's Picture Series (MCPS), a child picture-sorting task, and the Missouri Children's Behavior Checklist (MBCL), a parent rating scale. The MCPS was administered to 615 black children attending public schools in a low socioeconomic area of the southeast United States. Parents returned the

Crystal K. Kelley; Glen D. King

1980-01-01

451

Prediction of leisure participation from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs: An application of the theory of planned behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1985, 1987) is offered as a comprehensive framework for understanding of leisure participation. Salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, theoretically the basic determinants of behavior, were assessed with respect to five leisure activities: spending time at the beach, jogging or running, mountain climbing, boating, and biking. College students completed a questionnaire containing measures of

Icek Ajzen; B. L. Driver

1991-01-01

452

Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.  

PubMed

Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

2012-01-01

453

Normative Data in Women Aged 85 and Older: Verbal Fluency, Digit Span, and the CVLT-II Short Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to

Eric M. Fine; Joel H. Kramer; Li-Yung Lui; Kristine Yaffe

2012-01-01

454

Normative Data in Women Age 85 and Older: Verbal Fluency, Digit Span, and the CVLT-II Short Form  

PubMed Central

Individuals age 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remains relatively limited for this age group. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the CVLT-II Short Form (Delis et al., 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20 year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of “robust” longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

Fine, Eric M.; Kramer, Joel H.; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine

2014-01-01

455

The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

2007-01-01

456

The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To provide UK normative data for the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and test its convergent, discriminant and construct validity. Design. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods. The DASS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representa- tive of the general adult UK population ( N = 1,771) in terms of demographic variables. Competing models of

John R. Crawford; Julie D. Henry

2003-01-01

457

Photographic Depiction of Normative Deviance and Informational Utility as Predictors of Protest News Exposure, Related Perceptions, and Story Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

News stories about protests are often accompanied by footage or photos depicting dramatic or violent acts that occur during the protest, even though such acts may be rare or insignificant. Although the assumption is that visual depiction of normative deviance draws the attention of audience members, thus facilitating learning about the social issue, extant research does not suggest this will

Laura M. Arpan; Firat Tüzünkan

2011-01-01

458

How Media Campaigns Influence Children's Physical Activity: Expanding the Normative Mechanisms of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors’ model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention

Hye-Jin Paek; Hyun Jung Oh; Thomas Hove

2012-01-01

459

Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with higher levels of anger and stronger beliefs that

Denis G. Sukhodolsky; Vladislav V. Ruchkin

2004-01-01

460

The Bologna Process as a hegemonic tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): the case of Chilean and Mexican higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two ‘hegemonic tools’: the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as a normative power (NPE) on the

Francis Espinoza Figueroa

2010-01-01

461

Done wrong or said wrong? Young children understand the normative directions of fit of different speech acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young children use and comprehend different kinds of speech acts from the beginning of their communicative development. But it is not clear how they understand the conventional and normative structure of such speech acts. In particular, imperative speech acts have a world-to-word direction of fit, such that their fulfillment means that the world must change to fit the word. In

Hannes Rakoczy; Michael Tomasello

2009-01-01

462

Rey's 15-Item Visual Memory Test for the Detection of Malingering: Normative Observations on Patients with Neurological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gather normative observations on a visual memory test developed by A. Rey (1964), it was administered to 100 temporal-lobe epilepsy patients with memory deficits and 56 outpatients with neurological disorders. Results suggest a cutoff score of 7 on the memory test may alert the clinician to possible factitious memory complaints. (SLD)

Lee, Gregory P.; And Others

1992-01-01

463

An Evaluation of a Brief HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for College Students Using Normative Feedback and Goal Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the ability of a 20-minute self-administered intervention to increase HIV/AIDS risk reduction among sexually active college students. The intervention presented normative data on the relatively low prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among college students for the purpose of conveying the idea that risk reduction was the…

Chernoff, Robert A.; Davison, Gerald C.

2005-01-01

464

Motor evoked potentials recorded from external anal sphincter by cortical and lumbo-sacral magnetic stimulation: Normative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological activation of the motor pathways can be obtained by electrical or magnetic stimulation. The latter has the great advantage of being painful and able to stimulate deeply situated nervous structures. Only a few reports describe responses obtained from pelvic floor muscles and external anal sphincter (EAS) by transcranial and lumbo-sacral magnetic stimulation. Our purpose is to present normative data

G Pelliccioni; O Scarpino; V Piloni

1997-01-01

465

MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

2011-01-01

466

Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

2010-01-01

467

Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students have been shown to consistently overestimate the drinking of their peers. As a result, social norms approaches are effective in correcting these misperceived norms to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. In this review of literature, the authors critically evaluated the effectiveness of personalized normative

