Note: This page contains sample records for the topic documents making normative from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
In an era of normative standardised literacy curriculum continuing to make space for culturally responsive literacy pedagogy is on ongoing challenge for early childhood educators. Collaborative participatory research and ethnographic studies of teachers who accomplish innovative and inclusive early childhood education in culturally diverse high…
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of age and education on the performance of the Trail Making Test (TMT), and to provide normative data in the Greek population. The TMT was administered to 643 healthy participants. All participants satisfied the criteria excluding dementia and other medical, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. Statistical analysis revealed that, age, education,
I. Zalonis; E. Kararizou; N. I. Triantafyllou; E. Kapaki; S. Papageorgiou; P. Sgouropoulos; D. Vassilopoulos
Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Research Center on November 1st, 2011 by Antonio HaileSelassie, the Section 508 Technical Specialist and Subject Matter Expert for the Agency.
The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Trail Making Test (TMT), a modification of the original TMT, was created to isolate set-shifting (Letter-Number Switching) from other component skills. This was accomplished by including four baseline conditions (Visual Scanning, Number Sequencing, Letter Sequencing, and Motor Speed) and by placing equal numbers of stimuli in the three sequencing conditions. Given that some studies with the original TMT demonstrated a significant effect of education and intellectual functioning on performance, we utilized the D-KEFS national standardization sample to examine the effects of education and vocabulary level-i.e., Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)-on the D-KEFS TMT. The results indicate a significant effect of these variables on each D-KEFS TMT condition. Normative tables for education- and vocabulary-adjusted scaled scores based on the database from the D-KEFS national normative study were generated. PMID:21951052
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of age and education on the performance of the Trail Making Test (TMT), and to provide normative data in the Greek population. The TMT was administered to 643 healthy participants. All participants satisfied the criteria excluding dementia and other medical, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. Statistical analysis revealed that, age, education, and general level of intelligence significantly influence individual performance. Performance on TMT, especially part B, decreases with increasing age and lower levels of education. Current norms of the Greek version of TMT represent a useful set of norms for clinical practice. PMID:17934999
Zalonis, I; Kararizou, E; Triantafyllou, N I; Kapaki, E; Papageorgiou, S; Sgouropoulos, P; Vassilopoulos, D
This paper deals with the question how habits can be integrated into a model of normative decision-making based on the work of Schwartz and Howard (1981). A field study was conducted in Bochum, Germany, involving 160 participants. After a personal interview the participant had to protocol the travel mode choice on their trips to work in a logbook for the
The Trail Making Test (TMT) has been a useful assessment tool to investigate executive function. Several studies have recently improved the existing TMT norms by mean of large samples of healthy individuals stratified by a number of demographic variables from different populations. In contrast, criticisms have been raised about the utility of norms from healthy samples to detect changes across time in clinical samples where TMT performance used to be altered. In addition, few studies have compared groups of patients with deficits in TMT performance, making it difficult to decide whether a single set of norms is sufficient to assess different clinical populations. We provide normative data from three large samples of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n=90), schizophrenia spectrum disorders (n=127), and healthy Spanish speakers (n=223). Differences between healthy participants and patients in all TMT direct (TMT-A, TMT-B) and derived (B-A, B:A, B-A/A) scores were found. TMT performance was poorer in TBI patients than in schizophrenia patients except for the B:A and B-A/A scores, suggesting a similar underlying executive deficit. Normal ageing impaired both direct and derived TMT indices, as revealed by lower scores in the healthy elderly group (55-80 years old) as compared with young (16-24) and middle-aged (25-54) healthy participants. Three different sets of norms stratified by age, education, or both are presented for clinical use. Recommendations on TMT scores are made for future research. PMID:17336493
Periáñez, J A; Ríos-Lago, M; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J M; Adrover-Roig, D; Sánchez-Cubillo, I; Crespo-Facorro, B; Quemada, J I; Barceló, F
June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible Microsoft E?cel 2007 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must
The Trail Making Test (TMT) has been a useful assessment tool to investigate executive function. Several studies have recently improved the existing TMT norms by mean of large samples of healthy individuals stratified by a number of demographic variables from different populations. In contrast, criticisms have been raised about the utility of norms from healthy samples to detect changes across
J. A. Periáñez; M. Ríos-Lago; J. M. Rodríguez-Sánchez; D. Adrover-Roig; I. Sánchez-Cubillo; B. Crespo-Facorro; J. I. Quemada; F. Barceló
The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Trail Making Test (TMT), a modification of the original TMT, was created to isolate set-shifting (Letter–Number Switching) from other component skills. This was accomplished by including four baseline conditions (Visual Scanning, Number Sequencing, Letter Sequencing, and Motor Speed) and by placing equal numbers of stimuli in the three sequencing conditions. Given that some studies
Expressivism can make space for normative objectivity by treating normative stances as pro or con attitudes that can be correct or incorrect. And it can answer the logical challenges that bedevil it by treating a simple normative assertion not merely as an expression of a normative stance, but as an expression of the endorsement of a proposition that is true
The purpose of the present article is to present and illustrate two different ways of analysing the normativity and discursivity of classroom communication during education for sustainable development (ESD). The two types of analysis can provide important knowledge for discussions of ESD in relation to morals and democracy. Both methods are based…
...2010-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... Â§ 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...
|Describes the development of a courier service in Oregon for document delivery between libraries to support coordinated collection development activities. Organization of the service by individual libraries without dependence on the Library Services and Construction Act is discussed, and costs and response time are considered. (two references)…
June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Doc?ments Accessible Microsof? Word 2007 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must be
This paper focuses on the ethics of constructing and using a specific evidence-based decision aid that aims to contribute to clinical shared decision-making processes. Results of this integrated empirical ethics study demonstrate how both the production and presentation of scientific information in an evidence-based decision-support contain implicit presuppositions and values, which pre-structure the moral environment of the shared decision-making process. As a consequence, the evidence-based decision support did not only support the decision-making process; it also transformed it in a morally significant way. This phenomenon undermines the assumption within much of the literature on patient autonomy and shared decision-making implying that information disclosure is a conditional requirement before patient autonomy and shared decision-making even starts. The central point of this paper is that decision aids and evidence-based medicine are not value-free and that patient autonomy and shared decision-making are already influenced during the production and presentation of scientific information. Consequences for both the development of decision-aids and the practice of shared decision-making are discussed. PMID:19209568
Molewijk, Bert; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Otten, Wilma; Dupuis, Heleen M; Kievit, Job
It is increasingly common to suggest that the combination of evolutionary theory and normative realism leads inevitably to a general scepticism about our ability to reliably form normative beliefs. In what follows, I argue that this is not the case. In particular, I consider several possible arguments from evolutionary theory and normative realism to normative scepticism and explain where they
June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible Microsoft Po?erPoint 2007 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information
Normative data for older African Americans are presented for several clinical neuropsychological measures, including Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Token Test, WRAT-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 309 cognitively normal, community-dwelling individuals, aged 56 through 94, participating in Mayo's
John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Tanis J. Ferman; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford
Existing conceptions of the EU as a ‘civilian’\\/‘normative’\\/‘civilizing’ power lack precision and are normatively biased. There may be ‘normative’ or ‘civilian’ dimensions to EU foreign policy, yet it is problematic to imply, as such conceptualizations do, that the EU is a ‘force for good’ without identifying criteria and assessment standards that make it possible to qualify, substantiate or reject such
This article explores the use of documentation—to observe, record, and interpret the learning of children and their pre-service teachers to make that learning visible in order to point to it and engage in a collaborative dialogue. Inspired by the work of the Reggio Emilia infant-toddler and pre-schools in Italy, this study extends the idea of documenting young children’s individual and
This article explores the use of documentation--to observe, record, and interpret the learning of children and their pre-service teachers to make that learning visible in order to point to it and engage in a collaborative dialogue. Inspired by the work of the Reggio Emilia infant-toddler and pre-schools in Italy, this study extends the idea of…
It is common to base an inferential semantics on a social, normative pragmatics, thus conceiving meaning as consisting in certain normative relations (Wittgenstein, Sellars, Brandom). This position faces a trilemma, which is of wider application, concerning all normative statements: (1) Normative statements are true or false. Regarding a certain normative statement as true does not imply that it is true,
Recent health care reforms, the start of accreditation processes of health institutions, and the introduction also in the health system of risk management concepts and instruments, borrowed from the enterprise culture and the emphasis put on the protection of privacy, render evident the need and the urgency to define and to implement improvement processes of the organization and management of the medical documentation in the hospital with the aim of facilitation in fulfilment of regional and local health authorities policies about protection of the safety and improvement of quality of care. Currently the normative context that disciplines the management of medical records inside the hospital appears somewhat fragmentary, incomplete and however not able to clearly orientate health operators with the aim of a correct application of the enforced norms in the respect of the interests of the user and of local health authority. In this job we individuate the critical steps in the various phases of management process of the clinical folder and propose a new model of regulations, with the purpose to improve and to simplify the management processes and the modalities of compilation, conservation and release to entitled people of all clinical documentation. PMID:15049537
Describes the sequentially developmental life stages of healthy, normal families. Provides an exposition of these developmental stages and forms as a guide or normative framework within which to test for dysfunction and pathology in the family process. (Author/JAC)
The report presents a formal theory about nontrivial reasoning with inconsistent but hierarchically structured normative information. The theory is based on the observation that the way legal rules are made subject to orderings gives them a defeasible cha...
Organization theory has not demonstrated that it is able to adequately represent organizational complexity, especially in its inability to recognize and predict organizational conduct\\/misconduct. A promising approach comes from organizational culture theory, which is used in order to create a new model for normative personality that is seated in the strategic part of the organization. This takes the idea of
This paper describes an information retrieval system with the function to support user's use of the retrieved documents using the text-level structure of documents. The text-level structure of each document is described by the occurrence of typical functional components in the text. Automatic detection of the components has been attempted in previous works using surface-level language processing. The proposed system
|This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…
|This study investigated interactions between pedagogical documentation--a formative assessment technique and instructional intervention designed to increase student learning by recording children's experiences--and kindergarten children, families and teachers in the UAE. The study sample comprised six teachers in six kindergarten classrooms, 141…
...camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the...copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures, maps and architectural drawings, or aerial...
...camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the...copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures, maps and architectural drawings, or aerial...
12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01...decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES...process Completion of NEPA process Key officials or offices required to...
How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies.
How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426
The major theme of this work is the integration of depletable resources supply and sectoral dynamic models. These models are inherently normative due to their mathematical programming formulations. The economic sectors that demand the depletable resource ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, to which factors in the process of decision making involved in curriculum development in Australia, have determined the quality of curriculum documents. Searches on web sites of education organisations and electronic databases of educational literature were conducted to identify source documents…
|This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…
Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.
Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B
The recent Mental Capacity Act (2005) sets out a test for assessing a person's capacity to make treatment choices. In some cases, particularly in psychiatry, it is unclear how the criteria ought to be interpreted and applied by clinicians. In this paper, I argue that this uncertainty arises because the concept of capacity employed in the Act, and the diagnostic tools developed to assist its assessment, overlook the inherent normativity of judgements made about whether a person is using or weighing information in the decision-making process. Patients may fail on this criterion to the extent that they do not appear to be handling the information given in an appropriate way, on account of a mental impairment disrupting the way the decision process ought to proceed. Using case law and clinical examples, I describe some of the normative dimensions along which judgements of incapacity can be made, namely epistemic, evaluative and affective dimensions. Such judgements are complex and the normative standards by which a clinician may determine capacity cannot be reduced to a set of criteria. Rather, in recognizing this normativity, clinicians may better understand how clinical judgements are structured and what kinds of assumption may inform their assessment.
Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called ‘moral brain’ in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects’ normative expertise.
Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called 'moral brain' in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects' normative expertise. PMID:20194515
Schleim, Stephan; Spranger, Tade M; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik
...make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52...make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. (a) A requester who is...for a determination of eligibility for a death benefit to be made: (1) All...
...make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52...make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. (a) A requester who is...for a determination of eligibility for a death benefit to be made: (1) All...
Normative texts can be viewed as composed by formal par- titions (articles, paragraphs, etc.) or by semantic units con- taining fragments of a regulation (provisions). Provisions can be described according to a metadata scheme which con- sists of provision types and their arguments. This semantic annotation of a normative text can make the retrieval of norms easier. The detection and
Carlo Biagioli; Enrico Francesconi; Andrea Passerini; Simonetta Montemagni; Claudia Soria
Although consumer researchers have investigated impulse buying for nearly 50 years, almost no research has empirically examined its normative aspects. This article presents conceptual and empirical evidence that consumers' normative evaluations (i.e., judgments about the appropriateness of engaging in impulse buying behavior) moderate the relationship between the impulse buying trait and consumers' buying behaviors. Specifically, the relationship between the buying
Logic, Normativity, and the A Priori Theodora Achourioti Abstract: The aim of this thesis is to explore how an informed and revised notion of normativity reclaims the a priori character of logic. Chapter 2 explores the notion of fallacy and draws upon experimental results to show that there is a gap between traditional standards of rationality and how people actually
BACKGROUND: The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. METHODS: Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine
Gigerenzer has argued that it may be inappropriate to characterize some of the biases identified by Kahneman and Tversky as "errors" or "fallacies," for three reasons: (a) according to frequentists, no norms are appropriate for single-case judgments because single-case probabilities are meaningless; (b) even if single-case probabilities make sense, they need not be governed by statistical norms because such norms are "content-blind" and can conflict with conversational norms; (c) conflicting statistical norms exist. I try to clear up certain misunderstandings that may have hindered progress in this debate. Gigerenzer's main point turns out to be far less extreme than the position of "normative agnosticism" attributed to him by Kahneman and Tversky: Gigerenzer is not denying that norms appropriate for single-case judgments exist, but is rather complaining that the existence and the nature of such norms have been dogmatically assumed by the heuristics and biases literature. In response to this complaint I argue that single-case probabilities (a) make sense and (b) are governed by probabilistic norms, and that (c) the existence of conflicting statistical norms may be less widespread and less damaging than Gigerenzer thinks. PMID:10913575
|Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program…
Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…
A fundamental distinction can be drawn between simulation models that are descriptive and normative models that are prescriptive. Simulation models, which are often used for forecasting, are characteristically studied by observing their behavior over time. To some extent, normative models such as dynamic linear programs can be used in the same way in energy planning. An example is their application to industrial processes where the behavior of firms in an industry may be viewed as a resource-allocation process. Where sensitivity tests indicate similar results over a wide range of variation in input assumptions, it is difficult not to infer that these conclusions have predictive value. Coupling an econometric model with a linear program may cause it to behave more like a simulation. Institutional pressures to make models multipurpose may go too far, however; multiobjective programming which tries to simulate the decision maker blurs the ability to infer the consequences of different objectives. Ultimately, normative models will be predictive to the extent that their lessons are learned.
In this paper we provide a formal framework for developing the idea of normative co-ordination. We argue that this idea is based on the assumption that agents can achieve exible co-ordination by confer- ring normative positions to other agents. These positions include duties, permissions, and powers. In particular, we introduce the idea of declar- ative power, which consists in the
Jonathan Gelati; Antonino Rotolo; Giovanni Sartor; Guido Governatori
Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. "this is the way it goes"), along with pedagogical cues signaling…
Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael
1. SUMMARY A ND P RELIMINARY R EMARKS Subsequently I shall develop a metaphysics-free normative model of individual ethical decision making for which a universal purview is claimed. I call it 'utilitarianism incorporating justice' (= UJ). In addition, UJ also allows to make ethical post factum assessments of actions. In contradistinction to normative models of individual rational decision making which
Motivated by concerns regarding the impact of cultural diversity on group interaction processes and a desire to extend the Social Influence Model of Technology Use, this paper discusses the impact of normative social influence on enhancing group media use and group decision making performance over time in different cultural group compositions. This paper proposes that the strength of attraction to
AbstractStudies on the international identity of the EU have stressed the normative feature of European foreign policy. At the same time, scholars have pointed out that the inconsistency between the EU's rhetoric and behaviour and the lack of reflexivity undermines its credibility. How does reflexivity affect collective identity? To what extent does the EU's utopian rhetoric affect its credibility as
|The 4 objectives of this study were (1) to conduct a normative study of values held by US college students, (2) to assess a wide range of value commitments of US college students as measured by an instrument validated by previous research, (3) to study the relationship between values and other relevant variables, and (4) to lay the basis for a…
Automated approaches to prevent the negative effects of cyberbullying mainly focus on affective agents that provide support for victims. The current paper takes a complementary approach, which attempts to minimise the amount of occurrences of cyberbullying in the first place. The approach consists of a system of normative agents, which are physically present in a virtual society. The agents, which
The paper evaluates the claim, made by a range of commentators but most prominently by Akerlof and Shiller in Animal Spirits, that the recent financial crisis illustrates gaps in the normative picture incorporated into standard macroeconomics that are plugged by insights due to behavioral economics. It is argued that Akerlof and Shiller's contention that we cannot understand what happened unless
Open MASs can be extremely dynamic due to heterogeneous agents that migrate among them to obtain resources or services not found locally. In order to prevent malicious actions and to ensure agent trust, open MAS should be enhanced with normative mechanisms. However, it is not reasonable to expect that foreign agents know in advance all the norms of the MAS
Carolina Howard Felicíssimo; Caroline Chopinaud; Jean-pierre Briot; Amal El Fallah-seghrouchni; Carlos José Pereira De Lucena
Gang members engage in a considerable amount of violence. Based on a three-year field study of active gang members in St. Louis, this paper examines five activities in which gang members use violence. Retaliatory gang violence is highlighted for its role in generating additional violence and contributing to the growth of gangs. We pay particular attention to the normative aspects
Purpose – This study focuses on consumer choice behavior in the context of a new European Union (EU) member state by examining cognitive, affective and normative mechanisms in consumer preference formation for domestic vs imported products. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data is drawn from a survey of 714 adult consumers. The research instrument included construct measures adapted from previous studies. The measurement
The ability to communicate is one of the crucial properties of agents. In this paper a normative approach to the pragmatics of Agent Communication Languages (ACLs) is proposed. In an open environment, like the Internet, in which agents are designed in many different ways, it is important to clearly es- tablish the meaning of a standard language for artificial agents.
In this essay, I argue for what I call open normativities: collectively crafted ways of being that shape subjectivities oriented toward widespread flourishing. Too often feminist and queer theory takes a simplistic and reductive approach to normativity. In the first part of this essay, I briefly trace a thread in current queer theory that equates normativity with oppression, patriarchy, racism,
We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive
David Henry; Nancy Guerra; Rowell Huesmann; Patrick Tolan; Richard VanAcker; Leonard Eron
|This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…
The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner. PMID:23115826
|The results of a survey to determine the training needs and normative experiences of temporary government documents librarians are presented. The results indicate that temporary librarians tend to work in academia, have been in librarianship for a shorter time period, and have fewer technical processing skills than permanent documents librarians.…
The article spells out four domains of international distributive justice and the consequent criteria of equity, the purpose\\u000a being to identify a pluralistic normative ethical framework for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Justice and\\u000a equity should play a major role in favouring collective action against climate change, because the more the various dimensions\\u000a of such action are just, the more
In this paper, we characterize and empirically implement robust normative criteria for comparing societies on the basis of their allocations of risks among their members. Risks are modelled as lotteries on the set of distributions of state-contingent pecuniary consequences. Individuals are assumed to have individualistic Von Neuman-Morgenstern preferences for these risks. Appealing to Harsanyi’s aggregation theorem, we provide empirically implementable
|The conceptual orientation that guides the University of Utah's field-based doctoral program in educational administration is described in this paper, with a focus on making judgments within the decision-making process. The first part explains the rationale for adopting the conceptual orientation and the second part describes the normative model…
Unstabilised rammed earth is a recyclable, economical and eco-friendly building material, used in the past and still applied today. Traditionally, its use was based on a long empirical knowledge of the local materials. Because this knowledge was mostly lost or is no longer sufficient, in many countries normativedocuments have been produced to allow the assessment of rammed earth soils.
