Science.gov

Sample records for documents making normative

  1. Psychiatry: insights into depression through normative decision-making models

    E-print Network

    Dayan, Peter

    ). Clinically effective 'talking' therapies for MDD such as cognitive and dialectical behavior therapies (DePsychiatry: insights into depression through normative decision-making models Quentin JM Huys1 of fields and has undergone detailed, in-depth, analyses. We take as an example Major Depressive Disorder

  2. Normative Data on a Measure of Design Fluency: The Make a Figure Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Robin A.; Allen, Jeffrey B.; Ricker, Joseph H.; Deshpande, Sonali A.

    1996-01-01

    Tentative normative data for the Make a Figure Test (J. Allen and others, 1992) are presented for young adults (n=100), middle-aged adults (n=27), and geriatric adults (n=34). Results suggest that the Make a Figure Test may be a good measure of executive functioning that allows for novel design production. (SLD)

  3. Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

  4. Making the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores meaningful at the patient level through normative scoring and registry data

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. F.; Giesinger, J. M.; Patton, J. T.; MacDonald, D. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.; Howie, C. R.; Giesinger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) have been demonstrated to vary according to age and gender, making it difficult to compare results in cohorts with different demographics. The aim of this paper was to calculate reference values for different patient groups and highlight the concept of normative reference data to contextualise an individual’s outcome. Methods We accessed prospectively collected OHS and OKS data for patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasty at a single orthopaedic teaching hospital during a five-year period. T-scores were calculated based on the OHS and OKS distributions. Results Data were obtained from 3203 total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients and 2742 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The mean age of the patient was 68.0 years (sd 11.3, 58.4% women) in the THA group and in 70.2 (sd 9.4; 57.5% women) in the TKA group. T-scores were calculated for age and gender subgroups by operation. Different T-score thresholds are seen at different time points pre and post surgery. Values are further stratified by operation (THA/TKA) age and gender. Conclusions Normative data interpretation requires a fundamental shift in the thinking as to the use of the Oxford Scores. Instead of reporting actual score points, the patient is rated by their relative position within the group of all patients undergoing the same procedure. It is proposed that this form of transformation is beneficial (a) for more appropriately comparing different patient cohorts and (b) informing an individual patient how they are progressing compared with others of their age and gender. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:137–144 PMID:26311163

  5. Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs - Duration: 21 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

  6. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  7. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  8. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  9. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  10. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  11. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  12. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  13. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  14. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  15. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... observing the provisions of these regulations, VA must act in accordance with CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR...

  16. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... observing the provisions of these regulations, VA must act in accordance with CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR...

  17. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... observing the provisions of these regulations, VA must act in accordance with CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR...

  18. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  19. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  20. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  1. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  2. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  3. Notable Government Documents 2001: What a Difference a Year Makes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of notable government documents published in 2001 and lists agencies and distributors for federal, state and local, and international documents. Discusses changes in U.S. government publications since the September 11 terrorist attacks, including agencies shutting down their Web sites, requests to destroy materials, and…

  4. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  5. Making Ontologies Work for Resolving Redundancies Across Documents

    E-print Network

    Stolle, Reinhard

    damage Cause: The left cover safety cable is breaking, allowing the left cover to pivot too far, breaking prematurely causing the Left Document Handler Cover to break. Cause: The plastic jacket made the cable too stiff. This causes stress to be concentrated on the cable ends, where it eventually snaps Solution: When

  6. 36 CFR 51.100 - When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available? 51.100 Section 51.100 Parks, Forests, and Public... Information § 51.100 When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available? In...

  7. Making project documentation a positive tool for management

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, Sandia National Laboratory has been designing and constructing Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. One managerial challenge of a large project is the problem of handling information. The scope of the PBFA-II projet may be gauged by its cost: $19.4 million for the accelerator itself, $9.5 million for buildings and standard utilities, and $9.6 million for specialized utilities and support systems. The first need of the project at its outset, then, was communication, and this remains a chief function of the CPO. If the nature or magnitude of the risk changes in any one area, the entire project team must know. If a design is changed, persons working on interdependent efforts must know. Some of this communication takes place naturally and informally. But project procedures must guarantee that all important communication is received by all necessary people, that the communication creates accountability, and that management receives timely, accurate reports. To put it another way, important communication requires project documentation. Documentation is both a record of the project and a tool for management.

  8. Final Evidence-based Decision Making (EBDM) documentation Division of Student Affairs and Enrollment Management

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Final Evidence-based Decision Making (EBDM) documentation for the Division of Student Affairs and Enrollment Management FY12 Plans and Outcomes - Worksheet on Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) Campus ­ May 2, 2013 R:\\Common\\SACS\\EBDM Evidence-based Decision-making\\EBDM Reports_FY12_SAEM 1 Table

  9. Final Evidence-based Decision Making documentation Division of Student Affairs and Enrollment Management

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Final Evidence-based Decision Making documentation for the Division of Student Affairs on Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) (Initial plan provided by Department Head in FY07 Annual Report to VP Research and Analysis, SACS Leadership Team & SAEM EBDM Lead U:\\SACS\\EBDM Evidence-based Decision-making

  10. Final Evidence-based Decision Making (EBDM) documentation Division of Student Affairs and Enrollment Management

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Final Evidence-based Decision Making (EBDM) documentation for the Division of Student Affairs - Worksheet on Evidence-Based Decision Making (EBDM) Campus SAEM Coordinator: Dr. R. Jayne Perkins Brown:\\SACS\\EBDM Evidence-based Decision-making\\EBDM Reports_FY11_SAEM 1 Table of Contents Abstract

  11. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing...considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  12. Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable…

  13. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section 26.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (VA) ACTIONS § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and...

  14. Millsop (1) THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    . INTRODUCTION Immanuel Kant claims that logic is constitutive of thought: "without [the laws of logic] we wouldMillsop (1) THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN KANT'S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP'S I of Kant's philosophy of logic that makes sense of how the laws of logic can be both constitutive

  15. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  16. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  17. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  18. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  19. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  20. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  1. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  2. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  3. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  4. The importance of documenting code, and how you might make yourself do it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik Jon; Astropy Project

    2016-01-01

    Your science code is awesome. It reduces data, performs some statistical analysis, or models a physical process better than anyone has done before. You wisely decide that it is worth sharing with your student/advisor, research collaboration, or the whole world. But when you send it out, no one seems willing to use it. Why? Most of the time, it's your documentation. You wrote the code for yourself, so you know what every function, procedure, or class is supposed to do. Unfortunately, your users (sometimes including you 6 months later) do not. In this talk, I will describe some of the tools, both technical and psychological, to make that documentation happen (particularly for the Python ecosystem).

  5. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences. PMID:26412096

  6. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring...considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  7. Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) Phase II: 930 New Normative Photos

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

  8. Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Gerrek, Monica

    2008-01-09

    principle noted above. I then show how this normative sentimentalist ethic handles the issues raised by factory farming and using animals for research. Next, I present the two most well-known arguments regarding the treatment of animals, Peter Singer...

  9. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient... § 110.51 Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for Program benefits. (a) An injured countermeasure recipient (or his or her...

  10. Imprecision in normative domains

    E-print Network

    Schoenfield, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Being rational and being moral can be difficult. However, some theories of rationality and morality make living up to these ideals too difficult by imposing requirements which are excessively rigid. In this dissertation, ...

  11. Navigating the Normative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlebowitsh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

  12. Toddlers View Artifact Function Normatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Terziyan, Treysi; Greene, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    When children use objects like adults, are they simply tracking regularities in others' object use, or are they demonstrating a normatively defined awareness that there are right and wrong ways to act? This study provides the first evidence for the latter possibility. Young 2- and 3-year-olds (n = 32) learned functions of 6 artifacts, both…

  13. Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

    This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

  14. Normative influences on food intake.

    PubMed

    Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2005-12-15

    Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often violate the norm. Personal norms are individualized rules that people develop to help themselves decide how much is appropriate to eat in a given situation. Situational norms are derived from the eating situation itself; examples include portion size and social influence, which exert powerful effects on intake. We discuss the implications of a normative approach to the analysis of eating and overeating. PMID:16243366

  15. From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, Tade M.; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called ‘moral brain’ in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects’ normative expertise. PMID:20194515

  16. The Issue of Quality in Professional Documentation: How Can Academia Make More of a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilka, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Recommends academic strategies to contribute to an issue of great interest in industry--workplace documentation. Describes strategies including contextualizing quality definitions, advocating use of multiple quality measures, conducting research to identify specific heuristics for defining and measuring quality in particular workplace contexts,…

  17. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the research...copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures, maps and architectural drawings, or aerial photographic...

  18. A Document-Centric Semantic Annotation Environment to Support Sense-Making

    E-print Network

    and fruitful discussions that we had. I am also indebted to my second adviser, Enrico Motta, for, once more, the fruitful discus- sions that we have had during our supervision meetings. As for Simon, I cannot find the words to express how much I have learnt from him. He also contributed immensely to make this Ph

  19. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-01-01

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  20. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  1. Normative Issues for News as Cultural Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capo, James A.

    1985-01-01

    Delineates what it means to view news as cultural celebration, assesses whether standard approaches to media seem applicable to this notion of new, and drafts the normative issues at stake in this version of journalism. (SRT)

  2. Young Children Attribute Normativity to Novel Actions without Pedagogy or Normative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. "this is the way it goes"), along with pedagogical cues signaling…

  3. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies. The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082

  4. Proceedings of the Graduate Philosophy Conference on Normativity

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    of Normativity for the Explanation of Norm-Conformity Catherine Herfeld (Witten/Herdecke University) 71 of Psychology? The Defense of Normative Naturalism in Epistemology Giedre Vasiliauskaite (Erasmus University

  5. Regulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella

    E-print Network

    Torino, Università di

    Regulative and Constitutive Norms in Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella Dipartimento di regulative norms that describe obligations, prohibitions and permissions, and constitutive norms- tem. In particular, we formalize regulative norms as goals of the normative system, and constitutive

  6. Full text provided by www.sciencedirect.com A normative perspective on motivation

    E-print Network

    Dayan, Peter

    Full text provided by www.sciencedirect.com A normative perspective on motivation Yael Niv1 Unit, UCL, London, UK Understanding the effects of motivation on instrumental action selection making. Motivational states have been shown to `direct' goal-directed behavior rather straightforwardly

  7. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

  8. Heuristics and Normative Models of Judgment

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Heuristics and Normative Models of Judgment under Uncertainty Pei Wang Center for Research theory is not a proper descriptive model of intuitive human judgment. Instead, some heuristics have been to answer. The proposed heuristics in human reasoning can also be observed in this new model, and can

  9. American College Student Values: A Normative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglovic, Jr., Steve

    The 4 objectives of this study were (1) to conduct a normative study of values held by US college students, (2) to assess a wide range of value commitments of US college students as measured by an instrument validated by previous research, (3) to study the relationship between values and other relevant variables, and (4) to lay the basis for a…

  10. A Normative Pragmatic Model of Making Fear Appeals

    E-print Network

    Innocenti, Beth

    2011-01-01

    How do fear appeals generate persuasive force, or reasonably pressure addressees to act as the speaker advocates? Leading models of fear appeals provide partial answers to this question because they locate persuasive force primarily in internal...

  11. Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

  12. Explosion and the normativity of logic Florian Steinberger

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    Explosion and the normativity of logic Florian Steinberger Logic has traditionally been construed as a normative discipline; it sets forth stan- dards of correct reasoning. Explosion is a valid principle logic should not recognize explosion as a logical law. Call this the `normative argument against

  13. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM...

  14. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

  15. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  16. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  17. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation...signed Authorization for Health Information Form authorizing the release of records to the Program that was sent by the requester...

  18. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility §...

  19. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...benefits. 110.51 Section 110.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility §...

  20. The Normative Foundations of Emancipatory Theory: Evolutionary Versus Pragmatic Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Antonio, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    From the start, emancipatory theory has been plagued by contradictory and incompletely elaborated normative underpinnings that weaken its sociological and ethical credibility. Jurgen Habermas, the leading contemporary ...

  1. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,…

  2. Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges Javier V´azquez-Salceda institute;Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges Javier V´azquez-Salceda 1 Abstract. The use of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) in health-care domains is increasing. Such Agent-mediated Medical Systems are designed

  3. Implicit measures: A normative analysis and review.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes

    2009-05-01

    Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the processes by which the attribute causes the outcome, and (c) whether these processes operate automatically. This normative analysis provides a heuristic framework for organizing past and future research on implicit measures. The authors illustrate the heuristic function of their framework by using it to review past research on the 2 implicit measures that are currently most popular: effects in implicit association tests and affective priming tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19379018

  4. Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

  5. Optimizing Personalized Normative Feedback: The Use of Gender-Specific Referents*

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, MELISSA A.; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2008-01-01

    Objective Many brief interventions include personalized normative feedback (PNF) using gender-specific or gender-neutral referents. Several theories suggest that information pertaining to more socially proximal referents should have greater influence on one’s behavior compared with more socially distal referents. The current research evaluated whether gender specificity of the normative referent employed in PNF related to intervention efficacy. Method Following baseline assessment, 185 college students (45.2% women) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: gender-specific feedback, gender-neutral feedback, or assessment-only control. Immediately after completing measures of perceived norms, alcohol consumption, and gender identity, participants in the gender-neutral and gender-specific intervention conditions were provided with computerized information detailing their own drinking behavior, their perceptions of student drinking, and actual student drinking. Results After a 1-month follow-up, the results indicated that normative feedback was effective in changing perceived norms and reducing alcohol consumption for both intervention groups for women and men. The results provide support, however, for changes in perceived gender-specific norms as a mediator of the effects of normative feedback on reduced drinking behavior for women only. Additionally, gender-specific feedback was found to be more effective for women higher in gender identity, relative to the gender-neutral feedback. A post-assessment follow-up telephone survey administered to assess potential demand characteristics corroborated the intervention effects. Conclusions Results extend previous research documenting efficacy of computer delivered PNF. Gender specificity and gender identity appear to be important elements to consider for PNF intervention efficacy for women. PMID:17286341

  6. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  7. Normative Data for the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory.

    PubMed

    Meyers, John E; English, James; Miller, Ronald M; Lee, Amy Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    The demographically diverse populations served by large health care systems (Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense, Medicare, Medicaid) are routinely screened with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). The extent to which a patient's report of symptoms either initially and/or across time is affected by demographic variables-gender, ethnicity, age, or education-has not been investigated despite widespread use of the NSI. In practice, the effectiveness of this tool might be improved with demographically based norms. A large data set of normal community-dwelling individuals was collected using the NSI. Emphasis was made to collect data from individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds. It was hypothesized that ethnic/cultural backgrounds would have an impact on NSI scores. The results provide normative data for the NSI applicable to a wide variety of individuals of various ages and ethnic backgrounds. An analysis of variance indicated there was no significant difference in NSI responses based on ethnic/cultural background; however, age and gender were found to contribute significantly to the variance associated with symptom endorsement. The NSI appears to be a reliable measure of self-report postconcussive symptoms. Age is a variable associated with differential symptom endorsement on the NSI. Follow-up studies are needed to provide a measure of the sensitivity and specificity of this measure. PMID:25874907

  8. Normative functional fitness standards and trends of Portuguese older adults: cross-cultural comparisons.

    PubMed

    Marques, Elisa A; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to develop normative functional fitness standards for the Portuguese older adults, to analyze age and gender patterns of decline, to compare the fitness level of Portuguese older adults with that of older adults in other countries, and to evaluate the fitness level of Portuguese older adults relative to recently published criterion fitness standards associated with maintaining physical independence. A sample of 4,712 independent-living older adults, age 65-103 yr, was evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Age-group normative fitness scores are reported for the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles. Results indicate that both women and men experience age-related losses in all components of functional fitness, with their rate of decline being greater than that observed in other populations, a trend which may cause Portuguese older adults to be at greater risk for loss of independence in later years. These newly established normative standards make it possible to assess individual fitness level and provide a basis for implementing population-wide health strategies to counteract early loss of independence. PMID:23538513

  9. Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (“A, do X!”) or as a prediction (“the actor A will do X”). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

  10. Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

  11. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Power, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

  12. The Policy Impact of PISA: An Exploration of the Normative Effects of International Benchmarking in School System Performance. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 71

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakspear, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done into how the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) affect national educational reform and policy-making. This paper examines the normative impact of PISA by investigating how, and the extent to which , national policy actors use PISA in policies and practices, to evaluate and improve…

  13. Research, Training, and Practice: The Normative Model and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertson, Carolyn M.

    Four specific purposes were addressed in this study: (1) to identify models of classroom management and instructional management used by effective and less effective teachers; (2) to compare and contrast these models; (3) to compare and contrast a normative model of classroom management used in management training workshops with the models…

  14. An Investigation of the Normative Structure for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Selenia Renea

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if a normative structure exists among a community college student body by extending the work of Caboni, Braxton, Deusterhous, Mundy, McClendon, and Lee (2005). The study also sought to determine if the level of espousal for the norms differed across student characteristics. This study analyzed data…

  15. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  16. IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems (Demonstration) Javier Morales1. In this paper we present the Intelligent Robust On-line Norm Synthesis Machine (IRON), a system whose goal is the automated synthesis of norms. IRON is capable of synthesising norms that are at the same time effective (to

  17. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  18. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

  19. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  20. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

  1. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2012-01-01

    The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

  2. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  3. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  4. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

  5. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  6. [Normative needs for care of schizophrenics: a useful concept for community psychiatric planning?].

    PubMed

    Kallert, T W; Leisse, M

    2000-08-01

    One step in a public health research project focuses on the analysis of the individual (expert-based) normative needs for mental health care of chronic schizophrenic patients (n = 115) in the Dresden Region during the first year post hospital release and the extent to which this can be met by the current established level of complementary care. It is an exemplary contribution to the evaluation of community psychiatry as restructured in the Free State of Saxony following German reunification. The results of the study can be condensed to the following interpreting essential statements. Schizophrenics' normative needs for care are not a statistical issue. The single case analysis corroborates a high rate of relevant fluctuations, above all within the clinical sector (e.g. concerning "dyskinesias and other side effects"), that pose a particular challenge to the flexibility of a system of community psychiatry. This includes that the consequence for the practice of care implies then that when diagnosing course, attention must be paid to shifts in the content of the needs for mental health care (e.g. increasing importance of factors, which contain impairments of basic social competences) in order to orient to them any health care measures already initiated.--With the aid of the used research instrument (Needs for Care Assessment) deficits in meeting the needs for care can be identified. In the Dresden Region considerable deficits persist apparently in the subsections recreational activities and occupational and communication skills, which can be ascribed to the lack of appropriate institutions of care in the area.--The normative needs for care of schizophrenic patients cannot be determined simply on the basis of a few, quickly identifiable markers. Rather it demands individualized analysis incorporating variables pertaining to psychopathology, subjective coping, social competence and the course of the disorder. The development of the needs for care over the period of one year can apparently be predicted by trends in the social sector that are already visible within the first months. With regard to aspects of care planning this finding illustrates the limited ability of cross-section surveys to make definitive statements, as well as the predominance of social disabilities over the entire spectrum of the normative needs for psychiatric care. PMID:11006864

  7. What is Hooking Up? Examining Definitions of Hooking Up in Relation to Behavior and Normative Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dent, David V.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple hooking up definitions among college students and how different definitions might be associated with participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up. Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805

  8. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Program Benefits...