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

2006-01-01

468

Normative images of the family for Africa: the UN Convention and the African Charter on the rights of the child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article intends to contribute to the understanding of normative images of the family which are contained in international and regional human rights instruments. All the African states with the exception only of Somalia are parties to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989, and three quarters of all African states are parties to the African

Ulrike Wanitzek

2007-01-01

469

Type of Student Residence as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Consumption and Social Normative Perceptions regarding Alcohol Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine alcohol use (particularly heavy drinking) and social normative estimations of alcohol use according to student residence (fraternity, sorority, residence hall, or apartment complex). To achieve this purpose, a survey was conducted in all 34 sections of a general education core English class at a…

Page, Randy M.; O'Hegarty, Michelle

2006-01-01

470

Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with…

Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.

2004-01-01

471

Influence of ability, assigned goals, and normative information on personal goals and performance: A challenge to the goal attainability assumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

58 undergraduates were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 experimental conditions representing 2 levels of goal difficulty (easy vs very hard) and 3 levels of normative information, indicating that the goal had been achieved by 95, 50, or 5% of students previously tested. Ss then set their own performance goals for a creativity task, which they performed over 10 repeated

Howard Garland

1983-01-01

472

7 CFR 1717.353 - Requirements of RUS documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With RUS Electric Borrowers in Bankruptcy § 1717.353 Requirements of RUS documents. Each borrower shall establish and adjust rates for electric service as...

2010-01-01

473

Informed Consent: New Recommendations Aim to Simplify Documents, Improve Quality  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has unveiled new recommendations for informed consent documents that aim to make the forms more understandable and more useful to people who are considering participation in a cancer clinical trial.

474

XHTML documents with inline, policy-aware provenance  

E-print Network

Constructing code that aids users in making information policy decisions in a decentralized Web-based environment will require seamless integration between document content and metadata. A system of embedding and reasoning ...

Jones, Harvey C., III

2007-01-01

475

What Makes a Good Summary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest challenges for intelligence analysts who participate in prevention or response to a terrorism act is to quickly find relevant information from massive amounts of data. Along with research on information retrieval and filtering, text summarization is an effective technique to help intelligence analysts shorten their time to find critical information and make timely decisions. Multi-document summarization is particularly useful as it serves to quickly describe a collection of information. The obvious shortcoming lies in what it cannot capture especially in more diverse collections. Thus, the question lies in the adequacy and/or usefulness of such summarizations to the target analyst. In this chapter, we report our experimental study on the sensitivity of users to the quality and content of multi-document summarization. We used the DUC 2002 collection for multi-document summarization as our testbed. Two groups of document sets were considered: (I) the sets consisting of closely correlated documents with highly overlapped content; and (II) the sets consisting of diverse documents covering a wide scope of topics. Intuitively, this suggests that creating a quality summary would be more difficult for the latter case. However, human evaluators were discovered to be fairly insensitive to this difference. This occurred when they were asked to rank the performance of various automated summarizers. In this chapter, we examine and analyze our experiments in order to better understand this phenomenon and how we might address it to improve summarization quality. In particular, we present a new metric based on document graphs that can distinguish between the two types of document sets.

Zhao, Qunhua; Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Mohamed, Ahmed

476

Tangler: A Censorship-Resistant Publishing System Based On Document Entanglements  

E-print Network

that em- ploys a unique document storage mechanism. Newly published documents are dependent on the blocks of previously published documents. We call this dependency an entanglement. Entangle- ment makes replication-resistant publishing through document entanglement. The Internet is widely regarded as difficult to censor. Indeed

Keinan, Alon

477

The Use of Documentation in a Participatory System of Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pedagogical documentation is a practice currently used in Italian early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to make visible children's learning processes in ECEC, to promote parents' participation and to support professionals' reflexive competences. These functions of pedagogical documentation have been enhanced within a…

Picchio, Mariacristina; Di Giandomenico, Isabella; Musatti, Tullia

2014-01-01

478

Revised June 2012 Ohio State ATI -Guidelines for Documentation  

E-print Network

to document the following types of disability: · Medical · Psychological · Visual · Hearing · Mobility · ADHD. Documentation including an evaluation by a licensed psychologist, psychiatrist and/or medical doctor who makes, certified by a licensed psychologist, psychiatrist and/or medical doctor. Specific helpful information

479

Tourism: Manufacturing the Exotic. IWGIA Document No. 61.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this document is to outline the relationship between tourism and cultural minorities. It aims to understand the nature of the relationship, to point out its most serious and harmful effects and to make known some of the survival strategies that cultural minorities employ. The document calls tourism "the greatest economic and…

Rossel, Pierre, Ed.