M. Idália Gomes; Teresa Diaz Gonçalves; Paulina Faria
In “Vindicating the Normativity of Rationality,” Nicholas Southwood proposes that rational requirements are best understood\\u000a as demands of one’s “first-personal standpoint.” Southwood argues that this view can “explain the normativity or reason-giving\\u000a force” of rationality by showing that they “are the kinds of thing that are, by their very nature, normative.” We argue that\\u000a the proposal fails on three counts:
In everyday life we often act adequately, yet without deliberation. For instance, we immediately obtain and maintain an appropriate distance from others in an elevator. The notion of normativity implied here is a very basic one, namely distinguishing adequate from inadequate, correct from incorrect, or better from worse in the context of a particular situation. In the first part of
Background The biosphere models of terrestrial productivity are essential for projecting climate change and assessing mitigation and adaptation options. Many of them have been developed in connection to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) that backs the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the end of 1990s, IGBP sponsored release of a data set summarizing the model outputs and setting certain norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity. Since a number of new models and new versions of old models were developed during the past decade, these normative data require updating. Results Here, we provide the series of updates that reflects evolution of biosphere models and demonstrates evolutional stability of the global and regional estimates of terrestrial productivity. Most of them fit well the long-living Miami model. At the same time we call attention to the emerging alternative: the global potential for net primary production of biomass may be as high as 70 PgC y-1, the productivity of larch forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of taiga zone, and the productivity of rain-green forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of tropical rainforest zone. Conclusion The departure from Miami model's worldview mentioned above cannot be simply ignored. It requires thorough examination using modern observational tools and techniques for model-data fusion. Stability of normative knowledge is not its ultimate goal – the norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity must be evidence-based.
...benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Program Benefits...
...benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Program Benefits...
The process of risk assessment of biotechnologies, such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs), has normative dimensions.\\u000a However, the US’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seems committed to the idea that such evaluations are objective. This\\u000a essay makes the case that the agency’s regulatory approach should be changed such that the public is involved in deciding\\u000a any ethical or social questions
The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of the PAI scales were generally quite similar in the Iraq and community samples, with modest differences emerging on only 3 subscales addressing antisocial behavior, issues with close relationships, and interpersonal vigilance. These results suggest that standard normative interpretation of PAI scales is appropriate even when the instrument is administered in a combat zone. In comparison with prior research, the results may suggest that documented mental health issues among combat veterans, when present, may be particularly likely to emerge postdeployment. PMID:21319909
Morey, Leslie C; Lowmaster, Sara E; Coldren, Rodney L; Kelly, Mark P; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L
Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Makingnormative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well.
This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programmes. In the article it is shown how Laclau's deconstructive constructivism can be articulated within the framework of an ethos of democratisation. The article takes its empirical
In several languages and dialects of north-western Europe, preaspiration - the early timing of glottal abduction relative to oral closure in vowels preceding a voiceless stop consonant - has become normative in the sense of being an obligatory fea ture of sequences of vowel and fortis stop. Impressionistic obser- vations suggest that non-normative preaspiration may occur across the whole Scandinavian
...the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. 110.60 Section 110...the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. (a) A requester determined...who seeks payment or reimbursement for medical services or items must provide the...
In America, law is a cultural practice, a type of social activity that generates a complete world of meaning. As such, it makes behavioral demands on those who participate in its form of experience. That is, it requires that those who take up its way of life act in certain ways. This fact—that law has an innate normativity, or an
Implicit measures can be defined as outcomes of measurement procedures that are caused in an automatic manner by psychological attributes. To establish that a measurement outcome is an implicit measure, one should examine (a) whether the outcome is causally produced by the psychological attribute it was designed to measure, (b) the nature of the processes by which the attribute causes the outcome, and (c) whether these processes operate automatically. This normative analysis provides a heuristic framework for organizing past and future research on implicit measures. The authors illustrate the heuristic function of their framework by using it to review past research on the 2 implicit measures that are currently most popular: effects in implicit association tests and affective priming tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19379018
De Houwer, Jan; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah; Spruyt, Adriaan; Moors, Agnes
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of computer-delivered personalized normative feedback among heavy drinking college students and to evaluate controlled orientation as a moderator of intervention efficacy. Participants (N = 217) included primarily freshman and sophomore, heavy drinking students who were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive personalized normative feedback immediately following baseline assessment.
Clayton Neighbors; Melissa A. Lewis; Rochelle L. Bergstrom; Mary E. Larimer
In this article, I demonstrate the importance of employing a feminist geographic framework in order to both read WNBA game spaces and to understand lesbian fan participation within these spaces. I argue that attending to the production of WNBA game spaces makes visible the ways that normative cultural politics become manifest, and brings to the fore the ways that dominant relations are naturalized and rarely questioned. Further, attention to the production of these leisure spaces compels an examination of the relationship between spatialized normativity and claims to, and performances of, lesbian identity. By understanding social space as a productive force, it is possible to conduct a critical reading of the materiality of WNBA game spaces and the implications for the reproduction of naturalized (hetero)normativity. In addition, it illustrates that lesbian fan experiences and interpretations of normative WNBA game spaces must be examined in a framework that takes seriously the factors that inhibit critical engagement with (hetero)normativity, as well as the central role that lesbian fans play in the co-production of these spaces. PMID:19598049
Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…
Largely because of the influence of Moffitt's useful distinction between adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior, it has become increasingly common to view problem behavior that makes its first appearance in adolescence as developmentally normative. This study prospectively examined the lives of individuals in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development whose patterns of antisocial behavior varied with respect to age of onset and stability from kindergarten through age 15. Consistent with past research, early-onset, persistently deviant youth experienced more contextual adversity and evinced higher levels of intraindividual disadvantages than their peers from infancy through midadolescence. However, relative to youth who never showed significantly elevated antisocial behavior through age 15, children who showed antisocial behavior primarily in adolescence also were more disadvantaged from infancy forward, as were youth who only demonstrated significant externalizing problems in childhood. Findings generally replicated across sex and did not vary as a function of whether antisocial behavior groups were defined using T-scores normed within sex or identified using an empirically driven grouping method applied to raw data. PMID:20423543
Roisman, Glenn I; Monahan, Kathryn C; Campbell, Susan B; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth
In an earlier article, I argued that David Estlund's notion of 'normative consent' could provide justification for an opt-out system of organ donation that does not involve presumptions about the deceased donor's consent. Where it would be wrong of someone to refuse their consent, then the fact that they have not actually given it is irrelevant, though an explicit denial of consent (as in opting out) may still be binding. My argument has recently been criticised by Potts et al, who argue that such a policy would involve taking organs from people whose organs should not be taken and would be a recipe for totalitarianism. The present response seeks to rebut both the ethical and political objections. I argue that people can indeed be under a moral obligation to donate their organs, even if they are not technically dead at the time and their donation does not save anyone else's life. Moreover, I argue that an opt-out system-unlike mandatory donation-is not totalitarian because it preserves the right of individuals to act morally wrongly, by opting out when they have no good moral reason to do so. The policy I propose is neither immoral nor totalitarian. PMID:21429959
This article explores the application of normative decision theory (NDT) to the challenge of facilitating and measuring patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is the appraisal, by an individual, of the extent to which the care provided has met that individual's expectations and preferences. Classic decision analysis provides a graphic and computational strategy to link patient preferences for outcomes to the treatment choices likely to produce the outcomes. Multiple criteria models enable the complex judgment task of measuring patient satisfaction to be decomposed into elemental factors that reflect patient preferences, thus facilitating evaluation of care in terms of factors relevant to the individual patient. Through the application of NDT models, it is possible to use patient preferences as a guide to the treatment planning and care monitoring process and to construct measures of patient satisfaction that are meaningful to the individual. Nursing informatics, with its foundations in both information management and decision sciences, provides the tools and data necessary to promote care provided in accord with patient preferences and to ensure appraisal of satisfaction that aptly captures the complex, multidimensional nature of patient preferences.
Growing university-industry ties, particularly in biomedical areas, naturally raise concerns about conflicts of interest. Such conflicts are essentially problems in business and professional ethics. As of the fall of 1995, all institutions seeking funding from either the Public Health Service or the National Science Foundation have been required to maintain and enforce a written policy on conflicts of interest. The PHS and the NSF also require the disclosure of "significant" financial interests that might affect the research. Although the PHS and NSF requirements may prove helpful, they are not sufficient for monitoring the full range of serious conflicts of interest that can arise in university-industry relations. The PHS and the NSF are basically concerned with potential bias in the design, conduct, and reporting of research. Their disclosure requirements are restricted to financial considerations of $10,000 or more. However, bias in research can result from conflicts of interest when much less is at stake financially. Furthermore, it can arise at both individual and institutional levels. This article attempts to provide a conceptual and normative analysis of conflicts of interest that better enables us to understand the subtleties that can be involved. This article is one of three in this issue of Academic Medicine that deal with issues of conflict of interest in university-industry research relationships. These articles are discussed in an overview that precedes them. PMID:9114888
There has recently been an upsurge of interest in document genres - the fusion of form and function that makes a document instantly recognizable to its community of users. The utility of genre identification is now accepted as a premise, but many interesting and challenging questions remain. The papers assembled here create a truly interdisciplinary body of work, drawing on
For much of the first fifty years of its existence, analytic philosophy shunned discussions of normativity and ethics. Ethical\\u000a statements were considered as pseudo-propositions, or as expressions of pro-or con-attitudes of minor theoretical significance.\\u000a Nowadays, in contrast, there are prominent analytic philosophers who pay close attention to normative problems and important\\u000a books written by such philosophers on topics in law
The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator
Evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) has attracted considerable interest in recent decades. However, few evaluation studies are explicit about normative presuppositions which underlie the goals and the research design of CESS evaluation. In this paper, we provide an account of normative premises of different approaches to CESS evaluation and argue that normativity should be a focus of considerations when designing and conducting evaluation research of CESS. In a first step, we present three different approaches to CESS evaluation from published literature. Next to a brief sketch of the well-established approaches of 'descriptive evaluation' and 'evaluation of outcomes', we will give a more detailed description of a third approach to evaluation-'reconstructing quality norms of CESS'-which is explicit about the normative presuppositions of its research (design). In the subsequent section, we will analyse the normative premises of each of the three approaches to CESS evaluation. We will conclude with a brief argument for more sensitivity towards the normativity of CESS and its evaluation research. PMID:23328983
The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of
|One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…
HTML is unquestionably the central document language of the Web, but it is by no means the only language of the Web. In fact, several other specialized types of documents are widely used and have considerable importance. In this chapter, we look at how specialized document types affect accessibility. We do not attempt to consider all possible specialized documents, but rather focus on important examples that illustrate the key issues including Adobe’s Portable Document Format (PDF), microformats, and Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The Accessibility for RIA (ARIA) initiative is presented as an example of an effort to improve the accessibility of specialized documents, while the DAISY initiative is used as an example of how the same technologies can be harnessed to improve accessibility.
Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety.
This article considers whether ‘straight’ identified researchers can produce anti-normative knowledge. This question derives from debates around what (if any) contribution ‘straight’ researchers can make to queer theory\\/research. While recognizing that political and ethical decisions are integral to this discussion, I focus on the epistemological implications of straight researchers’ participation in queer theory\\/research. This discussion grapples with a wider issue
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of computer-delivered personalized normative feedback among heavy drinking college students and to evaluate controlled orientation as a moderator of intervention efficacy. Participants (N = 217) included primarily freshman and sophomore, heavy drinking students who were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive personalized normative feedback immediately following baseline assessment. Perceived norms, number of drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems were the main outcome measures. Controlled orientation was specified as a moderator. At 2-month follow-up, students who received normative feedback reported drinking fewer drinks per week than did students who did not receive feedback, and this reduction was mediated by changes in perceived norms. The intervention also reduced alcohol-related negative consequences among students who were higher in controlled orientation. These results provide further support for computer-delivered personalized normative feedback as an empirically supported brief intervention for heavy drinking college students, and they enhance the understanding of why and for whom normative feedback is effective.
Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Bergstrom, Rochelle L.; Larimer, Mary E.
Documentation for INTERSLIP in the form of the INTERSLIP Reference Manual is now available and may be obtained from Warren Teitelman, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. The new manual replaces all existing documentation, and is completely up to date (as to January, 1974). The manual is available in either loose-leaf or bound form. The lose-leaf version (binders not supplied) comes
|Little research has been done into how the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) affect national educational reform and policy-making. This paper examines the normative impact of PISA by investigating how, and the extent to which , national policy actors use PISA in policies and practices, to evaluate and improve…
A normative strategy is proposed for resource choice and recycling to meet the criterion of sustainability, defined as near constancy of natural resources. In this strategy resource choice should be fitted to the fate of products and product wastes, with geochemically scarce virtually non-renewable resources being reserved for uses that allow for nearly 100% recycling and negligible loss of irretrievable
A new computer program, NORMA, was developed for calculating the normative mineral composition of till from analytical data. The NORMA program manipulates concentrations of elements totally dissolved by hot aqua regia and total element concentrations measured by either total dissolution or X-ray fluorescence method. Minerals dissolving in aqua regia are presumed to be trioctahedral micas (biotite), clay minerals (chlorite), and
Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…
Students from a small, tightly knit military college participated in a longitudinal study which assessed attitudes toward sociopolitical issues as well as military attitudes at entrance and three years later. A college-wide change in a conservative direction was predicted and observed (p < .001). While a normative influence explanation argues that peer group pressure is responsible for such attitude change,
This article presents a normative set of recommendations for elevating the practice of marketing ethics. The approach is grounded in seven essential perspectives involving multiple aspirational dimensions implicit in ethical marketing. More important, each basic perspective (BP), while singularly useful, is also integrated with the other observations as well as grounded in the extant ethics literature. This combination of BPs,
This article discusses the appeal of human rights as a normative basis for stakeholder claims in the context of international business. This appeal to human rights has proven to be an effective way to legitimize (in the sociological sense) the claims of stakeholders due to their proclaimed universal validity and the media interest in stories about human right violations. A
|Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…
This was a descriptive study on normative salivary cortisol values and responsivity to a hospital clinic visit and an intravenous (IV) procedure in children. The study presented was a subproject of a primary research study that examined parents coaching their children requiring an IV placement in the use of distraction. One measure of child response in the primary study, salivary
Ann Marie McCarthy; Kirsten Hanrahan; Charmaine Kleiber; M. Bridget Zimmerman; Susan Lutgendorf; Eva Tsalikian
Explored normative variations in daydreams that women reported as occurring during sexual intercourse and tested the relative validity of several theoretical models of the function of coital fantasy. Ss were 141 suburban housewives who responded to questionnaires involving general daydreaming tendencies, fantasies, and other ideation during coitus; sexual patterns; marital adjustment; and measures of intelligence, personality, and personal adjustment. 56
|Pstudy investigated the effects of baseline levels of academic achievement and longitudinal trends in normative beliefs on adolescent substance initiation across a 42-month time period. Participants were 272 rural adolescents who were an average of 12.3 years old at the baseline assessment. Academic achievement positively predicted the intercept…
Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard
|This study examined the magnitude of differences in standard scores, convergent validity, and concurrent validity when an individual's performance was gauged using the revised and the normative update (Woodcock, 1998) editions of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test in which the actual test items remained identical but norms have been updated. From…
Pae, Hye Kyeong; Wise, Justin C.; Cirino, Paul T.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne; Morris, Robin D.
AbstractFocus on the ideational dimensions of the EU's international presence has unduly diverted attention away from the persistence of power politics instrumentalism. De spite general recognition that these elements co-exist, analysis of EU external policies can benefit from a more precise exploration of how strategic calculation invests a broadly normative agenda with notable characteristics. The article demonstrates this in relation
Clinical neurolinguistics still lacks consolidated and standardised tools for the assessment of impairments of pragmatics of verbal communication. In the present paper we present norms of the Italian version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (Batteria del Linguaggio dell’Emisfero Destro, BaLED)  originally devised by Bryan . The normative study has been conducted with the recruitment of 440 healthy subjects.
The overall aim of the work was to develop a comprehensive normative database of indices for ranges of motion in the lumbar spine, in an asymptomatic sample of the general population. This was a repeated measures prospective study utilizing a reliable and valid instrument, the modified CA6000 Spine Motion Analyzer (Orthopedic Systems Inc. Union City CA & Troke\\/University of Brighton).
Michael Troke; Ann P Moore; Frederick J Maillardet; Elizabeth Cheek
We acknowledge the limitations in measures of moral reasoning and pursue an alternative technique by investigating past behaviors as they relate to present behavioral intentions. Our purpose is to evaluate the merits of patterned normative behavior for predicting present and future, morally relevant outcomes. Participants (N = 177) completed a policy capturing experimental design responding to questions that orthogonally varied
George W. Watson; Thomas Douglas; Robyn Berkley; Ram Madapulli; Yuping Zeng
We segmented a sample of the Italian public based on their normative beliefs to support or oppose wolf management options. Based on the specificity principle and the notion of predictive potential, we hypothesized “minimal” differences among the segments for demographic and past experience variables and substantive differences among the segments for belief and attitude measures. Data were collected through personal
Jenny A. Glikman; Alistair J. Bath; Jerry J. Vaske
The current volume gathers the content of the first conferences, circumscribing to important concepts of the theory and practice of the EU construction: normativity, fundamental rights or legal order. Of course the reader's thorough analysis when studying the current volume will get us close or far away from the three concepts, already stated. Thus, the first topic „La Régulation, une
This special issue of Technology and Culture examines the normativities of engineering educationâ€”how practices of engineering formation prepare engineers to serve specific social agendas as they rework the material world. It also calls new attention to the relationship between history of technology and its audiences. The history of technology originated in 1959 among scholars based largely in engineering education, yet
|This exploratory study was designed to determine if a normative structure exists among a community college student body by extending the work of Caboni, Braxton, Deusterhous, Mundy, McClendon, and Lee (2005). The study also sought to determine if the level of espousal for the norms differed across student characteristics. This study analyzed data…
|This paper examines the developmental concepts such as the normative and the dynamic dimensions that Katz talked about in her book (Engaging Children's Minds), and its' contribution towards the development of children. It points to the different varieties of behaviour that children engage in within their different cultures. It presented problems…
A critical realist account is developed of two aspects of the study of power which are normally left implicit: the theory of causation presupposed and the way in which the normative connotations of power are dealt with. These matters are discussed partly by reference to Foucault’s views on power, particularly as set out in Volume 1 of The History of
Results from this study, in which subjects evaluated gratifications for various media channels based on their beliefs concerning how “most people” would respond, indicate that each medium has a clear, socially defined image. This suggests a two-stage model of media channel utilization, of normative expectations followed by individual decisions.
|Results indicate that each of the nine media studied (newspapers, magazines, commercial and public television, books, radio, friends, recorded music, film) has a clear, socially defined image, suggesting a two-stage model of media channel utilization--normative expectations followed by individual decisions. (PD)|
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in fetuses are limited. Because of the need for normative data for comparison with young fetuses and preterm neonates with suspected brain abnormalities, we studied apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in a population of singleton, nonsedated, healthy fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DWI was performed in 28 singleton nonsedated fetuses with normal
M. M. Schneider; J. I. Berman; F. M. Baumer; H. C. Glass; S. Jeng; R. J. Jeremy; M. Esch; V. Biran; A. J. Barkovich; C. Studholme; D. Xu; O. A. Glenn
Purpose – This paper aims to propose a normative framework focusing on the need to enhance the roles of the four fundamental environmental forces of management – socio-demographic, techno-economic, politico-institutional, and cultural. The objective is to create a business climate of certainty so that Kenya can achieve its goals of national and private sector development and of elevating its global
Nanda R. Shrestha; Wilbur I. Smith; Lydia McKinley-Floyd; Kenneth R. Gray
This report summarizes the approach taken to construct a normative model of environmental education. Three sections are included in the report. The first section describes the background of the model including the project context and the purpose of the model. The second section describes the method of constructing the model. The third section…
In this paper, we describe a novel agent architecture for normative multi-agent systems which is based on multi-context systems. It models the three modalities of Rao and Georgeff's BDI agents as individual contexts and adds a fourth one for commitments. This new component is connected to all other mental attitudes via two sets of bridge rules, injecting formulae into it
|This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…
|In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy,…
|The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…
|The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative…
Four studies examined implications of attachment theory for psychological aspects of religion among Israeli Jews. Study 1 replicated previous correlational findings indicating correspondence among interpersonal attachment orientations, attachment to God, and image of God. Studies 2-4 were subliminal priming experiments, which documented both normative and individual-difference effects. Regarding normative effects, findings indicated that threat priming heightened cognitive access to God-related concepts in a lexical decision task (Study 2); priming with "God" heightened cognitive access to positive, secure base-related concepts in the same task (Study 3); and priming with a religious symbol caused neutral material to be better liked (Study 4). Regarding individual differences, interpersonal attachment-related avoidance reduced the normative effects (i.e., avoidant participants had lower implicit access to God as a safe haven and secure base). Findings were mostly independent of level of religiousness. The present experiments considerably extend the psychological literature on connections between attachment constructs and aspects of religion. PMID:22800284
Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Gewirtz, Vered; Shaver, Phillip R
|Describes the design of an expert system developed using VP-Expert for document delivery decision making in a law library. Presents methods used in knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation after a brief review of the literature on expert system use in libraries. An appendix includes the rules of the expert system. (Author/AEF)|
Posters for various exhibitions and workshops at CERN, the Swiss-based European Laboratory for Particle Physics, are now available within the Multimedia collection of the CERN Document Server. At this site, over 220 posters can be searched (keyword, title, or date) or browsed by title. The posters cover CERN projects such as the L3 detector and the End-cap Muon system and exhibitions including "Crystals of China" and "Collaborating through the Cold War." They display labeled diagrams of equipment, specifications, and historical facts. Because the online CERN Document Server is set to provide thorough information about documents in its database, users can find the top ten keywords for each poster, get detailed file format information (.pdf, .gif, .ps), extract figures, and receive documents by email. The printable color posters provide an interesting look into the history of CERN research and outreach and make nice office decorations for science geeks such as this editor.
Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple definitions of hooking up among college students and how different definitions might be associated with the participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey composed of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content-coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up: Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805
Lewis, Melissa A; Atkins, David C; Blayney, Jessica A; Dent, David V; Kaysen, Debra L
|Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…
The aim of this study was to identify normative developmental trajectories of parent-reported problems assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; T. M. Achenbach, 1991) in a representative sample of 2,076 children aged 4 to 18 years from the general population. The trajectories were determined by multilevel growth curve analyses on the CBCL syndromes in a longitudinal multiple birth-cohort sample
Ilja L. Bongers; Hans M. Koot; Jan van der Ende; Frank C. Verhulst
Efforts in the 1960s to demonstrate the value of the “new archaeology” involved showing that the competing culture-history paradigm was inferior. One allegedly weak plank in that paradigm had to do with how culture historians viewed culture—as a set of ideas transmitted in the form of ideal norms or mental templates. Lewis Binford referred to this view as “”normative theory.”
The regulation of the activity of multiple autonomous entities repre- sented in a multi-agent system, in environments with no central design (and thus with no cooperative assumption), is gaining much attention in the research com- munity. Approaches to this concern include the use of norms in so-called normative multi-agent systems and the development of electronic institution frameworks. In this paper
Purpose – Risky and high-risk alcohol consumption is prevalent amongst young females and university students. Relatively little research in Australia has focused on these groups. This study aims to use social marketing and consumer behavior principles to examine the attitudinal, normative and demographic factors which influence alcohol consumption amongst 18-24-year-old, female university students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 230 female
Rebecca OHara; Debra Harker; Maria Raciti; Michael Harker
Multi-agent systems are viewed as consisting of individual agents whose behaviors are regulated by an organizational artifact. This chapter presents a programming language that aims at facilitating the implementation of norm-based organizational artifacts. The programming language is presented in two steps. We first present a programming language that is designed to support the implementation of non-normative organizational artifacts. Such artifacts
Mehdi Dastani; Nick A. M. Tinnemeier; John-Jules Ch. Meyer
We have developed and tested 144 compound remote associate problems. Across eight experiments, 289 participants were given\\u000a four time limits (2 sec, 7 sec, 15 sec, or 30 sec) for solving each problem. This paper provides a brief overview of the problems\\u000a and normative data regarding the percentage of participants solving, and mean time-to-solution for, each problem at each time
. Tests of famous face recognition and naming, and tasks assessing semantic knowledge about famous people after presentation\\u000a either of their faces or their names are often used in the neuropsychological examination of aphasic, amnesic and demented\\u000a patients. A total of 187 normal subjects took part in this study. The aim was to collect normative data for a newly devised
This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each created a Human Figure Drawing
The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.
Background. The balance error scoring system (BESS) is a brief, easily administered test of static balance. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for this test. Study Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and cohort design. Methods. The sample was drawn from a population of clients taking part in a comprehensive preventive health screen at a multidisciplinary healthcare center. Community-dwelling adults aged 20–69 (N = 1, 236) were administered the BESS within the context of a fitness evaluation. They did not have significant medical, neurological, or lower extremity problems that might have an adverse effect on balance. Results. There was a significant positive correlation between BESS scores and age (r = .34). BESS performance was similar for participants between the ages of 20 and 49 and significantly declined between ages 50 and 69. Men performed slightly better than women on the BESS. Women who were overweight performed significantly more poorly on the test compared to women who were not overweight (P < .0001; Cohen's d = .62). The BESS normative data are stratified by age and sex. Conclusions. These normative data provide a frame of reference for interpreting BESS performance in adults who sustain traumatic brain injuries and adults with diverse neurological or vestibular problems.
To make criminal conduct liable to punishment, criminal responsibility, defined as individual blameworthiness in terms of social ethics, is required as point of reference--both to create and limit the state's right to punish the offender. Neurobiological findings and more recent investigations in brain research have given rise to serious doubts regarding this "conditio sine qua non" of the state's power monopoly. As a result of preceding unconscious decisions, so the argument goes, Man is not free in his will, and the normative principle of culpability would need to be relinquished in favour of a "law of measures" detached from guilt. A detailed analysis of the underlying experimental setups, in particular the investigations by Benjamin Libet involving the measurement of the readiness potential, has shown, however, that the results of the test methods do not justify the demand for a profound change up to the point of a total revision of criminal law, and that they cannot invalidate the concept of freedom of will apostrophised on principle. The empirical data obtained fail to demonstrate if and why decisions of the will should not be free, the more so as the nomothetic method used ignores completely the idiographic understanding and interpretation of the always context-related and socio-structurally (pre)-moulded personality of the offender. Performed in a laboratory setting as individual actions with a comparatively simple structure and unrelated to a concrete situation, they can by no means be translated to the (more) complex situation under which an offence is committed including the decision-making processes determined by psychodynamic, motivational and intentional aspects as well as highly specific reciprocal interactions within the offender-victim constellation. Even if these experiments had shown the determined nature of human decisions, they would not necessarily have to bring about a conceptual change of paradigms of the normative concept of guilt, because as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will. PMID:17217181
Objective To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with two clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting One large suburban high school. Participants 1211 high school students aged 14–18. Main outcome measures Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Results Nineteen percent (N=216) of students reported current smoking, and 40% (N=379) of the non-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Factor analysis identified three normative beliefs constructs, labeled “perceived prevalence of smoking,” “perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society,” and “disapproval of smoking by parents/peers.” On average, students felt that 56% of people in the US smoke cigarettes. Twenty-four percent (24%) believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the three constructs was independently associated with current smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08; Adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23; Adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.75; respectively) even after controlling for covariates. Students’ perceptions of smoking among successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.29; Adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.96; respectively). Conclusions Adolescents’ normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least three distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking.
Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Dalton, Madeline A.
This was a descriptive study on normative salivary cortisol values and responsivity to a hospital clinic visit and an intravenous (IV) procedure in children. The study presented was a subproject of a primary research study that examined parents coaching their children requiring an IV placement in the use of distraction. One measure of child response in the primary study, salivary cortisol, was included to further our understanding of children's physiologic response to stressful and painful stimuli. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained from 384 children aged between 4 and 10 years upon arrival to the clinic and 20 minutes after their IV insertion. Baseline samples were collected at home on a typical day for the children. Data from baseline samples were used to establish normative values between 8:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. on a nonprocedural day. Results demonstrate that normative cortisol levels in children follow a pattern similar to the circadian pattern in adults, decreasing from early morning to mid afternoon. Matched samples from control group children were used to evaluate group responsivity. Salivary cortisol levels on the baseline day were lower than those obtained during the day of the procedure and tapered over time as expected (-8.7% +/- 6.7%, p = .431). Cortisol levels on the clinic day increased from baseline and increased further in response to IV placement (15.7% +/- 6.7%, p = .023). A Location x Time interaction was significant (p = .019). Findings demonstrate that salivary cortisol is a useful measure of stress response that can be used to evaluate intervention effectiveness. PMID:19171296
McCarthy, Ann Marie; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Kleiber, Charmaine; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Lutgendorf, Susan; Tsalikian, Eva
Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097
Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A
OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.
Property relations in irrigation and water rights distribution have become central issues in current policy debates and rural development initiatives. Nevertheless, there is still a great lack of understanding about what water rights-in-practice are, how they function, and how they are created, consolidated, and transformed from abstract sociolegal categories into local procedures and in-the-field practices. Understanding users’ rationality and local
Objective: To develop normative ranges of maternal arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) for women residing at sea level throughout gestation and postpartum.Materials and Methods: Healthy, nonsmoking, non-laboring pregnant women, with no obstetrical risk factors, were recruited into this longitudinal study performed at The Stamford Hospital (elevation sea level). Maternal SpO(2) was measured in the dominant index finger while breathing room air with a Nelcor N-200 pulse oximeter and DS-100A sensor (Nellcor Puritan Bennett, Pleasanton, CA) at set antepartum (AP) and postpartum (PP) intervals. Oxygen saturation was measured in the following positions: sitting, lying on the left then right side, knee-chest, and supine. Five minutes were allowed between measurements. Measurements were taken at 12, 24, and 36 weeks of gestation and then at 12 weeks postpartum for each patient.Results: Thirty-six patients were initially enrolled. Three were excluded from this study, secondary to loss of follow-up (1), preterm delivery at 35 weeks (1), and complicated placenta previa (1). Of the 33 patients who remained in the study 5 have delivered and undergone postpartum evaluation. SpO(2) values (%) are summarized as mean +/- 2 SD in the Table.Conclusion: Preliminary data in this ongoing descriptive longitudinal study suggest that maternal SpO(2) is at least 97% throughout pregnancy for healthy, non-smoking women residing at sea level. These normative data may be useful in managing pregnant women at risk for hypoxia. PMID:10838287
A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.
The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.
Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…
Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris
Towards the general goal of generating a normative-empirical dialogue about ethics and justice, the present study explored three issues: (1) the extent to which the normative criteria of ethics and justice prescribed by moral philosophers are indeed reflected in managerial professionals' subjective beliefs of what ethical and just work behaviour ought to be, (2) the relationship between people's ought beliefs
The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in clinical practice to assess for memory dysfunction in the elderly. As part of the Mayo Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS), we provide age and education adjusted normative data for the AVLT. The sample consists of 306 self-identified African Americans who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling and ranging in age from
Tanis J. Ferman; John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford
|The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…
Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris
Objective: Heavy drinking among college students is a major concern across the country. Several studies have shown that students tend to overestimate the alcohol consumption of students, in general (global social norms), and of their close friends (proximal normative beliefs). Research has also shown that beliefs about others' alcohol consumption is strongly related to alcohol use. We hypothesized that normative
The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the psychometric properties of the instrument. In Studies 1 and 2, the unique
Scores of high school students responding to the same biology cognitive preference test using both normative and ipsative procedures were compared. All subtests, whether ipsative or normative, had high alpha Cronbach coefficients. A number of similarities were found in the mean scores obtained by the two procedures, as well as moderate positive…
Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…
|Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…
The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the PPAT from a
This chapter provides an overview of normative analysis in the health sector in recent decades. It surveys two distinct, but related, literatures. The first is normative analysis of the operation of health care and health care insurance markets, market failure, and the scope for non-market institutional arrangements to improve the efficiency and equity of the financing, funding, organization and delivery
The design and development of the detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) will be facilitated by a central system to track and store the design documents and drawings. Collaborators and SSCL personnel need a single system that they can access from a terminal on their desks and use to locate and view the latest version of a document. The SSCL Physics Research Division has developed a prototype system to track documents and drawings and to make them accessible via local and wide-area networks. The prototype is being used to refine the requirements and to develop the procedures for a larger system that will be acquired later. The format for storing documents is a major challenge because there is no interoperable standard. This paper discusses the system requirements and architecture, and present results of research on standards for storing documents.
The ability to obtain reliable phonetic information from a talker’s face during speech perception is an important skill. However, lip-reading abilities vary considerably across individuals. There is currently a lack of normative data on lip-reading abilities in young normal-hearing listeners. This letter describes results obtained from a visual-only sentence recognition experiment using CUNY sentences and provides the mean number of words correct and the standard deviation for different sentence lengths. Additionally, the method for calculating T-scores is provided to facilitate the conversion between raw and standardized scores. This metric can be utilized by clinicians and researchers in lip-reading studies. This statistic provides a useful benchmark for determining whether an individual’s lip-reading score falls within the normal range, or whether it is above or below this range.
Altieri, Nicholas A.; Pisoni, David B.; Townsend, James T.
Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism. PMID:10997236
Background: The Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMSTM) is a screening instrument which evaluates selective fundamental movement patterns to determine potential injury risk. However, despite its global use, there are currently no normative values available for the FMSTM. Objectives: To establish normative values for the FMSTM in a population of active, healthy individuals. Secondary aims were to investigate whether performance differed between males and females, between those with and without a previous history of injury, and to establish real-time inter-rater reliability of the FMSTM. Methods: Two hundred and nine (108 females and 101 males) physically active individuals, aged between 18 and 40 years, with no recent (<6 weeks) history of musculoskeletal injury were recruited. All participants performed the FMSTM and were scored using the previously established standardized FMSTM criteria. A representative sub-group participant sample (28%) determined inter rater reliability. Results: The mean composite FMSTM score was 15.7 with a 95% confidence interval between 15.4 and 15.9 out of a possible total of 21. There was no statistically significant difference in scores between females and males (t207 = .979, p = .329), or those who reported a previous injury and those who did not (t207 = .688, p= .492). Inter-rater reliability (ICC3,1) for the composite FMSTM score was .971, demonstrating excellent reliability. Inter-rater reliability (Kappa) for individual test components of the FMSTM demonstrated substantial to excellent agreement (0.70 — 1.0). Discussion and Conclusion: This cross-sectional study provides FMSTM reference values for young, active individuals, which will assist in the interpretation of individual scores when screening athletes for musculoskeletal injury and performance factors.
This article describes the effect of ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation on wideband acoustic immittance (WAI). This is an important topic to investigate as the goal of any audiological test is optimize the test's sensitivity and specificity. One way to improve the test's sensitivity and specificity is to reduce the variability of the normative data. The impact of the aforementioned demographic characteristics on WAI norms has been reviewed, and where applicable its potential impact on clinical outcome has been discussed. Overall, differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups in adults population may warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms especially for detection of otosclerosis; however, these differences in the school-aged children are not large enough to warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms. It is important to explore whether the observed differences between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups is due to body-size indices and whether these differences can be replicated in other East Asian ethnic groups that share similar body-size indices. The differences observed between school-aged children and adults could also potentially impact clinical decision analysis. Therefore, use of age-specific norm is recommended. The differences in WAI between different systems are not clinically significant, and the use of instrument-specific norms does not result in improved test performance at least for the detection of otosclerosis. However, measuring WAI at ambient pressure (static) or at pressure corresponding to the peak (dynamic mode) could potentially impact the normative data and may prove to be clinically useful in cases of negative and positive middle ear pressure. PMID:23900176
Shahnaz, Navid; Feeney, M Patrick; Schairer, Kim S
The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n?=?59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4–1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5–9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7–2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis and management of a number of diverse gynaecological and reproductive conditions in females from birth to menopause and beyond.
Kelsey, Thomas W.; Dodwell, Sarah K.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Greve, Tine; Andersen, Claus Y.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B
The purpose of this document is to describe a semi-automated system for the documentation of computer software; this system is called the Documentation Assistant (DA). To motivate this system, a general discussion of documentation issues and problems is i...
|Assesses students' existing and developing decision-making ability against the background of a normative model of the decision making process. Results indicate that after a unit on household packaging waste the students' arguments about a decision making situation improved in terms of validity and clarity of the criteria used. Contains 16…
This problem uses linking cubes as a concrete context for exploring simple multiplication and division, doubling, halves and quarters. The problem displays a rod of 4 cubes and asks students how many cubes are necessary to make rods related to it in a variety of ways. It can be used to introduce key concepts and vocabulary. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.
|This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
|Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.
Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We
This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595
Workplace collaborators make use of diverse types of documents and other resources. Traditionally, each type of document has been stored in its own repository, and people have had to manage multiple documents in multiple storage services. Workplace collaborators often have complex, ad hoc working relations that are partially executed through their shared documents. Traditionally, dependencies among documents and other objects
Earth building techniques make use of unbaked earth as a material for constructing walls. We consider that evaluation of soils is a primary question because not all soils are adequate for earth building, and not for any of the earth building techniques. Following a selection of more than 20 technical documents including standards from National Standards Bodies, we analysed the
The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions.
This interim Technical Research Note summarizes test performance of a representative sample of 35,291 high school students tested on Form 5 of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). Separate weighted normative tables are provided by subte...
The right framework for studying normative issues in infosociety and MAS is that of deliberate or spontaneous social order, and intended or unintended, centralised or decentralised forms of social control. For effectively supporting human cooperation it is necessary to \\
This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to socio?political and socio?ecological histories in post?apartheid curriculum transformation processes. The article critically
This article extends the theory of normative social behavior by conceptualizing drinking refusal self-efficacy as an important moderator in the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking intentions and behavior. A study was conducted among Korean high school students (N?=?538) to assess their normative perceptions, drinking refusal self-efficacy, and drinking intentions. We found a significant association between self-efficacy and drinking intentions
The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that\\u000a science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to\\u000a provide input to the normative domain of ethics. Whereas defenders of a scientific normative ethics appeal to naturalism, its critics
Katinka Quintelier; Linda Van Speybroeck; Johan Braeckman
Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.
This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.
...FDA-2011-N-0724] Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document...documents that support making regulatory submissions in electronic format using the electronic...is not prepared at present to accept submissions utilizing this new version because...
...FDA-2011-N-0724] Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document...documents that support making regulatory submissions in electronic format using the electronic...version 3.0; and ``Example Submissions using eCTD Backbone Files...
Although there appears to be a widespread consensus that depression is a ubiquitous human experience, definitions of depression, its prevalence, and how mental health services respond to it have changed significantly over time, particularly during recent decades. Epistemological limitations notwithstanding, it is now estimated that approximately 121 million people experience depression. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that the last two decades have seen the widespread acceptance of depression as a chemical imbalance and a massive corresponding increase in the prescription of antidepressants, most notably of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness and iatrogenic side effects of antidepressants; related questions have also been asked about whose interests are served by the marketing and sales of these drugs. Accordingly, this article attempts to problematize the normative orthodoxy concerning depression and creates a "space" in which an alternative can be articulated and enacted. In so doing, the article finds that the search for a world where the automatic response to depression is a pharmacological intervention not only ignores the use of alternative efficacious treatment options but may also inhibit the persons' chance to explore the meaning of their experience and thus prevent people from individual growth and personal development. Interestingly, in worlds analogous to this pharmacologically induced depression-free state, such as utopias like that in Huxley's Brave New World, no "properly conditioned citizen" is depressed or suicidal. Yet, in the same Brave New World, no one is free to suffer, to be different, or crucially, to be independent. PMID:20303451
The objective of the present study was to provide normative data for Trail Making Test (TMT) time to completion and performance errors among cognitively normal older adults, and to examine TMT error rates in conjunction with time scores for pre-clinical and clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnostic decision-making. A sample of 526 individuals was classified into three diagnostic groups (normal controls,
Lee Ashendorf; Angela L. Jefferson; Maureen K. O’Connor; Christine Chaisson; Robert C. Green; Robert A. Stern
Investigations of decision making have historically been undertaken by different disciplines, each using different techniques and assumptions, and few unifying efforts have been made. Economists have focused on precise mathematical models of normative decision making, psychologists have examined how decisions are actually made based on cognitive constraints, and neuroscientists have concentrated on the detailed operation of neural systems in simple
The document, sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is intended to provide information on Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) to transportation planning and air quality planning management and staff at all government levels. The document provides descriptions and examples of the TCMs listed in Section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act. Each TCM is described in terms of its objectives, variation in the ways it may be applied, expected transportation and emissions impacts, and other important implementation and policy considerations that State, regional, and local decision-making agencies will face.
Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO 2, FeO, and TiO 2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have reconciled this compositional diversity by considering the olivine- and quartz-normative basalts as originating from different lunar mantle source regions. To provide new information on the compositions of Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalt parental magmas, we report a study of major and trace-element compositions of whole rocks, pyroxenes, and other phases in the olivine-normative basalts 15016 and 15555 and quartz-normative basalts 15475 and 15499. Results show similar rare-earth-element patterns in pyroxenes from all four basalts. The estimated equilibrium parental-melt compositions from the trace-element compositions of pyroxenes are similar for 15016, 15555 and 15499. Additionally, an independent set of trace-element distribution coefficients has been determined from measured pyroxene and mesostasis compositions in sample 15499. These data suggest that fractional crystallization may be a viable alternative to compositional differences in the mantle source to explain the ˜25% difference in whole-rock TiO 2, and corresponding differences in SiO 2 and FeO between the Apollo 15 olivine- and quartz-normative basalts. In this model, the older (˜3.35 Ga) quartz-normative basalts, with lower TiO 2 experienced olivine, chromite, and Cr-ulvöspinel fractionation at 'crustal levels' in magma chambers or dikes, followed by limited near-surface mineral fractionation, within the lava flows. In contrast, the younger (˜3.25 Ga) olivine-normative basalts experienced only limited magmatic differentiation at 'crustal-levels', but extensive near-surface mineral fractionation to produce their evolved mineral compositions. A two-stage mineral-fractionation model is consistent with textural and mineralogical observations, as well as the mineral trace-element constraints developed by this study.
Schnare, Darren W.; Day, James M. D.; Norman, Marc D.; Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.
The Document Development Life Cycle (DDLC) covers all aspects of the use of structured electronic documents. Without a frame of reference, however, the DDLC lacks a focus to position various critical steps and tools required for the successful design, creation, and use of such documents.This paper describes a vendor-, product- and platform-independent framework named Computer Aided Document Engineering (CADE) which
The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.
Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.
Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.
This paper presents a new model based document im- age segmentation scheme that uses XML-DTDs (eXtensi- ble Mark-up Language-Document Type Definition). Given a document image, the algorithm has the ability to select the appropriate model. A new wavelet based tool has been designed for distinguishing text from non-text regions and characterization of font sizes. Our model based analysis scheme makes
Gaurav Harit; Santanu Chaudhury; P. Gupta; N. Vohra; Shiv Dutt Joshi
The increasingly ubiquitous global information structure makes it possible to examine high-volumetext streams that contain documents written in a variety of languages. Present monolingual adaptivefiltering techniques learn profiles which reflect user preferences and then apply those profilesto reduce the volume of new documents that must be examined by the user to manageable levels.This paper presents three techniques for extending adaptive
My paper today deals with probabilistic approaches to the document retrieval problem: why probability must play a central role, and how probability should be interpreted and used in the design of advanced document retrieval systems. However, before I get into some of the technical details, I would like to make a few personal remarks about Information Science, Information Technology and
The present study is the first to disentangle the genetic and environmental influences on personality profile stability. Spanning a period of 10 years, we analyzed the etiology of 3 aspects of profile stability (overall profile stability, distinctive profile stability, and profile normativeness) using self- and peer reports from 539 identical and 280 fraternal twins reared together. This 3-wave multirater twin design allowed us to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on latent true scores of the 3 aspects of profile stability while controlling for method effects and random error. Consistent biometric results were only found for profile normativeness, whereas overall and distinctive profile stability scores turned out to be biased. Over time, we found personality profile normativeness to be relatively stable. This stability was due to both stable genetic and nonshared environmental effects, whereas innovative variance was completely explained by nonshared environmental effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between the different aspects of profile stability, since overall and distinctive stability scores are likely biased due to the normativeness problem. Yet indicating a person's similarity to the average person, the normativeness of a personality profile itself has a psychological meaning beyond socially desirable responding. PMID:22092116
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M
The Seattle Municipal Archives has been a leader in putting important historical municipal documents online for well over a decade, and this digital document libraries collection is an important part of their work. These document libraries were conceived as a resource for teachers and students of Washington State history, and they contain primary source documents from key events in the Evergreen State's past. Visitors can make their way through document collections that include "The Great Seattle Fire of 1889", "Hoovervilles in Seattle", "Women in the Fire Department", and "Unemployment and the WPA in Seattle". Each collection contains a brief overview, the primary documents, and a bibliography. The documents are quite amazing, and they include letters from local officials, citizen petitions, and photographs.
This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.
The traditional interpretation of "intrinsic" religiousness has fostered an unchallenged assumption that normative and substantive religious motivation is inherently individual and personal. Social motives for religiousness and structured practices have been characterized as "extrinsic" and as lacking in formative significance. We argue that this view is most applicable in American Protestant religions, and hence existing religious motivation scales reflect a distinctly American Protestant view. We then show that social motives and structured ritual practices are, in fact, as normative as individual motivations in several religious traditions. In particular, we describe the social practices and motives normative for Judaism and certain streams of Christianity. We then discuss the potential relevance of this analysis to emotion, collective identity, and moral judgment. PMID:15745864
Cohen, Adam B; Hall, Daniel E; Koenig, Harold G; Meador, Keith G
To investigate how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the human brain, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, while 23 participants made either socio-normative or grammatical judgments. Participants with lower moral judgment competence recruited the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the left posterior superior temporal sulcus more than participants with greater competence in this domain when identifying social norm violations. Moreover, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during socio-normative relative to grammatical judgments. Greater activity in right DLPFC in participants with lower moral judgment competence indicates increased recruitment of rule-based knowledge and its controlled application during socio-normative judgments. These data support current models of the neurocognition of morality according to which both emotional and cognitive components play an important role. PMID:19015093
Prehn, Kristin; Wartenburger, Isabell; Mériau, Katja; Scheibe, Christina; Goodenough, Oliver R; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R
To investigate how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the human brain, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, while 23 participants made either socio-normative or grammatical judgments. Participants with lower moral judgment competence recruited the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the left posterior superior temporal sulcus more than participants with greater competence in this domain when identifying social norm violations. Moreover, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during socio-normative relative to grammatical judgments. Greater activity in right DLPFC in participants with lower moral judgment competence indicates increased recruitment of rule-based knowledge and its controlled application during socio-normative judgments. These data support current models of the neurocognition of morality according to which both emotional and cognitive components play an important role.
Wartenburger, Isabell; Meriau, Katja; Scheibe, Christina; Goodenough, Oliver R.; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.
Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure.
The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel
Discusses digital imaging technology and examines document database conversion considerations. Two types of document imaging systems are described: (1) a work in process system, and (2) a storage and retrieval system. Conversion methodology is outlined, and a document conversion scenario is presented as a practical guide to conversion. (LRW)
In this article metadata for mulimedia documents are classified in conformity with their nature, and the different kinds of metadata are brought into relation with the different purposes intended. We describe how metadata may be organized in accordance with the ISO standards SGML, which facilitates the handling of structured documents, and DFR, which supports the storage of collections of documents.
Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis.
The data is discussed concerning the public health normative legal base of in Voronejskaya oblast as related to the processes sector development following the public policy and current legislation. It is emphasized that the adoption of normative legal acts and their implementation permitted not only to legitimate and define concretely the activities of all executive authorities in public health and ambulatory polyclinic institutions but also to achieve factual positive results in decreasing morbidity of managed and feral nidal infection on the territory of Voronejskaya oblast. PMID:22611984
Effective support for policy makers depends on the ability to model the micro level, in terms of adaptive individual decision making process given subjective social norms, individual preferences, and interpretation of policies. But also requires the specification of macro level changes such as institutions and emerging norms and values. In this paper, we introduce the MASQ metamodel to describe both
Virginia Dignum; Frank Dignum; Sjoukje A. Osinga; Gert Jan Hofstede
Purpose – This paper seeks to further develop a model of natural hazard preparedness by examining the role of attitudes to natural hazards and their mitigation and social norms. It aims to examine whether social-cultural factors influence the decisions people make regarding their relationship with natural hazards. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data were collected from 156 residents in Napier, New Zealand.
In this paper, we consider the case of a distressed firm whose financial commitments have to be renegotiated with stakeholders (banks, trade creditors …). At default time, rival projects (continuation, piecemeal liquidation, liquidation as a going concern …) may be undertaken. In such a case, the most frequent way of making collective choices is to vote. Our attention focuses on
Assessed the normative environments of 15 representative single-sex and coeducational independent schools in the US, using the Classroom Environment Scale and Student Experience Questionnaire. Data gathered in 78 classrooms and from a stratified random sample of 456 10th and 12th graders showed that the environments of these 2 types of independent schools differ from one another and from the normative
Edison J. Trickett; Penelope K. Trickett; Julie J. Castro; Paul Schaffner
Informed by the theory of normative social behavior, this article sought to determine the underlying mediating and moderating factors in the relationship between descriptive norms and behavioral intentions. Furthermore, the theory was extended by asking whether and what role behavioral identity played in normative influences. Simulating the central message of norms-based interventions to reduce college students' alcohol consumption, in this
The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using adolescents with SDD compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels
Rebecca R. Carter; Shannon M. Johnson; Julie J. Exline; Stephen G. Post; Maria E. Pagano
|Confirmatory factor analyses of the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) using the Canadian normative sample (n=1,100 children) were conducted to verify the four-factor model found in the U.S. normative sample. Results paralleled those of the U.S. sample and support use of the WISC-III factor indexes. (SLD)|
|Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions…
Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.
This lesson will helps learners answer the question: How does the bombardment of micrometeoroids make regolith on the moon? In this lesson, learners investigate the effects of micrometeoroid bombardment on simulated regolith formation and develop a conclusion by making inferences about properties of regolith based upon observations.
Most so-called “errors” in probabilistic reasoning are in fact not violations of probability theory. Examples of such “errors” include overconfidence bias, conjunction fallacy, and base-rate neglect. Researchers have relied on a very narrow normative view, and have ignored conceptual distinctions—e.g. single case versus relative frequency—fundamental to probability theory. By recognizing and using these distinctions, however, we can make apparently stable
The present study tested the usefulness of a normative model of decision making designed for individuals and teams that emphasizes 5 processes needed in cognitively busy decision situations: scrutinize symptoms, hypothesize solutions, analyze proposed solutions, perform modifications and corrections, and evaluate results (SHAPE). All teams (102) were trained in task skills and practiced solving problems before the experimental decision-making situation,
This article, which originally appeared in Home Power magazine, outlines how to make electricity using hydrogen. The material outlines using a "cookbook approach" to building a fuel cell. A step by step process for building a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is outlined. The article also includes some helpful photos and diagrams to help you understand the particulars of how a fuel cell may be built in this way. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
Criminal justice decision-makers are routinely called upon to formulate and apply normative standards — including adjudication on criminal responsibility, assessments as to the availability of defences, and sentencing determinations. In polyethnic societies such as Australia, the terms in which the relevant standard should be conceived is sometimes challenged by defendants on the basis of their ethnic or religious identity. Such
The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…
Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.
This paper presents and discusses the results arising from a pre-normative study aimed at determining the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of mixed recycled aggregates produced from the treatment of mixed rubble for use in unbound structural layers of road. The results of this research show that the combined presence of concrete and ceramic materials induces pozzolanic reactions, which contribute
I. Vegas; J. A. Ibañez; A. Lisbona; A. Sáez de Cortazar; M. Frías
This study examines the effects of normative social beliefs, customer satisfaction with service quality and demographic variables on the long-term savings behavior of rural households some 15 years after the 1981 large-scale promotion of the rural bank program in Ghana. The results show that considerations of these influences beyond income alone provide stronger predictive power, over and above that of
It is argued that the construct of individual susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) needs to be put into a wider nomological framework, with antecedents and consequences. Based on prior literature, a causal sequence is hypothesized in which values are antecedent to SNI, which itself shapes the importance placed by the individual on different attributes. It is further suggested that the
Social norms and networks are important to understand consumer behavior. Here, we reexamine normative influences on impulsive buying (Rook and Fisher 1995) within a different cultural context, South Korea. Results of Study 1, with a general consumer sample from South Korea, confirms prior findings in the United States that the relationship between buying impulsiveness and impulsive purchase decisions is moderated
Hyokjin Kwak; George M. Zinkhan; Denise E. Delorme; Trina Larsen
Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…
|This study focuses on the espousal of undergraduate teaching normative patterns. Results showed that entering teaching assistants had higher levels of disdain than Research I faculty. The country in which students received their undergraduate degrees and gender variables also showed differences in espousal levels. The results give insight into…
Clinical neuropsychology relies on the use of appropriate test norms. Normative studies frequently stratify based on age, education, sex, and race. None to date has reported norms based on literacy, despite the substantial evidence that literacy impacts cognitive functioning. Some researchers have suggested that literacy is a more accurate reflection of academic achievement and quality of education than years of
Vonetta M. Dotson; Melissa Kitner-Triolo; Michele K. Evans; Alan B. Zonderman
|There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…
Community college students (N=170) were surveyed regarding the intensity and frequency of methods of corporal punishment they have received and the persons administering the punishment. Results indicate that corporal punishment is a normatively used method of behavioral management. Males reported receiving a greater amount of corporal punishment, especially from their fathers. Overall, those who received a high amount of corporal
This inquiry explores the normative impact that the rise of Information Technology is having on society as viewed through the lenses of Social Choice and Democratic Theory. Information technology has drastically increased the amount of available information by increasing information about users, the flow of information to users and the flow of information between users through digital connectivity. This has
|Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…
|This study was conducted using archival data for 300 students of the graduating class of 1980 in a public school system which had a minimum competency testing (MCT) program. Data on normative variables (age, sex, race, and ability test scores) and performance variables (high school course of study, grade point average, absenteeism, and truancy)…
A normative study of the levels of urinary uranium in the general UK population is needed for comparison with levels in UK military and ex-military personnel who served where munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used. As preparation, this pilot study trialled the process of collecting 24-h samples from adult male civilians, and compared the measurements from 24-h samples with
A. D.. Jones; B. G. Miller; S. Walker; J. Anderson; A. P. Colvin; P. A. Hutchison; C. A. Soutar
Revised normative standards of performance of men, ages 16-60 years, on a quantitative ataxia test battery in terms of new chronological age groupings based on a sample of 1055 normal men are presented. Five age groups--16-30, 31-40, 41-45, 46-50, and 51-...
Objective: To determine normative values for heart rate variation to deep breathing (VAR) and Valsalva ratio (VAL) as well as the effect of various confounding variables on these measures using data from a large group of normal subjects collected from multiple centers. Research design and methods: VAR and VAL were measured on 611 normal subjects, age range 9–79, from 63
David A Gelber; Michael Pfeifer; Beth Dawson; Mary Schumer
The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…
This article examines Chinese and Russian foreign policy and military strategy from the theoretical standpoint of soft balancing. Analysis of their thinking indicates that both seek to offset US military superiority without engaging American power directly. To that end, Chinese and Russian strategists have adopted ‘soft’ or ‘normative’ power assets as strategic capabilities in their military and foreign policy. Alternative
Normative Echoes is an interactive installation that explores ways to combine player-created content with procedural content. Animated autonomous agents inhabit virtual islands on stationary computers; a tablet PC is used as a virtual raft to transfer agents between the islands. The agents on each island communicate with one another and form scenario-based computational representations of their social interactions. These scenarios
Eric Baumer; Bill Tomlinson; Man Lok Yau; Thomas A. Alspaugh
|This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological…
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of an extension to i* modelling - normative i* modelling - during the requirements analysis for new socio- technical systems for food traceability. The i* focus on modelling systems as networks of heterogeneous, inter-dependent actors provides limited support for modelling system-wide properties and norms, such as laws and regulations, that also influence the specification of
Alberto Siena; Neil A. M. Maiden; James Lockerbie; Kristine Karlsen; Anna Perini; Angelo Susi
|Background: To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. Methods: In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase…
Bolton, Derek; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Briskman, Jacqueline; Perrin, Sean
Behavior rating scales are a primary method for screening and identifying children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The factorial structure and normative data of a teacher rating scale containing the 18 symptoms of ADHD were examined in this study. Factor analyses and assessment of differences in ADHD ratings across sex, age, and ethnic group were conducted with 4, 009
George J. DuPaul; Thomas J. Power; Arthur D. Anastopoulos; Robert Reid; Kara E. McGoey; Martin J. Ikeda
This chapter examines the role of altruistic motives in the economic analysis of public social transfers, both from a positive and from a normative point of view. The positive question is to know whether we can fully neglect altruistic considerations to explain the development or sustainability of these transfers. Such is the implicit ambition of efficiency theories of the Welfare
This chapter examines the role of altruistic motives in the economic analysis of public social transfers, both from a positive and from a normative point of view.The positive question is to know whether we can fully neglect altruistic considerations to explain the development or sustainability of these transfers. Such is the implicit ambition of efficiency theories of the Welfare State.
In this study we explored the attitudes and beliefs of nine heterosexual adults towards gay male and female couples parenting children. We conceptualised participants' perceptions as one primary lens through which gay parenting is viewed. Based on the narratives provided, this lens comprised hetero-normative, homophobic or heterosexist assumptions and coloured the way in which participants perceived aspects of the concept
By the age of 1 year toddlers demonstrate distinct coping habits for dealing with frustration. However, these habits may be open to change and reorganization at subsequent developmental junctures. We investigated change in coping habits at 18-20 months, a normative age for major advances in social cognition, focusing on the dynamic systems…
Lewis, Marc D.; Zimmerman, Sara; Hollenstein, Tom; Lamey, Alex V.
|This paper focuses on investigating the purposive design of learning environments to counter the erosion of social capital in communities and schools in contemporary society. Can schools intentionally replenish stocks of social capital by creating normative systems conducive to the optimal academic and social development of students, and by…
|This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…
Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael
Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well?being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect sleep patterns; and (3) the effectiveness of intervention and prevention approaches commonly implemented. This
|We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative…
Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III
Objectives. To provide normative data for the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Design. Repeated measures and correlational. Methods. The HADS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population ( N = 1792) in terms of the distributions of age, gender and occupational status. Correlational analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic variables
J. R. Crawford; J. D. Henry; C. Crombie; E. P. Taylor
This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes
Joseph W. LaBrie; Joel R. Grossbard; Justin F. Hummer
|The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…
Using age norms in the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability-Revised assessments of reading ability can distort the diagnosis of reading difficulty, as evidenced in the assessment practices of the New South Wales (Australia) Department of Education. Grade-normative data (year-level norms) and abandoning the reporting of precise reading scores are…
:This study suggests that an unwritten code of ethics exists in the form of a behavioral normative structure for college and university admission officers. Also considered are the influences that personal and institutional factors have on the espousal of these norms.
This study suggests that an unwritten code of ethics exists in the form of a behavioral normative structure for college and university admission officers. Also considered are the influences that personal and institutional factors have on the espousal of these norms.
In spite of the variety and complexity of approaches related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), there are some proposals which have become mainstream theories on normative in this field. Among them the following stand out: a) Corporate Social Performance Theory, b) Fiduciary Capitalism Theory, c) Stakeholder Theory, d) Corporate Citizenship Theory. Those theories generally include a certain vision of the
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on orthodontic treatment need in young adults have shown that up to 50% had malocclusions that needed orthodontic treatment. The aims of this study were to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine if the treatment need levels were influenced by sex, age and
Evidence regarding the relationship between playing violent video games and subsequent aggression has been mixed. This study further examined the relationship between normative beliefs about the acceptability of both physical and verbal aggression and playing violent video games. A total of 87 participants (27 males and 60 females), ranging in age from 19 to 49, completed three online surveys regarding
Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…
Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.
Background: To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. Methods: In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase…
Bolton, Derek; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Briskman, Jacqueline; Perrin, Sean
The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a
Normative?developmental performance on a battery of executive function tasks was investigated. Executive function was defined as goal?directed behavior, including planning, organized search, and impulse control. Measures were drawn from clinical neuropsychology (visual search, verbal fluency, motor sequencing, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task [WCST]) and from developmental psychology (Tower of Hanoi [TOH] and Matching Familiar Figures Test [MFFT]). A discriminant task,
Marilyn C. Welsh; Bruce F. Pennington; Dena B. Groisser
This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.
A non-verbal problem solving task, viz. a semplified version of Shallice’s  London Towers Test, was given to 131 normal subjects to obtain normative data relating to age, education and sex. The test was built up in its easiest possible feature in order to be administrable also to demented patients, therefore possibly becoming part of the neuropsychological diagnostic procedures of
N. Allamanno; S. Della Sala; M. Laiacona; C. Pasetti; H. Spinnler
|This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…
|With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…
Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah
A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative
Nicole Tausch; Julia C. Becker; Russell Spears; Oliver Christ; Rim Saab; Purnima Singh; Roomana N. Siddiqui
|The authors evaluated the efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 252 students who were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group following a baseline assessment. Immediately after completing measures of…
Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lewis, Melissa A.