  9. A theoretical sketch of medical professionalism as a normative complex.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Matthew C

    2008-05-01

    Validity arguments for assessment tools intended to measure medical professionalism suffer for lack of a clear theoretical statement of what professionalism is and how it should behave. Drawing on several decades of field research addressing deviance and informal social control among physicians, a theoretical sketch of professionalism is presented that can be used to predict how individual adjustment to professional norms should co-vary with other social and psychological phenomena. Physicians may understand and value professional norms but fail to enact them in practice because of conflicting normative demands. Physicians' social networks are predicted to act as conduits of social learning and social pressure, driving the resolution of normative conflicts in specific directions. A valid assessment of professionalism requires an adequate accounting of the social reaction to an individual's professional conduct, because the reaction and the conduct itself are inseparable. PMID:18274878

  10. The normative authority of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Sridhar, D; Hougendobler, D

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was born after the devastation of World War II, as a normative agency endowed with unprecedented constitutional powers. But even as it has achieved stunning successes, such as the eradication of smallpox, it has failed to live up to the exalted expectations of the postwar health and human rights movement - exemplified most recently by its inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic. Our aim is to offer innovative ideas for restoring the Organization to its leadership position by exercising its normative authority, even as it faces a crowded and often chaotic global health architecture. Before doing so, it will be helpful to summarize the main tensions the Organization faces in today's global health landscape. PMID:26100341

  11. Assessment battery for communication (ABaCo): normative data.

    PubMed

    Angeleri, Romina; Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-09-01

    The Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo) was introduced to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with cerebral lesions. The battery is organized into five evaluation scales focusing on separate components of pragmatic competence. In the present study, we present normative data for individuals 15-75 years of age (N = 300). The sample was stratified by age, sex, and years of education, according to Italian National Institute of Statistics indications in order to be representative of the general national population. Since performance on the ABaCo decreases with age and lower years of education, the norms were stratified for both age and education. The ABaCo is a valuable tool in clinical practice; the normative data provided here will enable clinicians to determine different kinds and specific levels of communicative impairments more precisely. PMID:22180102

  12. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. PMID:24717645

  13. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-11-29

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  14. Normative Data for the Balance Error Scoring System in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Grant L.; Koehle, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The balance error scoring system (BESS) is a brief, easily administered test of static balance. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for this test. Study Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and cohort design. Methods. The sample was drawn from a population of clients taking part in a comprehensive preventive health screen at a multidisciplinary healthcare center. Community-dwelling adults aged 20–69 (N = 1, 236) were administered the BESS within the context of a fitness evaluation. They did not have significant medical, neurological, or lower extremity problems that might have an adverse effect on balance. Results. There was a significant positive correlation between BESS scores and age (r = .34). BESS performance was similar for participants between the ages of 20 and 49 and significantly declined between ages 50 and 69. Men performed slightly better than women on the BESS. Women who were overweight performed significantly more poorly on the test compared to women who were not overweight (P < .0001; Cohen's d = .62). The BESS normative data are stratified by age and sex. Conclusions. These normative data provide a frame of reference for interpreting BESS performance in adults who sustain traumatic brain injuries and adults with diverse neurological or vestibular problems. PMID:23577257

  15. Normative data for the balance error scoring system in adults.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Koehle, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Background. The balance error scoring system (BESS) is a brief, easily administered test of static balance. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for this test. Study Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and cohort design. Methods. The sample was drawn from a population of clients taking part in a comprehensive preventive health screen at a multidisciplinary healthcare center. Community-dwelling adults aged 20-69 (N = 1, 236) were administered the BESS within the context of a fitness evaluation. They did not have significant medical, neurological, or lower extremity problems that might have an adverse effect on balance. Results. There was a significant positive correlation between BESS scores and age (r = .34). BESS performance was similar for participants between the ages of 20 and 49 and significantly declined between ages 50 and 69. Men performed slightly better than women on the BESS. Women who were overweight performed significantly more poorly on the test compared to women who were not overweight (P < .0001; Cohen's d = .62). The BESS normative data are stratified by age and sex. Conclusions. These normative data provide a frame of reference for interpreting BESS performance in adults who sustain traumatic brain injuries and adults with diverse neurological or vestibular problems. PMID:23577257

  16. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  17. The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

  18. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

  19. Normative misperceptions about alcohol use in the general population of drinkers: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to others (‘normative misperception’) has been documented in some college student and heavy-alcohol using samples, and may contribute to excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess how far this phenomenon extends to alcohol users more generally in four English-speaking countries and if associations with socio-demographic and drinking variables exist. Methods A cross-sectional online global survey (Global Drugs Survey-2012) was completed by 9820 people aged 18 + from Australia, Canada, the UK and US who had consumed alcohol in the last year. The survey included the AUDIT questionnaire (which assessed alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol dependence), socio-demographic assessment and a question assessing beliefs about how one's drinking compares with others. Associations were analysed by linear regression models. Results Underestimation of own alcohol use relative to others occurred in 46.9% (95% CI: 45.9%, 47.9%) of respondents. 25.4% of participants at risk of alcohol dependence and 36.6% of harmful alcohol users believed their drinking to be average or less. Underestimation was more likely among those who were: younger (16–24; p < 0.003), male (p < 0.001), from the UK (versus US; p < 0.001), less well educated (p = 0.003), white (p = 0.035), and unemployed (versus employed; p < 0.001). Conclusions Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to other drinkers is common in Australia, Canada, the UK and US, with a substantial minority of harmful drinkers believing their consumption to be at or below average. This normative misperception is greater in those who are younger, male, less well educated, unemployed, white, from the UK and high-risk drinkers. PMID:25482365

  20. [The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].

    PubMed

    Czerner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    To make criminal conduct liable to punishment, criminal responsibility, defined as individual blameworthiness in terms of social ethics, is required as point of reference--both to create and limit the state's right to punish the offender. Neurobiological findings and more recent investigations in brain research have given rise to serious doubts regarding this "conditio sine qua non" of the state's power monopoly. As a result of preceding unconscious decisions, so the argument goes, Man is not free in his will, and the normative principle of culpability would need to be relinquished in favour of a "law of measures" detached from guilt. A detailed analysis of the underlying experimental setups, in particular the investigations by Benjamin Libet involving the measurement of the readiness potential, has shown, however, that the results of the test methods do not justify the demand for a profound change up to the point of a total revision of criminal law, and that they cannot invalidate the concept of freedom of will apostrophised on principle. The empirical data obtained fail to demonstrate if and why decisions of the will should not be free, the more so as the nomothetic method used ignores completely the idiographic understanding and interpretation of the always context-related and socio-structurally (pre)-moulded personality of the offender. Performed in a laboratory setting as individual actions with a comparatively simple structure and unrelated to a concrete situation, they can by no means be translated to the (more) complex situation under which an offence is committed including the decision-making processes determined by psychodynamic, motivational and intentional aspects as well as highly specific reciprocal interactions within the offender-victim constellation. Even if these experiments had shown the determined nature of human decisions, they would not necessarily have to bring about a conceptual change of paradigms of the normative concept of guilt, because as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will. PMID:17217181

  1. A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

  2. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  3. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

    2010-05-01

    Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

  4. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

  5. Italian normative data for the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (TERADIC).

    PubMed

    Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA, known in Italy as TeRaDiC) has been developed to analyse putative basic skills involved in drawing and to plan and monitor outcomes after rehabilitation of visuoconstructional disorders. It encompasses eight tasks assessing both simple "perceptual" abilities, such as line length and line orientation judgments and complex "representational" abilities, such as mental rotation. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for BVA collected in a wide sample of healthy Italian subjects. Three hundred seventeen healthy Italian subjects (173 women and 144 men) of different age classes (age range, 40-95 years) and education level (from primary to university), with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination, completed BVA/TeRaDiC. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on most tests of the BVA/TeRaDiC; only line length judgment was not affected by educational level. Gender significantly affected line orientation judgment and mental rotation, with an advantage for males in both tests. From the derived linear equations, a correction grid for adjusting BVA/TeRaDiC raw scores was built. Using a non-parametric technique, inferential cut-off scores were determined and equivalent scores computed. The present study provided Italian normative data for the BVA/TeRaDiC useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25693870

  6. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed. PMID:12693194

  7. Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

  8. Parents Know Best, But Are They Accurate? Parental Normative Misperceptions and Their Relationship to Students' Alcohol-Related Outcomes*

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; Ehret, Phillip J.; Kenney, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Parents often look to other parents for guidance, but how accurate are their perceptions? Expanding on existing normative literature to include parents of college students, this study first sought to determine whether parents accurately estimated the attitudes of other parents concerning their college student's alcohol-related behaviors. The effect of these (mis)perceived injunctive norms on the alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors of the parents' own children was then examined. Method: Participants were 270 college student-parent dyadic pairs who completed independent online surveys. The student sample was 59% female; the parent sample was 78% female. Results: A structural equation model demonstrated that parents significantly overestimated other parents' approval of alcohol use by their respective child and, further, that these misperceptions strongly influenced parental attitudes toward their own child's drinking. Parental attitudes were sub-sequently found to be significantly associated with their child's attitudes toward drinking but were only marginally associated with the child's actual drinking, thereby underscoring the mediational effect of the child's attitudes. Conclusions: This is the first study to document the influence of parental normative misperceptions regarding alcohol use by their college-age children, reinforcing the importance of parental attitudes on children's alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors in college. These findings support the need to complement student-based interventions with parent-based interventions aimed at increasing parental awareness and involvement. Further, the current findings indicate that normative interventions targeting parents offer a promising avenue by which to indirectly and positively influence college students' alcohol use. PMID:21683033

  9. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

  10. Early Understanding of Normativity and Freedom to Act in Turkish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçgenç, Bahar; Hohenberger, Annette; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated young 2- and 3-year-old Turkish children's developing understanding of normativity and freedom to act in games. As expected, children, especially 3-year-olds, protested more when there was a norm violation than when there was none. Surprisingly, however, no decrease in normative protest was observed even when the…

  11. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political…

  12. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

  13. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  14. The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Mark John

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

  15. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  16. The Effects of Normative and Situational Consensus Information on Causal Attributions for Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Judith C.

    The interactive effects of implicit normative and explicit situational consensus information were examined regarding the processes of causal attribution and evaluation. Stimulus items were single sentence descriptions of antisocial and prosocial behaviors representing the extremes of high and low normative consensus in each behavior category, as…

  17. Underestimating protection and overestimating risk: examining descriptive normative perceptions and their association with drinking and sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Cronce, Jessica M; Blayney, Jessica A; Gilmore, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms-behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms-behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

  18. Underestimating Protection and Overestimating Risk: Examining Descriptive Normative Perceptions and Their Association with Drinking and Sexual Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Gilmore, Amanda K.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms–behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms–behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

  19. The memory conjunction error paradigm: normative data for conjunction triplets.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K; Lampinen, James Michael; Edwards, Norman W; Odegard, Timormy N

    2007-11-01

    In the typical memory conjunction experiment, participants are presented with two "parent" stimulus items (e.g., blackmail and jailbird) that are later recombined to form a "conjunction lure" (e.g., blackbird). This paradigm is an efficient way to test false memories because participants frequently show false recognition for the recombined features of the previously studied stimuli. Two experiments are reported in which normative data for 96 memory conjunction triplets are presented. The first experiment provides descriptive statistics for how often the conjunction triplets show true and false recognition. Due to the variance in the rates of false recognition for the conjunction lure, the second experiment was conducted to help build an understanding of the factors that affect the rate of false recognition of the conjunction lures. Conceptual overlap of the first parent word and the conjunction item predicted false recognition. Digital files containing norms for 96 memory conjunction triplets may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:18183909

  20. Filming the freak show. Non-normative bodies on screen.

    PubMed

    Brodesco, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on four films that display the exhibition for profit of non- normative bodies in a context that is variously called freak show, sideshow, monster show, odditorium. Freaks (Tod Browning, 1932), The Ape Woman (La donna scimmia, Marco Ferreri, 1964), Elephant Man (David Lynch, 1980) and Black Venus (Venus noire, Abdellatif Kechiche, 2010) are reflexive movies that tell stories of abnormal bodies and of people who buy a ticket to see them. They inquire the fictional nature of "freakness"--a cultural and historical artefact, a social construction, a frame of mind and a set of practices--and draw attention to the continuity between the world of the freak shows and the scientific and medical milieus. The article finally considers the new visibility of the corporeal freak in contemporary voyeuristic television programs. PMID:25702390

  1. Optimal indolence: a normative microscopic approach to work and leisure

    PubMed Central

    Niyogi, Ritwik K.; Breton, Yannick-Andre; Solomon, Rebecca B.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dividing limited time between work and leisure when both have their attractions is a common everyday decision. We provide a normative control-theoretic treatment of this decision that bridges economic and psychological accounts. We show how our framework applies to free-operant behavioural experiments in which subjects are required to work (depressing a lever) for sufficient total time (called the price) to receive a reward. When the microscopic benefit-of-leisure increases nonlinearly with duration, the model generates behaviour that qualitatively matches various microfeatures of subjects’ choices, including the distribution of leisure bout durations as a function of the pay-off. We relate our model to traditional accounts by deriving macroscopic, molar, quantities from microscopic choices. PMID:24284898

  2. Willingness-to-pay utility assessment: feasibility of use in normative patient decision support systems.

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, C. R.; Garber, A. M.; Bergen, M. R.; Lenert, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors developed an automated patient interviewing tool to elicit individuals' willingness-to-pay (WTP) utilities under conditions of uncertainty and examined the reliability of this method and its potential usefulness in clinical decision support. We tested this method in 52 healthy volunteers using a computer-based interview that trained subjects in standard gamble (SG) and WTP methods, and elicited preferences for moderate Gaucher disease using WTP and SG. We assessed the validity of the WTP method by calculating the cost-effectiveness threshold implied by subjects' WTP and SG utilities; we also assessed subjects' understanding and comfort with using WTP for decision making by a questionnaire. The WTP method had good test-retest reliability (r = 0.796), and produced a cost-effectiveness ratio and ratings for understanding and clarity that support its validity. Moreover, many subjects felt that WTP was a reasonable (83%) method for therapeutic decision making and expressed comfort (62%) in using the method for their own health care decisions. These results suggest that a probabilistic method for WTP utility assessment is potentially useful for acquiring patient preferences for use in normative decision support systems. PMID:9357621

  3. Normative Temporal Values of CRP and ESR in Unilateral and Staged Bilateral TKA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Kyu; Chang, Chong Bum; Yoon, Su Won; Park, Kyoung Un

    2008-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) play helpful roles in determining the presence of infection after TKA. To provide baseline values, we documented normative temporal values of CRP and ESR in unilateral and staged bilateral TKAs for osteoarthritis. Levels of CRP and ESR were evaluated before surgery and on the first, second, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, forty-second, and ninetieth postoperative days in 320 uncomplicated primary TKAs. C-reactive protein and ESR levels were compared in three groups: unilateral (108 knees), first knee bilateral (106 knees), and second knee bilateral (106 knees) groups. All three groups exhibited similar temporal patterns. Mean CRP levels increased rapidly, reaching a peak on the second day and decreased to less than the normal reference level on the forty-second day. They returned to preoperative levels on the ninetieth day. Mean ESR levels peaked on the fifth day and returned close to the preoperative levels only on the ninetieth day. Wide variations were observed and many cases (43%) did not follow the typical patterns. C-reactive protein had greater fold changes, less frequent atypical temporal patterns, and lower correlation between preoperative and postoperative levels than ESR. Our findings should help surgeons interpret CRP and ESR to determine the presence of infection after TKA. Level of Evidence: Level I, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196391

  4. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

    PubMed Central

    Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

  5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

  6. Constructing Language Normativity through the Animation of Stance in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Deckert, Sharon K.; Goble, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

  7. The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

    1998-01-01

    In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a norm as an exception and how the other agents react to the violation as exception handling. This paper concentrates on our formal model.

  8. Blood Telomere Length Attrition and Cancer Development in the Normative Aging Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Gao, Tao; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Yinan; Penedo, Frank J.; Liu, Siran; Zhang, Wei; Bergan, Raymond; Dai, Qi; Vokonas, Pantel; Hoxha, Mirjam; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated telomere shortening may cause cancer via chromosomal instability, making it a potentially useful biomarker. However, publications on blood telomere length (BTL) and cancer are inconsistent. We prospectively examined BTL measures over time and cancer incidence. Methods We included 792 Normative Aging Study participants with 1–4 BTL measurements from 1999 to 2012. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine BTL attrition by cancer status (relative to increasing age and decreasing years pre-diagnosis), Cox models for time-dependent associations, and logistic regression for cancer incidence stratified by years between BTL measurement and diagnosis. Findings Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases pre-diagnosis than in cancer-free participants (pdifference = 0.017); all participants had similar age-adjusted BTL 8–14 years pre-diagnosis, followed by decelerated attrition in cancer cases resulting in longer BTL three (p = 0.003) and four (p = 0.012) years pre-diagnosis. Longer time-dependent BTL was associated with prostate cancer (HR = 1.79, p = 0.03), and longer BTL measured ? 4 years pre-diagnosis with any (OR = 3.27, p < 0.001) and prostate cancers (OR = 6.87, p < 0.001). Interpretation Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker. PMID:26288820

  9. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder. PMID:26650585

  10. Semantic similarity: normative ratings for 185 Spanish noun triplets.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Cornelia D; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The present study introduces the first Spanish database with normative ratings of semantic similarity for 185 word triplets. Each word triplet is constituted by a target word (e.g., guisante [pea]) and two semantically related and nonassociatively related words: a word highly related in meaning to the target (e.g., judía [bean]), and a word less related in meaning to the target (e.g., patata [potato]). The degree of meaning similarity was assessed by 332 participants by using a semantic similarity rating task on a 9-point scale. Pairs having a value of semantic similarity ranging from 5 to 9 were classified as being more semantically related, whereas those with values ranging from 2 to 4.99 were considered as being less semantically related. The relative distance between the two pairs for the same target ranged from 0.48 to 5.07 points. Mean comparisons revealed that participants rated the more similar words as being significantly more similar in meaning to the target word than were the less similar words. In addition to the semantic similarity norms, values of concreteness and familiarity of each word in a triplet are provided. The present database can be a very useful tool for scientists interested in designing experiments to examine the role of semantics in language processing. Since the variable of semantic similarity includes a wide range of values, it can be used as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable. The full database is available in the supplementary materials. PMID:24984982

  11. Preschoolers understand the normativity of cooperatively structured competition.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Hardecker, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Human institutional practices often involve competition within a cooperative structure of mutually accepted rules. In a competitive game, for instance, we not only expect adherence to the rules of the game but also expect an opponent who tries to win and, thus, follows a rational game-playing strategy. We had 3- and 5-year-olds (N=48) play for a prize against an opponent (a puppet) who played either rationally (trying to win) or irrationally (helping the children to win) while either following or breaking the rules of the game. Both age groups performed costly protest against an opponent who followed the rules but played irrationally by helping the children to win. When facing a rule-breaking opponent, 3-year-olds protested only the rule breaches of an irrational opponent but not irrational play. Five-year-olds also protested the rule breaches of a rational opponent, but in contrast to the 3-year-olds, they protested irrational behavior even in the context of rule breaches. Moreover, many children, in particular 3-year-olds, refrained from protesting. These findings suggest that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, fully understand the dual-level normative structure of cooperatively regulated competition. PMID:26615466

  12. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

  13. Pluralism and moderation in an inclusive political realm: a normative defence of religious political parties 

    E-print Network

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I outline the normative relevance of religious political parties as carriers of values in the context of contemporary political theory. The central argument of my thesis is that religious political parties ...