480

Electronic marking and identification techniques to discourage document copying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern computer networks make it possible to distribute documents quickly and economically by electronic means rather than by conventional paper means. However, the widespread adoption of electronic distribution of copyrighted material is currently impeded by the ease of illicit copying and dissemination. The authors propose techniques that discourage illicit distribution by embedding each document with a unique codeword. The encoding

J. Brassil; S. Low; N. Maxemchuk; L. O'Gorman

1994-01-01

481

Japan Documentation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The JDC specializes in Japanese public policy information, providing current source materials in fields such as economics, commerce and industry, law, politics, the environment, and social conditions, specializing in "grey literature" (unpublished and difficult-to-obtain government literature). At the JDC site users can view a quick guide to searching and requesting documents from the JDC Bibliographic Database and then access the database directly. Though almost all of the information collected is in Japanese, English abstracts are provided. Additional features at this site include a list of journals available at JDC, the JDC newsletter, and information on symposia and proceedings.

482

SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

Kleine, H.

1994-01-01

483

Regulatory guidance document  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

NONE

1994-05-01

484

Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

Bittleston, Richard

1995-01-01

485

75 FR 20606 - Guidance for Industry on Tobacco Health Document Submission; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submission.'' The guidance document is intended to assist persons making certain document submissions to FDA under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on this...

2010-04-20

486

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2013-04-01

487

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2010-04-01

488

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2010-04-01

489

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2013-04-01

490

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2011-04-01

491

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2012-04-01

492

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2014-04-01

493

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2014-04-01

494

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2011-04-01

495

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2012-04-01

496

Content-based document image retrieval in complex document collections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of content-based image retrieval in the context of complex document images. Complex documents typically start out on paper and are then electronically scanned. These documents have rich internal structure and might only be available in image form. Additionally, they may have been produced by a combination of printing technologies (or by handwriting); and include diagrams, graphics, tables and other non-textual elements. Large collections of such complex documents are commonly found in legal and security investigations. The indexing and analysis of large document collections is currently limited to textual features based OCR data and ignore the structural context of the document as well as important non-textual elements such as signatures, logos, stamps, tables, diagrams, and images. Handwritten comments are also normally ignored due to the inherent complexity of offline handwriting recognition. We address important research issues concerning content-based document image retrieval and describe a prototype for integrated retrieval and aggregation of diverse information contained in scanned paper documents we are developing. Such complex document information processing combines several forms of image processing together with textual/linguistic processing to enable effective analysis of complex document collections, a necessity for a wide range of applications. Our prototype automatically generates rich metadata about a complex document and then applies query tools to integrate the metadata with text search. To ensure a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of our prototype, we are developing a test collection containing millions of document images.

Agam, G.; Argamon, S.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.; Lewis, D.

2007-01-01

497

Documentation and record keeping.  

PubMed

Documentation and record keeping is an important aspect of healthcare practice and perioperative practice is no exception to this rule. For some time now, recording every activity or intervention that a patient receives has assisted with enhancing perioperative practice; equally, it has played a key part in resolving legal and professional incidents that have occurred. There are numerous national guidelines that uphold accurate record keeping as an intrinsic aspect to patient safety (DH 2006, HPC 2008, NMC 2008, Scottish Executive 2008, DH 2009). The intention of this article is to identify and discuss some of the more common errors associated with record keeping which may have a direct or indirect effect on practitioners' misconceptions of using electronic record systems. PMID:21322360

Pirie, Susan

2011-01-01

498

Online NASTRAN documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of NASTRAN User Manual information has been difficult because of the delay in printing and difficulty in identification of all the users. This has caused many users not to have the current information for the release of NASTRAN that could be available to them. The User Manual updates have been supplied with the NASTRAN Releases, but distribution within organizations was not coordinated with access to releases. The Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections are supplied in machine readable format with the 91 Release of NASTRAN. This information is supplied on the release tapes in ASCII format, and a FORTRAN program to access this information is supplied on the release tapes. This will allow each user to have immediate access to User Manual level documentation with the release. The sections on utilities, plotting, and substructures are expected to be prepared for the 92 Release.

Turner, Horace Q.; Harper, David F.

1991-01-01

499

Linux Documentation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Linux guru (or guru wanna-be) should bookmark this site. Linux is UNIX freeware available for Intel's x86, Motorola's 680x0, DECS's Alpha CPU and Sun's sun4c and sun4m machines, and is currently being ported to the PowerPC architecture. This meta-site contains documentation in many different languages, links to a great number of applications and utilities that run on Linux, user groups world-wide and other topics of interest. So, whether your question concerns the latest version (2.0.27) or the difference between various distributions, or if you've decided to write the next kernel, this site is a natural place to start.

500