Conviviality is a mechanism to reinforce social cohesion and a tool to reduce mis-coordination between individuals, groups and in- stitutions in web communities, for example in digital cities. We use a two-fold definition of conviviality as a condition for social interactions and an instrument for the internal regulation of social systems. In this paper we discuss the use of normative
Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…
|Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban),…
Matrimonial ads serve as unobtrusive sites to observe the construction and perpetuation of normative heterosexuality through socio-cultural discourses. The current study focuses on gendered spousal expectations and sex role preferences in 1065 matrimonial ads from two popular newspapers in India. Gender differences in ad type, financial stability, physical attractiveness, fairness, slimness, personality traits, and occupational preferences were examined. Results found
We examine links between factual recall, emotion and constructions of normativity in narrative accounts, using as an empirical case President Clinton' s descriptions of his relationship with Monica Lewinsky. We analyse those accounts in the sequences of talk in which they occurred, under Grand Jury cross-examination. Clinton' s accounts of Lewinsky were part of how he attended to issues alive
Building on the work of Giorgio Agamben and Michel Foucault, this paper explores the critical intersection between biopolitics and geopolitics. More specifically, an analysis is performed on the discourse that has been produced by the US executive with regard to the ongoing Darfur crisis. I interpret this discourse as part of a bio-normative geopolitical calculation aimed at maintaining the US
Four experiments examined repetition priming effects on judgments of normative word frequency. Experiment 1a found reliable priming, but only when words were studied under conditions of full attention; divided attention eliminated the effect. Experiment 1b replicated the attention effects and found that frequency and recognition judgments could be dissociated as a function of study repetition. Experiment 2 showed that Levels
The aim of this study was to examine the various attitudinal, normative and control factors affecting the adoption of broadband Internet in a developing country context by focusing upon Pakistan. The data on these variables was collected using a survey approach. The findings of this paper suggest that primary influence, facilitating conditions resources, cost, perceived knowledge and perceived ease of
|This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…
The volume of scientific data, and the interconnectedness of the systems under study, makes integration of data a necessity. For example, life scientists must integrate data from across biology and chemistry to comprehend disease and discover cures, and climate change scientists must integrate data from wildly diverse disciplines to understand our current state and predict the impact of new policies. The technical challenge of such integration is significant, although emerging technologies appear to be helping. But the forest of terms and conditions around data make integration difficult to legally perform in many cases. One approach might be to develop and recommend a single license: any data with this license can be integrated with any other data under this license. But this approach, which implicitly builds on intellectual property rights and the ideas of licensing as understood in software and culture, is difficult to scale for scientific uses. There are too many databases under too many terms already, and it is unlikely that any one license or suite of licenses will have the correct mix of terms to gain critical mass and allow massive- scale machine integration of data. This talk will instead lay out principles for open access data and a protocol for implementing those principles, as well as describe various international efforts to make data and databases legally and technically interoperable.
Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933
Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B
A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.
Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.
McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B
Writing documentation can be fun and rewarding, but keeping up with an ever-changing system can take a toll on that joy. The documentation tends to get either expensive (duplication-intense), outdated or non-existing. This demonstration will present an open source tool that addresses these shortcomings by extending the BDD approach to provide rich and human readable documents automatically from a JUnit test suite. You’ll learn how to include snippets, run-time data and more in your documents, all this with minimal effort and intrusion. This approach is suitable both for APIs and GUIs, as will be shown.
Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and transit documents. A solution to forensics is magnetic imaging where invisible magnetic patterns or recorded information can be displayed as an image for comparison with an optical scan. The use of small, highly sensitive detectors enables high resolution scanning of magnetic documents, creating magnetic images with fine detail. Depending on the design of a document, if the magnetic image is identical to the optical image, the document may be a counterfeit. In this paper, we will address the issues related to magnetic scanning of security documents. We will present and discuss magnetic images of documents printed with magnetic inks. We will also show how magnetic imaging can provide valuable information in understanding the alteration of magnetic data in documents such as tickets, licenses with pictures, and holograms.
In this outdoor water activity, learners explore how to change the direction of water flow. Learners make puddles in dirt or use existing puddles and sticks to make water flow. Learners will use yarn to measure who can make the longest "river." Learners will also investigate how they can change the direction water flows by digging paths or building walls and dams. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 35 of the PDF.
Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.
|In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)|
|Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)|
Audioscan automatic audiometry is a high resolution method to explore hearing thresholds in the 125 Hz-16 KHz range offering a resolution of 64 points per octave. This procedure makes it possible to study hearing threshold levels at intermediate frequencies which are not measured by conventional audiometry. As suggested in the literature, it is possible to identify hearing threshold notches, considered indicators of mild or subclinical cochlear pathology. In clinical practice, the use of a new audiometric technique requires affirmation of reliability, sensitivity and replicability in time. It also requires defining standard criteria for use in various otologic pathologies. The present study examined 50 normal hearing subjects with conventional audiometry and Audioscan (Essilor model) measurements. A standard acquisition protocol was followed where three Audioscan measurements were conducted per subject. Subjects with a history of acute otologic pathology and familiarity for genetic deafness were ruled out of the study. Multiple, pairwise correlation analyses of the audiometric and Audioscan responses indicate that: (1) there are no significant differences between threshold levels measured by Audioscan and conventional audiometry; (2) there are no significant variations in the hearing levels measured by three Audioscan retests. Three mean indicators of the threshold level have been defined, expressing Audioscan normality in three different frequency ranges. The data suggest that there are some difficulties in the subjectivity of the Audioscan method and some technical problems regarding the lower octave frequencies and these need to be addressed. The results obtained in this study confirmed reliability of the Audioscan in the mid and high frequencies. The definition of the standard mi criteria makes it easier to interpret the Audioscan measurements from cases presenting various otologic pathologies. Therefore, the plasticity and high detection sensitivity of hearing loss make the automatic Audioscan audiometry a useful clinical tool for diagnostic and/or preventive purposes. PMID:10736925
A single coherent framework is proposed to synthesize long-standing research on 8 seemingly unrelated cognitive decision-making biases. During the past 6 decades, hundreds of empirical studies have resulted in a variety of rules of thumb that specify how humans systematically deviate from what is normatively expected from their decisions. Several complementary generative mechanisms have been proposed to explain those cognitive
Documents released to the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) on 2 October 2000 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shed some new light on the technical genesis of the Carnivore Internet collection system. The release of the documents follow a lawsuit brought against the FBI by EPIC following a refusal to release them under the Freedom of Information Act.
|This paper briefly addresses critical issues in documenting studies of the effectiveness of inclusive education for students with disabilities and includes a summary table of the existing literature and guidelines for problem solving about inclusion. The importance of sound methodology in documenting effects of inclusion and the dangers of value…
This paper discusses the application of electronic media to documents, specifically safety analysis reports (SARs), prepared for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) programs being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Efforts are under way to upgrade our document system using electronic format.
Beitel, G.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
|This booklet offers an introduction to keeping and documenting the history of community organizations. With their variety of purposes these organizations add texture and variety to a community's heritage. A knowledge of that heritage, provided by written documentation as well as oral tradition, proves valuable to members of the organization, to…
Central New York Library Resources Council, Syracuse.
|Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…
The University of California, San Francisco Library and the American Legacy Foundation recently released the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL), a collection of more than 20 million previously private documents from tobacco industry files. Ranging from approximately the 1950s to recent years, LTDL offers searching, viewing, and downloading of documents, covering projects central to the tobacco industry like marketing, research and development, cigarette analysis and design, as well as industry efforts to establish business in developing countries. Within the next 18 months, more documents will be added to the already extensive collection. Currently, viewers may perform simple or advanced searches; view documents in Adobe Reader format (.pdf) or tagged image file format (.tif); or for a quick look, utilize the page-by-page option to view .gif images within the browser.
Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion) by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material.
The precision and efficiency of the similarity computing of documents is the foundation and key of other documents processing. In this paper, the DF and TF-IDF algorithms are improved. First, DF's time complexity is linear which suits mass documents processing, but it has the fault that exceptional useful features may be deleted, so we make up that by adding the
|Although document management (DM) systems have improved the efficiency of document handling, they do not address the document process itself. Virtual document technology, when incorporated into DM systems, simplifies the document production process and reduces time and costs. Discusses the assembly a virtual document, creation of a complete…
Text Version... 2009 Sep;15(3):213-27. Reyna VF. A theory of medical decision making and health: fuzzy trace theory. Medical Decision Making. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
This online activity lets learners test their ability to 'read' facial expressions. Learners watch videos that show different facial expressions, then choose which emotion they think is being expressed. When the learner chooses the correct emotion, they are presented with a list of the facial muscles that are used to produce that expression. This activity can be used by individuals, pairs and groups. It involves observation and can lead to developing documentation through photography, video and portrait drawing. The biology connections can lead to exploration of the musculature system.
|In the current economic climate, alumni associations are taking hard looks at their budgets and making cuts where necessary. However, the recession is an opportunity for alumni associations to create and build alumni loyalty through networking and career services--when they are needed most. Many alumni association budgets are set through the end…
In this lab, students work in groups to grow crystals in different conditions, and then make conclusions about how and why crystals form. This site contains a detailed procedure and materials list, as well as follow-up questions. A teacher's guide contains extension ideas and information for conducting this lab.
Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning.
Text VersionPage 1. OLODATEROL RESPIMAT FDA Advisory Committee Briefing Document Boehringer Ingelheim NDA 203108 December 19, 2012 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Systems documentation is provided for the Client Action, Characteristics, Tracking and Record Updating System (CACTUS), which was transferred from Kansas City, Missouri, to assist managers and planners of youth service programs in Los Angeles County, Cali...
The Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion describe...
A retrieval model was developed for teaching and research purposes on the basis of varied work experience and analysis of technical document retrieval and library services. The model is based on Shannon's communication model but identifies the would be re...
The objective of this document is to establish a design for the virtual library user and administrative layers that complies with the requirements of the virtual library software specification and subordinate module specification.
... to finalize the Guidance for Industry after the same period of access. ... Document FDA-2008-D-0096-0002 (Guidance for Industry - Control of Listeria ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates
The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centre (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinc...
The Stroop Test is a quick and frequently used measure in screening for brain damage, dysfunction of selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. The purpose of the present study is to provide normative data for Trenerry's Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST) in a sample of 605 healthy Greek participants (age range: 18-84 years, education range: 6-18 years). Results revealed that age and education significantly contributed to SNST scores, accounting for a significant proportion of variance in time needed to complete the color task and in the interference Color-Word score. Performance on most of the measures decreases with increasing age and lower levels of education. Normative data stratified by age and education for the Greek adult population are provided as a useful set of norms for clinical practice. PMID:19395358
This study assessed "normative discontent," the concept that most women experience weight dissatisfaction, as an emerging societal stereotype for women and men (Rodin, Silberstein, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Participants (N = 472) completed measures of stereotypes, eating disorders, and body image. Normative discontent stereotypes were pervasive for women and men. Endorsing stereotypes varied by sex and participants' own disturbance, with trends towards eating disorder symptomotology being positively correlated with stereotype endorsement. Individuals with higher levels of body image and eating disturbance may normalize their behavior by perceiving that most people share their experiences. Future research needs to test prevention and intervention strategies that incorporate the discrepancies between body image/eating-related stereotypes and reality with focus on preventing normalization of such experiences. PMID:21932970
Background Few studies have examined differences in emotional responding among distinct types of positive stimuli. This is important to understand both for individuals characterized by extreme positive mood (i.e., bipolar disorder) and healthy adults. Methods Using a multi-method within-subjects design, the current study examined physiological, behavioral, and self-reported responses to normative (film) and idiographic (memory) happy stimuli in bipolar (BD; n=25) and healthy control groups (CTL; n=23). Results For both groups, the happy films were associated with greater self-reported and behavioral displays of positive emotion compared to the happy memory. Furthermore, the BD group displayed greater cardiac vagal tone – a putative marker of positive emotion – across both the film and memory. Conclusion Normative stimuli were more potent elicitors of positive emotion compared to idiographic stimuli. The study provided further evidence for cardiac vagal tone as a potential biomarker of extreme positive emotion in BD.
The present study provides normative data from a sample of 257 healthy children and 608 adults on a modified version of the Five-Point Test (5PT). The 5PT is a structured and standardized test measuring figural fluency functions. Interrater reliability, test-retest-reliability and construct validity of this measure were analyzed. The sensitivity of the task for cognitive disturbances of patients with neurological diseases was proven by analyzing the test performance in the 5PT of patients with Parkinson's disease. Finally, normative data stratified by age and corrected for education level is provided. The results of the present study confirm the value of the 5PT in the measurement of figural fluency functions in clinical examination and neuropsychological research. PMID:23029395
Tucha, Lara; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W
The Useful Field of View test (UFOV) is increasingly used in clinical and rehabilitation settings. To date there have been no normative data for adjusted performance comparisons across demographically-similar, elderly peers. This study examined demographic and cognitive influences on the UFOV in a sample of 2759 participants (65-94 years of age). Performance was found to differ by age and education. Regression analyses examined the relative contributions of age, education, mental status, vision, and health to UFOV performance. All of these factors were found to significantly contribute to UFOV performance, with age accounting for the most variance and education accounting for the least. Normative tables for the UFOV by age and education are provided. These norms will allow researchers and clinicians to compare UFOV performance with similar peers and may help in identifying elderly persons who would benefit from speed of processing training. PMID:16704918
Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Wadley, Virginia G; Clay, Olivio J; Crowe, Michael; Roenker, Daniel L; Ball, Karlene K
We re-examine the construct of Moral Hypocrisy from the perspective of normative self-interest. Arguing that some degree of\\u000a self-interest is culturally acceptable and indeed expected, we postulate that a pattern of behavior is more indicative of\\u000a moral hypocrisy than a single action. Contrary to previous findings, our results indicate that a significant majority of subjects\\u000a (N = 136) exhibited fair behavior, and
Self-construal and impulse buying are hot research issues. Current research investigated how self-construal and normative evaluations affect impulse buying when shopping with others. Results of this study showed that self-construal has a different effect on impulse buying for consumers with different self-construal. Specifically, when shopping with company who tends to think impulse buying appropriate, the difference of impulse buying level
Does current sex research in which people of African descent in the United States are the subjects present black sexuality\\u000a as non-normative? If so, what is the impact of these presentations? The methodology used in this study included a qualitative\\u000a review of research on sex and sexuality in which black people in the U.S. were research subjects. The study concludes
BackgroundVolleyball and basketball are among the sports with a higher incidence of knee injuries. The inability to maintain a proper alignment of the lower limbs during functional activities could create a knee valgus which predisposes to injury. Thus, the quantification of knee valgus is necessary to guide prevention and clinical interventions.ObjectiveTo establish normative values for dynamic knee valgus during the
L D Mendonça; B A J Murta; M N F Leite; N F N Bittencourt; V Castro; G G P Gonçalves; A A Silva; S T Fonseca
Abstract—We reanalyzed,data from five studies with similar or identical methodology,performed by our laboratory to define normative values and determinants of physical capacity in indi- viduals with tetraplegia and paraplegia. Each study consisted of agraded,wheelchair exercise test to determine ,peak oxygen uptake,and maximal ,power ,output and could ,additionally include a wheelchair sprint test to determine short-term (anaer- obic) power output and\\/or
Thomas W. j. Janssen; Annet J. Dallmeijer; Dirkjan Veeger
Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of
Deborah Finkel; Chandra A. Reynolds; Maria Larsson; Margaret Gatz; Nancy L. Pedersen
Worry is a common symptom in various psychiatric problems and the key symptom of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The Penn\\u000a State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is the most widely used self-report scale for measuring worry. The present study provides\\u000a normative data for the Dutch version of the PSWQ for a large community sample and a clinically referred sample of patients\\u000a with
Colin van der Heiden; Peter Muris; Arjan E. R. Bos; Henk van der Molen; Martijn Oostra
Objective: To determine normative values for isometric flexion\\/extension, abduction\\/adduction, and external\\/internal rotation strength ratios about the shoulder and to determine if these ratios are affected by age or gender.Study Design: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy volunteers (60 men, 60 women) aged 20 to 78 years.Setting: Orthopedic research laboratory.Methods: Flexion and extension strengths were measured isometrically using a Cybex II
Richard E. Hughes; Marjorie E. Johnson; Shawn W. O'Driscoll; Kai-Nan An
We present age- and gender-specific normative bone status data evaluated by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the calcaneus\\u000a with the Lunar Achilles device and compare these estimates with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD)\\u000a estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Included were a sample of 518 population-based collected Swedish girls and 558\\u000a boys aged 6–19 years. QUS measurements included
Gayani Alwis; Björn Rosengren; Jan Åke Nilsson; Susanna Stenevi-Lundgren; Martin Sundberg; Ingemar Sernbo; Magnus K. Karlsson
Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health. PMID:20728972
There is a large body of evidence that the belief in a just world (BJW) affects people’s behaviors and attitudes, either through\\u000a secondary victimization of innocent victims or the promotion of helping behavior. In this article, we aim to address the normativity\\u000a of the very expression of BJW. Results of two experimental studies show that the expression of a higher
This paper is intended to promote a way of is-ought derivation, rooted in neonaturalistic solutions which were worked out within the scope of both the ontology of values and meta-ethical applications of 20th Century linguistic philosophy. Normative, especially in the sphere of morality, reasoning is supposed to be the most significant component of the structure of social communication. The common
Background: The scotopic 15-Hz flicker electroretinogram (ERG) has two limbs (slow and fast ERG rod signals), and these have been attributed to two retinal rod pathways (the ON rod bipolar and AII amacrine pathway and the rod-cone gap-junction pathway). The aim of this study was to provide normative values of the scotopic 15-Hz flicker ERG, to estimate the inter-individual variability,
H. Scholl; H. Langrová; B. Weber; E. Zrenner; E. Apfelstedt-Sylla
The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is a measure of one’s endorsement of societal appearance ideals. The measure has received extensive evaluation in normative samples, but only minimal evaluation in clinical groups. In this study, 440 patients with eating disorders completed the SATAQ-3. Internal consistencies were excellent for the four SATAQ-3 subscales. Groups did not differ by diagnosis on
Rachel M Calogero; William N Davis; J. Kevin Thompson
As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.
Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.
In this math lesson, learners discover a powerful way to display dataâusing a glyph. Learners create glyphs by drawing their own faces on paper plates. Making a glyph involves the logical skill of classification--a learner must decide which groups he or she belongs to in order to complete the picture. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.
This report explores the technical, normative, political, and socio-cultural dimensions of the scaling up process of Success for All, one of the nation's most successful and extensively researched whole-school change models. This research suggests that fu...
This study first examines the relationship between partnership status and subjective well-being in 45 European countries by analyzing the European Values Study 2008. It was expected and empirically confirmed that married individuals have the highest level of well-being, followed by (in order) cohabiting, dating, single, and finally widowed and divorced individuals. In addition, this study examines to what extent the well-being gaps depend on the normative climate in which an individual lives. It is hypothesized that: (a) being in a non-married relationship (especially cohabitation and divorce) lowers well-being compared to being married in societies that reject non-traditional partnership statuses; and (b) not having a partner is especially detrimental for well-being levels in familialistic societies, which emphasize the importance of a strong, close-knit family. The normative climate appears to hardly affect well-being gaps between partnership statuses. Only the gap between divorced and married women is significantly wider in familialistic societies. It is concluded that the weak dependence of well-being on the normative climate may point at high autonomy in private, relationship-related decisions. PMID:22707813
Objective. Spinal mobility is assessed frequently in patients with AS/axial SpA using the BASMI to provide baseline measurement and monitor change over time. The interpretation of BASMI scores has been hindered by the absence of normative values. We aimed to obtain normative values for the BASMI in healthy men and women in a UK population. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 168 volunteers stratified by gender and age was completed. Exclusion criteria comprised factors potentially influencing spinal mobility. Each component of the BASMI was assessed, with the total score computed using the 10-point scoring system. Measurements were taken by physiotherapists following an agreed protocol. Data were summarized and analysed with age-specific centiles and CIs calculated. Results. Total BASMI scores ranged from 0 to 4.4, with only 1.2% of the sample having a score of 0. The estimated median score for an individual age 25 years was 0.9, increasing with age to 2.1 for an individual age 65 years. There was a corresponding increase in component BASMI scores, which was more pronounced for some components than others. Conclusion. Our data indicate that it is unusual for healthy individuals to score zero on the BASMI, which has implications for the interpretation of scores, especially at baseline. The generation of normative values has the potential to inform clinical assessment of spinal mobility and assist patients in understanding how their spinal mobility compares with that of a healthy age-matched population. PMID:23962624
Virtue is the most perdurable concept in the history of ethics, which is understandable given the ineradicability of the moral agent in the events of the moral life. Historically, virtue enjoyed normative force as long as the philosophical anthropology and the metaphysics of the good that grounded virtue were viable. That grounding has eroded in both general and medical ethics. If virtue is to be restored to a normative status, its philosophical underpinnings must be reconstructed. Such reconstruction seems unlikely in general ethics, where the possibility of agreement on the good for humans is remote. However, it is a realistic possibility in the professional ethics fo the health professions where agreement on the telos of the healing relationship is more likely to arise. Nevertheless, virtue-based ethics must be related conceptually and normatively to other ethical theories in a comprehensive moral philosophy of the health professions. If he really does think there is no distinction between virtue and vice, why, sir, when he leaves our house, let us count our spoons. Samuel Johnson PMID:10144959
Determining mobility status is an important component of any health assessment for older adults. In order for a mobility measure to be relevant and meaningful, normative data are required for comparison to a healthy reference population. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument to measure mobility across the spectrum from bed bound to functional levels of independent mobility. In this cross-sectional observational study, normative data were obtained for the DEMMI from a population of 183 healthy, community-dwelling adults age 60+ who resided in Vancouver, Canada and Melbourne, Australia. Older age categories had significantly lower DEMMI mobility mean scores (P < 0.05), as did individuals who walked with a mobility aid or lived in semi-independent living (assisted living or retirement village), whereas DEMMI scores did not differ by sex (P = 0.49) or reported falls history (P = 0.21). Normative data for the DEMMI mobility instrument provides vital reference scores to facilitate its use across the mobility spectrum in clinical, research, and policymaking settings.