  14. The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents,

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development emerges and develops in a predicable fashion (Sroufe, 1977; Thompson & Limber, 1990). However, temperament

  15. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

  16. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

  17. Effects of Normative Feedback for Drinkers Who Consume Less than the Norm: Dodging the Boomerang

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Mark A.; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    A number of alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown effective in reducing drinking both as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multi-component intervention. Typically, this feedback is targeted to heavier drinkers, in order to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations, two employing computer delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

  18. Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322983

  19. Normative Data of Grip and Pinch Strengths in Healthy Adults of Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADIAN, Mostafa; CHOOBINEH, Alireza; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; HASHEMINEJAD, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with their normative data is a valid method to detect intensity of the numerous damages of hand. This research was carried out with the aim of establishing normative data of grip strength and three types of pinch strengths (Tip, Key and Palmar) in healthy Iranian adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the study population was formed of 1008 people (526 men and 482 women) from healthy Fars race adults of over 20 years old in five cities of Iran. American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) recommendations were followed to establish normative data of grip and pinch strengths. Normative data of grip and pinch strengths were developed based on sex, 12 different age groups and dominant and non-dominant hands. Jamar dynamometer and Seahan pinch gauge were used to measure grip and pinch strengths, respectively. Results Normative data of grip and pinch strengths were provided. Grip and pinch strengths of men were significantly stronger than women. The maximum grip strength of men was obtained in the group of 20-24 years and among women it was in the age group 35-39 years. Regardless of gender, grip and pinch strengths were declined with aging. Conclusion Normative data of grip and pinch strengths were developed for Iranian population. PMID:25927041

  20. Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Kilts, Clinton D; James, George Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging has great potential to inform clinical decisions, whether by identifying neural biomarkers of illness progression and severity, predicting therapeutic response, or selecting suitable patients for surgical interventions. Yet a persisting barrier to functional neuroimaging's clinical translation is our incomplete understanding of how normative variance in cognition, personality, and behavior shape the brain's structural and functional organization. We propose that modeling individual differences in these brain–behavior relationships is crucial for improving the accuracy of neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Methods We addressed this goal by initiating the Cognitive Connectome Project, which bridges neuropsychology and neuroimaging by pairing nine cognitive domains typically assessed by clinically validated neuropsychological measures with those tapped by canonical neuroimaging tasks (motor, visuospatial perception, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision making, working memory, and executive function). To date, we have recruited a diverse sample of 53 participants (mean [SD], age = 32 [9.7] years, 31 females). Results As a proof of concept, we first demonstrate that our neuroimaging task battery can replicate previous findings that task performance recruits intrinsic brain networks identified during wakeful rest. We then expand upon these previous findings by showing that the extent to which these networks are recruited by task reflects individual differences in cognitive ability. Specifically, performance on the Judgment of Line Orientation task (a clinically validated measure of visuospatial perception) administered outside of the MRI scanner predicts the magnitude of task-induced activity of the dorsal visual network when performing a direct replication of this task within the MRI scanner. Other networks (such as default mode and right frontoparietal) showed task-induced changes in activity that were unrelated to task performance, suggesting these networks to not be involved in visuospatial perception. Conclusion These findings establish a methodological framework by which clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging may mutually inform one another, thus enhancing the translation of functional neuroimaging into clinical decision making. PMID:25328842

  1. A normative inference approach for optimal sample sizes in decisions from experience

    PubMed Central

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    “Decisions from experience” (DFE) refers to a body of work that emerged in research on behavioral decision making over the last decade. One of the major experimental paradigms employed to study experience-based choice is the “sampling paradigm,” which serves as a model of decision making under limited knowledge about the statistical structure of the world. In this paradigm respondents are presented with two payoff distributions, which, in contrast to standard approaches in behavioral economics, are specified not in terms of explicit outcome-probability information, but by the opportunity to sample outcomes from each distribution without economic consequences. Participants are encouraged to explore the distributions until they feel confident enough to decide from which they would prefer to draw from in a final trial involving real monetary payoffs. One commonly employed measure to characterize the behavior of participants in the sampling paradigm is the sample size, that is, the number of outcome draws which participants choose to obtain from each distribution prior to terminating sampling. A natural question that arises in this context concerns the “optimal” sample size, which could be used as a normative benchmark to evaluate human sampling behavior in DFE. In this theoretical study, we relate the DFE sampling paradigm to the classical statistical decision theoretic literature and, under a probabilistic inference assumption, evaluate optimal sample sizes for DFE. In our treatment we go beyond analytically established results by showing how the classical statistical decision theoretic framework can be used to derive optimal sample sizes under arbitrary, but numerically evaluable, constraints. Finally, we critically evaluate the value of deriving optimal sample sizes under this framework as testable predictions for the experimental study of sampling behavior in DFE. PMID:26441720

  2. The elite sport and Christianity debate: shifting focus from normative values to the conscious disregard for health.

    PubMed

    Lee Sinden, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Scholars and theologians continue to debate whether or not God's intended purpose of elite sport violates the creational normativity for elite sport. However, while it is important to be aware of the contradictions between elite sport and Christianity, there is a need for more deep-seated discussions about emotions and health problems in elite sport and why so many Christian athletes continue to train for their sport at the expense of their health. This paper summaries the present debate regarding elite sport and Christianity and then shifts the reader to an exploration of the normalization of emotion, and the consequence of emotional suppression on athletes health. In doing so, the author presents the disregard of health problems as a more concrete measure of how far athletes should push themselves in elite sport. The author makes recommendations for emotion education and suggests directions for future research and practice. PMID:22447370

  3. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account

    PubMed Central

    Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable “feeling of knowing” or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core property of the learning process. PMID:26076466

  4. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G; Lumian, Daniel S; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2015-09-01

    Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest that normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence. PMID:26087377

  5. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Is There a Drop in Normative Clearsightedness in Sixth Grade? Study of Internality and Normative Clearsightedness in Fourth to Seventh Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigot, Johann; Pichot, Nathalie; Teste, Benoit

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a decrease in the expression of internality in French sixth graders as compared to fifth graders. The present study examines normative clearsightedness in addition to internality across four French school grades (fourth to seventh). The results confirmed the sixth-grade drop in internality and showed that the…

  6. NACA documents database project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1991-01-01

    The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

  7. Flying by the seat of your pants and magic behind doors: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of difficult decision making in clinical practice 

    E-print Network

    Hickey, John

    2010-11-26

    of the decision making environment such as managing one’s conflicting beliefs and difficult emotions, responding to uncertainty and changeable scenarios and normative versus unique elements of one’s practice were elucidated in the analyses. The contribution...

  8. Research Data Management - Documentation

    E-print Network

    Collins, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Collection “I guess it makes sense for a robot to read an e-book [401]” by brianjmatis on flickr Documentation is human readable Metadata is machine readable Make material findable Comprehensive descriptive metadata allows relevant material... Licence The teaching materials are released under Creative Commons licence 2.0 BY-NC-SA. You are free to re-use, adapt, and build-upon the work for educational purposes. The material may not be used for commercial purposes outside of education...

  9. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding

    PubMed Central

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

  10. Specialized Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Ethan V.; da Pimentel, Maria Graça

    HTML is unquestionably the central document language of the Web, but it is by no means the only language of the Web. In fact, several other specialized types of documents are widely used and have considerable importance. In this chapter, we look at how specialized document types affect accessibility. We do not attempt to consider all possible specialized documents, but rather focus on important examples that illustrate the key issues including Adobe’s Portable Document Format (PDF), microformats, and Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The Accessibility for RIA (ARIA) initiative is presented as an example of an effort to improve the accessibility of specialized documents, while the DAISY initiative is used as an example of how the same technologies can be harnessed to improve accessibility.

  11. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2010-02-15

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  12. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

  13. 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking: Evaluation of a Personalized Normative Feedback Card Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N = 281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

  14. Judi Dench's age-inappropriateness and the role of M: challenging normative temporality.

    PubMed

    Krainitzki, Eva

    2014-04-01

    This article approaches Judi Dench's role as M in the long-running James Bond series from a gender and ageing studies' perspective and explores this character's subversion of normative concepts of gender and temporality. Based on the assumption that cultural narratives shape our understanding of ageing, it examines how M disrupts prescribed age- and gender roles, presenting an alternative within films which otherwise perpetuate normative notions of a sexualised, youthful femininity. It focusses on Dench's return as M in Casino Royale (2006), as an instance of anachronism (Russo, 1999), subverting viewers' expectation of linear timelines and examines M's challenge of normative age-appropriateness in Skyfall (2012). Despite M's portrayal as a more vulnerable female character in the latter, this article presents her character as an alternative to traditional portrayals of older women on screen. PMID:24655671

  15. Development of a normative framework for disaster relief: learning from colonial famine histories in India.

    PubMed

    Akerkar, Supriya

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary academic debates on the history of the colonial Famine Codes in India--also considered to be the first coded and institutionalised normative frameworks for natural disaster response on the continent--generally are based on one of two perspectives. The first focuses on their economic rationale, whereas the second underlines that they constitute an anti-famine contract between the colonial masters and the people of India. This paper demonstrates that both of these viewpoints are limited in scope and that they simplify the nature of governance instituted through famine response practices in Colonial India. It links this reality to current disaster response policies and practices in India and shows that the discussion on the development of normative frameworks underlying disaster response is far from over. The paper goes on to evaluate the development of normative frameworks for disaster response and recovery, which remain embroiled in the politics of governmentality that underlies their development. PMID:26395110

  16. External cues in the control of food intake in humans: the sensory-normative distinction.

    PubMed

    Herman, C P; Polivy, J

    2008-08-01

    We review the history of "external cues" as an important factor in the control of human food intake. We begin with Schachter's proposal that obese individuals are especially (and perhaps exclusively) responsive to external food cues and examine subsequent modifications and challenges to that model and the decline and resurgence of research on external cues. We introduce a distinction between normative and sensory external cues. Normative cues (e.g., portion size) refer to indicators of appropriate intake, whereas sensory cues (e.g., palatability) refer to the hedonic appeal of the food. We propose that normative cues affect everyone, whereas sensory cues, while affecting everyone, have a more powerful effect on some types of individuals (e.g., the obese) than on others. PMID:18499202

  17. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  18. Declassified Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

  19. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-01-01

    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

    1. Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

      1988-01-01

      Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

    2. Neuropsychological test performance among healthy persons in northern India: development of normative data.

      PubMed

      Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Ownby, Raymond L; Jones, Deborah L; Sharma, Sunil; Nehra, Ritu; Kumar, Adarsh M; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Kumar, Mahendra

      2015-08-01

      Accurate identification of neurocognitive impairment associated with HIV infection (and other CNS-involved conditions) is dependent upon utilization of appropriate normative neuropsychological test performance data from healthy individuals with a similar background, culture, and characteristics of the target individual or group to be tested. In India, regional differences in language, culture, and availability of resources can significantly affect performance on neuropsychological testing. This study developed age- and education-adjusted normative data for commonly used neuropsychological test scores for use in northern India. PMID:25784168

    3. A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

      E-print Network

      Kah, Linda

      basalts Darren W. Schnare a,*, James M.D. Day a,b , Marc D. Norman c , Yang Liu a , Lawrence A. Taylor Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have

    4. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

      PubMed Central

      Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

      2015-01-01

      Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

    5. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

      2010-01-01

      Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

    6. Towards a Normative Evaluation of English Skills: An Analysis of the Appropriateness of Monolingual and Program Norms.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      DeMauro, Gerald E.

      Evaluation of bilingual education programs is limited by the absence of appropriate standards against which program success may be gauged. Normative and criterion models have been used, inadequately. The current paper revisits the normative model, and examines the relative advantages of using norms based on the performances of…

    7. Document creation, linking, and maintenance system

      DOEpatents

      Claghorn, Ronald (Pasco, WA)

      2011-02-15

      A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

    8. The Availability of Normative Data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mohr, Caroline; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John; Einfeld, Stewart L.

      2012-01-01

      Background: Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers. Method: The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural…

    9. Factor Analysis of the KeyMath--Revised Normative Update Form A

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria; Eaves, Ronald C.; Darch, Craig; Woods-Groves, Suzanne

      2007-01-01

      The factor structure of the "KeyMath--Revised Normative Update" (KMR-NU) "Form A" was analyzed using data from a sample of 130 students. The KMR-NU is composed of 13 subtests that are purported to measure three important aspects of math ability: Basic Concepts, Operations, and Applications. A confirmatory factor analysis employing scaled scores…

    10. Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

      2010-01-01

      Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

    11. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

      2012-01-01

      This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

    12. The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

      2009-01-01

      There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…

    13. Normative Values in Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Belief System Approach

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan

      2011-01-01

      The effects of teachers' normative values and emotive reactions on teaching in higher education have received relatively little research attention. The focus is often on descriptive beliefs such as conceptions of teaching and their inter-relations with practice. In this study, which is illustrated by a heuristic model, a belief system approach is…

    14. Normative Representation of Objects: Evidence for an Ecological Bias in Object Perception and Memory

      E-print Network

      Oliva, Aude

      , we found evidence that both long-term and short-term memory for the visual size of objects is biased visual size for object representation, termed the normative size. In Experiment 1, observers adjusted, we explore the possibility that each object has a perceptually privileged visual size, which we term

    15. Young children use pedagogical cues to modulate the strength of normative inferences.

      PubMed

      Butler, Lucas P; Schmidt, Marco F H; Bürgel, Jessica; Tomasello, Michael

      2015-11-01

      Young children understand pedagogical demonstrations as conveying generic, kind-relevant information. But, in some contexts, they also see almost any confident, intentional action on a novel artefact as normative and thus generic, regardless of whether this action was pedagogically demonstrated for them. Thus, although pedagogy may not be necessary for inferences to the generic, it may nevertheless be sufficient to produce inductive inferences on which the child relies more strongly. This study addresses this tension by bridging the literature on normative reasoning with that on social learning and inductive inference. Three-year-old children learned about a novel artefact from either a pedagogical or non-pedagogical demonstration, and then, a series of new actors acted on that artefact in novel ways. Although children protested normatively in both conditions (e.g., 'No, not like that'), they persisted longer in enforcing the learned norms in the face of repeated non-conformity by the new actors. This finding suggests that not all generic, normative inferences are created equal, but rather they depend - at least for their strength - on the nature of the acquisition process. PMID:26242935

    16. A Generic Framework to Exploit Virtual Worlds as Normative and Dynamic Interactive Spaces

      E-print Network

      Rodríguez, Inmaculada

      A Generic Framework to Exploit Virtual Worlds as Normative and Dynamic Interactive Spaces D. Brota1 present a generic framework for behavior management in social virtual worlds. Due to the type of activities taking place in a social virtual world, it is important to rely on mechanisms ensuring

    17. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

      SciTech Connect

      Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

      1997-04-01

      The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

    18. Benchmarks for Expected Annual Academic Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Scammacca, Nancy K.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

      2015-01-01

      Effect sizes are commonly reported for the results of educational interventions. However, researchers struggle with interpreting their magnitude in a way that transcends generic guidelines. Effect sizes can be interpreted in a meaningful context by benchmarking them against typical growth for students in the normative distribution. Such benchmarks…

    19. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

      2014-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…

    20. Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and nonnormative collective action.

      PubMed

      Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N

      2011-07-01

      A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative actions such as participating in demonstrations. We argue that the relations between emotions, efficacy, and action differ for more extreme, nonnormative actions and propose (a) that nonnormative actions are often driven by a sense of low efficacy and (b) that contempt, which, unlike anger, entails psychological distancing and a lack of reconciliatory intentions, predicts nonnormative action. These ideas were tested in 3 survey studies examining student protests against tuition fees in Germany (N = 332), Indian Muslims' action support in relation to ingroup disadvantage (N = 156), and British Muslims' responses to British foreign policy (N = 466). Results were generally supportive of predictions and indicated that (a) anger was strongly related to normative action but overall unrelated or less strongly related to nonnormative action, (b) contempt was either unrelated or negatively related to normative action but significantly positively predicted nonnormative action, and (c) efficacy was positively related to normative action and negatively related to nonnormative action. The implications of these findings for understanding and dealing with extreme intergroup phenomena such as terrorism are discussed. PMID:21500925

    1. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

      2009-01-01

      Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

    2. Engagement in Gender Normative versus Nonnormative Forms of Aggression: Links to Social-Psychological Adjustment.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Crick, Nicki R.

      1997-01-01

      Studied the adjustment status associated with engagement in gender normative versus gender nonnormative aggression for boys and girls. Teacher and self-reports were used to assess internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Found that 9- to 12-year olds who engaged in gender nonnormative aggression were more maladjusted than children who engaged…

    3. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fyffe, Richard

      2015-01-01

      This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in…

    4. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

      2015-01-01

      This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

    5. An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

      1990-01-01

      An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

    6. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

      This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

    7. Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

      2014-01-01

      This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

    8. Moral intuition: Its neural substrates and normative significance James Woodward a

      E-print Network

      Allman, John M.

      Moral intuition: Its neural substrates and normative significance James Woodward a , John Allman b 1200 E California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125, USA Abstract Philosophers use the phrase ``moral intuition" to describe the appearance in consciousness of moral judgments or assessments without any awareness of having

    9. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

      2013-01-01

      Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

    10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bourdon, Karen H.; Goodman, Robert; Rae, Donald S.; Simpson, Gloria; Koretz, Doreen S.

      2005-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a U.S. national population sample of children and adolescents, develop normative scoring bands, and test the association of high-scoring groups with service contacts or use for mental health reasons. Method: An Americanized version of the Strengths and Difficulties…

    11. A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying Tibor Bosse and Sven Stam

      E-print Network

      Bosse, Tibor

      A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying Tibor Bosse and Sven Stam Vrije Universiteit.stam@gmail.com Abstract -- Automated approaches to prevent the negative effects of cyberbullying mainly focus on affective to minimise the amount of occurrences of cyberbullying in the first place. The approach consists of a system

    12. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

      2012-01-01

      The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

    13. Reorganization in Coping Behavior at 1 1/2 Years: Dynamic Systems and Normative Change

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lewis, Marc D.; Zimmerman, Sara; Hollenstein, Tom; Lamey, Alex V.

      2004-01-01

      By the age of 1 year toddlers demonstrate distinct coping habits for dealing with frustration. However, these habits may be open to change and reorganization at subsequent developmental junctures. We investigated change in coping habits at 18-20 months, a normative age for major advances in social cognition, focusing on the dynamic systems…

    14. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

      2013-01-01

      This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

    15. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Carr, Paul R.

      2010-01-01

      Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

    16. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

      2011-01-01

      The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

    17. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Serna, Gabriel

      2014-01-01

      This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

    18. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

      2013-01-01

      The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

    19. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

      2006-01-01

      On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

    20. Performing an Archive of Resistance: Challenging Normative Life Narratives through Literary Reading and Memoir Writing Research

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

      2011-01-01

      This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological…

    1. Normative Assumptions in Educational Policy Research: The Case of Jencks's Inequality

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Joseph, Lawrence B.

      1977-01-01

      Jencks's argument is fundamentally misdirected because he is unaware of the normative implications of both the position he is attacking and the position he is advocating. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

    2. Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

      2010-01-01

      This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

    3. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

      2009-01-01

      Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

    4. The Normative Dimension and Legal Meaning of Endangered and Recovery in the U.S. Endangered

      E-print Network

      The Normative Dimension and Legal Meaning of Endangered and Recovery in the U.S. Endangered Species significance of the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is widely appreciated. Much of the significance and endangered species. The meanings of these terms are important because they give legal meaning to the concept

    5. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I(3) theory.

      PubMed

      Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

      2015-11-01

      I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N?=?148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N?=?180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. Aggr. Behav. 41:544-555, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26075351

    6. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

      2009-01-01

      We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

    7. Making the Past Present

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hawkins, B. Denise

      2006-01-01

      Lonnie G. Bunch III, the founding director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, is at work to make his vision, which is to build a national museum devoted exclusively to the documentation of African-American life, art, history and culture, a reality. Currently the museum location has not been decided, but…

    8. LCS Content Document Application

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hochstadt, Jake

      2011-01-01

      My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

    9. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

      SciTech Connect

      Coutant, C.C.

      1998-09-23

      Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

    10. MSU at Work in Africa: Cultural Documentation

      E-print Network

      are strongly committed to documenting, preserving, and making accessible the continent's cultural heritage' identifying their cultural heritage. Safeguarding and making accessible the artifacts, oral histories cultural tourism, an increasingly important draw for the international tourism trade that is Africa

    11. Perceptions of document relevance.

      PubMed

      Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

      2014-01-01

      This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

    12. Perceptions of document relevance

      PubMed Central

      Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

      2014-01-01

      This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

    13. Document Monitor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1988-01-01

      The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

    14. Decision making under uncertain categorization

      PubMed Central

      Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

      2014-01-01

      Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475

    15. FMISO Documentation

      Cancer.gov

      The FMISO documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a

    16. FLT Documentation

      Cancer.gov

      The FLT documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast

    17. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching.

      PubMed

      Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

      2015-01-01

      Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' "empirical" or "normative" expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

    18. Effects of normative antismoking messages in China-a brief report.

      PubMed

      Bresnahan, Mary J; Zhuang, Jie

      2016-03-01

      The negative health effects of smoking are especially problematic in China, where 30% of the world's smokers reside and where male smoking continues to be the accepted norm. Smoking resistance is an important issue for both smokers and nonsmokers in China, where there is widespread acceptance of smoking. While smoking norms have been studied extensively in China, the effects of smoking prevention messages based on descriptive and injunctive norms have not yet been tested with Chinese respondents. Based on a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design, data were obtained from 143 working adults in China. The message describing high prevalence and disapproval of smoking resulted in stronger smoking resistance. Smoking status, group identity, and outcome expectancy influenced the impact of normative messages on smoking resistance. The results suggest the usefulness of adopting normative messages in smoking prevention and cessation campaigns. PMID:26327284

    19. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M. Teresa; García-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosúa, M. Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

      2015-01-01

      The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided. PMID:26500594

    20. Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

      1990-01-01

      The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

    1. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching

      PubMed Central

      Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

      2015-01-01

      Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' “empirical” or “normative” expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

    2. Documenting Spreadsheets

      E-print Network

      Payette, Raymond

      2008-01-01

      This paper discusses spreadsheets documentation and new means to achieve this end by using Excel's built-in "Comment" function. By structuring comments, they can be used as an essential tool to fully explain spreadsheet. This will greatly facilitate spreadsheet change control, risk management and auditing. It will fill a crucial gap in corporate governance by adding essential information that can be managed in order to satisfy internal controls and accountability standards.

    3. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model

      PubMed Central

      Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

      2014-01-01

      There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

    4. Contributions of Work Stressors, Alcohol, and Normative Beliefs to Partner Violence

      PubMed Central

      Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn

      2013-01-01

      Objective: A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Method: Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Results: Analyses of data revealed that men’s and women’s normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to male-to-female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners’ levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner’s frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner’s adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and work-related factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. Discussion: These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture. PMID:23384367

    5. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: expanded AVLT Recognition Trial norms for ages 57 to 98.

      PubMed

      Harris, Milton E; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E

      2002-04-01

      This paper expands upon previously published Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) norms by presenting age and gender specific data for Recognition Trial accuracy (recognition 'hits' corrected for false positive errors) in a total of 836 subjects (the original sample, augmented by an additional 311 subjects). Observations are offered concerning clinical implications of AVLT Recognition Trial performance. Gender differences in recognition memory are discussed. PMID:11992204

    6. Normative data on mineralization density distribution in iliac bone biopsies of children, adolescents and young adults.

      PubMed

      Fratzl-Zelman, N; Roschger, P; Misof, B M; Pfeffer, S; Glorieux, F H; Klaushofer, K; Rauch, F

      2009-06-01

      Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) as assessed by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) in iliac crest bone biopsies has become in the last years a powerful diagnostic tool to evaluate the effect of metabolic bone diseases and/or therapeutic interventions on the mineralization status of the bone material. However until now, normative reference data are only available for adults. The aim of the present study is to close this gap and establish normative data from children and compare them with reference BMDD data of adults. qBEI analyses were performed on bone samples from 54 individuals between 1.5 and 23 years without metabolic bone diseases, which were previously used as study population to establish normative histomorphometric standards. In the trabecular compartment, none of the BMDD parameters showed a significant correlation with age. The BMDD was shifted towards lower mineralization density (CaMean -5.6%, p<0.0001; CaPeak -5.6%, p<0.0001; CaLow +39.0% p<0.001; CaHigh -80.7%, p<0.001) and the inter-individual variation was higher compared to the adult population. The cortices appeared to be markedly less mineralized (CaMean -3.1%, p<0.0001) than cancellous bone due to higher amounts of low mineralized secondary bone. However, the cortical BMDD parameters showed a strong correlation (r=0.38 to 0.85, with p<0.001 to<0.0001) with cancellous BMDD parameters. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that BMDD parameters in growing healthy subjects are relatively constant and that these data can be used as normative references in pediatrics osteology. The larger inter-individual variability compared to adults is most likely related to alterations of the bone turnover rate during growth. PMID:19268565

    7. Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms 

      E-print Network

      MacPherson, Sarah, E.; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

      2014-03-26

      The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the ...

    8. The effects of normative classroom aggression and teacher support on changes in ethnically diverse elementary students' aggression 

      E-print Network

      Kuhns, Clarissa Ivette

      2008-10-10

      This study examined the joint effects of the quality of teacher-student relationship support (TSRS) and normative levels of classroom aggression on individual aggression in a sample of 687 second-grade children who entered first grade...

    9. On the possibility of a pragmatic discourse bioethics: Putnam, Habermas, and the normative logic of bioethical inquiry.

      PubMed

      Cooke, Elizabeth F

      2003-01-01

      Pragmatic bioethics represents a novel approach to the discipline of bioethics, yet has met with criticisms which have beset the discipline of bioethics in the past. In particular, pragmatic bioethics has been criticized for its excessively fuzzy approach to fundamental questions of normativity, which are crucial to a field like bioethics. Normative questions need answers, and consensus is not always enough. The approach here is to apply elements of the discourse ethics of Habermas and Putnam to the sphere of bioethics, in order to develop a normative structure out of the framework of bioethical inquiry as it stands. The idea here is that the process of inquiry contains its own normative structure as it aims to discover norms. Such an approach, which fuses pragmatic bioethics with discourse ethics (which equally draws on pragmatism), may rightly be called a "Pragmatic Discourse Bioethics." PMID:14972765

    10. The Effect of Framing and Normative Messages in Building Support for Climate Policies

      PubMed Central

      Hurlstone, Mark J.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Newell, Ben R.; Sewell, Brittany

      2014-01-01

      Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a “foregone-gain”—incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts—rather than as a “loss”—incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts. PMID:25501009

    11. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

      This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

    12. Extremely secure identification documents

      SciTech Connect

      Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

      1997-09-01

      The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

    13. Audits highlight need for documentation.

      PubMed

      2014-09-01

      The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' "Probe and Educate" initiative to determine hospitals'compliance with the two-midnight rule makes it clear that case managers must review physician documentation as well as medical necessity. The Medicare Administrative Contractors are focusing on short stays when physician documentation doesn't support the expectation of a two-midnight stay. They're looking at flawed admission orders, and when the orders to admit are issued by a practitioner who does not have admitting privileges at the hospital. Another area of focus is physician statements without documentation of the reason for the need for inpatient treatment. PMID:25134273

    14. Making Pickles

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Klein, Sarah

      1977-01-01

      Making pickles developed from a laboratory lesson during a unit on solutions, suspensions, acids, and bases. The pickle lab has been used as a summation and application of these topics. Directions for setting up the lab experience and actually making the pickles are included. (MA)

    15. Making Animations

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robinson, James

      2007-01-01

      In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

    16. Making Movies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

      2012-01-01

      Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

    17. NORMATIVE SCIENCE

      EPA Science Inventory

      Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

    18. Normative Data on the Sleep Habits of Australian Children and Adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol; Blunden, Sarah; Matricciani, Lisa

      2010-01-01

      Study Objective: To provide normative sleep data on 9-18 year old Australians. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: 4032 Australians aged 9-18 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 48h use of time recall, comprising sleep data for one complete night. Sleep duration, bedtime and wake time were compared across age groups, between genders, and between school and non-school days using ANOVA. Sleep duration declined with age (P < 0.0001) at the rate of 12 min/ night per year of age on school days, and 4 min on non-school days. Girls slept slightly longer than boys (5 min/ night; P = 0.03). Non-school day sleep was 16 min longer than school day sleep (P < 0.0001), with the difference increasing with age. Bedtimes got later with age (P < 0.0001), however there were no differences in bedtimes between boys and girls. Bedtimes occurred 34 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Wake times were very similar across age groups on school days, but increased at the rate of 10 min/ year of age on non-school days. Wake times were similar for boys and girls, and occurred on average 82 min later on non-school days (P < 0.0001). Overall, 17% of school days and 20% of non-school days failed to meet the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sleep duration guidelines. Conclusions: Normative sleep data will provide a valuable yardstick for health and education professionals when dealing with sleep-related issues. Citation: Olds T; Maher C; Blunden S; Matricciani L. Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents. SLEEP 2010;33(10):1381-1388. PMID:21061861

    19. The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.

      SciTech Connect

      Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L.

      2002-10-01

      The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.

    20. "Primary" rationing of health services in ageing societies--a normative analysis.

      PubMed

      Breyer, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Carlo

      2002-11-01

      While most of the debate on "rationing in health care" focusses on the distribution of scarce medical resources among competing needs, which we propose to call "secondary rationing," this paper is concerned with "primary rationing," i.e., the conscious decision by society to limit the amount of resources devoted to a collectively financed health care system. Based upon a number of transparent normative criteria, we analyze whether primary rationing should be performed and, if so, what type should be chosen (hard vs. soft, explicit vs. implicit). Finally we discuss whether age should be used as a criterion in any systematic attempt at primary rationing of health care. PMID:14625993

    1. Comparison of dynamic crystallization techniques on Apollo 15 quartz normative basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lofgren, G. E.; Grove, T. L.; Brown, R. W.; Smith, D. P.

      1979-01-01

      The paper compares dynamic crystallization techniques used on Apollo 15 quartz normative basalts which show differences related to their method. The variation of pyroxene core major element chemistry with cooling rate is confirmed, and it is shown that the Fe loss from liquid is shifted toward the En-Di joint; it is suggested that the nucleation temperature and breakdown of equilibrium partitioning as a function of cooling rate dictate the core composition. It is concluded that the different crystallization behavior that results from the Fe-capsule and Fe-loop container methods is related to the nucleation kinetics.

    2. Comparing Post-Concussive Neurocognitive Test Data to Normative Data Presents Risks for Under-Classifying “Above Average” Athletes

      PubMed Central

      Schatz, Philip; Robertshaw, Stacey

      2014-01-01

      We compared classification accuracy of post-concussion test data against baseline and normative data, accounting for baseline level of performance. Athletes (N = 250) completed baseline and post-concussion ImPACT assessments, within 7 days of concussion (verified by sports medicine professionals and self-reported symptoms). Athletes were classified as “below average,” “average,” or “above average” at baseline. Change from baseline was calculated using reliable change indices (RCIs) and regression-based measures (RBz), and comparison to normative data was achieved using z-scores. Normative comparisons identified fewer symptomatic, concussed athletes than RCIs and RBz. Both RCIs and RBz consistently identified “impairment” at 1 and 1.5 SD, regardless of baseline level, whereas normative comparisons identified 46–48% fewer athletes performing “above average” at baseline using a cut-off of 1 SD and 36-38% fewer using a cut-off of 1.5 SD. The use of normative comparisons may differentially classify concussed, symptomatic athletes who are outside the “average” range at baseline. PMID:25178629

    3. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

      1986-01-01

      Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

    4. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dageforde, Mary L.

      This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up the BIP…

    5. Markup Sample Document Scott Draves

      E-print Network

      works. if you want to see a document made with it, then see here or here or here. not sure what, and the effect of executing it side by side. 1.1 More Stuff la de da da. you can link random text to arbitrary for lisp. (define (foo) (whatever)) ;; how verbatim is fcodeg ;; (didn't this make b4???) ;; following

    6. Omega documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

      1983-08-01

      OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

    7. A Normative Study of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) in Children and Adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Snyder, Aliyah R.; Bauer, Russell M.

      2014-01-01

      Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool [SCAT2]) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of ‘normal’ or ‘impaired’ score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption. PMID:25244434

    8. [A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].

      PubMed

      Dorschel, A

      1992-01-01

      Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr. PMID:1342729

    9. Do Hassles and Uplifts Change with Age? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

      2014-01-01

      To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed three scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Growth based modelling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative non-linear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

    10. Normative and standardized data for cognitive measures in the Mexican Health and Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Mejía-Arango, Silvia; Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra

      2015-01-01

      Objective To describe the cognitive instrument used in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) in Mexican individuals aged 60 and over and to provide normative values for the Cross Cultural Cognitive Examination test and its modified versions (CCCE). Materials and methods The CCCE was administered to 5 120 subjects as part of a population-based sample free of neurologic and psychiatric disease from the MHAS 2012 survey. Normative data were generated by age and education for each test in the cognitive instrument as well as for the total cognition score. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationship of scores to demographic variables. Results Results present standardized normed scores for eight cognitive domains: orientation, attention, verbal learning memory, verbal recall memory, visuospatial abilities, visual memory, executive function, and numeracy in three education groups within three age groups. Conclusion These highlight the need for population-based norms for the CCCE, which has been used in population-based studies. Demographic factors such as age and education must be considered when interpreting the cognitive measures. PMID:26172239

    11. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

      PubMed

      Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

      2015-01-01

      Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD. PMID:25679880

    12. King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.

      PubMed

      Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

      2015-06-01

      The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median?=?22.0 years, range?=?16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0?s (SD?=?6.1?s, range?=?24.0-65.7?s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC?=?0.92, Pearson?=?0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

    13. A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) with examples of petrologic problem solving

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, G.

      1979-01-01

      A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.

    14. SANSMIC design document.

      SciTech Connect

      Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

      2015-07-01

      The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

    15. Making Connections

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

      2011-01-01

      Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

    16. NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER

      PubMed Central

      Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lønbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

      2014-01-01

      Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ?0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ?0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of Evidence: 2A PMID:24567857

    17. A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control

      PubMed Central

      Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

      2012-01-01

      Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

    18. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-04-01

      ...Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation...sites have been considered outside the floodplain, but within the local...

    19. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-04-01

      ...Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation...sites have been considered outside the floodplain, but within the local...

    20. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ...Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation...sites have been considered outside the floodplain, but within the local...

    1. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ...Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation...sites have been considered outside the floodplain, but within the local...

    2. Extensible layout in functional documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

      2006-02-01

      Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

    3. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

      2010-01-01

      Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

    4. Heart Rate Variability in Adolescents – Normative Data Stratified by Sex and Physical Activity

      PubMed Central

      Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Rajendran, Rajathi

      2015-01-01

      Background Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the cardiac rhythm occurring due to modulation of the pacemaker (sinoatrial node) activity of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors are increasingly occurring at a younger age (children and adolescents) and recording of HRV in them will help us to identify cardiovascular autonomic derangement earlier. However, to be used clinically, normative data has to be established in this age group considering other major factors that can influence HRV such as sex, physical activity, and BMI. Materials and Methods Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology has provided the standards for measurement of heart rate variability and we have followed the same. In the present study, we have described the normative data for HRV in the adolescent in the age group of 12-17 years, stratified based on sex and physical activity. Results Data given below are expressed as median with interquartile range (Median (IQR)) in the following order: non-athlete girls, non athlete boys, athlete girls and athlete boys. Time domain indices - SDNN - 66.35 (40.78), 63.20 (36.20), 113.00 (31.40) and 94.20 (35.55); RMSSD – 69.00 (50.55), 58.70 (43.40), 94.90 (42.10) and 100.30 (47.50); NN50 - 137.50 (100.25), 116.00 (90.50), 137.00 (81.00) and 156.00 (81.50). The frequency domain indices – LF power 1015.00 (1098.75), 945.00 (831.00), 1465 (642.25), and 1211.00 (811.37); HF power – 1324.00 (1707.00), 988.00 (1426.50), 2409.00 (1387.50), and 2219.00 (1752.00); Total power – 3374.50 (3094.25), 2757.00 (2641.00), 5202.00 (2501.50) and 5273.00 (3507.50); LFnu – 45.44 (16.61), 47.63 (29.98), 38.59 (11.81) and 37.10 (11.21); HFnu – 54.56 (16.61), 52.37 (29.98), 61.41 (11.81) and 62.90 (11.21). Conclusion We have given sex and physical activity stratified HRV normative data for adolescents in the age between 12-17 years. PMID:26557514

    5. Text documents as social networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

      2012-03-01

      The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

    6. COSMIC program documentation experience

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kalar, M. C.

      1970-01-01

      A brief history of COSMIC as it relates to the handling of program documentation is summarized; the items that are essential for computer program documentation are also discussed. COSMIC documentation and program standards handbook is appended.

    7. Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.

      PubMed

      Blackwood, Evelyn

      2007-01-01

      This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732

    8. Benchmarks for Expected Annual Academic Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution

      PubMed Central

      Scammacca, Nancy K.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

      2015-01-01

      Effect sizes are commonly reported for the results of educational interventions. However, researchers struggle with interpreting their magnitude in a way that transcends generic guidelines. Effect sizes can be interpreted in a meaningful context by benchmarking them against typical growth for students in the normative distribution. Such benchmarks are not currently available for students in the bottom quartile. This report remedies this by providing a comparative context for interventions involving these students. Annual growth effect sizes for K–12 students were computed from nationally normed assessments and a longitudinal study of students in special education. They reveal declining growth over time, especially for reading and math. These results allow researchers to better interpret the effects of their interventions and help practitioners by quantifying typical growth for struggling students. More longitudinal research is needed to show growth trajectories for students in the bottom quartile.

    9. Normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population sample.

      PubMed

      Pigliautile, Martina; Chiesi, Francesca; Rossetti, Sonia; Conestabile Della Staffa, Manuela; Ricci, Monica; Federici, Stefano; Chiloiro, Dora; Primi, Caterina; Mecocci, Patrizia

      2015-12-01

      The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a brief cognitive screening instrument also proposed to detect mild cognitive impairment, a high-risk condition for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. In this study, we report normative data on the ACE-R-Italian version, collected on a sample of 264 Italian healthy subjects aging between 60 and 93 years, and with a formal education from 1 to 19 years. The global normal cognition was established in accordance with the Italian version of the Mini-Mental State Examination score and with exclusion criteria derived by a consensus process. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and education on the ACE-R total performance score. We provide correction grids to adjust raw scores and equivalent scores with cut-off value to allow comparison between ACE-R performance and others neuropsychological test scores that can be administered to the same subject. PMID:26216492

    10. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'.

      PubMed

      Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

      2015-10-01

      Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

    11. Wind system documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

      1993-01-15

      Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

    12. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

    13. Attitudinal and Social Normative Factors as Predictors of Intended Alcohol Abuse among Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Students.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      London, F. Betty

      1982-01-01

      Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)

    14. Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces Test in the Italian population.

      PubMed

      Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Arpone, Marta; Realmuto, Sabrina; Cappa, Stefano F

      2014-07-01

      The Ekman 60-Faces (EK-60F) Test is a well-known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty-two healthy Italian participants aged between 20 and 79 years with at least 5 years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK-60F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise). Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure [1]. The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 15 bvFTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition. We provided EK-60F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes. PMID:24442557

    15. Schooling in the "Iron Cage" and the Crucial Role of Interpretive, Normative, and Critical Perspectives in Social Foundations Studies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dotts, Brian

      2013-01-01

      This article addresses the unique role performed by social foundations programs in colleges of education and in addressing broader issues facing education today, which fundamentally include the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives in academia. All three perspectives serve to create a scholarly framework within which…

    16. Evaluations of and Reasoning about Normative and Deviant Ingroup and Outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

      2014-01-01

      Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social…

    17. MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

      2011-01-01

      In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

    18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Normative Beliefs as Predictors of Hookah Smoking Initiation: A Longitudinal Study of University Students

      PubMed Central

      2014-01-01

      Introduction: While cross-sectional studies have shown that hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an increasingly popular behavior among university students, little is known about factors associated with initiation. This study sought to determine associations between knowledge, attitudes, and normative beliefs and initiation of HTS among university students. Methods: Data were from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 569 randomly selected first- and second-year university students. Online questionnaires that were developed in accordance with our composite theoretical model were completed in September 2010 and April 2011. Results: About one-seventh (13%) of participants initiated HTS by follow-up. Positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs were associated with increased adjusted odds of initiation (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.56, 6.59; and AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35, 2.99, respectively), while negative attitudes were associated with decreased adjusted odds (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.80). Correct knowledge regarding toxicants associated with HTS was not significantly associated with initiation. Conclusions: While positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs are associated with initiation of HTS in a cohort of never-users, increased knowledge about toxins is not associated with lower initiation. It may be particularly valuable for educational interventions to attempt to alter positive attitudes and normative beliefs related to HTS. PMID:24323574

    19. The Valuation of Knowledge and Normative Reflection in Teacher Qualification: A Comparison of Teacher Educators, Novice and Experienced Teachers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Caspersen, Joakim

      2013-01-01

      The transition from teacher education to work in schools has been described as an "epistemic clash". Teacher educators', novice teachers' and experienced teachers' valuation of the academic, practical and normative demands of teaching are compared using survey data from teacher education and schools. All groups value academic knowledge and…

    20. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children: normative data and biometric correlations

      PubMed Central

      2014-01-01

      Background The aim was to report normative values of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular parameters in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to perform correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting 113 healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye examination and axial length measurement, RNFL and macular thickness measurements were performed using the Cirrus OCT machine. Main outcome measures were macular volume, macular thickness and RNFL thickness values as well as their correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Right eyes of all subjects were selected for analysis. Results One hundred and eight children were included in the study, 65 females and 43 males. Mean age was 10.7+/?3.1 years, average spherical equivalent refraction (SE) was ?0.02+/?1.77(?4.25 to +5.00) diopters and average axial length was 23.5+/?1.0 (21.5 to 25.8)mm. Mean RNFL thickness was 95.6+/?8.7 ?m, average macular thickness was 279.6+/?12.5 ?m, central macular thickness was 249.1+/?20.2 ?m, and mean macular volume was 10.1+/?0.5 mm3. Central macular thickness values were significantly higher in males (p?normative RNFL and macular parameters in healthy children below 18 years of age were established; measurements varied by age and gender. PMID:24755354

    1. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

      PubMed

      Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

      2016-02-01

      The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50°C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na(+)] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na(+)] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na(+)] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na(+)] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na(+)] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions. PMID:26070030

    2. Brain, body, and cognition: Neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear

      PubMed Central

      Schaefer, Hillary S.; Larson, Christine L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Coan, James A.

      2014-01-01

      The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction. PMID:24561099

    3. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

      PubMed

      Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Beaumont, Jennifer; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

      2015-05-01

      Demographic factors impact neuropsychological test performances and accounting for them may help to better elucidate current brain functioning. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neuropsychological tool, yet the original norms developed for the battery did not adequately account for important demographic/cultural factors known to impact test performances. We developed norms fully adjusting for all demographic variables within each language group (English and Spanish) separately. The current study describes the standards for individuals tested in English. Neurologically healthy adults (n=1038) and children (n=2917) who completed the NIH Toolbox norming project in English were included. We created uncorrected scores weighted to the 2010 Census demographics, and applied polynomial regression models to develop age-corrected and fully demographically adjusted (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity) scores for each NIHTB-CB test and composite (i.e., Fluid, Crystallized, and Total Composites). On uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores, age and education demonstrated significant, medium-to-large associations, while sex showed smaller, but statistically significant effects. In terms of race/ethnicity, a significant stair-step effect on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores was observed (African Americannormative corrections, NIHTB-CB no longer demonstrated any significant associations with demographic factors. The previously developed norms still maintained significant associations with demographic factors, and demonstrated more variable impairment rates in segments of the healthy normative sample. Similar to other neuropsychological tests, demographic factors demonstrated significant associations with unadjusted NIHTB-CB scores. Application of fully corrected scores will help account for unwanted variance that is associated with non-clinical factors to more accurately reflect effects of disease-related changes in brain function. PMID:26030001

    4. Sex Differences in Neurophysiological Activation Patterns During Phonological Input Processing: An Influencing Factor for Normative Data.