Macri, E. M.; Lewis, J. A.; Khan, K. M.; Ashe, M. C.; de Morton, N. A.
The root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus L. has been continuously reared since 1992 on an artificial diet (F1675) first reported in 1982. The weight of weevils reared on F1675 was more than twice as great as field-collected individuals. Recently, several ingredients included in the original F1675 diet were shown to have little or no effect on insect performance. We examined the effects of varying three ingredients of a simplified diet on the weight of adult D. abbreviatus. We used a geometric design combined with response surface models to evaluate the effects of the amount and proportion of diet ingredients to identify optimal diet recipes for normative weight gain defined in relation to field-collected D. abbreviatus from locations in Florida. Our results showed that it is possible to produce adults of normative weight or, for that matter, any mean weight within a wide range by varying the proportions of cottonseed meal, wheat germ and cellulose, a non-nutritive filler. Although wheat germ contributed to greater weight gain, survival of larvae to adult was lower on diets containing only wheat germ compared with diets containing only cottonseed meal as the principal nutritive components. The analyses of all the variables measured indicate that cottonseed meal is the only major nutritive component, in addition to standard vitamin and salt mixes, required to produce adult D. abbreviatus of normative weight. PMID:20388301
Lapointe, Stephen L; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P; Hall, David G
Assessments of spinal nociceptive withdrawal reflexes can be used in human research both to evaluate the effect of analgesics and explore pain mechanisms related to sensitization. Before the reflex can be used as a clinical tool, normative values need to be determined in large scale studies. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values of spinal nociceptive reflexes and subjective pain thresholds (to single and repeated stimulation), and of the area of the reflex receptive fields (RRF) in 300 pain-free volunteers. The influences of gender, age, height, weight, body-mass index (BMI), body side of testing, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and parameters of Short-Form 36 (SF-36) were analyzed by multiple regressions. The 95% confidence intervals were determined for all the tests as normative values. Age had a statistically and quantitatively significant impact on the subjective pain threshold to single stimuli. The reflex threshold to single stimulus was lower on the dominant compared to the non-dominant side. Depression had a negative impact on the subjective pain threshold to single stimuli. All the other analyses either did not reveal statistical significance or displayed quantitatively insignificant correlations. In conclusion, normative values of parameters related to the spinal nociceptive reflex were determined. This allows their clinical application for assessing central hyperexcitability in individual patients. The parameters investigated explore different aspects of sensitization processes that are largely independent of demographic characteristics, cognitive and affective factors. PMID:19505833
Neziri, Alban Y; Andersen, Ole K; Petersen-Felix, Steen; Radanov, Bogdan; Dickenson, Anthony H; Scaramozzino, Pasquale; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Curatolo, Michele
The original structure of the RBANS includes five Indexes; however, recent factor analyses support a two-factor solution (Duff et al., 2006; Wilde, 2006). Unfortunately, normative and psychometric data do not currently exist on these two new Indexes. Building on prior work, the current study provides age- and education-corrected normative data to calculate the factor-derived Verbal and Visual RBANS Indexes (Duff
Kevin Duff; Douglas R. Langbehn; Mike R. Schoenberg; David J. Moser; Lyle E. Baade; James W. Mold; James G. Scott; Russell L. Adams
This article contributes to the ongoing discussion on the question of feminism, gender, and post-tsunami response (Akerkar, 2007; Hyndman, 2008) by offering an analysis of the normative boundaries of gender policies in the context of post-tsunami reconstruction in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. The analysis focuses on the normative ideals portrayed in Oxfam International’s radio drama “Women Can Do It Too!” broadcast
BackgroundFailure to use seatbelts in motor vehicles is a major source of youth injuries, and previous research has noted the widespread non-use of seatbelts in popular media.ObjectivesTo explore whether increased exposure to entertainment screen media was associated with inflated normative perceptions regarding seatbelt non-use, and to determine any associations between normative perceptions and seatbelt non-use.MethodsA nationally representative telephone survey of
Swiss Diplomatic Documents, a site maintained by the Swiss Federal Archives, provides public access to documents on Swiss foreign policy and international relations. This site contains two valuable information resources: the DoDiS database and a comprehensive bibliography. The DoDiS (Diplomatische Dokumente der Schweiz, or Documents Diplomatiques Suisses) database currently includes entries on over 2,000 foreign policy documents, 6,000 persons, 7,000 organizations, and 1,650 geographical terms. The database also contains international agreements, federal laws, and decisions of the Federal Council and of the Federal Assembly. DoDiS is searchable and provides detailed bibliographic data for each entry. Recently about one-fourth of the documents have also been made available in a full-text format (.pdf). The other significant resource at this site is a bibliography on Swiss international relations and foreign policy from 1945 to the present. The extensive bibliography is organized by subject and includes references in German, French, and English.
Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context.
Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.
In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.
This problem provides an opportunity for children to practice skip-counting and counting on. It lays a foundation for the concept of multiples and proportional thinking. Using linking cubes of two different colors, one color grouped in 2s and the other color grouped in 3s, children look for ways they can make a line of one color equal to a line of the other color. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.
Learners make slime from white school glue and Borax detergent. The long chain molecules of the white glue become cross-linked by the Borax into a big network. The result is an even larger polymer of thickened slime. Learners can experiment with the ratios of ingredients and see what effect that has on the resulting slime. Safety note: Borax is an irritant and should be kept out reach of children and pets. While safe in diluted solutions, borax can be harmful if ingested.
The creation process of technical documentation is an expensive and time-consuming task especially for complex products. To make this process more cost-efficient computerized support is required. Furthermore new technologies like Virtual and Augmented Reality will be increasingly used to visualize repair manuals or operating instructions in the future adding even more to the authoring process. The availability of a suitable
Information and communication technology rapidly developed over the past decade and provided the means to easily capture, store and distribute documents in vast quantities and at an ever-increasing speed. To be able to make good use of this information instead of becoming swamped by it, scientific controls need to be applied. Records management provides these controls. This article explains how
In this paper, we make an analysis of the main requirements needed for building an authoringenvironement for interactive multimedia documents. These requirements are of different natureas they are related to a considerable number of computer science fields. Then, we presentour contribution to meet these requirements. The particularity of our project is to consider theproblem of multimedia authoring as a whole
|Designed to make state documents more easily accessible and more widely available to the general public, these guidelines focus on the responsibilities that should be assumed at the state level by the library community of each state. The first guideline, Minimum State Servicing, is the most general. The Checklist, Inputting into Data Bases, and…
American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Government Documents Round Table.
This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.
The Making of America (MOA) project at the University of Michigan is one of the oldest collaborative efforts designed to make a wide range of historical journals available online. Started in the fall of 1995, the project has successfully offered access to thousands of pages of journals and books that document American social history from the antebellum period through Reconstruction. With generous assistance from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the MOA digital archive has digitized numerous journals from this period, and made them widely accessible. Visitors will appreciate looking through such pieces as the "Anatomy of Selfishness" from the February 1887 of Catholic World, or the entire contents of the Southern Literary Messenger from November 1845.
The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…
The Dynamic Document Creator by Strategis (described in the December 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) assembles international market research reports according to user-defined specifications. Each report draws on US Department of Commerce data and any number of regions, countries, industry sectors, and keywords are available for selection.
The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced...
|Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)|
Although the main purpose of a school district's evaluation system is to improve employees' performance, the evaluation procedures and the supporting documentation must also serve as evidence in the termination hearings of an unsatisfactory employee. Accordingly, this chapter provides practical advice to school administrators concerning…
Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.
A word selection measure is employed to delete those terms that rarely occur and those that have a low conditional probability of occurring in a category. A set of sample documents known to belong to each category is used to estimate the mean frequency, t...
Documents listed in this bibliography are subdivided into three content categories: (1) Theoretical and Technical Documents, (2) Design and Operation of the Leviathan System, and (3) Computer Programs and Equipment. Within each category, documents are arr...
Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.
The Command, Control, Communications Countermeasures (C3CM) Joint Test Force (JTF) was established to plan for, conduct, and report the results of Joint Test and Evaluation (JT&E) activities directed toward the following mission: to provide information which can be applied by combat commanders in the field so that they may improve the effectiveness of their forces by disrupting the enemy's command, control and communication system. This document describes the Program Approach proposed to fulfill the requirements of the C3CM JTF mission. This document represents the current JTF view on a feasible test program and serves as the framework within which changes can be accommodated and from which a Program Design Plan can be developed.
Created as part of the University of Miami Libraries Digital Collections, this rather remarkable offering includes an assortment of documents related to various aspects of FloridaÃ¢ÂÂs history, life, and culture from 1777 to the 1920s. The range of materials here includes correspondence diaries, invoices, receipts, reports, and other documents. Key highlights cover a range from the Seminole Wars to the early days of Miami history. The user interface here is quite useful as visitors can use the Location Map & Timeline to browse around from Pensacola down to the Keys. Also, visitors can use the Subject Index area to look around from "Abstracts of Title" to "Yulee, David Levy." First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the signature of Napoleon B. Broward and then wandering on over to a unique deed from the Florida East Coast Railway.
Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...
The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) periodically releases reports on climate change and related issues. Nearly twenty publications may be requested using the GCRIO Document Request Form; recent additions for 1998 include "People and Pixels: Linking Remote Sensing and Social Science" and "Our Changing Planet: The FY 1999 US Global Change Research Program" (discussed in the July 8, 1998 Scout Report for Science and Engineering).
Reliable detection and quantification of longitudinal cognitive change are of considerable importance in many neurological disorders, particularly to monitor central nervous system effects of disease progression and treatment. In the current study, we developed normative data for repeated neuropsychological (NP) assessments (6 testings) using a modified Standard Regression-Based (SRB) approach in a sample that includes both HIV-uninfected (HIV?, N=172) and neuromedically stable HIV-infected (HIV+, N=124) individuals. Prior analyzes indicated no differences in NP change between the infected and uninfected participants. The norms for change included correction for factors found to significantly affect follow-up performance, using hierarchical regression. The most robust and consistent predictors of follow-up performance were the prior performance on the same test (which contributed in all models) and a measure of prior overall NP competence (predictor in 97% of all models). Demographic variables were predictors in 10%-46% of all models and in small amounts; while test retest interval contributed in only 6% of all models. Based on the regression equations, standardized change scores (z-scores) were computed for each test measure at each interval; these z scores were then averaged to create a total battery change score. An independent sample of HIV? participants who had completed 8 of the 15 tests was used to validate an abridged summary change score. The normative data are available in an electronic format by email request to the first author. Correction for practice effects based on normative data improved the consistency of NP impairment classification in a clinically stable longitudinal cohort after baseline.
Cysique, Lucette A.; Franklin, Donald; Abramson, Ian; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J. Allen; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.
Data regarding ethnic differences in wave reflections, which markedly affect the central pressure profile, are very limited. Furthermore, because age, heart rate, and body height are strong determinants of augmentation index, relating single measurements to normative data (in which augmentation index values correspond with average population values of its determinants) is challenging. We studied subject-level data from 10 550 adults enrolled in large population-based studies. In a healthy reference sample (n=3497), we assessed ethnic differences in augmentation index (ratio of second/first systolic peaks) and generated equations for adjusted z scores, allowing for a standardized comparison between individual augmentation index measurements and the normative population mean from subjects of the same age, sex, ethnic population, body height, and heart rate. After adjustment for age, body height, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure, African blacks (women: 154%; men: 138%) and Andean Hispanics (women: 152%; men: 133%) demonstrated higher central (aortic) augmentation index values than British whites (women: 140%; men: 128%), whereas American Indians (women: 133%; men: 122%) demonstrated lower augmentation index (all P<0.0001), without significant differences between Chinese and British whites. Similar results were found for radial augmentation index. Nonlinear ethnic/sex-specific equations for z scores were successfully generated to adjust individual augmentation index values for age, body height, and heart rate. Marked ethnic differences in augmentation index exist, which may contribute to ethnic differences in hypertensive organ damage. Our study provides normative data that can be used to complement the interpretation of individual hemodynamic assessments among men and women of various ethnic populations, after removing the effect of various physiological determinants. PMID:21536986
Chirinos, Julio A; Kips, Jan G; Roman, Mary J; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Li, Yan; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Norton, Gavin R; Yasmin; Van Bortel, Luc; Wang, Ji-Guang; Cockcroft, John R; Devereux, Richard B; Wilkinson, Ian B; Segers, Patrick; McEniery, Carmel M
Data regarding ethnic differences in wave reflections, which markedly affect the central pressure profile, are very limited. Furthermore, because age, heart rate and body height are strong determinants of augmentation index, relating single measurements to normative data (in which augmentation index values correspond to average population values of its determinants) is challenging. We studied subject-level data from 10,550 adults enrolled in large population-based studies. In a healthy reference sample (n=3,497), we assessed ethnic differences in augmentation index (ratio of second/first systolic peaks) and generated equations for adjusted z-scores, allowing for a standardized comparison between individual augmentation index measurements and the normative population mean from subjects of the same age, gender, ethnic population, body height and heart rate. After adjustment for age, body height, heart rate and mean arterial pressure, African blacks (women:154%; men:138%) and Andean-Hispanics (women:152%; men:133%) demonstrated higher central (aortic) augmentation index values than British whites (women:140%; men:128%); whereas American Indians (women:133%; men:122%) demonstrated lower augmentation index (all P<0.0001), without significant differences between Chinese and British whites. Similar results were found for radial augmentation index. Non-linear ethnic/gender-specific equations for z-scores were successfully generated to adjust individual augmentation index values for age, body height and heart rate. Marked ethnic differences in augmentation index exist, which may contribute to ethnic differences in hypertensive organ damage. Our study provides normative data that can be used to complement the interpretation of individual hemodynamic assessments among men and women of various ethnic populations, after removing the effect of various physiologic determinants.
Chirinos, Julio A.; Kips, Jan G.; Roman, Mary J; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Li, Yan; Woodiwiss, Angela J.; Norton, Gavin R.; Yasmin; Van Bortel, Luc; Wang, Ji-Guang; Cockcroft, John R.; Devereux, Richard B.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Segers, Patrick; McEniery, Carmel M.
Objectives:To examine the relationship between normative and self-perceived treatment need assessed by different measures, comprising two Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) scales. Subjects and Methods:This cross-sectional observational study comprised 386 children aged 11-16 years registered for a first consultation at the Orthodontic Department of the University Hospitals of Leuven (Belgium). Normative treatment need was assessed by the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The children completed questionnaires comprising the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) and the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). They also scored the AC of IOTN themselves. Spearman correlations, Mann-Whitney U-tests and signed-rank tests, a Bland-Altman plot, and an intra-class correlation were used to analyze the data.Results:Significant, yet weak correlations (maximum ? = 0.23 for the CPQ emotional well-being domain) were found between normative orthodontic treatment need (IOTN AC) and most of the OHRQoL measures. Similarly, between the IOTN AC scores of the expert and the IOTN AC ratings given by the child a significant correlation (? = 0.37, P < 0.0001) was found, but with very poor agreement (95 per cent limits of agreement -4.3, 5.1). For the DHC of IOTN, only a relation was found with the AC child (? = 0.20, P = 0.0001).Conclusions:These results suggest that the commonly used IOTN as a clinical assessment tool for orthodontic treatment need should be reinforced by OHRQoL measures, like the OASIS, expressing patients' perceived treatment need. PMID:23761429
Despite a number of published reports, there is limited information about carnitine metabolism in the newborn. To establish normative data, we analyzed whole-blood carnitine concentrations in 24,644 newborns at age 1.85 +/- 0.95 d and umbilical cord whole blood and plasma carnitine concentrations in 50 full-term newborns. Total carnitine (TC), free carnitine (FC), and acylcarnitine (AC) were measured by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. AC/FC ratios were derived from these measurements. The entire cohort was stratified according to TC values into a middle TC group representing 90% of the population and lower and upper TC groups representing 5% of the population, respectively. Normative data were derived from the middle TC group of full-term infants (N = 19,595). TC was 72.42 +/- 20.75 microM, FC was 44.94 +/- 14.99 microM, AC was 27.48 +/- 8.05 microM, and AC/FC ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.19 (+/-SD). These values differed significantly from umbilical cord whole blood TC values of 31.27 +/- 10.54 microM determined in 50 samples. No meaningful correlation was found between TC and gestational age or birth weight in any group. In controlled analyses, prematurity was not associated with TC levels, whereas low birth weight (<2500 g) and male sex were significantly associated with higher TC levels. The association of low birth weight with higher TC values may be related to decreased tissue carnitine uptake. The sex effect may be related to hormonal influences on carnitine metabolism. Our study provides normative data of carnitine values measured by the highly precise method of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in a large cohort of newborns and provides the basis for future studies of carnitine metabolism in health and disease states during the neonatal period. PMID:12612202
Chace, Donald H; Pons, Roser; Chiriboga, Claudia A; McMahon, Donald J; Tein, Ingrid; Naylor, Edwin W; De Vivo, Darryl C
The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.
Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L. (University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Poison, MT)
Background The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), an overall measure of personality and psychopathology, features a number of dimensions\\u000a that may be useful in the psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates. However, its clinical utility is limited\\u000a because psychometric properties of the PAI with bariatric surgery candidates have never been evaluated, and normative data\\u000a for this population have never been published.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We
Joyce A. Corsica; Leila Azarbad; Kamara McGill; Laura Wool; Megan Hood
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
Quilt is a computer-based tool for collaborative document production. It provides annotation, messaging, computer conferencing, and notification facilities to support communication and information sharing among the collaborators on a document. Views of a document tailored to individual collaborators or to other of the document's users are provided by Quilt based on the user's position in a permission hierarchy that reflects
Mary Diane Palmer Leland; Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut
Retrieving relevant documents over the Web is an over- whelming task when search engines return thousands of Web documents. Sifting through these documents is time-consuming and sometimes leads to an unsuccess- ful search. One problem is that most search engines rely on matching a query to documents based solely on top- ical keywords. However, many users of search engines have
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system. PMID:18693944
The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes. PMID:8928672
...Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A available from: Director, Stationary Source Compliance Division, EN-341, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. [54 FR 25259, June 20,...
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has unveiled new recommendations for informed consent documents that aim to make the forms more understandable and more useful to people who are considering participation in a cancer clinical trial.
The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.
In order to achieve better scalability and reduce latency in handling user requests, many Web applications make extensive use of data replication through caches and Content Delivery Networks. However, in such scenarios data is often placed on un- trusted hosts. As a result, existing replication mechanisms open a wide class vulner- abilities, ranging from denial of service to content masquerading.