      PubMed

      Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

      2015-11-01

      In the context of neurophysiological normative data, it has been established that aging has a significant impact on neurophysiological correlates of auditory phonological input processes, such as phoneme discrimination (PD) and word recognition (WR). Besides age, sex is another demographic factor that influences several language processes. We aimed to disentangle whether sex has a similar effect on PD and WR. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 20 men and 24 women. During PD, three phonemic contrasts (place and manner of articulation and voicing) were compared using the attentive P300 and pre-attentive Mismatch Negativity. To investigate WR, real words were contrasted with pseudowords in a pre-attentive oddball task. Women demonstrated a larger sensitivity to spectrotemporal differences, as evidenced by larger P300 responses to the place of articulation (PoA) contrast and larger P300 and MMN responses than men in PoA-based PD. Men did not display such sensitivity. Attention played an important role, considering that women needed more attentional resources to differentiate between PoA and the other phonemic contrasts. During WR, pseudowords evoked larger amplitudes already 100 ms post-stimulus independent of sex. However, women had decreased P200 latencies, but longer N400 latencies in response to pseudowords, whereas men showed increased N400 latencies compared to women in response to real words. The current results demonstrate significant sex-related influences on phonological input processes. Therefore, existing neurophysiological normative data for age should be complemented for the factor sex. PMID:26014826

    5. Generic safety documentation model

      SciTech Connect

      Mahn, J.A.

      1994-04-01

      This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

    6. Making Aliens

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Andreadis, A.

      During the next few decades, the decisions we make will determine the future of our biosphere and our species. In this context, space exploration will literally answer a question that has preoccupied us ever since we became self-aware: What is going to happen to us? Reaching and inhabiting other planets is often considered an extension of human exploration and occupation of Earth but the analogy is useful only as a metaphor. Whatever the extremes of Earth, we can live almost everywhere on it because we started and evolved here. Given the vagaries of chance in every event of planetmaking, we will never find an Earth twin. To live under strange skies will require courage, ingenuity and stamina ­ but above all, it will require a hard look at our assumptions, including what it means to be human.

    7. Automated document analysis system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

      2002-08-01

      A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

    8. Making biodiversity meaningful through environmental education

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      van Weelie, Daan

      2002-11-01

      Biodiversity is an emerging theme in science, society and, more recently, education. There is no one single definition of biodiversity that is adequate in all situations. Both the knowledge base and the value base of biodiversity are variable and questionable. Because of these characteristics, biodiversity makes for an interesting vehicle for linking science and society, and the investigation of the normative underpinnings of 'science-in-the making'. Based on a 3-year study, this paper explores the crossroads between science education and environmental education and presents a framework for tapping the environmental education potential of biodiversity. Outlined are a number stepping stones for making biodiversity meaningful to learners. It is argued that, from the perspective of environmental education, the illdefined nature of biodiversity is a useful feature. Biodiversity is renewing the discourse on nature conservation issues by bringing together different groups in society that are searching for a common language to discuss nature conservation issues in relation to sustainability issues. The resulting debate allows the socio-scientific dispute character of 'science-in-the-making' to surface. Participation in such a dispute is an excellent opportunity to learn about a highly relevant, controversial, emotionally charged and debatable topic at the crossroads of science, technology and society

    9. CISNET: Detail Documents

      Cancer.gov

      The detail documents pick up where the overview documents leave off. They provide a more fine-grained view of specific aspects of the model. While there is only one overview document of each type, there may be multiple detail documents of the same type in a single model profile.

    10. Computer software documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Comella, P. A.

      1973-01-01

      A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

    11. Magnetic imaging of currencies and secure documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jagielinski, Tomasz M.; Chamberlain, Fred

      2002-04-01

      Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and transit documents. A solution to forensics is magnetic imaging where invisible magnetic patterns or recorded information can be displayed as an image for comparison with an optical scan. The use of small, highly sensitive detectors enables high resolution scanning of magnetic documents, creating magnetic images with fine detail. Depending on the design of a document, if the magnetic image is identical to the optical image, the document may be a counterfeit. In this paper, we will address the issues related to magnetic scanning of security documents. We will present and discuss magnetic images of documents printed with magnetic inks. We will also show how magnetic imaging can provide valuable information in understanding the alteration of magnetic data in documents such as tickets, licenses with pictures, and holograms.

    12. Normative Amplitude Integrated EEG (aEEG) Measures in Preterm Infants

      PubMed Central

      Vesoulis, Zachary A.; Paul, Rachel A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Wong, Connie; Inder, Terrie E.; Mathur, Amit M.

      2014-01-01

      Objective Assessing qualitative patterns of amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) maturation of preterm infants requires personnel with training in interpretation and an investment of time. Quantitative algorithms provide a method for rapidly and reproducibly assessing an aEEG recording independent of provider skill level. Although there are several qualitative and quantitative normative datasets in the literature, this study provides the broadest array of quantitative aEEG measures in a carefully selected and followed cohort of preterm infants with mild or no visible injury on term equivalent MRI and subsequently normal neurodevelopment at 2 and 7 years of age. Study Design A two-channel aEEG recording was obtained on days 4,7,14, and 28 of life for infants born ?30 weeks EGA. Measures of amplitude and continuity, spectral edge frequency, percentage of trace in interburst interval, interburst interval length, and frequency counts of smooth delta waves, delta brushes and theta bursts were obtained. MRI was obtained at term-equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental testing was conducted at 2 and 7 years of corrected age. Result Correlations were found between increasing post-menstrual age (PMA) and decreasing maximum amplitude (R=?0.23, p=0.05), increasing minimum amplitude (R=0.46, p=0.002), and increasing spectral edge frequency (R=0.78, p=4.17x10?14). Negative correlations were noted between increasing PMA and counts of smooth delta waves (R=?0.39, p=0.001), delta brushes (R=?0.37, p=0.003), and theta bursts (R=?0.61, p=5.66x10?8). Increasing PMA was also associated with a decreased amount of time spent in the interburst interval (R=?0.38, p=0.001) and a shorter length of the maximum IBI (R=?0.27, p=0.03). Conclusion This analysis supports a strong correlation between quantitatively determined aEEG measures and PMA, in a cohort of preterm infants with normal TEA neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years of age, which is both predictable and reproducible. These “normative” quantitative values support the pattern of maturation previously identified by qualitative analysis. PMID:25521561

    13. Lead Exposure and Tremor among Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Power, Melinda C.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Hu, Howard; Louis, Elan D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

      2015-01-01

      Background: Tremor is one of the most common neurological signs, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Case–control studies suggest an association between blood lead and essential tremor, and that this association is modified by polymorphisms in the ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) gene. Objective: We aimed to examine the relationship between lead and tremor, including modification by ALAD, in a prospective cohort study, using both blood lead and bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure. Methods: We measured tibia (n = 670) and patella (n = 672) bone lead and blood lead (n = 807) among older men (age range, 50–98 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort. A tremor score was created based on an approach using hand-drawing samples. ALAD genotype was dichotomized as ALAD-2 carriers or not. We used linear regression adjusted for age, education, smoking, and alcohol intake to estimate the associations between lead biomarkers and tremor score. Results: In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginal association between quintiles of all lead biomarkers and tremor scores (p-values < 0.13), which did not persist in adjusted models. Age was the strongest predictor of tremor. Among those younger than the median age (68.9 years), tremor increased significantly with blood lead (p = 0.03), but this pattern was not apparent for bone lead. We did not see modification by ALAD or an association between bone lead and change in tremor score over time. Conclusion: Our results do not strongly support an association between lead exposure and tremor, and suggest no association with cumulative lead biomarkers, although there is some suggestion that blood lead may be associated with tremor among the younger men in our cohort. Citation: Ji JS, Power MC, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Hu H, Louis ED, Weisskopf MG. 2015. Lead exposure and tremor among older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:445–450;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408535 PMID:25633720

    14. Wideband reflectance in newborns: Normative regions and relationship to hearing screening results

      PubMed Central

      Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Lapsley Miller, Judi A.; Jeng, Patricia S.; Bohning, Susie

      2013-01-01

      Structured Abstract Objectives To develop normative data for wideband middle-ear reflectance in a newborn hearing-screening population, and to compare test performance with 1-kHz tympanometry for prediction of OAE screening outcome. Design Wideband middle-ear reflectance (using both tone and chirp stimuli over 0.2 to 6 kHz), 1-kHz tympanometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPs) were measured in 324 infants at two test sites. Ears were categorized into DP-pass and DP-refer groups. Results Normative reflectance values were defined over various frequency regions for both tone and chirp stimuli in ambient pressure conditions, and for reflectance area indices (RAIs) integrated over various frequency ranges. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that reflectance provides the best discriminability of DP status in frequency ranges involving 2 kHz, and greater discriminability of DP status than 1-kHz tympanometry. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) established that (a) there were significant differences in reflectance as a function of DP status and frequency, but not sex or ear; (b) tone and chirp stimulus reflectance values are essentially indistinguishable, and (c) newborns from two geographic sites had similar reflectance patterns above 1-kHz. Birth type and weight did not contribute to differences in reflectance. Conclusions Referrals in OAE-based infant hearing screening were strongly associated with increased wideband reflectance, suggesting middle-ear dysfunction at birth. Reflectance improved significantly over the first 4 days after birth with normalization of middle-ear function. Reflectance scores can be achieved within seconds using the same equipment used for OAE screening. Newborns with high reflectance scores at Stage I screening should be rescreened within a few hours to a few days, as most middle-ear problems are transient and resolve spontaneously. If reflectance and OAE are not passed upon Stage II screening, referral to an otologist for ear examination is suggested along with diagnostic testing. Newborns with normal reflectance and a refer result for the OAE screen should be referred immediately to an audiologist for diagnostic testing with threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR) due to higher risk for permanent hearing loss. PMID:20520553

    15. Nicotinic alteration of decision-making.

      PubMed

      Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe

      2015-09-01

      Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25498234

    16. Social and personal normative influences on healthcare professionals to use information technology: Towards a more robust social ergonomics

      PubMed Central

      Holden, Richard J

      2011-01-01

      Social structures and processes are increasingly acknowledged and studied within the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) discipline. At the same time, social phenomena are rarely the focus of HFE work, leaving a knowledge gap. The present study directly addresses social and personal normative forces that influence technology use and performance. Social and personal normative influence to use electronic health records (EHR) were investigated using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 attending physicians at two US hospitals. Analyses used a comprehensive framework based on leading social scientific theories and revealed numerous sources of influence, including hospital administration, colleagues, patients, clinical and professional groups, government, and one’s self. Influence was achieved through different means and invoked different psychological processes. Findings motivate a new view of professionals’ technology use as a highly social process occurring in a social context, with implications for research, policy, design, and in general the development of a robust social ergonomics. PMID:23066349

    17. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

      PubMed

      Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

      2014-03-01

      The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception. PMID:23409767

    18. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

      PubMed Central

      Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

      2015-01-01

      Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

    19. Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

      1993-01-01

      Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

    20. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts

      SciTech Connect

      Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

      1997-04-01

      The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

    1. Assessing Mental Imagery to Evaluate Topographical Disorientation: Group Study and Preliminary Normative Data.

      PubMed

      Descloux, Virginie; Maurer, Roland

      2016-01-01

      There is currently no specific neuropsychological test assessing spatial orientation abilities, despite the fact that navigational deficits are heavily incapacitating in daily life. This lack of a specific test is probably due to theoretical vagueness of concepts in this field and important interindividual differences in spatial cognition. Here we propose a new standardized test assessing a fundamental component of spatial orientation-namely, mental imagery: Adequate mental visualization of the environment is indeed a necessary step in finding one's way. Two conditions of mental imagery were proposed to a group of 58 patients with a right cerebral lesion and to a control group (N = 117). The 1st condition assessed global, categorical imagery; the 2nd evaluated precise, metric imagery. We evaluated performance of the 2 groups in the 2 conditions and the impact of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, education). Results show that the right-lesioned patients presented difficulties in mental imagery, especially in the metric condition. Moreover, the data indicate a global impact of age and a milder effect of education on mental imagery abilities. Although sample sizes are sometimes small, preliminary normative data are given; already in the present form, they are usable and informative in assessing mental imagery, and more generally, spatial orientation, in a clinical practice. PMID:26391644

    2. Stretching health diplomacy beyond ‘Global’ problem solving: Bringing the regional normative dimension in

      PubMed Central

      Cooper, Andrew F; Farooq, Asif B

      2015-01-01

      The importance of the regional dimension of health diplomacy is only gaining slow and uneven recognition. This is in many ways surprising. As demonstrated in the work of Deacon on the ‘globalization of social policy’, global social policy has been animated and debated not only at the multilateral level but at the regional level as well. But at least in the diplomatic literature, the importance of this regional dynamic (with a focus on diverse sites and actors and the pursuit of democratic control) has been missed. The objective of this article is to explore whether health diplomacy is catching up to this larger debate re-shaping the conceptualization and practice of diplomacy more generally. In some ways, the results may be counter-productive in that this shift may encourage an increasingly fragmented process. Yet, it may also point to some breakthroughs, with diplomats, acting as ‘go to’ personnel on the front lines of operational activity, enabling actors to integrate with one another to produce effective governance. In doing so, the regional dimension is given greater recognition as a component of health diplomacy, albeit in an uneven and sometimes awkward manner. Whereas global diplomacy generally emphasizes problem solving, the regional dimension is animated by a normative orientation. PMID:26635500

    3. Critical neuroscience—or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

      PubMed Central

      Schleim, Stephan

      2014-01-01

      Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system. PMID:24904376

    4. Active knee range of motion assessment in elite track and field athletes: normative values

      PubMed Central

      Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Kakoura, Lena; Tsitas, Kostas; Christodoulou, Dimitris; Siozos, Alexandros; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

      2015-01-01

      Summary Background flexibility is an important physical characteristic in athletes in terms of performance and injury prevention. Active Range Of Motion (AROM) was assessed in elite Greek track and field athletes. Methods prospective cohort study was carried out. In the period 2000–2010, the AROM was measured bilaterally with the Active Knee Extension (AKE) test during an in-season period with a goniometer in 127 athletes. Results male runners and jumpers had a higher mean AROM than throwers, but this result was not statistically significant. Female jumpers had a higher mean AROM than both runners and throwers, but the difference was also not statistically significant. Conclusion in athletes, mean posterior thigh muscle flexibility is likely to be between 72.3° and 73.9°. Posterior thigh muscle flexibility is associated with performance, the higher the AROM, the better performance is achieved athletes have generally high AROM, and this may be a result of their increased muscle flexibility. The normative values of posterior thigh flexibility may assist in better monitoring rehabilitation of the posterior thigh muscle injuries and be useful in pre-season screening of athletes’ flexibility. PMID:26605196

    5. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

      PubMed Central

      Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

      2014-01-01

      Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants Undergraduates (N=136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods Using a randomized clinical trial design, participants were assigned to receive either PNF or an attention control task. In addition to self-report, this study used two computer-based risk tasks framed as “gambling opportunities” to assess cognitive and behavioral change at one week post intervention. Results After one week, participants receiving PNF showed a marked decrease in perception of other students’ gambling, and evinced lower risk-taking performance on two analog measures of gambling. Conclusions Changes in both self-reported perceived norms and analog gambling behavior suggest that a single, stand-alone PNF intervention may modify gambling among college students. Whether it can impact gambling outside of the lab remains untested. PMID:24295507

    6. A Normative Study of the Synovial Fluid Proteome from Healthy Porcine Knee Joints

      PubMed Central

      2015-01-01

      Synovial fluid in an articulating joint contains proteins derived from the blood plasma and proteins that are produced by cells within the joint tissues, such as synovium, cartilage, ligament, and meniscus. The proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid and the cellular origins of many synovial fluid components are not fully understood. Here, we present a normative proteomics study using porcine synovial fluid. Using our optimized method, we identified 267 proteins with high confidence in healthy synovial fluid. We also evaluated mRNA expression data from tissues that can contribute to the synovial fluid proteome, including synovium, cartilage, blood, and liver, to better estimate the relative contributions from these sources to specific synovial fluid components. We identified 113 proteins in healthy synovial fluid that appear to be primarily derived from plasma transudates, 37 proteins primarily derived from synovium, and 11 proteins primarily derived from cartilage. Finally, we compared the identified synovial fluid proteome to the proteome of human plasma, and we found that the two body fluids share many similarities, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. Knowing the synovial fluid proteome of a healthy joint will help to identify mechanisms that cause joint disease and pathways involved in disease progression. PMID:25160569

    7. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality

      PubMed Central

      Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

      2015-01-01

      Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment. PMID:26539500

    8. Remote vs. In-lab Computer-delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Interventions for College Student Drinking

      PubMed Central

      Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali V.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lazorwitz, Brenda; Gonzales, Rubi G.; Larimer, Mary E.

      2015-01-01

      Objective Computer-based interventions aimed at reducing college student drinking have shown positive effects. This paper compares differences in effects of computer-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions based on delivery modality (in-person vs. remotely) across six previously evaluated studies with similar content. Method Three studies included evaluations of a computer-based PNF intervention where baseline and intervention procedures took place inside a laboratory setting; three separate studies included evaluations of the same intervention where participants completed the procedures remotely over the web. Thus, we tested for differences in intervention efficacy by delivery modality. Outcomes included drinks per week, drinking-related consequences, and the putative intervention mechanism, perceived drinking norms. Results Evidence from hierarchical linear models indicated that computer-based interventions are less effective at reducing drinking and related consequences when delivered remotely than when delivered in-person. Conclusion The advantages of interventions delivered remotely are not without cost. Suggestions for why remote computer-based interventions may be less effective are discussed. PMID:25798730

    9. Clinical assessment of balance: normative data, and gender and age effects.

      PubMed

      Vereeck, Luc; Wuyts, Floris; Truijen, Steven; Van de Heyning, Paul

      2008-02-01

      The purpose of this study was to provide age specific normative data of clinical gait and balance tests and to determine to what extent gender contributes to differences in postural control. Standing balance and walking performance was tested in 318 asymptomatic adults. The logistic regression, using both 10- and 30-second time limits as a dichotomization point, revealed a significant age effect for standing on foam with eyes closed, tandem Romberg with eyes closed (TR-EC), and one leg stance (eyes open and closed). The actual effect of decline was different for each test. Both tandem gait and dynamic gait index showed a ceiling effect up to 60 years of age, with a rapid decline of performance for subjects in their seventies. Linear regression equations indicated that for both men and women, timed up and go test (TUG) times increased with age, but even older subjects should perform the TUG in 10 seconds or less. Women performed significantly poorer on the TUG and TR-EC (30-second time limit). PMID:18236239

    10. The BigCAT: A Normative and Comparative Investigation of the Communication Attitude of Nonstuttering and Stuttering Adults

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

      2011-01-01

      The purpose of this investigation was to provide normative and comparative data for the BigCAT, the adult form of the Communication Attitude Test, a sub-test of the Behavior Assessment Battery. The BigCAT, a 35-item self-report test of speech-associated attitude was administered to 96 adults who stutter (PWS) and 216 adults who do not (PWNS). The…

    11. Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project

      SciTech Connect

      Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

      1998-09-01

      As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

    12. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

      2014-01-01

      Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

    13. CISNET: Overview Documents

      Cancer.gov

      The Overview Documents provide a general description of the model profiles, and the standardized format allows information to be easily compared between models. More specific aspects of the model are provided in the detail documents.

    14. Web document engineering

      SciTech Connect

      White, B.

      1996-05-01

      This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

    15. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

      1990-01-01

      Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

    16. Intranet Document Management Systems.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

      1998-01-01

      Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

    17. JSC document index

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1988-01-01

      The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

    18. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

      2010-02-01

      Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

    19. Document Number Change Level

      E-print Network

      , 2002 SECURITY LEVEL: None SUPERSESSION DATA: CR-1357, 2 #12;Document Number CR-1357 Change Level 2Document Number CR-1357 Change Level 2 Security Level None Page Number TITLE: Luna® XPplus and Luna® XL/XLR and XL/XLR Premium Security Policies ABSTRACT: This document describes the security policies

    20. FLT Documentation Page

      Cancer.gov

      These documents include a full set of manufacturing and QC documents and an Investigator Drug Brochure, all of which have been accepted by the FDA as part of the NCI IND. The synthetic method implemented in these documents was reported in an abstract by Blocher, A.

    1. DCFBC Documentation Page

      Cancer.gov

      Component documents for an IND for N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-(18)F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine ([18F] DCFBC) Documents in this section include: [18F] DCFBC Production Documents in compressed Zip format. Individual files within the Zip file

    2. NaF Documentation

      Cancer.gov

      The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaF Word file Contact G. Craig Hill, Ph.D. for information. Email: hillgc@mail.nih.gov, Phone: 240-276-5913 Print

    3. Documenting Employee Conduct

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dalton, Jason

      2009-01-01

      One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

    4. Automated Management Of Documents

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Boy, Guy

      1995-01-01

      Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

    5. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fruchterman, James R.

      2007-01-01

      Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

    6. Starlink Document Styles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lawden, M. D.

      This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

    7. Document Flowdown Tool

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

      2010-12-31

      DFTool performs the following: ? A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. ? Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. ? Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. ? Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). ?more »Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. ? Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). ? Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level« less

    8. Waterpipe dependence in university students and effect of normative beliefs: a cross-sectional study

      PubMed Central

      Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

      2014-01-01

      Objectives The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence. Setting A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities. Participants Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria. Primary and secondary outcome measures sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated. Results Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); p<0.001) and ever smoking cigarettes (aOR=1.80(1.44 to 2.26); p<0.001); friends’ and societal influence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (?=?1.09(?1.79 to ?0.28); p<0.001), a behaviour that is considered more deleterious for health. Parents’ and friends’ disagreement with smoking had a protective effect on cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR<1; p<0.01), while thinking that idols and successful people smoke increased the risk of both cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR>1; p<0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, WP smoking and dependence are influenced by parents’ and friends’ opinions, and idols’ smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence. PMID:24531452

    9. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

      PubMed

      Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

      2015-03-01

      The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

    10. Pessimistic orientation in relation to telomere length in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Ikeda, Ai; Schwartz, Joel; Peters, Junenette L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Kubzansky, Laura D.

      2014-01-01

      Background Recent research suggests pessimistic orientation is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, this is the first study to look not only at effects of pessimistic orientation on average LTL at multiple time points, but also at effects on the rate of change in LTL over time. Methods Participants were older men from the VA Normative Aging Study (n=490). The Life Orientation Test (LOT) was used to measure optimistic and pessimistic orientations at study baseline, and relative LTL by telomere to single copy gene ratio (T:S ratio) was obtained repeatedly over the course of the study (1999-2008). A total of 1,010 observations were included in the analysis. Linear mixed effect models with a random subject intercept were used to estimate associations. Results Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter average LTL (percent difference by 1-SD increase in pessimistic orientation (95% CI): -3.08 (-5.62, -0.46)), and the finding was maintained after adjusting for the higher likelihood that healthier individuals return for follow-up visits (-3.44 (-5.95,-0.86)). However, pessimistic orientation scores were not associated with rate of change in LTL over time. No associations were found between overall optimism and optimistic orientation subscale scores and LTL. Conclusion Higher pessimistic orientation scores were associated with shorter LTL in older men. While there was no evidence that pessimistic orientation was associated with rate of change in LTL over time, higher levels of pessimistic orientation were associated with shorter LTL at baseline and this association persisted over time. PMID:24636503

    11. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

      PubMed

      Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

      2015-12-01

      Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26436456

    12. Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.

      PubMed

      Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

      2013-01-01

      Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth. PMID:23456584

    13. Grip Strength across the Life Course: Normative Data from Twelve British Studies

      PubMed Central

      Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Benzeval, Michaela; Deary, Ian J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Der, Geoff; Gale, Catharine R.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Tilling, Kate; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

      2014-01-01

      Introduction Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol. Methods We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing). Results Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males’ peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position. Conclusion This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty. PMID:25474696

    14. Normative data for ultrasound measurement of the calcaneus within different female ethnic groups.

      PubMed

      Hinkley, H J; Drysdale, I P; Walters, N J; Bird, D

      2004-09-01

      The purpose of this study was to generate normative broadband ultrasound attenuation data for UK resident Indian-Asian, African-Caribbean and Chinese women, aged 20-80 years, using the McCue Cubaclinical II device. Additionally, comparisons were made against available Caucasian data previously collected by the authors. Exclusions were: use of hormone replacement therapy, corticosteroids or thyroxine for more than 6 months; menopause before the age of 45 years; oophrectomy; lactation within the preceding year; rheumatoid arthritis or a previous osteoporotic fracture. 977 women were recruited from various community centres, from a local GP surgery and from university colleges in the London area. Broadband ultrasound attenuation and velocity of sound were determined for the left and right os calces. Repeat measures on each side after re-positioning, to allow for anatomical variation, were averaged. Significance was set at a minimum level of 0.05. There were significant differences in non-dominant and dominant measures in all ethnic groups except African-Caribbean. For comparison purposes the means of the non-dominant measurements were plotted against age using a polynomial model to give the best data fit. No significant difference was found between non-dominant broadband ultrasound attenuation measurements for either Asian or Chinese when compared with the Caucasian sample populations. A significant difference in broadband ultrasound attenuation was found between African-Caribbean and Caucasian, with African-Caribbean between 10% (age group 20-30 years) and 29% (age group 70-80 years) higher. There was no significant difference in body mass index between Caucasian and Chinese groups, but significant differences were found between Caucasian and Asian, and between Caucasian and African-Caribbean groups. PMID:15447959

    15. Love as a regulative ideal in surrogate decision making.

      PubMed

      Stonestreet, Erica Lucast

      2014-10-01

      This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two models is more appropriate for a given patient, and both approaches may seem inadequate for a surrogate who loves the patient. The proposed "best judgment" model effectively draws on the values incorporated in each of the traditional standards, but does so because these values are important to someone who loves a patient, since love responds to the patient as the specific person she is. PMID:25223412

    16. Towards a more open debate about values in decision-making on agricultural biotechnology.

      PubMed

      Devos, Yann; Sanvido, Olivier; Tait, Joyce; Raybould, Alan

      2014-12-01

      Regulatory decision-making over the use of products of new technology aims to be based on science-based risk assessment. In some jurisdictions, decision-making about the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants is blocked supposedly because of scientific uncertainty about risks to the environment. However, disagreement about the acceptability of risks is primarily a dispute over normative values, which is not resolvable through natural sciences. Natural sciences may improve the quality and relevance of the scientific information used to support environmental risk assessments and make scientific uncertainties explicit, but offer little to resolve differences about values. Decisions about cultivating GM plants will thus not necessarily be eased by performing more research to reduce scientific uncertainty in environmental risk assessments, but by clarifying the debate over values. We suggest several approaches to reveal values in decision-making: (1) clarifying policy objectives; (2) determining what constitutes environmental harm; (3) making explicit the factual and normative premises on which risk assessments are based; (4) better demarcating environmental risk assessment studies from ecological research; (5) weighing the potential for environmental benefits (i.e., opportunities) as well as the potential for environmental harms (i.e., risks); and (6) expanding participation in the risk governance of GM plants. Recognising and openly debating differences about values will not remove controversy about the cultivation of GM plants. However, by revealing what is truly in dispute, debates about values will clarify decision-making criteria. PMID:24030046

    17. Software for Better Documentation of Other Software

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pinedo, John

      2003-01-01

      The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

    18. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

      2013-07-01

      ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

    19. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-07-01

      ... documents are actually considered in agency determinations. (a) 40 CFR 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

    20. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy

      PubMed Central

      Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

      2012-01-01

      Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18–65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

    1. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

      SciTech Connect

      Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

      2011-09-01

      A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

    2. Documentation by Example

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brolund, Daniel

      Writing documentation can be fun and rewarding, but keeping up with an ever-changing system can take a toll on that joy. The documentation tends to get either expensive (duplication-intense), outdated or non-existing. This demonstration will present an open source tool that addresses these shortcomings by extending the BDD[1] approach to provide rich and human readable documents automatically from a JUnit[2] test suite. You’ll learn how to include snippets, run-time data and more in your documents, all this with minimal effort and intrusion. This approach is suitable both for APIs and GUIs, as will be shown.

    3. ANOPP programming and documentation standards document

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1976-01-01

      Standards defining the requirements for preparing software for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) were given. It is the intent of these standards to provide definition, design, coding, and documentation criteria for the achievement of a unity among ANOPP products. These standards apply to all of ANOPP's standard software system. The standards encompass philosophy as well as techniques and conventions.

    4. A normative value pilot study: Levels of uranium in urine samples from UK civilians

      SciTech Connect

      Jones, A.D. . E-mail: alan.jones@iom-world.org; Miller, B.G.; Walker, S.; Anderson, J.; Colvin, A.P.; Hutchison, P.A.; Soutar, C.A.

      2007-06-15

      A normative study of the levels of urinary uranium in the general UK population is needed for comparison with levels in UK military and ex-military personnel who served where munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used. As preparation, this pilot study trialled the process of collecting 24-h samples from adult male civilians, and compared the measurements from 24-h samples with those from spot samples taken over the subsequent 24 h. The purpose was to assess the relative utility of the two types of samples. Twenty-five convalescent hospital in-patients were recruited as participants. Uranium concentrations in the 24-h samples ranged from 1 to 10.6 ng l{sup -1}; in the spots, from not detectable to 38.1 ng l{sup -1}. Normalised to creatinine, concentrations in the 24 h samples ranged from approximately 100 to 800 ng mol{sup -1} creatinine; in the spot samples, from not detectable to approximately 4000 ng mol{sup -1} creatinine. The ranges appear similar to those reported for residents of the US. The distribution of spot sample results indicated that 95% of a participant's creatinine-adjusted concentrations from spot samples would be within the range 40-250% of his mean. Adjusting for creatinine almost entirely eliminated a slight indication of diurnal variation in urinary uranium concentration in spot samples. All the 24-h samples and 131 out of the 133 spot samples showed ratios of isotopes {sup 238}U to {sup 235}U consistent with natural uranium (i.e. neither enriched nor depleted). Slightly elevated ratios in two spot samples were not supported by other samples from the same participants, indicating that slightly elevated ratios may be recorded on very low concentration (<1 ng l{sup -1}) samples. In the main, quantification of this isotope ratio from spot samples was only slightly more variable than from 24-h samples. Complete 24-h urine samples gave better precision than spot samples in estimating uranium concentrations at these low levels, but presented more logistic difficulties in the collection of the samples. Clarification of the relative merits of alternative sampling strategies enables the design of a wider study to be optimised.

    5. Skill Standards and Certification Project. Final Document.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      North Lake Coll., Irving, TX.

      This document contains the report of a project conducted to make the concept of a world-class work force a reality. The project was intended to design a comprehensive strategy to link elements from the state's existing vocational-technical education, job training, adult education, tech prep, and apprenticeship programs with the components of SCANS…

    6. TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

      EPA Science Inventory

      In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

    7. Understanding inter-individual variability in purpose in life: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

      2015-01-01

      Research has demonstrated the importance of having a purpose in older adulthood; however, little is known about whether and how individuals vary on sense of purpose over time. The current study examined patterns of mean- and individual-level change in purpose among men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (n = 587; Mage = 74 years) across a three-year span. Findings demonstrate that while little mean-level change was present, there was inter-individual variability in change. Further research is needed to understand why these changes occur, as age, health status, and personality failed to predict individual fluctuations in purpose. PMID:26146887

    8. Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection

      PubMed Central

      Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

      2013-01-01

      Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count of shared words showed (P<.001). Within both datasets, responses contained substantial relevant content, with more words in common with responses to the same clip than to other clips (P<.001). There was evidence that responses from female and older crowdsourced participants had more shared words (P=.004 and .01 respectively), whereas younger participants had higher numbers of shared words in the lab-sourced population (P=.01). Conclusions Crowdsourcing is an effective approach to quickly and economically collect a large reliable dataset of normative natural language responses. PMID:23689038

    9. Picturing space for lesbian nonsexualities: rethinking sex-normative commitments through The Kids Are All Right (2010).

      PubMed

      Gupta, Kristina

      2013-01-01

      This article examines representations of lesbian nonsexuality in the film The Kids Are All Right and in responses to the film by feminist and queer scholars. In some moments, the film offers a limited endorsement of lesbian nonsexuality, placing pressure on the category lesbian to include nonsexuality and asexuality. However, in their responses to the film, many feminist and queer scholars rejected nonsexuality as an aspect of lesbian experience, placing pressure on the category lesbian to exclude nonsexual and asexual women. Asexual activism challenges scholars to question their sex-normative commitments and to keep the category lesbian open and flexible. PMID:23316844

    10. Making Meaningful: Intention in Children's Art Making

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Malin, Heather

      2013-01-01

      Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice…

    11. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

      PubMed Central

      Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

      2014-01-01

      In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

    12. Document Number Change Level

      E-print Network

      , 2000 CHANGE LEVEL: 12 CHANGE DATE: October 1, 2001 SECURITY LEVEL: None SUPERSESSION DATA: CR-0540, 11Document Number CR-0540 Change Level 12 Security Level None Page Number Page 1 of 19 TITLE: Luna® XPplus Security Policies ABSTRACT: This document describes the security policies implemented by the Luna

    13. IDC System Specification Document.

      SciTech Connect

      Clifford, David J.

      2014-12-01

      This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

    14. MSEIP Documentation Supplement.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mitchell, James E.

      The Midwestern States Educational Information Project's "MSEIP Documentation Supplement" is a companion publication to "MSEIP Documentation of Project Development and General System Design; Revised, June 1969." (LI 003275). The supplement starts with an overview of the MSEIP Data Control System which explains many of the techniques used in the…

    15. Document Design: Part 1.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Andrews, Deborah C., Ed.; Dyrud, Marilyn, Ed.

      1996-01-01

      Presents four articles that provide suggestions for teaching document design: (1) "Teaching the Rhetoric of Document Design" (Michael J. Hassett); (2) "Teaching by Example: Suggestions for Assignment Design" (Marilyn A. Dyrud); (3) "Teaching the Page as a Visual Unit" (Bill Hart-Davidson); and (4) "Designing a Home Page for the Web" (Lynette…

    16. Tobacco document research reporting

      PubMed Central

      Carter, S

      2005-01-01

      Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

    17. Documentation: No Substitute for Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Strickland, John

      2005-01-01

      SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

    18. 26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

    19. 26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

    20. 27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-04-01

      ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

    1. 27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

    2. What men want: the role of reflective opposite-sex normative preferences in alcohol use among college women.

      PubMed

      Labrie, Joseph W; Cail, Jessica; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Neighbors, Clayton

      2009-03-01

      Misperceptions of peer drinking norms have been found to be strongly associated with individual drinking behavior, especially for proximal reference groups such as same-sex friends. Less studied are the effects of perceived preferences from the opposite sex on alcohol use; that is, the behaviors an individual believes the opposite sex prefers from them. Research suggests that these perceived "reflective" normative preferences may be particularly salient among college women, who may drink in pursuit of intimate relationships and positive attention from male peers. Heterosexual undergraduate students from two universities participated in this project. Females answered questions regarding the amount of alcohol they believe a typical male would like his female friends, dates, or romantic partners to drink. Males answered the same questions, stating their actual preferences. Results showed that females overestimate the amount of alcohol males want their female friends, dating partners, and sexual partners to drink, and that this misperception was associated with their drinking behavior, even after controlling for perceived same-sex norms. These results suggest that reflective normative feedback may offer a powerful new tool for female-targeted interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290701

    3. Normative static grip strength of population of Turkey, effects of various factors and a comparison with international norms.

      PubMed

      Ek?io?lu, Mahmut

      2016-01-01

      Normative data are of importance in ergonomics and clinical settings. Applying normative data internationally is questionable. To this end, this study aimed to establish gender- and age-specific reference values for static (isometric) hand grip strength of normal population of Turkey with special regard to occupational demand, and compare them with the international norms. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of gender, age-group, weight-group, job-group, hand and several anthropometric variables on static grip strength. A sample of 211 (128 male and 83 female) volunteers aged between 18 and 69 with various occupations participated in the study. Grip strength data were collected using a Jamar dynamometer with standard testing position, protocol and instructions. The mean and std deviation of maximum voluntary static grip strength values (in N) for dominant and non-dominant hands respectively were 455.2 ± 73.6 and 441.5 ± 72.6 for males, and 258 ± 46.1 and 246.2 ± 49.1 for females. The mean female strength was about 57% of the mean male strength value for both dominant and non-dominant hands. There was a curvilinear relationship of grip strength to age, significant differences between genders, hands, and some age-groups, and a correlation to height, body-mass, BMI and hand dimensions depending on the gender. The comparisons with the norms of other world populations indicate that there are cross-national grip strength variations among some nations but not all. PMID:26360189

    4. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

      PubMed

      Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

      2015-02-01

      Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. PMID:25366676

    5. Normative Performance on the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) in a Multi-Ethnic Bilingual Cohort: A Project FRONTIER Study

      PubMed Central

      Menon, Chloe; Westervelt, Holly James; Jahn, Danielle R.; Dressel, Jeffrey A.; O’Bryant, Sid E.

      2013-01-01

      The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) is a commonly used measure of olfactory functioning in elderly populations. Few studies have provided normative data for this measure, and minimal data are available regarding the impact of sociodemographic factors on test scores. This study presents normative data for the BSIT in a sample of English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites. A Rasch analysis was also conducted to identify the items that best discriminated between varying levels of olfactory functioning, as measured by the BSIT. The total sample included 302 older adults seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that BSIT scores require adjustment by age and gender, but years of education, ethnicity, and language did not significantly influence BSIT performance. Four items best discriminated between varying levels of smell identification, accounting for 59.44% of total information provided by the measure. However, items did not represent a continuum of difficulty on the BSIT. The results of this study indicate that the BSIT appears to be well-suited for assessing odor identification deficits in older adults of diverse backgrounds, but that fine-tuning of this instrument may be recommended in light of its items’ difficulty and discrimination parameters. Clinical and empirical implications are discussed. PMID:23634698

    6. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC. (1983 EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

      EPA Science Inventory

      This document summarizes current scientific information regarding the effects of inorganic arsenic on man and the environment. The observed effects, as presented herein, constitute the health basis from which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will make determinations regar...

    7. 7 CFR 4280.111 - Application and documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ...simplified application process, as described in...simplified application process. Applications and documentation...simplified application process must provide the required...make energy efficiency improvements. The response to...Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP) for...

    8. 7 CFR 4280.111 - Application and documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ...simplified application process, as described in...simplified application process. Applications and documentation...simplified application process must provide the required...make energy efficiency improvements. The response to...Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP) for...

    9. 22 CFR 42.63 - Application forms and other documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-04-01

      ...VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.63 Application... Every alien applying for an immigrant visa must make application on...

    10. A normative price for a manufactured product: The SAMICS methodology. Volume 1: Executive summary

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chamberlain, R. G.

      1979-01-01

      A summary for the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards report contains a discussion of capabilities and limitations, a non-technical overview of the methodology, and a description of the input data which must be collected. It also describes the activities that were and are being taken to ensure validity of the results and contains an up-to-date bibliography of related documents.

    11. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

      DOEpatents

      Sanfilippo, Antonio (Richland, WA); Calapristi, Augustin J. (West Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L. (Richland, WA); Hetzler, Elizabeth G. (Kennewick, WA); Turner, Alan E. (Kennewick, WA)

      2009-12-22

      Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

    12. Styles of Documentation in German Early Childhood Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Knauf, Helen

      2015-01-01

      The pedagogical documentation of educational processes in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centres is an important concern of early childhood education. Its purpose is to make learning visible and to stimulate discussion between educators and parents. In the academic discourse, however, pedagogical documentation is subject to differing…

    13. Tourism: Manufacturing the Exotic. IWGIA Document No. 61.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rossel, Pierre, Ed.

      The objective of this document is to outline the relationship between tourism and cultural minorities. It aims to understand the nature of the relationship, to point out its most serious and harmful effects and to make known some of the survival strategies that cultural minorities employ. The document calls tourism "the greatest economic and…

    14. Normative Feedback for Parents of College Students: Piloting a Parent Based Intervention to Correct Misperceptions of Students’ Alcohol Use and Other Parents’ Approval of Drinking

      PubMed Central

      LaBrie, Joseph W.; Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.

      2013-01-01

      Objective Multi-component parent-based interventions (PBIs) provide a promising avenue for targeting alcohol use and related consequences in college students. Parents of college-aged children can have a significant influence on their children’s alcohol use decisions. However, parents tend to underestimate their own child’s alcohol use and overestimate other similar parents’ approval of student drinking. These misperceptions could have important implications for parents’ own attitudes and alcohol-related communication with their student. Targeting these misperceptions through normative feedback could help promote greater and more in-depth alcohol-related communication. The present study examines the potential efficacy of web-based alcohol-related normative feedback for parents of college students. Method A sample of 144 parents of college students received web-based normative feedback about students’ alcohol use and approval, as well as other same-college parents’ alcohol approval. Parents completed measures of perceived student alcohol use, student alcohol approval, other-parent alcohol approval, and intentions to discuss alcohol use both pre- and post-normative feedback. Results Post-feedback, parents reported stronger intentions to talk to their student about alcohol, were less confident in their knowledge of their students’ alcohol use, and believed that their student drank in greater quantity and more frequently than pre-feedback. Parents also perceived other parents to be less approving of alcohol use after viewing normative feedback. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary support for the use of web-based normative feedback for parents of college students. Given these promising results, further research developing and testing this approach merits attention. PMID:24099892

    15. Supporting Medical Decision Making with Argumentation Tools

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lu, Jingyan; Lajoie, Susanne P.