Bogdan C. Popescu; Maarten Van Steen; Bruno Crispo; Andrew S. Tanenbaum; Jan Sacha; Ihor Kuz
Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study. Primary aims are to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with alcohol consequences and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N = 96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported - weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. PMID:23899424
Merrill, Jennifer E; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R
In the July 2006 issue of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, a paper by Harwell and Gentile was published assessing the present ecological significance of the impacts from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). First, this paper compares the major conclusions of Harwell and Gentile and a paper reviewing the current impacts of EVOS by Peterson et al as published by Science in 2003. Stark differences exist between the conclusions of the 2 papers regarding continuing impacts. Part of the difference appears to be the infusion of different social values or policy goals into each. Normative science is the use or interpretation of data in support of specific values or policies. Examples of values or policies intertwined with science are constructs such as ecosystem health, ecosystem integrity, ecological significance, and recovery. Examination of the environmental risk assessment and toxicology literature reveals that the symptoms of normative science are common and the implications widespread. Separation of science from policy or at a minimum a transparent acknowledgment of the science-policy interaction is clearly necessary in order to obtain a clear picture of the ecological system under investigation. PMID:17695114
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are associated with characteristic patterns of neuropathological spread in the brain. Disease progression is usually accompanied by regional atrophy that can be detected noninvasively using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A wealth of data has demonstrated the value of quantitative measurements of regional atrophy in AD, suggesting that volumetric MRI (vMRI) may be a useful clinical tool. vMRI provides biological evidence of neurodegenerative disease in patients with cognitive impairment. However, several hurdles impede implementation of vMRI in clinical practice. These include a lack of standardized MRI acquisition protocols, spatial distortions in MRI data, labor-intensive vMRI methods susceptible to interoperator variability, a lack of normative ranges for volume measures, and difficulty integrating vMRI in clinical workflow. Advances in vMRI have resulted from multi-institutional studies of brain imaging, such as the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), and help address these challenges. New, fully-automated measures of brain structure volumes coupled with large, multi-center studies using standardized MRI protocols now allow the development of age-adjusted normative ranges for vMRI. Such advances are critical for providing physicians a framework for assessing the pattern and degree of regional atrophy in a patient's brain and applying vMRI in clinical practice. PMID:19847042
Objectives: The Boston Naming Test (BNT) has been used to assess the language development of children in many epidemiology studies, and its usefulness is confirmed. The BNT consists of 60 black and white line drawings of objects and animals. There are no normative data available for this test for Japanese children. The purpose of this study was to collect normative information in Japan and to examine the correlation between the score of the BNT and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children third edition (WISC-III). Methods: The BNT was translated into Japanese and administered in children registered to the birth cohort of the Tohoku Study of Child Development at the age of 84 months. The participants for analysis in this study were 449 children (237 boys, 212 girls). Results: There were four items with percentage scores below 1%; Igloo, Knocker, Muzzle, and Yoke. Many Japanese children could answer 'abacus' and 'compass', which are difficult for US children. Although the score of the BNT correlated with IQ of the WISC-III (p<0.001), as compared with the previous studies, the correlation coefficient was low. Conclusions: The BNT is quick and easy to use and valuable for researchers in evaluating language ability in children. Since the BNT was developed in the United States, the cultural values of that country are reflected in the BNT score. This implies that the BNT should be modified to fit Japanese population. PMID:24077491
The Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate frequency of prospective memory (PM) failures in people with brain injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAPM, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and to establish normative data by comparing CAPM scores between groups on the basis of sex, age, and education. Data were collected on 95 people aged 15-60 years living in the community, with no history of brain injury, using the CAPM. The results showed that the test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the CAPM were within acceptable ranges, indicating that the CAPM provides a stable and homogenous measure of an individual's self-report of PM failures. Normative data are presented in two age groups based on the significant difference found between the age groups 15-30 years and 31-60 years. These established norms can be used to describe perceived or observed behaviours indicative of PM failure in patients with brain injury by comparing CAPM ratings from significant others with the norms. The CAPM questionnaire provides researchers or clinicians with a stable and reliable assessment option that specifically focuses on PM for individuals with brain injury. PMID:17852758
Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713
Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill
Objectives. We assessed the prospective impact of individual, social-normative, and policy predictors of quit attempts and smoking cessation among Massachusetts adults. Methods. We interviewed a representative sample of current and recent smokers in Massachusetts by telephone in 2001 through 2002 and then again twice at 2-year intervals. The unit of analysis was the 2-year transition from wave 1 to wave 2 and from wave 2 to wave 3. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence of longer than 3 months were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Predictors included individual, social-normative, and policy factors. Results. Multivariate analyses of 2-year transitions showed that perceptions of strong antismoking town norms were predictive of abstinence (odds ratio = 2.06; P < .01). Household smoking bans were the only policy associated with abstinence, but smoking bans at one's worksite were significant predictors of quit attempts. Conclusions. Although previous research showed a strong relation between local policy and norms, we found no observable, prospective impact of local policy on smoking cessation over 2 years. Our findings provide clear support for the importance of strong antismoking social norms as a facilitator of smoking cessation.
Hamilton, William L.; Siegel, Michael; Sullivan, Eileen M.
The precision and efficiency of the similarity computing of documents is the foundation and key of other documents processing.\\u000a In this paper, the DF and TF-IDF algorithms are improved. First, DF’s time complexity is linear which suits mass documents\\u000a processing, but it has the fault that exceptional useful features may be deleted, so we make up that by adding the
Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678
Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to ``classical'' mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical (``first order cybernetics'') and modern (``second order cybernetics'', ``complexity theory'') systems thinking in social sciences. .
In recent years researchers have focused attention on understanding the role of normative factors in influencing behaviors. Although there is some evidence to support the idea that restructuring normative beliefs can result in behavior change, the norms literature is largely silent about how or why this influence occurs. The theory of normative social behavior describes the moderators of the descriptive norm-behavior relationship. Through a 2 (descriptive norms: high or low) x 2 (perceived benefits: high or low) x 2 (similarity: high or low) between-subjects experiment (N = 174), we tested whether these cognitive mechanisms moderated the norms-behavior link. Results indicated that descriptive norms do not exert a direct influence on behavior. Rather, perceived benefits moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and behavioral intention and perceived similarity moderated the relation between descriptive norms and self-efficacy. PMID:16199387
Rimal, Rajiv N; Lapinski, Maria K; Cook, Rachel J; Real, Kevin
Teachers in the municipally run infant–toddler and preprimary schools of Reggio Emilia have repeatedly demonstrated and described their schools as relational spaces where documentationmakes visible children's learning and informs flexible planning, or progettazione. The purpose of this article is to reveal how teachers' and children's patterns of participation in the sociocultural activities of documentation and flexible planning changed, and
Mary Jane Moran; Lisa Desrochers; Nicole M. Cavicchi
This guidance document is a product of the Avian Subcommittee of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC). The NWCC was formed to better understand and promote responsible, credible, and comparable avian\\/wind energy interaction studies. Bird mortality is a concern and wind power is a potential clean and green source of electricity, making study of wind energy\\/bird interactions essential. This document
R. Anderson; M. Morrison; K. Sinclair; D. Strickland
This paper makes a study on content-based image retrieval algorithm for document image database. Given a query image the system returns overall similar images in database. For document images, we propose the algorithm based on hierarchical matching tree. First segment an image into several regions with paragraph marking based on paragraph height estimation, and then segment the region into line
BACKGROUND: To determine whether a computerized clinical documentation system (CDS): 1) decreased time spent charting and increased time spent in patient care; 2) decreased medication errors; 3) improved clinical decision making; 4) improved quality of documentation; and\\/or 5) improved shift to shift nursing continuity. METHODS: Before and after implementation of CDS, a time study involving nursing care, medication delivery, and
James A Menke; Cynthia W Broner; Deborah Y Campbell; Michelle Y McKissick; Joy A Edwards-Beckett
These three editions offer conclusive evidence that literature by Renaissance women has come in from the margins. S. P. Cerasano and Marion Wynne-Davies's Renaissance Drama by Women: Texts and Documents is a students' edition of six plays and documents which makes it possible for undergraduates to appreciate the roles of women in theatrical culture; Josephine Roberts's edition of Wroth's Arcadia
An automated assembling of torn documents (2D) will support philologists, archaeologists and forensic experts. Especially if the amount of fragments is large (up to 1000), a human puzzle solver will not be feasible due to cost and time. Ancient manuscripts may be broken due to bad storage conditions, or documents are manually torn to make the information unreadable. In Germany
Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in providing intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clusters. In particular, hierarchical clustering solutions provide a view of the data at different levels of granularity, making them ideal for people to visualize and interactively explore large document collections.In this
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.
Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior. The research field that attempts to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices inspired by the collective behavior of social insect colonies is called Swarm Intelligence. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the swarm algorithms are usually flexible, robust, decentralized and self-organized. These characters make the swarm algorithms suitable for solving complex problems, such as document collection clustering. The major challenge of today's information society is being overwhelmed with information on any topic they are searching for. Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in helping users to effectively navigate, summarize, and organize the overwhelmed information. In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. These clustering algorithms use stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks, fish schools and ant food forage.
How does Apple do it? Visitors who ask themselves that question will certainly want to check out the online exhibit "Making the Macintosh: Technology and Culture in Silicon Valley" that draws heavily on the holdings of Stanford University Library's Department of Special Collections. The layout of the website is simple and well organized with "Archives" that include "Primary Documents", "Images" and "Interviews". The Interviews include designers of the Macintosh and the Lisa mouse, the designer of the Macintosh icons, and a member of an influential Macintosh users group, BMUG. The "Mouse" link under "Images" has several drawings of a mouse most consumers never saw, since initially computers were marketed to government, industry, and universities. The later images show a colorful ad for the Hawley X036X mouse, which has three buttons, from the Mouse House. The Mouse link also contains dozens of interviews, memos and reports of various key players in the development and the promotion of the mouse.
|With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make…
|Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…
The UN has recently created a guide to help researchers new to UN documentation which. It provides an overview of the various types of documents and publications issued by the UN and offers guidance on finding and working with them. Topics covered include Document Symbols, Basic Research Tools, Indexes, Full-Text Documents in Electronic and Paper Formats, Parliamentary Documents, Resolutions/Decisions, Speeches, and Press Releases. Many categories include information on electronic access to indexes and full texts. Although designed for new users, anyone working with UN documents will benefit from this clear and concise guide.
The Linux guru (or guru wanna-be) should bookmark this site. Linux is UNIX freeware available for Intel's x86, Motorola's 680x0, DECS's Alpha CPU and Sun's sun4c and sun4m machines, and is currently being ported to the PowerPC architecture. This meta-site contains documentation in many different languages, links to a great number of applications and utilities that run on Linux, user groups world-wide and other topics of interest. So, whether your question concerns the latest version (2.0.27) or the difference between various distributions, or if you've decided to write the next kernel, this site is a natural place to start.
William the Conqueror had a considerable interest in the property holdings of his subjects, and around Christmas 1085 he decided to commission a great survey to discover just what resources were out among the boroughs and manors of England. The massive document that came out of this lengthy process was the Domesday Book. It has fascinated historians for centuries, and recently The UK National Archives created this online guide to the work. Visitors can take a look through the book via interactive features such as ÂDiscovery DomesdayÂ, which provides a bit of background on the work, complete with images from its pages. Additionally, the ÂWorld of DomesdayÂ feature provides some contextual background for understanding what life was like for the people of 11th century England. Visitors can search across the Domesday Book in its entirety by place name, person, or other keyword.
We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these information sources, we define a document representation general and flexible enough to represent
Marco Aiello; Christof Monz; Leon Todoran; Marcel Worring
We propose a new approach to automate document image layout extraction for an object- oriented database feature population using rapid low level feature analysis, preclassification and predictive coding. The layout information comprised of region location and classification data is transformed into 'feature object(s)'. The information is then fed into an intelligent document image retrieval system (IDIR) to be utilized in document retrieval schemes. The IDIR system consists of user interface, object-oriented database and a variety of document image analysis algorithms. In this paper the object-oriented storage model and the database system are presented in formal and functional domains. Moreover, the graphical user interface and a visual document image browser are described. The document analysis techniques used at document characterization are also presented. In this context the documents consist of text, picture and other media data. Documents are stored in the database as document, page and region objects. Our test systems has been implemented and tested using a document database of 10,000 documents.
Koivusaari, Maija; Sauvola, Jaakko; Pietikaeinen, Matti
Finding suitable, less space consuming views for a document's main content is crucial to provide convenient access to large document collections on display devices of different size. We present a novel compact visualization which represents the document's key semantic as a mixture of images and important key terms, similar to cards in a top trumps game. The key terms are
Hendrik Strobelt; Daniela Oelke; Christian Rohrdantz; Andreas Stoffel; Daniel A. Keim; Oliver Deussen
One of the biggest challenges for intelligence analysts who participate in prevention or response to a terrorism act is to quickly find relevant information from massive amounts of data. Along with research on information retrieval and filtering, text summarization is an effective technique to help intelligence analysts shorten their time to find critical information and make timely decisions. Multi-document summarization is particularly useful as it serves to quickly describe a collection of information. The obvious shortcoming lies in what it cannot capture especially in more diverse collections. Thus, the question lies in the adequacy and/or usefulness of such summarizations to the target analyst. In this chapter, we report our experimental study on the sensitivity of users to the quality and content of multi-document summarization. We used the DUC 2002 collection for multi-document summarization as our testbed. Two groups of document sets were considered: (I) the sets consisting of closely correlated documents with highly overlapped content; and (II) the sets consisting of diverse documents covering a wide scope of topics. Intuitively, this suggests that creating a quality summary would be more difficult for the latter case. However, human evaluators were discovered to be fairly insensitive to this difference. This occurred when they were asked to rank the performance of various automated summarizers. In this chapter, we examine and analyze our experiments in order to better understand this phenomenon and how we might address it to improve summarization quality. In particular, we present a new metric based on document graphs that can distinguish between the two types of document sets.
Zhao, Qunhua; Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Mohamed, Ahmed
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States Â§ 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions Â§ 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...
|Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…
The amount of narrative clinical text documents stored in Electronic Patient Records (EPR) of Hospital Information Systems is increasing. Physicians spend a lot of time finding relevant patient-related information for medical decision making in these clinical text documents. Thus, efficient and topical retrieval of relevant patient-related information is an important task in an EPR system. This paper describes the prototype of a medical information retrieval system (MIRS) for clinical text documents. The open-source information retrieval framework Apache Lucene has been used to implement the prototype of the MIRS. Additionally, a multi-label classification system based on the open-source data mining framework WEKA generates metadata from the clinical text document set. The metadata is used for influencing the rank order of documents retrieved by physicians. Combining information retrieval and automated document classification offers an enhanced approach to let physicians and in the near future patients define their information needs for information stored in an EPR. The system has been designed as a J2EE Web-application. First findings are based on a sample of 18,000 unstructured, clinical text documents written in German. PMID:18487776
The purpose of this document, the AEGIS Software Engineering Process Document (SEPD), is to serve as a standard for the AEGIS software engineering process conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD). It provides guidance and i...
Children's work documents their thinking and the details they note as they learn more. Over time, by drawing, dictating, or writing about their observations, children can reveal and deepen their understanding of science concepts. Documenting work to furth
This article demonstrates how documents prepared in hypertext or word processor format can be saved in portable document format (PDF). These files are self-contained documents that that have the same appearance on screen and in print, regardless of what kind of computer or printer are used, and regardless of what software package was originally used to for their creation. PDF files are compressed documents, invariably smaller than the original files, hence allowing rapid dissemination and download. PMID:22368611
DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER authorizing plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER authorization scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the activities did not represent an USQ. The same information used to make the PFP-2001-12 negative USQ determination is applicable to packaging Pu alloy powders (DOES NOT INCLUDE STABILIZED MHPP MATERIALS OR OXIDES OF MOLYBDATES) into BTCs. Information from USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 is included in this USQ Evaluation for packaging of relatively pure Pu oxides and Pu alloy oxides into BTCs.
|This technical processing manual for federal documents is the culmination of efforts begun in 1981 to revise and implement procedures by the staff of the Government Documents Department of the University Library at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. While most of the general procedures in the manual are probably basic to most document…
The Damascus Document, a foundational document amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls, is rich with references to women. Most of the passages that allude to women are part of the legal section of the document. This study offers an in-depth analysis of all passages relating to women, both in terms of understanding the content of the often fragmentary text, as well
This paper presents a novel method of representing a text document by the use of interval valued symbolic features. A method of classification of text documents based on the proposed representation is also presented. The newly proposed model significantly reduces the dimension of feature vectors and also the time taken to classify a given document. Further, extensive experimentations are conducted
Geographical information becomes a kind of very important attribute for web documents, considering the fact that a large proportion of documents on the web contain geographical information. GIR (Geographical information retrieval) systems can identify those geographical information and extract the geographical focus in the documents automatically, hence supporting geo-related queries for information retrieval. Therefore, GIR has become a hot topic
Min Chen; Xing Lin; Yi Zhang; Xingguang Wang; Hao Yu
In the first part of this article, we present the benefits of using a structured document editor for storing, editing, and structuring knowledge representations, and show how this can be done for knowledge represented in the Conceptual Graph (CG) formalism. In structured documents, document elements (DEs) are typed and can be organized by structural or hypertext links. They can also
This technical processing manual for federal documents is the culmination of efforts begun in 1981 to revise and implement procedures by the staff of the Government Documents Department of the University Library at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. While most of the general procedures in the manual are probably basic to most document…
There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists.
Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework.
A sample of 348 high-risk sexual offenders was divided into two groups based on the level of preselection (detained, n = 211, and nondetained, n = 137) and the groups were compared on a number of measures which were related to dynamic risk. The hypothesis was that the detained group would score as being higher need on these instruments than the nondetained group. This hypothesis was supported with the detained group reporting greater levels of hostility, cognitive distortions supportive of offending, sexual obsessions, and sexually deviant behaviours. They also scored as being less assertive and as having a more extensive psychiatric history. These findings were interpreted as being supportive of the assertion that the new Static-99R normative groups are related to preselection based on the differences on dynamic factors. PMID:22532087
This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732
This paper reviews the characteristics of anorexia nervosa described in the DSM-III-R, relates them to normative gender roles and adolescent development, and critiques those roles on feminist grounds. Two apparently contradictory explanations for the irrational pursuit of thinness are considered: a) the anorexic thus attempts to conform to a socially defined feminine ideal; b) the anorexic thus attempts to avoid the appearance and consequences of mature womanhood. I propose that both explanations are applicable, together emplifying the ambiguity that Simone de Beauvoir considers characteristic of female experience. Because both explanations suggest a gender identity disorder, I question the fact that the DSM-III-R fails to indicate this linkage. I argue further that therapeutic considerations require efforts to alter the socialization factors that are implicative in anorexia nervosa. PMID:1588246
The Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT) measures verbal learning and memory during a multiple-trial list-learning task, which allows for analysis of encoding, storage, and retrieval data. This study of 443 healthy participants (ages 18 to 83 years with 3 to 18 years of education) presents normative data for the Greek population. Statistical analysis indicated that age and educational level were correlated with all the variables as well as sex, although to a considerably lesser extent. Performance on most of the measures decreased with increasing age and lower education, whereas sex differences favored women over men. Based on these results, the sample was stratified into six age groups and three levels of education, with mean and standard deviation for each group. Current norms for the Selective Reminding Test represent a useful neuropsychological tool in clinical practice for patients with memory dysfunction, irrespective of etiology. PMID:19610489
The present study tests the perceived norms hypothesis in relation to different levels of heavy episodic drinking (HED) among university students. In 2007, 303 students from residence halls and the School of Psychology at the University of Wollongong, Australia, completed a questionnaire about their alcohol consumption and associated attitudes and behaviors. Between-groups analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed significantly higher AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) scores among students in higher-frequency HED groups. Students who engaged in HED tended to underestimate their own drinking when comparing themselves with others. Improving the accuracy of perceptions about one's own drinking in relation to others (normative information) may help reduce levels of HED among students. PMID:22217126
This report describes the MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) computer model. MFIX is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model that describes chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, flows typically occurring in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give detailed information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. With such information, the engineer can visualize the conditions in the reactor, conduct parametric studies and what-if experiments, and, thereby, assist in the design process. The MFIX model, developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has the following capabilities: mass and momentum balance equations for gas and multiple solids phases; a gas phase and two solids phase energy equations; an arbitrary number of species balance equations for each of the phases; granular stress equations based on kinetic theory and frictional flow theory; a user-defined chemistry subroutine; three-dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate systems; nonuniform mesh size; impermeable and semi-permeable internal surfaces; user-friendly input data file; multiple, single-precision, binary, direct-access, output files that minimize disk storage and accelerate data retrieval; and extensive error reporting. This report, which is Volume 1 of the code documentation, describes the hydrodynamic theory used in the model: the conservation equations, constitutive relations, and the initial and boundary conditions. The literature on the hydrodynamic theory is briefly surveyed, and the bases for the different parts of the model are highlighted.