      2008-01-01

      This study investigated the collaborative decision-making and communicative discourse of groups of learners engaged in a simulated medical emergency in two conditions. In one condition subgroups used a traditional whiteboard (TW group) to document medical arguments on how to solve a medical emergency. In the other condition subgroups used…

    16. Making Connections: Intentional Teaching for Integrative Learning

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Higgs, Bettie, Ed.; Kilcommins, Shane, Ed.; Ryan, Tony, Ed.

      2010-01-01

      In this volume the authors document examples of programmes/courses/activities that are designed intentionally to build students' capacity to be integrative thinkers and learners. In doing so they try to analyse and name the learning that is taking place, and so make it visible to the reader. The work is intended as a resource for all those…

    17. Ethical Decision Making: Developmental Theory and Practice.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Panzl, Barbara; McMahon, Timothy

      This document is a compilation of materials from a presentation on ethical decision making. These components are included: (1) four sample moral dilemmas; (2) graphs of Kohlberg's six stages of moral growth; (3) graphs of Gilligan's Theory of Moral Judgments; (4) graphs of Kitchner's Theory of Ethical Principles; (5) a discussion of the four…

    18. Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lusby, Linda A.

      This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

    19. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

      SciTech Connect

      Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

      2004-03-18

      This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

    20. Transportation System Requirements Document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1993-09-01

      This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

    1. Controlled Document Tracking Software

      SciTech Connect

      Haas, Roswitha T.

      1992-08-24

      MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

    2. Simulation Detection in Handwritten Documents by Forensic Document Examiners.

      PubMed

      Kam, Moshe; Abichandani, Pramod; Hewett, Tom

      2015-07-01

      This study documents the results of a controlled experiment designed to quantify the abilities of forensic document examiners (FDEs) and laypersons to detect simulations in handwritten documents. Nineteen professional FDEs and 26 laypersons (typical of a jury pool) were asked to inspect test packages that contained six (6) known handwritten documents written by the same person and two (2) questioned handwritten documents. Each questioned document was either written by the person who wrote the known documents, or written by a different person who tried to simulate the writing of the person who wrote the known document. The error rates of the FDEs were smaller than those of the laypersons when detecting simulations in the questioned documents. Among other findings, the FDEs never labeled a questioned document that was written by the same person who wrote the known documents as "simulation." There was a significant statistical difference between the responses of the FDEs and layperson for documents without simulations. PMID:26190151

    3. CISNET: Standardized Model Documents

      Cancer.gov

      Modeling is a complex endeavor, and often it is very difficult to reconcile results from different models. To aid in this process of model description and comparison, CISNET has developed and implemented standardized model documentation. Model profiles are standardized descriptions that facilitate the comparison of models and their results. Users can read documentation about a single model or read side-by-side descriptions that contrast how models address different components of the process.

    4. Critical Issues in an Electronic Documentation System

      PubMed Central

      Weir, Charlene R.; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

      2007-01-01

      The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system. PMID:18693944

    5. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hourcle, Joseph

      2014-06-01

      Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

    6. iDocument: How Smartphones and Tablets Are Changing Documentation in Preschool and Primary Classrooms

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Parnell, Will; Bartlett, Jackie

      2012-01-01

      With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make

    7. Document Concurrence System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

      2003-01-01

      The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list had concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

    8. Document Concurrence System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

      2003-01-01

      The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

    9. Document Concurrence System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

      2004-01-01

      The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

    10. Occupational Determinants of Cumulative Lead Exposure: Analysis of Bone Lead Among Men in the VA Normative Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Ji, John S.; Schwartz, Joel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

      2014-01-01

      Objectives To examine the relation between occupation and cumulative lead exposure—assessed by measuring bone lead—in a community-dwelling population Method We measured bone lead concentration with K-shell X-Ray Fluorescence in 1,320 men in the Normative Aging Study. We categorized job titles into 14 broad US Census Bureau categories. We used ordinary least squares regression to estimate bone lead by job categories adjusted for other predictors. Results Service Workers, Construction and Extractive Craft Workers, and Installation, Maintenance and Repair Craft Workers had the highest bone lead concentrations. Including occupations significantly improved the overall model (p<0.001) and reduced by ?15% to ?81% the association between bone lead and education categories. Conclusion Occupation significantly predicts cumulative lead exposure in a community-dwelling population, and accounts for a large proportion of the association between education and bone lead. PMID:24709766

    11. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

      SciTech Connect

      Criddle, J.D. Jr.

      1994-09-01

      This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

    12. Experimental Tests of Normative Group Influence and Representation Effects in Computer-Mediated Communication: When Interacting Via Computers Differs from Interacting With Computers.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lee, Eun-Ju; Nass, Clifford

      2002-01-01

      Presents two experiments to address the questions of if and how normative social influence operates in anonymous computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction. Finds that the perception of interaction partner (human vs. computer) moderated the group conformity effect such that the undergraduate student subjects expressed greater…

    13. Are Academics in Kazakhstan Capable of Self-Regulation? A Study of Faculty's Normative Structure in the Midst of Higher Education Decentralization Reforms

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.; Caboni, Timothy C.

      2012-01-01

      This paper investigates the state and structure of professional norms in the context of undergraduate teaching in a university in Kazakhstan. The purpose is to understand the belief system held by academics with regards to their professional duties in the context of teaching. Evidence of such normative structure would suggest that the Kazakhstani…

    14. An Analysis of Bullying among Students within Schools: Estimating the Effects of Individual Normative Beliefs, Self-Esteem, and School Climate

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gendron, Brian P.; Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.

      2011-01-01

      The current study examined the relations among self-esteem, approving normative beliefs about bullying, school climate, and bullying perpetration using a large, longitudinal sample of children from elementary, middle, and high school. Self-report surveys were collected at two points in time over the course of 1 year from 7,299 ethnically diverse…

    15. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

      2009-01-01

      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

    16. "i h8 u": The Influence of Normative Beliefs and Hostile Response Selection in Predicting Adolescents' Mobile Phone Aggression--A Pilot Study

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Nicol, Annemarie; Fleming, Michele J.

      2010-01-01

      Mobile phone aggression (MPA) is a relatively new phenomenon. Using newly developed measures, a pilot study was conducted with 348 adolescents ages 13-17 years to determine the incidence of MPA and victimization in this group of adolescents and to test a proposed model in which hostile response selection mediated the relationship between normative

    17. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

      2006-01-01

      The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

    18. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

      2011-01-01

      The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

    19. Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

      1993-01-01

      Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

    20. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

      PubMed

      Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

      2016-02-01

      Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

    1. A novel task assessing intention and emotion attribution: Italian standardization and normative data of the Story-based Empathy Task.

      PubMed

      Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Realmuto, Sabrina; Lettieri, Giada; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F

      2015-10-01

      Theory of Mind (ToM), the process by which an individual imputes mental states to himself and others, is presently considered as a multidimensional cognitive domain, with two main facets (i.e., cognitive and affective ToM) accounting, respectively, for the ability to understand others' intention (intention attribution-IA) and emotions (emotion attribution-EA). Despite the large amount of literature investigating the behavioural and neural bases of mentalizing abilities in neurological conditions, there is still a lack of validated neuropsychological tools specifically designed to assess such skills. Here, we report the normative data of the Story-Based Empathy Task (SET), a non-verbal test developed for the assessment of intention and emotion attribution in the neurodegenerative conditions characterized by the impairment of social-emotional abilities. It is an easy-to-administer task including 18 stimuli, sub-grouped into two experimental conditions assessing, respectively, the ability to infer others' intentions (SET-IA) and emotions (SET-EA), compared to a control condition of causal inference (SET-CI). Normative data were collected in 136 Italian subjects pooled across subgroups homogenous for age (range 20-79 years), sex, and education (at least 5 years). The results show a detrimental effect of age and a beneficial effect of education on both the global score and each subscale, for which we provide correction grids. This new task could be a useful tool to investigate both affective and cognitive aspects of ToM in the course of disorders of socio-emotional behaviour, such as the fronto-temporal dementia spectrum. PMID:26072203

    2. The Influence of Social Adjustment on Normative and Risky Health Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Spina Bifida

      PubMed Central

      Murray, Caitlin B.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Devine, Katie A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Klages, Kimberly; Potthoff, Lauren M.

      2015-01-01

      Objective To understand the rates of normative and risky health behaviors and the influence of prior and current social adjustment on health risk behaviors in emerging adults with spina bifida (SB). Method These data are part of a larger longitudinal study of youth with SB; at ages 18–19, 50 emerging adults with SB and 60 typically developing (TD) youth participated. Social adjustment was measured at ages 12/13, 14/15, 16/17, and 18/19. Substance use and sexual activity were self-reported by emerging adults. Results The SB group reported similar frequencies (i.e., number of days in the previous month) of cigarette and marijuana use. Fewer individuals with SB reported initiation of both alcohol use (i.e., ever used) and sexual activity (i.e., ever had sex) compared to TD peers. The SB group also reported less frequent alcohol use and fewer sexual partners. Better social adjustment during early adolescence (ages 12/13) predicted more frequent alcohol use and a greater number of sexual partners for all youth. Social adjustment also mediated the effect of group status on health risk behaviors. Conclusions Emerging adults with SB lag behind TD peers in terms of normative initiation of alcohol use and sexual activity. However, this population participates in some risky health behaviors at similar rates compared to their TD peers (e.g., smoking). Youths’ health risk behaviors may be influenced by their level of social adjustment. A challenge for future interventions for this population will be finding methods of improving social functioning without increasing the rate of health risk behavior. PMID:24490647

    3. Swarm Intelligence in Text Document Clustering

      SciTech Connect

      Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

      2008-01-01

      Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior. The research field that attempts to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices inspired by the collective behavior of social insect colonies is called Swarm Intelligence. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the swarm algorithms are usually flexible, robust, decentralized and self-organized. These characters make the swarm algorithms suitable for solving complex problems, such as document collection clustering. The major challenge of today's information society is being overwhelmed with information on any topic they are searching for. Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in helping users to effectively navigate, summarize, and organize the overwhelmed information. In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. These clustering algorithms use stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks, fish schools and ant food forage.

    4. Hazard baseline documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1994-08-01

      This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

    5. Computer integrated documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Boy, Guy

      1991-01-01

      The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

    6. SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleine, H.

      1994-01-01

      Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

    7. Luminescence Imaging Document Analyzer

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Varshneya, D.; Jeffers, L. A.

      1986-12-01

      A system has been developed to investigate documents that are suspected of having been altered, forged, or erased. The system is based on the fact that each ink and paper has characteristic luminescence properties. Lasers are used to excite luminescence from the document, and the luminescence, along with its spectral distribution, is detected by a set of scanning mirrors that efficiently couple the light to a wavelength selector (monochromator) and photodiodes. Compared to previous systems, this system offers major improvements in sensitivity, versatility, and convenience of operation. These refine-ments are achieved by exploiting the capabilities of the lasers and of digital data processing/acquisition.

    8. Related environmental documents

      SciTech Connect

      1995-10-01

      This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

    9. Customer Communication Document

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2009-01-01

      This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

    10. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

      2012-08-01

      In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

    11. Aging and decision making 

      E-print Network

      Miller, Sophie

      2010-06-30

      The study sought to clarify the effects of aging in regard to decision making abilities. Decision making is dependent upon the Frontal Cortex structures; the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. These structures are thought...

    12. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

      PubMed Central

      Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

      2013-01-01

      We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

    13. What Makes the Fizz?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Shimkanin, John

      1995-01-01

      Presents an activity to answer the question, "What makes soda pop fizz?". Lists necessary materials and describes the procedure for making soda pop. Discusses the fermentation process and how it occurs. (NB)

    14. Software design and documentation language

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleine, H.

      1980-01-01

      Language supports design and documentation of complex software. Included are: design and documentation language for expressing design concepts; processor that produces intelligble documentation based on design specifications; and methodology for using language and processor to create well-structured top-down programs and documentation. Processor is written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5 programming language for use on UNIVAC, IBM, and CDC machines.

    15. Paynes Prairie Requesting Documents

      E-print Network

      Sin, Peter

      Highlights Paynes Prairie Reminders Requesting Documents Attendance Weekday Activities Birthdays, Manners, and Grammar TheELIWeekly Paynes Prairie Gainesville's Nature Theme Park This Saturday, we will be going to Paynes Prairie. Paynes Prairie is a 21,000 acre preserve about 15 minutes south

    16. USGS Documents 2015 Drought

      USGS Multimedia Gallery

      A hydrologic technician from the USGS Idaho Water Science Center measures streamflow in Fall Creek near Anderson Ranch Dam in southwestern Idaho. The USGS is collecting data at hundreds of sites on rivers and streams in six western states to document the 2015 drought. USGS scientists will analy...

    17. ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document

      E-print Network

      ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document JANUARY 2006 Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term #12;Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long term #12;OUR ENERGY CHALLENGE ­ SECURING CLEAN, AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR THE LONG TERM ii Why is the government

    18. CAPITAL ASSET DOCUMENT TRAINING

      E-print Network

      KUALI CAPITAL ASSET MANAGEMENT DOCUMENT TRAINING Business and Financial Services, Property Management Presented by: Rachel Drenth #12;Sign On to the Training Site · CSU CAP (Campus Administration://padroni.is.colostate.edu:7778/portal/page/portal/CAPQA (THEN CHOOSE QUAL 2) · Non-production Applications: Training Kuali

    19. Using Primary Source Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mintz, Steven

      2003-01-01

      Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

    20. STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      EPA Science Inventory

      EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance...

    1. I: Making Art

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

      2014-01-01

      Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

    2. Making Pages That Move.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gepner, Ivan

      2001-01-01

      Explains the mechanism of producing dynamic computer pages which is based on three technologies: (1) the document object model; (2) cascading stylesheets; and (3) javascript. Discusses the applications of these techniques in genetics and developmental biology. (YDS)

    3. Technical approach document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1989-12-01

      The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

    4. The HL7 Clinical Document Architecture.

      PubMed

      Dolin, R H; Alschuler, L; Beebe, C; Biron, P V; Boyer, S L; Essin, D; Kimber, E; Lincoln, T; Mattison, J E

      2001-01-01

      Many people know of Health Level 7 (HL7) as an organization that creates health care messaging standards. Health Level 7 is also developing standards for the representation of clinical documents (such as discharge summaries and progress notes). These document standards make up the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). The HL7 CDA Framework, release 1.0, became an ANSI-approved HL7 standard in November 2000. This article presents the approach and objectives of the CDA, along with a technical overview of the standard. The CDA is a document markup standard that specifies the structure and semantics of clinical documents. A CDA document is a defined and complete information object that can include text, images, sounds, and other multimedia content. The document can be sent inside an HL7 message and can exist independently, outside a transferring message. The first release of the standard has attempted to fill an important gap by addressing common and largely narrative clinical notes. It deliberately leaves out certain advanced and complex semantics, both to foster broad implementation and to give time for these complex semantics to be fleshed out within HL7. Being a part of the emerging HL7 version 3 family of standards, the CDA derives its semantic content from the shared HL7 Reference Information Model and is implemented in Extensible Markup Language. The HL7 mission is to develop standards that enable semantic interoperability across all platforms. The HL7 version 3 family of standards, including the CDA, are moving us closer to the realization of this vision. PMID:11687563

    5. Understanding Clinician Information Demands and Synthesis of Clinical Documents in Electronic Health Record Systems

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Farri, Oladimeji Feyisetan

      2012-01-01

      Large quantities of redundant clinical data are usually transferred from one clinical document to another, making the review of such documents cognitively burdensome and potentially error-prone. Inadequate designs of electronic health record (EHR) clinical document user interfaces probably contribute to the difficulties clinicians experience while…

    6. The Influence of the Purpose of a Business Document on Its Syntax and Rhetorical Schemes.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Myers, Marshall

      1999-01-01

      Investigates how the purpose of three types of business and technical documents (instructions, annual reports, and sales promotional letters) affects the syntactical and rhetorical choices authors make in writing these documents. Outlines partial syntactical and rhetorical "fingerprints" of these documents to offer students norms they can go by in…

    7. Art Makes Sense: Making Sense through Art

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Billington, Lisa; Pavone, Mindy

      2010-01-01

      The news is sometimes frightening, but reacting to a disaster in a positive way empowers students to make a difference. On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake occurred in Haiti. An estimated three million people were affected and an estimated 230,000 people died. In response to this tragic event, the author's eighth-grade class viewed and…

    8. Hospice Decision Making: Diagnosis Makes a Difference

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Waldrop, Deborah P.; Meeker, Mary Ann

      2012-01-01

      Purpose: This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. Methods: This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36…

    9. 75 FR 17052 - Issuance of Electronic Documents and Related Recordkeeping Requirements

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2010-04-05

      ... the elimination of paper documents. BIS is making these changes to reduce mailing costs and to free up... issues both electronically in SNAP-R and on paper (74 FR 63685, December 4, 2009). The last day of the... documents. BIS is also making certain changes to the EAR recordkeeping requirements in connection with...

    10. Verbal fluency in elderly bilingual speakers: normative data and preliminary application to Alzheimer's disease.

      PubMed

      de Picciotto, J; Friedland, D

      2001-01-01

      This study investigated verbal fluency abilities in 30 healthy elderly English-Afrikaans bilingual speakers, and 6 bilingual subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Three 1-min semantic verbal fluency tasks (animals) were obtained in the bilingual mode, Afrikaans and English. Results were analysed in terms of total correct, and semantic clusters. There was no significant difference between monolingual and bilingual performance. Some healthy bilingual subjects used code switching as a strategy but with no direct increase in the number of exemplars generated, and there was no relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores. In comparison, subjects with Alzheimer's disease did not make use of code switching strategies, and there was some relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores. PMID:11316941

    11. Content Documents Management

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

      2011-01-01

      The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

    12. Stand-Alone Personalized Normative Feedback for College Student Drinkers: A Meta-Analytic Review, 2004 to 2014

      PubMed Central

      Dotson, Keri B.

      2015-01-01

      Background Norms clarification has been identified as an effective component of college student drinking interventions, prompting research on norms clarification as a single-component intervention known as Personalized Normative Feedback (PNF). Previous reviews have examined PNF in combination with other components but not as a stand-alone intervention. Objectives To investigate the degree to which computer-delivered stand-alone personalized normative feedback interventions reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms among college students and to compare gender-neutral and gender-specific PNF. Data Sources Electronic databases were searched systematically through November 2014. Reference lists were reviewed manually and forward and backward searches were conducted. Selection Criteria Outcome studies that compared computer-delivered, stand-alone PNF intervention with an assessment only, attention-matched, or active treatment control and reported alcohol use and harms among college students. Methods Between-group effect sizes were calculated as the standardized mean difference in change scores between treatment and control groups divided by pooled standard deviation. Within-group effect sizes were calculated as the raw mean difference between baseline and follow-up divided by pooled within-groups standard deviation. Results Eight studies (13 interventions) with a total of 2,050 participants were included. Compared to control participants, students who received gender-neutral (dbetween = 0.291, 95% CI [0.159, 0.423]) and gender-specific PNF (dbetween = 0.284, 95% CI [0.117, 0.451]) reported greater reductions in drinking from baseline to follow-up. Students who received gender-neutral PNF reported 3.027 (95% CI [2.171, 3.882]) fewer drinks per week at first follow-up and gender-specific PNF reported 3.089 (95% CI [0.992, 5.186]) fewer drinks. Intervention effects were small for harms (dbetween = 0.157, 95% CI [0.037, 0.278]). Conclusions Computer-delivered PNF is an effective stand-alone approach for reducing college student drinking and has a small impact on alcohol-related harms. Effects are small but clinically relevant when considered from a public health perspective. Additional research is needed to examine computer-delivered, stand-alone PNF as a population-level prevention program. PMID:26447792

    13. Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bittleston, Richard

      1995-01-01

      Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

    14. Robust binarization of degraded document images using heuristics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Parker, Jon; Frieder, Ophir; Frieder, Gideon

      2013-12-01

      Historically significant documents are often discovered with defects that make them difficult to read and analyze. This fact is particularly troublesome if the defects prevent software from performing an automated analysis. Image enhancement methods are used to remove or minimize document defects, improve software performance, and generally make images more legible. We describe an automated, image enhancement method that is input page independent and requires no training data. The approach applies to color or greyscale images with hand written script, typewritten text, images, and mixtures thereof. We evaluated the image enhancement method against the test images provided by the 2011 Document Image Binarization Contest (DIBCO). Our method outperforms all 2011 DIBCO entrants in terms of average F1 measure - doing so with a significantly lower variance than top contest entrants. The capability of the proposed method is also illustrated using select images from a collection of historic documents stored at Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial in Israel.