The three anterior temporobasal (aTB) sulci, which are the collateral, rhinal, and occipitotemporal sulci, contribute to the morphology of memory-related structures and are important landmarks for neuroimaging. Prevalence of inter-connections among these sulci may distinguish healthy adults and individuals with memory-related disorders (Kim et al. Neurology 70:2159-2165, 2008; Zhan et al. Hum Brain Mapp 30:874-882, 2009). However, methods for quantifying the existence and nature of such connections are vague and varied, and normative frequencies are inconsistent across studies. Therefore, the goals of the current study are twofold: (1) to develop a reliable method of identifying aTB sulci and their interconnections based on surface renderings generated from serial magnetic resonance images (MRIs). This protocol includes training materials and a rating log (see supplementary materials) that can be disseminated and applied by other researchers. (2) To determine the prevalence of interconnections among the three aTB sulci in a large sample of healthy adults (200 undergraduate students), which can be used as normative data for future comparison with clinical samples. Notably, the resulting protocol, called the Sulcal Classification Rating Protocol for anterior Temporobasal sulci, distinguishes "clear" from "ambiguous" connections. When only clear connections are included, our prevalence rates are consistent with post-mortem findings of Ono et al. (Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci. Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., New York, 1990); when both clear and ambiguous connections are counted as a connection, our results largely replicate MRI-based findings (e.g., Kim et al. Neurology 70:2159-2165, 2008). We propose that systematic variations in rater classification of ambiguous connections could explain discrepancies in the literature. PMID:22744398
Reckess, Gila Z; Dunn, Callie Beck; Bauer, Russell M; Leonard, Christiana M
|This paper reports the results of a normative study of the 60-item version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of 371 native Dutch-speaking Flemish children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Analysis of test results revealed that BNT performance was significantly affected by age and gender. The gathered norms were shown to be…
The present study explores the ways in which peers take up a teacher-like discourse to enforce normative uses of language in a classroom, effectively socializing one another to the institutional use of English which in turn signals class membership. Such an uptake of teacher-like discourses and practices can be characterized as subteaching…
In order to ensure that registered accountants and auditors (RAAs) discharge their functions in the public interest, the RAA profession, through its governing bodies, should establish, maintain and ensure compliance with among other things an identified set of educational requirements. The research objective is twofold: Firstly, to provide a normative description of pre-qualification professional education and, secondly, to evaluate the
The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1985, 1987) is offered as a comprehensive framework for understanding of leisure participation. Salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, theoretically the basic determinants of behavior, were assessed with respect to five leisure activities: spending time at the beach, jogging or running, mountain climbing, boating, and biking. College students completed a questionnaire containing measures of
This study examines the constructs and the effects of three subdimensions of federal employees' organizational commitment—affective, normative, and continuance. Using the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) 2000 survey instrument and employing an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, multivariate regression, and a structural equation model, the authors empirically test and measure (a) the dimensionality of the three commitment constructs, (b) how
Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) as a tool for the diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric disorders is receiving increased interest. While QEEG analysis is restricted to the scalp, the recent development of electromagnetic tomography (ET) allows the study of the electrical activity of all cortical structures. Electrical measures from a patient can be compared with a normative database derived from a large
Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)
This paper reports the results of a normative study of the 60-item version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of 371 native Dutch-speaking Flemish children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Analysis of test results revealed that BNT performance was significantly affected by age and gender. The gathered norms were shown to be significantly lower
The Five-point Test (Regard, Strauss, & Knapp, 1982) was introduced for the measurement of figural fluency as part of the examination of executive functions. Until now, no differentiated norms exist. We present normative data for adults aged 18–80 (n = 280) for the number of unique designs (productivity), the percent of perseverations (flexibility), the percent of rotated (strategic) designs, and
Simone Goebel; Regina Fischer; Roman Ferstl; Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn
Normative data are presented for Southern black children on two objective personality inventories for children: the Missouri Children's Picture Series (MCPS), a child picture-sorting task, and the Missouri Children's Behavior Checklist (MBCL), a parent rating scale. The MCPS was administered to 615 black children attending public schools in a low socioeconomic area of the southeast United States. Parents returned the
The purpose of this study was the continuation in the development of the Trauma Play Scale through the addition of a normative sample. The scale is an observation-based assessment designed to be used by raters to detect differences in play therapy behaviors of children who have a history of trauma versus children with no known history of trauma. The scale
Charles E. Myers; Sue C. Bratton; Carol Hagen; Jennifer H. Findling
The purpose of this study was to determine alcohol use (particularly heavy drinking) and social normative estimations of alcohol use according to student residence (fraternity, sorority, residence hall, or apartment complex). To achieve this purpose, a survey was conducted in all 34 sections of a general education core English class at a northwestern public university. Students living in fraternities, compared
|Young children use and comprehend different kinds of speech acts from the beginning of their communicative development. But it is not clear how they understand the conventional and normative structure of such speech acts. In particular, imperative speech acts have a world-to-word direction of fit, such that their fulfillment means that the world…
This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors’ model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention
The CLOX is a clock drawing test used to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but there is limited normative data for this measure. This study presents normative data for the CLOX derived from a diverse sample of 585 community-dwelling older adults with complete cognitive data at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Participants with evidence of baseline impairment or substantial 4-year decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination were excluded from the normative sample. Spontaneous clock drawing (CLOX1) and copy (CLOX2) performances were stratified by age group and reading ability from the Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition (WRAT-3). Lowest mean CLOX scores were observed for the oldest age group (75+ years old) with the lowest WRAT-3 reading scores. For all groups, average scores were higher for CLOX2 than CLOX1. These normative data may be helpful to clinicians and researchers for interpreting CLOX performance in older adults with diverse levels of reading ability.
Crowe, Michael; Allman, Richard M.; Triebel, Kristen; Sawyer, Patricia; Martin, Roy C.
The CLOX is a clock drawing test used to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but there is limited normative data for this measure. This study presents normative data for the CLOX derived from a diverse sample of 585 community-dwelling older adults with complete cognitive data at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Participants with evidence of baseline impairment or substantial 4-year decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination were excluded from the normative sample. Spontaneous clock drawing (CLOX1) and copy (CLOX2) performances were stratified by age group and reading ability from the Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition (WRAT-3). Lowest mean CLOX scores were observed for the oldest age group (75+ years old) with the lowest WRAT-3 reading scores. For all groups, average scores were higher for CLOX2 than CLOX1. These normative data may be helpful to clinicians and researchers for interpreting CLOX performance in older adults with diverse levels of reading ability. PMID:20601672
Crowe, Michael; Allman, Richard M; Triebel, Kristen; Sawyer, Patricia; Martin, Roy C
|In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…
Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.
The Substance Education Program of the Iowa Department of Education began a series of tri-annual studies of youth substance behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge in 1975, with later data collections in 1978, 1981, 1984, 1987, and 1990. This report presents the normative data from the 1990 survey which was administered to approximately 7,000 students…
Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.
As part of a series of tri-annual studies of youths' substance use and abuse behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge, begun in 1975, this report provides normative and trend data for the 1981-82 study. The research issues which were the foci of this study are: present status and important trends of youths' substance use, attitudes, and knowledge;…
Postural control and motor coordination are essential components of normal athletic activity. Tasks involving balance and coordination are used to determine neurological function in sports-related concussion. Determining normative values for these tasks is therefore essential to provide sports medicine professionals with a frame of reference with which to interpret clinical measures obtained from players suspected of sustaining a concussion. One
Anthony G. Schneiders; S. John Sullivan; Andrew R. Gray; Graeme D. Hammond-Tooke; Paul R. McCrory
This study evaluated the ability of a 20-minute self-administered intervention to increase HIV/AIDS risk reduction among sexually active college students. The intervention presented normative data on the relatively low prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among college students for the purpose of conveying the idea that risk reduction was the…
|Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…
Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.
The authors conducted meta-analyses to assess (a) relations among affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization and (b) relations between the three forms of commitment and variables identified as their antecedents, correlates, and consequences in Meyer and Allen's (1991) Three-Component Model. They found that the three forms of commitment are related yet distinguishable from one another as well as
John P. Meyer; David J. Stanley; Lynne Herscovitch; Laryssa Topolnytsky
|The present study explores the ways in which peers take up a teacher-like discourse to enforce normative uses of language in a classroom, effectively socializing one another to the institutional use of English which in turn signals class membership. Such an uptake of teacher-like discourses and practices can be characterized as subteaching…
Normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments often include adjustments for subject variables. There are reasons to believe, however, that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, “years of formal education” may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this third of four reanalyses of results
Brett A. Steinberg; Linas A. Bieliauskas; Glenn E. Smith; Robert J. Ivnik
Peer communication represents 1 mechanism through which norms are disseminated in social groups. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) posits that group identity, outcome expectations, and injunctive norms moderate the relation between descriptive norms and behaviors. This article extends the purview of the TNSB by conceptualizing peer communication as another moderator in the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors.
Normative restructuring strategies currently under way to combat alcohol-related problems among U.S. college students are based on the idea that students harbor inflated perceptions about the prevalence of drinking on campus and that if these misperceptions can be corrected, then alcohol consumption will decrease. Evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies is lacking, and there is little discussion in the
The objective of this study was to obtain normative data for naming and semantic memory (SM) tests in the elderly Spanish population. A total of 121 Spanish-speaking senior citizens were assessed with the Boston Naming Test (BNT). Of these, 79 were assessed with the Semantic Fluency Test (Sem-Flu) and 72 with the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test (PPT). Mean scores
Lorena Rami; Mónica Serradell; Beatriz Bosch; Claudia Caprile; Alejandra Sekler; Amparo Villar; Ramón Canal; José Luis Molinuevo
Segmentation of text from badly degraded document images is a very challenging task due to the high inter/intra-variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this paper, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny's edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning. It has been tested on three public datasets that are used in the recent document image binarization contest (DIBCO) 2009 & 2011 and handwritten-DIBCO 2010 and achieves accuracies of 93.5%, 87.8%, and 92.03%, respectively, that are significantly higher than or close to that of the best-performing methods reported in the three contests. Experiments on the Bickley diary dataset that consists of several challenging bad quality document images also show the superior performance of our proposed method, compared with other techniques. PMID:23221822
This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-13033, ''Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA). It describes the criteria and methodology for allocating controls to hazardous conditions with significant facility worker (FW) consequence and presents the results of the allocation. The criteria and methodology for identifying controls that address FW safety are in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''.
We describe the design and experiences gained with the database- and web-based document server DOL, which we developed at the University of Leipzig (http:\\/\\/dol.uni-leipzig.de). The server provides a central repository for a variety of fulltext documents. In Leip- zig, it has been used since 1998 as a university-wide digital library for documents by local authors, in par- ticular Ph.D. theses,
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify specific themes of meaning making (sense making and benefit finding) among bereaved parents, as well as to examine associations of these themes to the severity of grief symptomatology. A sample of 156 bereaved parents responded in writing to open-ended questions about sense making and benefit finding. We assessed normative grief symptoms with the Core Bereavement Items (Burnett, Middleton, Raphael, & Martinek, 1997) and maladaptive grief symptoms with the Inventory of Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al., 1995). Qualitative analyses revealed 45% of the sample could not make sense of their loss, and 21% could not identify benefits related to their loss experience. These parents had more severe normative and maladaptive grief symptoms. Overall, parents discussed 32 distinct approaches to finding meaning in their child’s death, 14 of which involved sense making, and 18 involved themes of benefit finding. The most common sense-making themes involved spirituality and religious beliefs, and the most common benefit-finding themes entailed an increase in the desire to help and compassion for others’ suffering. These results further reinforce the importance of meaning making for many bereaved parents and suggest the utility of developing and evaluating meaning-centered grief interventions with this population.
Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Currier, Joseph M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Keesee, Nancy J.
The Latin American Microfilm Project (LAMP) at the Center for Research Libraries (CRL) has "digitize[d] executive branch serial documents issued by Brazil's national government during the period between 1821 and 1993," as well as provincial government documents from the "the end of the Empire to 1889." The documents are arranged in four collections: Provincial Presidential Reports, 1830-1960; Presidential Messages, 1889-1993; Ministerial Reports, 1821-1960; and Almanak Administrativo, Mercantil e Industrial do Rio de Janeiro, 1844-1889. The digitized documents, created from microfilm copies of the originals, are presented in both .gif and .tif formats.
The extensive and detailed documentation required for operating the Hibernia platform, offshore Newfoundland, will largely be in an electric form. Instead of depending on paper, Hibernia Management and Development Co. (HMDC) has implemented a state-of-the-art technical document management system (TDMS), which catalogs, searches, retrieves, assembles, and distributes electronic documentation on the platform and onshore. Using software developed by Interleaf Inc., the system handles the technical information required to support the safe and efficient operation of the platform. Engineering and fabrication drawings, operating system manuals, vendor manuals, material safety data sheets, procedures, and change control documents are also available in seconds from any PC on the platform.
Forensic analysis of questioned electronic documents is difficult because the nature of the documents eliminates many kinds of informative differences. Recent work in authorship attribution demonstrates the practicality of analyzing documents based on authorial style, but the state of the art is confusing. Analyses are difficult to apply, little is known about error types and rates, and no best practices are available. This paper discusses efforts to address these issues, partly through the development of a systematic testbed for multilingual, multigenre authorship attribution accuracy, and partly through the development and concurrent analysis of a uniform and portable software tool that applies multiple methods to analyze electronic documents for authorship based on authorial style.
Visualization is a promising technique for both enhancing users' perception of structure in the Internet and providing navigation facilities for its large information spaces. This paper describes an application of the Document Explorer to the visualization of WWW content structure. The system provides visualization, browsing, and query formulation mechanisms based on documents' semantic content. These mechanisms complement text and link
Richard H. Fowler; Wendy A. L. Fowler; Jorge L. Williams
In order to enhance the readability, extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, we have introduced XML into DICOM file system (SPIE Volume 5748) and the multilayer tree structure into DICOM (SPIE Volume 6145). In this paper, we proposed mapping DICOM to ODF(OpenDocument Format), for it is also based on XML. As a result, the new format realizes the separation of content(including text content and image) and display style. Meanwhile, since OpenDocument files take the format of a ZIP compressed archive, the new kind of DICOM files can benefit from ZIP's lossless compression to reduce file size. Moreover, this open format can also guarantee long-term access to data without legal or technical barriers, making medical images accessible to various fields.
|Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice…
Structured Abstract Objectives To develop normative data for wideband middle-ear reflectance in a newborn hearing-screening population, and to compare test performance with 1-kHz tympanometry for prediction of OAE screening outcome. Design Wideband middle-ear reflectance (using both tone and chirp stimuli over 0.2 to 6 kHz), 1-kHz tympanometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPs) were measured in 324 infants at two test sites. Ears were categorized into DP-pass and DP-refer groups. Results Normative reflectance values were defined over various frequency regions for both tone and chirp stimuli in ambient pressure conditions, and for reflectance area indices (RAIs) integrated over various frequency ranges. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that reflectance provides the best discriminability of DP status in frequency ranges involving 2 kHz, and greater discriminability of DP status than 1-kHz tympanometry. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) established that (a) there were significant differences in reflectance as a function of DP status and frequency, but not sex or ear; (b) tone and chirp stimulus reflectance values are essentially indistinguishable, and (c) newborns from two geographic sites had similar reflectance patterns above 1-kHz. Birth type and weight did not contribute to differences in reflectance. Conclusions Referrals in OAE-based infant hearing screening were strongly associated with increased wideband reflectance, suggesting middle-ear dysfunction at birth. Reflectance improved significantly over the first 4 days after birth with normalization of middle-ear function. Reflectance scores can be achieved within seconds using the same equipment used for OAE screening. Newborns with high reflectance scores at Stage I screening should be rescreened within a few hours to a few days, as most middle-ear problems are transient and resolve spontaneously. If reflectance and OAE are not passed upon Stage II screening, referral to an otologist for ear examination is suggested along with diagnostic testing. Newborns with normal reflectance and a refer result for the OAE screen should be referred immediately to an audiologist for diagnostic testing with threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR) due to higher risk for permanent hearing loss.
Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Lapsley Miller, Judi A.; Jeng, Patricia S.; Bohning, Susie
Background: Correct diagnosis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is important because it can be the first manifestation of a neurodegenerative disease, it may lead to serious injury, and it is a well-treatable disorder. We evaluated the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the Sleep Innsbruck Barcelona (SINBAR) montage (mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum brevis) and other muscles to obtain normative values for the correct diagnosis of RBD for clinical practice. Setting: Two university hospital sleep disorder centers. Participants: Thirty RBD patients (15 idiopathic [iRBD], 15 with Parkinson disease [PD]) and 30 matched controls recruited from patients with effectively treated sleep related breathing disorders. Interventions: Not applicable. Methods and Results: Participants underwent video-polysomnography, including registration of 11 body muscles. Tonic, phasic, and “any” (any type of EMG activity, irrespective of whether it consisted of tonic, phasic or a combination of both) EMG activity was blindly quantified for each muscle. When choosing a specificity of 100%, the 3-sec miniepoch cutoff for a diagnosis of RBD was 18% for “any” EMG activity in the mentalis muscle (area under the curve [AUC] 0.990). Discriminative power was higher in upper limb (100% specificity, AUC 0.987–9.997) than in lower limb muscles (100% specificity, AUC 0.813–0.852). The combination of “any” EMG activity in the mentalis muscle with both phasic flexor digitorum superficialis muscles yielded a cutoff of 32% (AUC 0.998) for patients with iRBD and with PD-RBD. Conclusion: For the diagnosis of iRBD and RBD associated with PD, we recommend a polysomnographic montage quantifying “any” (any type of EMG activity, irrespective of whether it consisted of tonic, phasic or a combination of both) EMG activity in the mentalis muscle and phasic EMG activity in the right and left flexor digitorum superficialis muscles in the upper limbs with a cutoff of 32%, when using 3-sec miniepochs. Citation: Frauscher B; Iranzo A; Gaig C; Gschliesser V; Guaita M; Raffelseder V; Ehrmann L; Sola N; Salamero M; Tolosa E; Poewe W; Santamaria J; Högl B. Normative EMG values during REM sleep for the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(6):835-847.
This lesson plan teaches students about renewable energy and passive solar heating by creating a solar air heater to heat the classroom. The document includes links to useful YouTube videos which will support the hands-on classroom activity. Making and utilizing the heater should take about two 45 minute class periods. A step by step procedure with illustrations is provided for the lab portion of the lesson. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
The main goal of this study was to produce normative data for the Portuguese population on the Trail Making Test (TMT). The study included 1,038 community-dwelling individuals aged between 18 and 93 years, who had educational backgrounds ranging from 3 to 22 years. The results showed that sex, age, and education were significantly associated with TMT performance. These demographic characteristics accounted for 57% of the performance variance at part A and 50% at part B. The normative data are presented as regression-based algorithms to adjust direct and derived test scores for sex, age, and education. The adjusted scores' percentile distributions and their correspondence with scaled scores are also provided. PMID:23299183
The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190
A review of the literature indicates that linear models are frequently used in situations in which decisions are made on the basis of multiple codable inputs. These models are sometimes used (a) normatively to aid the decision maker, (b) as a contrast with the decision maker in the clinical vs statistical controversy, (c) to represent the decision maker \\
In the past, government agencies with environmental missions rarely allowed public oversight over final decisions. However, faced with loss of control as policy and planning are increasingly carried out by Congress or the courts, some agencies, supported by businesses, communities, and environmental groups are using collaborative methods in the decision-making process. This emerging paradigm for environmental decision-making is driven by practical necessity rather than by abstract theory. This article will demonstrate that collaborative management is a process that broadens the influence of all entities concerned with an environmental decision, and is more likely to: (1) include the needs and opinions of affected parties; (2) bring a dialogue on normative values into the deliberative process; and (3) result in decisions that enhance environmental protection.
Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such decision-making rules. In the Gambling Machine Task, participants choose between options that differ in three dimensions: frequency of loss, amount of loss, and certain gain. The task was administered to 231 children and adolescents (age range=8-17 years). Latent group analysis of their performance allowed precise classification of the underlying decision rules. The majority of participants used sequential decision rules, and the number of evaluated dimensions in these rules increased with age. Integrative rule use decreased with age. We discuss these results in light of traditional developmental theories and fuzzy trace theory. PMID:21911222
Jansen, Brenda R J; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Huizenga, Hilde M
The WEBSOM is a method for analyzing and visualizing large document col- lections. In the WEBSOM method, the self-organizing map algorithm is used to automatically organize collections of documents onto a two-dimensional map to enable easy exploration and search of the collection. Map regions that are close to each other contain similar items. GS Textplorer is a software package that