    15. "Why not have fun?": peers make sense of an inclusive high school program.

      PubMed

      Naraian, Srikala

      2010-02-01

      Including students with significant disabilities at the high school level has been a subject of increasing research in recent years. This study explores the experiences of a high school student with significant disabilities, Michael, through the narratives of his peers. Participant observation in the building indicated that Michael remained on the periphery of mainstream school experiences as his peers worked with an institutional narrative that was predicated on normative expectations of all students. Using data from interviews, the article investigates how Michael's peers made sense of the process of inclusion that was implemented within this building. It documents the practical constructions of students as they used various elements of the normative discourse within the building to fashion their own interpretations of significant disability. These candid student commentaries retained a persistent focus on the extent to which Michael's program addressed (or failed to address) his fun-loving disposition while remaining critical of the rationale behind the practices it supported. As the data showed, peers' notions of fun for Michael were deeply intertwined with the opportunities for participation made available to him and the critical necessity for social interaction with his peers. PMID:20503814

    16. The Effects of Perceived Normative Pressure and Observability of Behavior on Intention to Perform Sun Protection and Nutrition Behaviors on Behalf of Young Children among Parents

      PubMed Central

      Lewis, Nehama

      2012-01-01

      This paper describes research on two normative concepts thought to impact health behaviors: injunctive and descriptive norms. The study tests whether the extent to which the same health behavior is enacted in an observable or non-observable setting will lead to variation in normative influence on parent intention. In on-line experiments conducted in winter 2009, 467 participants were randomized to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior was described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of descriptive norms on intention. For nutrition behaviors, observability primed the influence of injunctive norms on intention. Across both conditions, observability of the behavioral scenario increased the strength of the association between norms and intention. PMID:24610959

    17. Social interaction in a local physical setting : towards social integration in city making

      E-print Network

      Kim, Jinai

      1983-01-01

      A concept of community has greatly influenced the planning ideas of residential areas. Yet, often it has brought a normative view, regarding a local area as some kind of entity. This normative view is intensified by the ...

    18. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

      EIA Publications

      2014-01-01

      Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

    19. An examination of college student activities and attentiveness during a web-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention.

      PubMed

      Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

      2015-03-01

      Both heavy drinking and related risky sexual behavior among college students are common and are often associated with a number of negative consequences. A previously reported randomized controlled trial showed that a brief personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention reduced the alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior of heavy drinking, sexually active college students (Lewis et al., 2014). For the present study, we examined what activities students were engaged in when viewing the feedback, as well as who they were with and where they were when receiving the intervention. Furthermore, we conducted supplemental analyses with perceived attentiveness as a hypothesized predictor of change using the same sample (N = 480). Findings indicated that most students were engaged in activities when viewing the feedback and that most students viewed the feedback alone and at home. Furthermore, results revealed PNF to be most effective in reducing drinks per week among participants who reported greater attention. Clinical implications and suggestions for additional research examining how attentiveness can be increased during Web-based interventions are discussed. PMID:25134036

    20. The Multiple Features Target Cancellation (MFTC): an attentional visual conjunction search test. Normative values for the Italian population.

      PubMed

      Marra, C; Gainotti, G; Scaricamazza, E; Piccininni, C; Ferraccioli, M; Quaranta, D

      2013-02-01

      Several studies, showing that attention disorders during encoding reduce later memory performance, have stressed the critical role of attention for the formation of durable memory traces. Accordingly, some studies suggest that attentive disturbances, together with declarative memory defects, can constitute the earliest cognitive disorders in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the analysis of these disorders can contribute to identify different forms of dementia and to detect demented patients characterized by a faster cognitive decline. In this study, we report the normative data (gathered in a large Italian population) of a short test that assess the ability to detect stimuli characterized by a conjunction of features: the 'Multiple Features Targets Cancellation' task (MFTC). Our sample of 465 subjects was composed by urban and rural people. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant relation of false alarms with age and educational level, and of time of execution with age, educational level and gender. Regression analyses on accuracy scores did not show any significant correlation with demographics variables. Based on non-parametric techniques, cutoff scores were obtained on the corrected scores of the patients, and equivalent scores were derived for each measure. The MFTC task represents a useful tool that explores attentional disorders (and in particular conjunction search disturbances) and that could be helpful both in discriminating different forms of dementia and to detect mild cognitive impairment patients at risk of conversion to dementia. PMID:22350217

    1. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

      SciTech Connect

      Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S.; Rotnitzky, A.

      1996-12-31

      In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

    2. 'But I'm not like that': young men's navigation of normative masculinities in a marginalised urban community in Paraguay.

      PubMed

      Fleming, Paul J; Andes, Karen L; DiClemente, Ralph J

      2013-01-01

      Young men often define themselves and their masculine identity through romantic and sexual relationships, and their resulting sexual decisions can affect their successful transition into adulthood, as well as STI, HIV and pregnancy rates. This paper looks at how young Paraguayan men's peer groups, family and masculine identity formation influence their behaviours in sexual and romantic relationships. In Asunción, Paraguay, we conducted five focus-group discussions (FGDs) examining neighbourhood norms in 2010, with male peer groups ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. We then interviewed half the members from each peer group to examine their relationships with friends, family and young women and their beliefs about existing gender norms. Young men described two types of masculine norms, 'partner/provider' and macho, and two types of romantic relationships, 'casual' and 'formal'. The language used to describe each spectrum of behaviours was often concordant and highlights the connection between masculine norms and romantic relationships. The perceived norms for the neighbourhood were more macho than the young men's reported behaviours. Norms cannot change unless young men speak out about their non-normative behaviours. This provides evidence for more research on the formation, meaning and transformation of male gender norms. PMID:23586371

    3. [Risk assessment and safety evaluation using system normative indexes integration method for non-point source pollution on watershed scale].

      PubMed

      Liu, Jian-Chang; Yan, Yan; Liu, Feng; Ding, Ding; Zhao, Ming

      2008-03-01

      Decision-makers take non-point source pollution under control as well as possible results from enough information of risk trend of nonpoint source pollution on watershed scale. System normative indexes integration evaluation method about system risk trend was developed when focusing on that the probability values of some elements attributing to some trend of the system were more than one, and that the system evaluation needed a formula from the system structure. On the basis of analysis on aspects and characteristics of the system risk normalization, a new valuation method, the relationship between the normalization values of the system and the factors was established. The Lugu Lake Watershed in Southwest China was selected as study area to assess the risk of non-point source loss to surface water using this method. The results indicate that 1) the wholly risk of non-point source loss to surface water in this watershed is in a high level; 2) the system indexes integration evaluation method is an universal method to evaluate a quality or a trend of any system and shows a great power in comparing several systems; 3) the method is helpful to attain an effective and integrated assessment on a system when it is combined with other methods. PMID:18649514

    4. A normative study of the Italian printed word version of the free and cued selective reminding test.

      PubMed

      Girtler, N; De Carli, F; Amore, M; Arnaldi, D; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Picco, A; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Brugnolo, A

      2015-07-01

      According to the new research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, episodic memory impairment, not significantly improved by cueing, is the core neuropsychological marker, even at a pre-dementia stage. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory using semantic cues and is widely used in Europe. Standardization values for the Italian population are available for the colored picture version, but not for the 16-item printed word version. In this study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCSRT-16 obtained using linear regression techniques and generalized linear model, and critical values for classifying sub-test performance into equivalent scores. Six scores were derived from the performance of 194 normal subjects (MMSE score, range 27-30, mean 29.5 ± 0.5) divided per decade (from 20 to 90), per gender and per level of education (4 levels: 3-5, 6-8, 9-13, >13 years): immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), recognition phase (RP), delayed free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. This study confirms the effect of age and education, but not of gender on immediate and delayed free and cued recall. The Italian version of the FCSRT-16 can be useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25953151

    5. It Makes You Think

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Harden, Helen

      2009-01-01

      This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of paper; (4) Mobile phones…

    6. Making Best Practices Better

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dappolone, Mike

      2013-01-01

      It's easy to make excuses for not integrating technology into classes, and some of these excuses do have merit. If teachers plan on making the effort to overcome these difficulties, they must believe strongly in the strategies they select and stick to them long enough to at least test their effectiveness. Technology use is sometimes referred…

    7. Net Making = Kuvrinialiq.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

      Presented in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet describes and illustrates the skills necessary for the construction and the hanging of the fishing nets used by Eskimos. Description of net making includes gathering the bark; willow twine making; kinds of implements used in net construction (twine, shuttle, gauge, forked stick,…

    8. Sustainability Based Decision Making

      EPA Science Inventory

      With sustainability as the “true north” for EPA research, a premium is placed on the ability to make decisions under highly complex and uncertain conditions. The primary challenge is reconciling disparate criteria toward credible and defensible decisions. Making decisions on on...

    9. Making Team Differences Work

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Strathman, Beth

      2015-01-01

      Most district and school leaders understand that recruiting group members who have differing backgrounds, perspectives, talents, and personalities makes for good decision-making. Unfortunately, simply assembling a variety of top-notch individuals does not necessarily mean their talents and perspectives will be fully considered. Beth Strathman…

    10. Methods Of Making Pyrrolidones

      DOEpatents

      Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

      2003-12-30

      The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

    11. Methods of making pyrrolidones

      DOEpatents

      Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

      2004-03-16

      The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

    12. Methods of making pyrrolidones

      DOEpatents

      Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

      2003-08-05

      The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

    13. Methods of making pyrrolidones

      DOEpatents

      Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

      2003-10-14

      The present invention provides methods for making N-methylpyrrolidine and analogous compounds via hydrogenation. Novel catalysts for this process, and novel conditions/yields are also described. Other process improvements may include extraction and hydrolysis steps. Some preferred reactions take place in the aqueous phase. Starting materials for making N-methylpyrrolidine may include succinic acid, N-methylsuccinimide, and their analogs.

    14. Story as World Making

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Short, Kathy G.

      2012-01-01

      Stories are woven so tightly into the fabric of our everyday lives that it's easy to overlook their significance in framing how we think about ourselves and the world. Stories are meaning making, providing a means of structuring and reflecting on our experiences in order to understand their significance. Story is also life making, a way of…

    15. The Portable Document Format - PDF.

      PubMed

      Grech, V

      2002-04-01

      This article demonstrates how documents prepared in hypertext or word processor format can be saved in portable document format (PDF). These files are self-contained documents that that have the same appearance on screen and in print, regardless of what kind of computer or printer are used, and regardless of what software package was originally used to for their creation. PDF files are compressed documents, invariably smaller than the original files, hence allowing rapid dissemination and download. PMID:22368611

    16. SSC Safety Review Document

      SciTech Connect

      Toohig, T.E.

      1988-11-01

      The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

    17. NILDE, Network Inter Library Document Exchange: An Italian Document Delivery System

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.; Mangiaracina, S.

      2007-10-01

      This poster presents NILDE, a document delivery system supporting the exchange of documents via the internet. The system has been set up by the Central Library of the National Research Council of Bologna (Italy) in order to make use of new internet technology, to promote cooperation between Italian university libraries and research libraries, and to achieve quick response times in satisfying DD requests. The Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory Library was the first astronomical library to join the NILDE project from its earliest days in 2002. Many were the reasons for this choice: automation of the DD processes, security and reliability of the network, creation of usage statistics and reports, reduction of DD System management costs and so on. This work describes the benefits of NILDE and discusses the role of an organized document delivery system as an important tool to cope with the difficult constraints of the publishing market.

    18. (Should Be) Description/Document#

      E-print Network

      (Should Be) Description/Document# (PO, VR, ISSV, Etc.) Amount (Original) Index Fund Org Acct Prog/Document# (PO, VR, ISSV, Etc.) Amount (Original) Index Fund Org Acct Prog Index Fund Org Acct Prog Reason for Change Original Date Transaction Date (Should Be) Description/Document# (PO, VR, ISSV, Etc.) Amount

    19. Software design and documentation language

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleine, H.

      1977-01-01

      A communications medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications is studied. The medium also provides the following: (1) a processor which can convert design specifications into an intelligible, informative machine reproducible document; (2) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative; and (3) methodology for effective use of the language and processor.

    20. Making the Abstract Concrete

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Potter, Lee Ann

      2005-01-01

      President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

    1. The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss

      PubMed Central

      Tylka, Tracy L.; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Burgard, Deb; Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; Shuman, Ellen; Calogero, Rachel M.

      2014-01-01

      Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being) and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma). Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure), behavioral (e.g., binge eating), and psychological (e.g., depression) indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community. PMID:25147734

    2. Fossil energy program. Summary document

      SciTech Connect

      1980-05-01

      This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

    3. Word Spotting for Indic Documents to Facilitate Retrieval

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bhardwaj, Anurag; Setlur, Srirangaraj; Govindaraju, Venu

      With advances in the field of digitization of printed documents and several mass digitization projects underway, information retrieval and document search have emerged as key research areas. However, most of the current work in these areas is limited to English and a few oriental languages. The lack of efficient solutions for Indic scripts has hampered information extraction from a large body of documents of cultural and historical importance. This chapter presents two relevant topics in this area. First, we describe the use of a script-specific keyword spotting for Devanagari documents that makes use of domain knowledge of the script. Second, we address the needs of a digital library to provide access to a collection of documents from multiple scripts. This requires intelligent solutions which scale across different scripts. We present a script-independent keyword spotting approach for this purpose. Experimental results illustrate the efficacy of our methods.

    4. Effectiveness guidance document (EGD) for acupuncture research - a consensus document for conducting trials

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background There is a need for more Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) to strengthen the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Effectiveness Guidance Documents (EGD) are targeted to clinical researchers. The aim of this EGD is to provide specific recommendations for the design of prospective acupuncture studies to support optimal use of resources for generating evidence that will inform stakeholder decision-making. Methods Document development based on multiple systematic consensus procedures (written Delphi rounds, interactive consensus workshop, international expert review). To balance aspects of internal and external validity, multiple stakeholders including patients, clinicians and payers were involved. Results Recommendations focused mainly on randomized studies and were developed for the following areas: overall research strategy, treatment protocol, expertise and setting, outcomes, study design and statistical analyses, economic evaluation, and publication. Conclusion The present EGD, based on an international consensus developed with multiple stakeholder involvement, provides the first systematic methodological guidance for future CER on acupuncture. PMID:22953730

    5. The Ineffectiveness of Within - Document Term Frequency in Text Classification.

      PubMed

      Wilbur, W John; Kim, Won

      2009-10-01

      For the purposes of classification it is common to represent a document as a bag of words. Such a representation consists of the individual terms making up the document together with the number of times each term appears in the document. All classification methods make use of the terms. It is common to also make use of the local term frequencies at the price of some added complication in the model. Examples are the naïve Bayes multinomial model (MM), the Dirichlet compound multinomial model (DCM) and the Exponential-Family Approximation of the DCM (EDCM), as well as support vector machines (SVM). Although it is usually claimed that incorporating local word frequency in a document improves text classification performance, we here test whether such claims are true or not. In this paper we show experimentally that simplified forms of the MM, EDCM, and SVM models which ignore the frequency of each word in a document perform about at the same level as MM, DCM, EDCM and SVM models which incorporate local term frequency. We also present a new form of the naïve Bayes multivariate Bernoulli model (MBM) which is able to make use of local term frequency and show again that it offers no significant advantage over the plain MBM. We conclude that word burstiness is so strong that additional occurrences of a word essentially add no useful information to a classifier. PMID:19802376

    6. Regulatory guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      1994-05-01

      The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

    7. Decision Making and Cancer

      PubMed Central

      Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

      2014-01-01

      We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PMID:25730718

    8. Concept document of the repository-based software engineering program: A constructive appraisal

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1992-01-01

      A constructive appraisal of the Concept Document of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program is provided. The Concept Document is designed to provide an overview of the Repository-Based Software Engineering (RBSE) Program. The Document should be brief and provide the context for reading subsequent requirements and product specifications. That is, all requirements to be developed should be traceable to the Concept Document. Applied Expertise's analysis of the Document was directed toward assuring that: (1) the Executive Summary provides a clear, concise, and comprehensive overview of the Concept (rewrite as necessary); (2) the sections of the Document make best use of the NASA 'Data Item Description' for concept documents; (3) the information contained in the Document provides a foundation for subsequent requirements; and (4) the document adequately: identifies the problem being addressed; articulates RBSE's specific role; specifies the unique aspects of the program; and identifies the nature and extent of the program's users.

    9. Intelligent Software for System Design and Documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2002-01-01

      In an effort to develop a real-time, on-line database system that tracks documentation changes in NASA's propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center teamed with ECT International of Brookfield, WI, through the NASA Dual-Use Development Program to create the External Data Program and Hyperlink Add-on Modules for the promis*e software. Promis*e is ECT's top-of-the-line intelligent software for control system design and documentation. With promis*e the user can make use of the automated design process to quickly generate control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, terminal plans and more. NASA and its testing contractors currently use promis*e to create the drawings and schematics at the E2 Cell 2 test stand located at Stennis Space Center.

    10. Making Laser Beams Visible.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Knotts, Michael

      1993-01-01

      Describes an inexpensive fog machine that is useful for photography and laser demonstrations. The apparatus uses liquid nitrogen to chill steam to make a fine mist safe for precision optics. The device can be made for around $50. (MVL)

    11. Reinventing Decision Making.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Klempen, Robert A.

      2003-01-01

      Describes how three Wisconsin school superintendents used the process of situation appraisal and decision analysis to improve their problem-solving and decision-making capabilities and those of their leadership teams. Provides several examples. (PKP)

    12. Making It Real

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

      2008-01-01

      Some have proposed that realistic problem situations are better for learning. This issue contains two articles that examine the effects of "making it real" in computer architecture and human-computer interaction.

    13. Making a Quit Plan

      MedlinePLUS

      ... everything that makes you feel like smoking. Now, write down one way you can deal with or avoid each item on your list. Keep this list nearby during your quit. Having trouble with your list? Find examples of ways to ...

    14. Making a Splash.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ephron, Hazel; Bishop, Walter

      2001-01-01

      Explains why upgrading a school's pools can help reduce maintenance costs and make safer facilities. Three top engineering issues in older pools are addressed: recirculation, filtration, and dehumidification. Concluding comments discuss procedures for establishing safe swimming. (GR)

    15. Essays in decision making

      E-print Network

      Chang, Tom Y., 1976-

      2009-01-01

      This thesis explores the impact of individual decision making on the functioning of firms and markets. The first chapter examines how deviations from strict rationality by individuals impact the market for consumer goods. ...

    16. Making Ceramic Cameras

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Squibb, Matt

      2009-01-01

      This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

    17. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

      SciTech Connect

      Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

      2010-02-01

      Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

    18. Multilingual documentation and classification.

      PubMed

      Donnelly, Kevin

      2008-01-01

      Health care providers around the world have used classification systems for decades as a basis for documentation, communications, statistical reporting, reimbursement and research. In more recent years machine-readable medical terminologies have taken on greater importance with the adoption of electronic health records and the need for greater granularity of data in clinical systems. Use of a clinical terminology harmonised with classifications, implemented within a clinical information system, will enable the delivery of many patient health benefits including electronic clinical decision support, disease screening and enhanced patient safety. In order to be usable these systems must be translated into the language of use, without losing meaning. It is evident that today one system cannot meet all requirements which call for collaboration and harmonisation in order to achieve true interoperability on a multilingual basis. PMID:18376050

    19. Recommendations to Surrogates at the End of Life: A Critical Narrative Review of the Empirical Literature and a Normative Analysis.

      PubMed

      Prochaska, Micah T; Sulmasy, Daniel P

      2015-11-01

      Physician recommendations have historically been a part of shared decision making. Recent literature has challenged the idea that physician recommendations should be part of shared decision making at the end of life, particularly the making of recommendations to surrogates of incapacitated patients. Close examination of the studies and the available data on surrogate preferences for decisional authority at the end of life, however, provide an empirical foundation for a style of shared decision making that includes a physician recommendation. Moreover, there are independent ethical reasons for arguing that physician recommendations enhance rather than detract from shared decision making. PMID:26025276

    20. MINET (momentum integral network) code documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Van Tuyle, G J; Nepsee, T C; Guppy, J G

      1989-12-01

      The MINET computer code, developed for the transient analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer, is documented in this four-part reference. In Part 1, the MINET models, which are based on a momentum integral network method, are described. The various aspects of utilizing the MINET code are discussed in Part 2, The User's Manual. The third part is a code description, detailing the basic code structure and the various subroutines and functions that make up MINET. In Part 4, example input decks, as well as recent validation studies and applications of MINET are summarized. 32 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs.