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1

Making Space for Place-Making Pedagogies: Stretching Normative Mandated Literacy Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of normative standardised literacy curriculum continuing to make space for culturally responsive literacy pedagogy is on ongoing challenge for early childhood educators. Collaborative participatory research and ethnographic studies of teachers who accomplish innovative and inclusive early childhood education in culturally diverse high…

Comber, Barbara

2011-01-01

2

The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation FormNormative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form may be used to measure symptoms, function, and sports activity for people with a variety of knee disorders, including ligamentous and meniscal injuries, osteoarthritis, and patellofemoral dysfunction. To date, normative data have not been established for this valid, reliable, and responsive outcomes instrument.Purpose:To provide clinicians and researchers with normative data to

Allen F. Anderson; James J. Irrgang; Mininder S. Kocher; Barton J. Mann; John J. Harrast

2006-01-01

3

Normative Data on a Measure of Design Fluency: The Make a Figure Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tentative normative data for the Make a Figure Test (J. Allen and others, 1992) are presented for young adults (n=100), middle-aged adults (n=27), and geriatric adults (n=34). Results suggest that the Make a Figure Test may be a good measure of executive functioning that allows for novel design production. (SLD)

Hanks, Robin A.; Allen, Jeffrey B.; Ricker, Joseph H.; Deshpande, Sonali A.

1996-01-01

4

Law and Everyday Decision Making: Rational, Descriptive, and Normative Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter, and indeed the entire book, focuses on some old topics, namely legal consciousness, legal decision making, and the interaction between the two. One can date the issue back at least to the ideas and writings of the famous (or infamous) psychologist Hugo Münsterberg (1908), who argued, perhaps somewhat unconvincingly at the time, that behavioral science, especially psychology, is

Richard L. Wiener

5

Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs  

NASA Video Gallery

Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

6

The Composition of Normative Groups and Diagnostic Decision Making: Shooting Ourselves in the Foot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The normative group of a norm-referenced test is intended to provide a basis for interpreting test scores. However, the composition of the normative group may facilitate or impede different types of diagnostic interpretations. This article considers who should be included in a normative sample and how this decision must be made relative…

Pena, Elizabeth D.; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

2006-01-01

7

Issues in developing a normative descriptive model for dyadic decision making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

1984-01-01

8

How habits interfere with norm-directed behaviour: A normative decision-making model for travel mode choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the question how habits can be integrated into a model of normative decision-making based on the work of Schwartz and Howard (1981). A field study was conducted in Bochum, Germany, involving 160 participants. After a personal interview the participant had to protocol the travel mode choice on their trips to work in a logbook for the

Christian A. Klöckner; Ellen Matthies

2004-01-01

9

Decision-Making as a Social Process: Normative and Descriptive Models of Leader Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The normative model of leadership, proposed in earlier Technical Reports, is extended to include 'individual' problems (i.e., decision situations affecting only one subordinate) in addition to previously studied 'group' problems (i.e., decision situations...

A. G. Jago V. H. Vroom

1974-01-01

10

Making the EU "risk window" transparent: the normative foundations of the environmental risk assessment of GMOs.  

PubMed

In Europe, there seems to be widespread, morally based scepticism about the use of GMOs in food production. In response to this scepticism, the revised EU directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms stresses the importance of respecting ethical principles recognized in the Member States. However, the directive fails to reflect the critical role of value judgements in scientific risk assessment and any subsequent approval procedure. In this paper we argue that it is important to make all ethically relevant assumptions involved in the approval procedure transparent and thus available for public scrutiny. Mapping the value judgements that are made in an environmental risk assessment and approval procedure, we describe the political liberal nature of the EU legislation. We then look more closely at the prescriptions for environmental risk assessment and approval of GMOs outlined in the directive. An environmental risk assessment views the world through a "risk window" that only makes visible that which has been predefined as a relevant risk. The importance of the value judgements that define the risk window consists in limiting the information the risk assessment can provide. In the penultimate section of the paper, the significance of the risk window is demonstrated through a case study of the approval of glyphosate resistant fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) in Denmark. PMID:15612414

Jensen, Karsten Klint; Gamborg, Christian; Madsen, Kathrine Hauge; Jřrgensen, Rikke Bagger; von Krauss, Martin Krayer; Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandře, Peter

2003-01-01

11

Normative system games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of normative systems in which agents are as- sumed to have multiple goals of increasing priority, and investi- gate the computational complexity and game theoretic properties of this model. In the underlying model of normative systems, we use Kripke structures to represent the possible transitions of a multi- agent system. A normative system is then simply

Thomas Ĺgotnes; Wiebe Van Der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2007-01-01

12

Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Norms for Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Animal Naming, Token Test, Wrat-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data for older African Americans are presented for several clinical neuropsychological measures, including Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Token Test, WRAT-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 309 cognitively normal, community-dwelling individuals, aged 56 through 94, participating in Mayo's

John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Tanis J. Ferman; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

13

Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing.

Oaksford, Mike

2014-01-01

14

Making Learning Visible through Documentation: Creating a Culture of Inquiry among Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the use of documentation--to observe, record, and interpret the learning of children and their pre-service teachers to make that learning visible in order to point to it and engage in a collaborative dialogue. Inspired by the work of the Reggio Emilia infant-toddler and pre-schools in Italy, this study extends the idea of…

Suarez, Stephanie Cox

2006-01-01

15

‘Our size fits all’: normative power Europe and the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article focuses on the normative connotation of European foreign policy and makes three points. First, through the criteria of inclusiveness and reflexivity, it draws a distinction between ‘normative power Europe’ and Europe as a ‘civilizing power’. Second, the article puts forward a sociological institutionalist interpretation of the EU as a ‘civilizing power’. It suggests that much of the EU's

Federica Bicchi

2006-01-01

16

Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices  

PubMed Central

The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an “operant matching law” in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys.

Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

2014-01-01

17

Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices.  

PubMed

The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an "operant matching law" in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

2014-01-01

18

Windows on Learning: A Framework for Making Decisions. An Introduction to Documenting Children's Learning. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentation is a process of observing, collecting, and organizing evidence of children's knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Noting that documentation can be used as an effective method for assessing children's growth and development over time, this 20 minute videotape discusses characteristics of documentation in the early childhood classroom.…

Western Illinois Univ., Macomb. Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood Education.

19

Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

20

A Classification of Normative Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, a comparative analysis of selected cases of normative agent architectures is undertaken. A classification scheme\\u000a is introduced that represents crucial decisions of which designers of normative agents have to be aware. Preconditions are\\u000a the theoretical background on which the author relies and whether single or social embedded agents are considered. Designers\\u000a then have to specify the conceptual

Martin Neumann

21

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Adobe Acrobat 9 Pro  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Doc?ments Accessible Adobe Acroba? 9 Pro Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must be

22

Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport.  

PubMed

How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

McKillop, Heather

2005-04-12

23

Navigating the Normative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

Hlebowitsh, Peter

2009-01-01

24

Toddlers View Artifact Function Normatively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When children use objects like adults, are they simply tracking regularities in others' object use, or are they demonstrating a normatively defined awareness that there are right and wrong ways to act? This study provides the first evidence for the latter possibility. Young 2- and 3-year-olds (n = 32) learned functions of 6 artifacts, both…

Casler, Krista; Terziyan, Treysi; Greene, Kimberly

2009-01-01

25

Normative influences on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

2005-01-01

26

Normative Nature of Workplace Activity and Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the normative nature of workplace activity and knowledge in the front offices of four motels. Normative content in these settings was highly situated and related to concrete action directed at the object of the system. (SLD)

Stevenson, John

2002-01-01

27

Normative values for the Foot Posture Index  

PubMed Central

Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

2008-01-01

28

Normative reputation and the costs of compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the role of normative reputation in reducing the costs of complying with norms will be explored. In previous simulations (Conte & Castelfranchi 1995), in contrast to a traditional view of norms as means for increasing co-ordination among agents, the effects of normative and non-normative strategies in the control of aggression among agents in a common environment was

Cristiano Castelfranchi; Rosaria Conte; Mario Paolucci

1998-01-01

29

Making \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groupware systems are increasingly embedded in our everyday life, both at the office and at home. Thus groupware systems should\\u000a offer easy interaction for all, including the differently-abled. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of\\u000a a modified version of Google Docs (\\u000a http:\\/\\/docs.google.com\\u000a ) interfaces for collaborative editing of documents. Although consisting of only a few Web

Giulio Mori; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Victor M. Ruiz Penichet

2010-01-01

30

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered...COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered...

2013-10-01

31

42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits. 110.51 Section 110.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility §...

2013-10-01

32

Document collections, mobilized regulations, and the making of customary law at the end of the Middle Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using late medieval examples from Switzerland, this paper argues that the emergence of formally organized archives around\\u000a 1500 was part of an important shift in how documents could be deployed. However, this shift was not away from an oral and\\u000a toward a literate culture, as argued in some earlier studies, but rather away from seeing documents as testimony that reminded

Simon Teuscher

2010-01-01

33

Normative Model of Work Team Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Descriptive research on group performance has produced neither a set of empirical generalizations sturdy enough to guide the design and management of work teams, nor interventions that reliably improve team effectiveness. As an alternative, a normative mo...

J. R. Hackman

1983-01-01

34

Toward a Normative Model of Leadership Style.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A normative model of leadership behavior is described. The model utilizes a taxonomy of leadership styles expressed in terms of decision processes, varying in terms of the amount of opportunity for subordinates to influence the decision. The general propo...

V. H. Vroom P. W. Yetton

1972-01-01

35

42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52...make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. (a) A requester who is...for a determination of eligibility for a death benefit to be made: (1) All...

2013-10-01

36

Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

McCormick, Alexandra

2012-01-01

37

A normative analysis on liquidity risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The firm's objective is to match the effective maturity of its liabilities across several financing cycles, rather than to lengthen the maturity of the current bonds outstanding. When a firm is unable to meet its debt, it may have to seek more expensive sources of funds or even liquidate its assets. This paper provides a normative study of minimizing such

Duojiao Tan

2010-01-01

38

Virtual Organizations as Normative Multiagent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a conceptual model of vir- tual organizations as normative multiagent systems. The dy- namic aspects of virtual organizations are modeled using aspects of speech act theory and Searle's theory of the con- struction of social reality. We illustrate the use of our model by discussing an example of distributed access control poli- cies. We show

Guido Boella; Joris Hulstijn; Leendert W. N. Van Der Torre

2005-01-01

39

Normative Consequences of Efficient Capital Market Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the influence exercised by the efficient market hypothesis on standard setting and, consequently, its normative consequences. It shows this influence through the analysis of a particular case: the design and implementation of the International Accounting Standard on financial instruments. In this case it is clear that the efficient market hypothesis was used as the main theoretical

Norio Sawabe

40

Normative Power Europe: A Credible Utopia? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies on the international identity of the EU have stressed the normative feature of European foreign policy. At the same time, scholars have pointed out that the inconsistency between the EU's rhetoric and behaviour and the lack of reflexivity undermines its credibility. How does reflexivity affect collective identity? To what extent does the EU's utopian rhetoric affect its credibility as

SIBYLLE SCHEIPERS; DANIELA SICURELLI

2007-01-01

41

Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

Hohr, Hansjörg

2013-01-01

42

A temporal logic of normative systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Normative Temporal Logic (ntl), a formalism intended for reasoning about the temporal properties of normative systems. ntl is a generalisation of the well-known branching-time temporal logic ctl, in which the path quantifiers \\u000a \\u000a A{\\\\mathsf{A}}\\u000a \\u000a (“on all paths…”) and \\u000a \\u000a E{\\\\mathsf {E}}\\u000a \\u000a (“on some path…”) are replaced by the indexed deontic operators \\u000a \\u000a Oh<\\/font\\u000a>{\\\\mathsf{O}}_{\\\\eta}\\u000a \\u000a (“it is obligatory in the context of

Thomas Ĺgotnes; Wiebe van der Hoek; Carles Sierra Juan A. Rodriguez-Aguilar

2009-01-01

43

The arbitrariness and normativity of social conventions.  

PubMed

This paper investigates a puzzling feature of social conventions: the fact that they are both arbitrary and normative. We examine how this tension is addressed in sociological accounts of conventional phenomena. Traditional approaches tend to generate either synchronic accounts that fail to consider the arbitrariness of conventions, or diachronic accounts that miss central aspects of their normativity. As a remedy, we propose a processual conception that considers conventions as both the outcome and material cause of much human activity. This conceptualization, which borrows from the économie des conventions as well as critical realism, provides a novel perspective on how conventions are nested and defined, and on how they are established, maintained and challenged. PMID:24712730

Al-Amoudi, Ismael; Latsis, John

2014-06-01

44

A normative ethical framework in climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article spells out four domains of international distributive justice and the consequent criteria of equity, the purpose\\u000a being to identify a pluralistic normative ethical framework for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Justice and\\u000a equity should play a major role in favouring collective action against climate change, because the more the various dimensions\\u000a of such action are just, the more

Marco Grasso

2007-01-01

45

On the history of normative accounting theory: paradigm lost, paradigm regained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short introduction, the paper begins with an examination of early German normative accounting theories, and shows that the more recent ‘British Normative School’ too has a deliberate ethical bias. To contrast these two schools with other normative theories, a distinction between ethical-normative vs. pragmatic-normative vs. conditional-normative accounting theories (with complementary discussion) is introduced. Furthermore, the criticism of normative

Richard Mattessich

1992-01-01

46

Normative Comparisons for the Evaluation of Clinical Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative comparisons are a procedure for evaluating the clinical significance of therapeutic interventions. This procedure, consisting of comparing data on treated individuals with that of normative individuals, is described, and a step-by-step statistical methodology for conducting normative comparisons in the context of treatment–outcome research is presented. Four examples of the methodology are outlined in detail. Attention is paid to potential

Philip C. Kendall; Abbe Marrs-Garcia; Sanjay R. Nath; Radley C. Sheldrick

1999-01-01

47

The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,…

Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

2008-01-01

48

Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

1996-01-01

49

The Normative Foundations of Emancipatory Theory: Evolutionary versus Pragmatic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of Habermasian theory for the emancipatory tradition, analyzes certain problems of the theory and argues that an expanded dialogue with American pragmatism would strengthen both its sociological and its normative dimensions. Raises critical questions about pseudohistorical, normative justification in general sociological…

Antonio, Robert J.

1989-01-01

50

Social stress, normative constraints and alcohol problems in American States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robert Bales' theory explains rates of alcoholism in populations by the combination of socially induced stress and tension together with a normative system that promotes the use of alcohol for releasing that tension. This paper provides the first systematic test of that theory by combining the variables of social stress and normative approval of alcohol within the same research design.

Arnold S. Linsky; John P. Colby; Murray A. Straus

1987-01-01

51

Normative Feedback Effects on Learning a Timing Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of normative feedback on learning a sequential timing task. In addition to feedback about their performance per trial, two groups of participants received bogus normative feedback about a peer group's average block-to-block improvement after each block of 10 trials. Scores indicated either greater (better…

Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

2010-01-01

52

Cooling histories of Apollo 15 quartz-normative basalts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled cooling rate studies of vitrophyre 15597 are used to calculate the physical properties of a quartz-normative magma as well as cooling histories of Apollo 15 quartz-normative basalts (QNB). Pyroxene phenocrysts of a QNB magma do not settle appreciably during the cooling of the flow unit; this behavior is consistent with the small degree of chemical differentiation that occurred between

T. L. Grove; D. Walker

1977-01-01

53

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

54

Normative collective behavior in the Station building fire.  

PubMed

Objective. This article offers a test of the normative explanation of collective behavior by examining the fire at the Station nightclub in Rhode Island that killed 100 and injured nearly 200 persons.Methods. Information on all persons at the club comes from content analysis of documents from the Rhode Island Police Department, the Rhode Island Office of the Attorney General, and The Providence Journal. We use negative binomial regression to test hypotheses about the effects of group-level predictors of the counts of dead and injured in 179 groups at the nightclub.Results. Results indicate that group-level factors such as distance of group members at the start of the fire, the number of intimate relations among them, the extent to which they had visited the nightclub prior to the incident, and the average length of the evacuation route they used predict counts of injured and dead. The research also looks at what behavioral differences exist between survivors and victims, ascertains the existence of role extension among employees of the nightclub, and provides support for the affirmation that dangerous contexts negate the protective influence of intimate relations in groups.Conclusion. We argue for the abandonment of current emphasis on irrationality and herd-like imitative behavior in studies of evacuation from structural fires in buildings and for the inclusion of group-level processes in social psychological explanations of these incidents. PMID:21534269

Aguirre, B E; Torres, Manuel R; Gill, Kimberly B; Hotchkiss, H Lawrence

2011-01-01

55

"Family-friendly" without the double entendre: a spatial analysis of normative game spaces and lesbian fans.  

PubMed

In this article, I demonstrate the importance of employing a feminist geographic framework in order to both read WNBA game spaces and to understand lesbian fan participation within these spaces. I argue that attending to the production of WNBA game spaces makes visible the ways that normative cultural politics become manifest, and brings to the fore the ways that dominant relations are naturalized and rarely questioned. Further, attention to the production of these leisure spaces compels an examination of the relationship between spatialized normativity and claims to, and performances of, lesbian identity. By understanding social space as a productive force, it is possible to conduct a critical reading of the materiality of WNBA game spaces and the implications for the reproduction of naturalized (hetero)normativity. In addition, it illustrates that lesbian fan experiences and interpretations of normative WNBA game spaces must be examined in a framework that takes seriously the factors that inhibit critical engagement with (hetero)normativity, as well as the central role that lesbian fans play in the co-production of these spaces. PMID:19598049

Muller Myrdahl, Tiffany K

2009-01-01

56

Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco.  

PubMed

Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

Mead, Erin L; Rimal, Rajiv N; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E

2014-08-01

57

42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Program Benefits...

2013-10-01

58

42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Program Benefits...

2013-10-01

59

Feedback from European Social Partners as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides European social partners' responses to the Commission's memorandum on lifelong learning. Part 1, Opinion of the European Center of Enterprises, makes comments and proposals related to the memorandum's six key messages, which are new basic skills for all; more investment in human resources; innovation in teaching and…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

60

Conflicts of interest: conceptual and normative issues.  

PubMed

Growing university-industry ties, particularly in biomedical areas, naturally raise concerns about conflicts of interest. Such conflicts are essentially problems in business and professional ethics. As of the fall of 1995, all institutions seeking funding from either the Public Health Service or the National Science Foundation have been required to maintain and enforce a written policy on conflicts of interest. The PHS and the NSF also require the disclosure of "significant" financial interests that might affect the research. Although the PHS and NSF requirements may prove helpful, they are not sufficient for monitoring the full range of serious conflicts of interest that can arise in university-industry relations. The PHS and the NSF are basically concerned with potential bias in the design, conduct, and reporting of research. Their disclosure requirements are restricted to financial considerations of $10,000 or more. However, bias in research can result from conflicts of interest when much less is at stake financially. Furthermore, it can arise at both individual and institutional levels. This article attempts to provide a conceptual and normative analysis of conflicts of interest that better enables us to understand the subtleties that can be involved. This article is one of three in this issue of Academic Medicine that deal with issues of conflict of interest in university-industry research relationships. These articles are discussed in an overview that precedes them. PMID:9114888

Pritchard, M S

1996-12-01

61

Normative and Structural Perspectives on Age in a Work Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Age grading, the differentiation of social organizations by members' age judgments, is widely regarded to be a universal aspect of social life. Most studies examine age structurally, using age distributions, rather than normatively, using group members' b...

B. S. Lawrence

1983-01-01

62

Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts  

PubMed Central

Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (“A, do X!”) or as a prediction (“the actor A will do X”). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation.

Lohse, Karoline; Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

2014-01-01

63

Making Superfund documents available to the public throughout the cleanup process, and discussing site findings and decisions as they are developed (Superfund Management Review: No. 43 G, H, Q, R, T). Directive  

SciTech Connect

The directive summarizes five recommendations for improving Superfund efforts towards timely release of information to the public during site cleanup activities. It provides guidance for the Regions to make documents available to the public throughout the cleanup process and to discuss site findings and decisions as they are developed for the sake of more fully involving citizens in the cleanup process and ensuring two way communication between Superfund staff and local communities.

Not Available

1990-11-05

64

Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

Fimyar, Olena

2008-01-01

65

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

66

Orbitmpi Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

Lisa L. Lowe

2000-10-05

67

Standardization Documents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Standarization document is a generic term for a document used to standardize an item of supply, process, procedure, method, data, practice, or engineering approach. Standardization documents include Defense Specifications, Standards, and Handbooks; Federa...

J. Weitzner

2011-01-01

68

A framework for profile similarity: integrating similarity, normativeness, and distinctiveness.  

PubMed

Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising from the overlap among profile similarity and normativeness, which presents potential confounds and potential opportunities. This article describes the normativeness problem, articulating the need to evaluate profile similarity alongside normativeness and distinctiveness. It presents conceptual and psychometric foundations of a framework differentiating these elements for pairs of profiles. It derives two models from this framework, and it discusses the application of their components to a variety of research domains. Finally, it presents recommendations and implications regarding the use of these components and profile similarity more generally. This approach can reveal and manage potential confounds, and it can provide theoretical insights that might otherwise be overlooked. PMID:18705644

Furr, R Michael

2008-10-01

69

Normative data on Revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data are presented for 570 children on newly revised versions of the Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Symptom ratings were factor analyzed and structures compared favorably with those obtained using earlier versions of the questionnaires. Interrater correlations (mother-father, parent-teacher) were also reported. Age and sex effects were found to be significant determinants of children 's scores, while social

Charles H. Goyette; C. Keith Conners; Richard F. Ulrich

1978-01-01

70

Toward a Normative Dynamic Model of Educational Equity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of literature relevant to equal educational opportunity is presented in order to support an argument for the use of normative models in educational research. The literature review shows that confusion over the 1966 Coleman Report was due to a mismatch between the implied reform objective of the report and its statistical approach. The…

Miller, Trudi C.

71

Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

2010-01-01

72

Normative Integration, Alienation, and Conformity in Adolescent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 61 children's groups indicate that early adolescent (modal age 10 years) and late adolescent (modal age 15 years) children's groups are characterized by high levels of normative integration, or norm consensus. In contrast, groups passing through middle adolescence (modal age 11-14 years) are characterized by significantly lower levels of…

Feldman, Ronald A.

73

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

74

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative and Clinical Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative sample of 880 children was contrasted with a sample of 276 sexually abused children on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a 35-item behavior checklist assessing sexual behavior in children 2–12 years old. The CSBI total score differed significantly between the 2 groups after controlling for age, sex, maternal education, and family income, with sexually abused children showing

William N. Friedrich; Patricia Grambsch; Linda Damon; Sandra K. Hewitt; Catherine Koverola; Reuben A. Lang; Vicki Wolfe; Daniel Broughton

1992-01-01

75

THE NORMATIVE WORLD OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO DETERMINE HOW COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS ABOUT RULES OF BEHAVIOR AFFECT THE POSITION AND ROLE OF TEACHERS, INFORMATION ABOUT THE NORMATIVE STRUCTURE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS WAS GAINED THROUGH USE OF ROLE NORM INVENTORIES ADMINISTERED TO 367 TEACHERS, 22 PRINCIPALS, 7 SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS, THE SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENT, 603 CITIZENS, 56 COMMUNITY LEADERS,…

FOSKETT, JOHN M.

76

Normative Data For Two MMPI Critical Item Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressed normative aspects of recent Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory critical item sets in normals (N=123), inpatient alcoholics (N=383) and psychiatric inpatients (N=567). Results indicated that although pathological groups generally endorsed more critical items than normals, mean differences were not large. (LLL)

Evans, Ronald G.

1984-01-01

77

Normative support for corporal punishment: Attitudes, correlates, and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporal punishment enjoys strong normative support in American society, even in the face of growing evidence suggesting that it may be potentially harmful. This article examines Americans' attitudes toward the physical punishment of children. Support for spanking varies along such social categories as race, education, religion, and region. The article concludes bu discussing the implications of corporal punishment attitudes for

Clifton P. Flynn

1996-01-01

78

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative, Psychiatric, and Sexual Abuse Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative sample of 1,114 children was contrasted with a sample of 620 sexually abused children and 577 psychiatric outpatients on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), a 38-item behavior checklist assessing sexual behavior in children 2 to 12 years old. The CSBI total score and each individual item differed significantly between the three groups after controlling for age, sex,

William N. Friedrich; Jennifer L. Fisher; Carrie Anne Dittner; Robert Acton; Lucy Berliner; Judy Butler; Linda Damon; W. Hobart Davies; Alison Gray; John Wright

2001-01-01

79

Normative Expectations and Individual Decisions concerning Media Gratification Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicate that each of the nine media studied (newspapers, magazines, commercial and public television, books, radio, friends, recorded music, film) has a clear, socially defined image, suggesting a two-stage model of media channel utilization--normative expectations followed by individual decisions. (PD)

Lichtenstein, Allen; Rosenfeld, Lawrence

1984-01-01

80

Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

Jensen, Dwight Wm.

81

The Empirical Development of the Normative Message Processing Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on five studies on the development, conceptual validation, and behavioral validation of the Normative Message Processing Scale (NMPS). Compares the conceptual and predictive validity of the NMPS to related trait information-processing instruments. Argues for the need to develop an instrument that distinguishes between the tendency to…

Aune, R. Kelly; Reynolds, Rodney A.

1994-01-01

82

Ipsative, Normative and Return on Effort Versions of Expectancy Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews versions of testing expectancy theory predictions of individual choice behavior. The ipsative, normative and return on effort approaches are addressed as are the issues of conceptual, methodical and empirical problems associated with each approach. In order to test the hypotheses as to which approach would yield stronger…

Kopelman, Richard E.

83

An Investigation of the Normative Structure for Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study was designed to determine if a normative structure exists among a community college student body by extending the work of Caboni, Braxton, Deusterhous, Mundy, McClendon, and Lee (2005). The study also sought to determine if the level of espousal for the norms differed across student characteristics. This study analyzed data…

Akin, Selenia Renea

2010-01-01

84

National information infrastructure policy: a theoretical and normative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relies on critical theories of technology and democratic disclosure to construct normative communication principles for the development of the national information infrastructure. Suggests that efforts to privatize the information highway, which are currently underway, undermine the network?s long-range potential to encourage citizen-to-citizen discussion of public issues.

Richard J. Schaefer

1995-01-01

85

Electrical Safety Equipment in Explosion and Fire Danger Zone. Technological Developments and Normative Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems relative to the creation of normatives in response to technological developments in the field of electrical safety equipment in explosion and fire danger zones are examined, with particular reference given to the standardization of normatives wit...

P. Ostano

1987-01-01

86

Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

2011-01-01

87

Predictive validity of demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were

Erin E. Morgan; Steven Paul Woods; J. Cobb Scott; Meredith Childers; Jennifer Marquie Beck; Ronald J. Ellis; Igor Grant; Robert K. Heaton

2008-01-01

88

Experimental findings on God as an attachment figure: normative processes and moderating effects of internal working models.  

PubMed

Four studies examined implications of attachment theory for psychological aspects of religion among Israeli Jews. Study 1 replicated previous correlational findings indicating correspondence among interpersonal attachment orientations, attachment to God, and image of God. Studies 2-4 were subliminal priming experiments, which documented both normative and individual-difference effects. Regarding normative effects, findings indicated that threat priming heightened cognitive access to God-related concepts in a lexical decision task (Study 2); priming with "God" heightened cognitive access to positive, secure base-related concepts in the same task (Study 3); and priming with a religious symbol caused neutral material to be better liked (Study 4). Regarding individual differences, interpersonal attachment-related avoidance reduced the normative effects (i.e., avoidant participants had lower implicit access to God as a safe haven and secure base). Findings were mostly independent of level of religiousness. The present experiments considerably extend the psychological literature on connections between attachment constructs and aspects of religion. PMID:22800284

Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Gewirtz, Vered; Shaver, Phillip R

2012-11-01

89

Foreign policy matters: a normative view of the G8 and population health.  

PubMed

The Group of Eight (G8) countries occupy a dominant position in the international economic and political order. Given what is known about influences on the social determinants of health in an interconnected world, the G8 are a logical starting point for any enquiry into the relations between foreign policy and health. We first make five arguments for adopting an explicitly normative, equity-oriented perspective on the performance of G8 policy in areas related to population health. We then examine G8 performance with respect to the crucial policy triad of development assistance, debt relief and trade, finding that neither rhetoric nor promising institutional innovation has been matched by resources commensurate with demonstrated levels of need. We conclude that it is necessary to pursue advocacy efforts based on the normative perspective we have put forward and that doing so effectively requires further investigation of why some policies are more receptive than others to policies of redistribution both within and outside their borders. PMID:17486209

Labonte, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

2007-03-01

90

Layout and Content Extraction for PDF Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable document format (PDF) is a common output format for electronic documents. Most PDF documents are untagged and do not have basic high-level document logical structural information, which makes the reuse or modification of the documents difficult. We developed techniques that identified logical components on a PDF document page. The outlines, style attributes and the contents of the logical components

Hui Chao; Jian Fan

2004-01-01

91

Construction documents.  

PubMed

Contractors base their bids on construction documents and use them as their daily "nuts and bolts" guide in constructing the building. They are the owner's legal instrument to insure that the building they want is constructed as they intended. This article defines and examines the vital significance of construction documents. Of particular interest is the discussion of owner and architect responsibilities during the construction documents (CD) phase, contractual agreements on these responsibilities, and how to minimize potential problems. PMID:10291622

Diaz, J R

1988-01-01

92

Canadian normative data for the SF36 health survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) is a widely used measure of health-related quality of life. Normative data are the key to de- termining whether a group or an individual scores above or below the average for their country, age or sex. Published norms for the SF-36 exist for other coun- tries but have not been previously

Wilma M. Hopman; Tanveer Towheed; Tassos Anastassiades; Alan Tenenhouse; Suzette Poliquin; Claudie Berger; Lawrence Joseph; Jacques P. Brown; Timothy M. Murray; Jonathan D. Adachi; David A. Hanley; Emmanuel Papadimitropoulos

93

Normative ranges and specificity of the multifocal VEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To describe a normative database for the multifocal VEP (mfVEP) and to evaluate specificity for a range of cluster criteria. Methods: One hundred persons (62 females and 38 males) with normal visual fields and ranging in age from 21.6 to 92.4 years participated in this study. Self-reported race in 80 of these 100 persons was `White or Caucasian,' eight were

Brad Fortune; Xian Zhang; Donald C. Hood; Shaban Demirel; Chris A. Johnson

2004-01-01

94

A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.  

PubMed Central

Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach.

Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

2004-01-01

95

Assessing Adolescent Decision-Making Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral decision research offers a general approach to studying cognitive aspects of decision making, as well as a platform for studying their interplay with social and affective processes. Applied to any decision, behavioral decision research involves three interrelated tasks: (a) "normative" analysis, identifying the expected impacts of…

Fischhoff, Baruch

2008-01-01

96

On the "optimal" size for normative samples in neuropsychology: capturing the uncertainty when normative data are used to quantify the standing of a neuropsychological test score.  

PubMed

Bridges and Holler (2007) have provided a useful reminder that normative data are fallible. Unfortunately, however, their paper misleads neuropsychologists as to the nature and extent of the problem. We show that the uncertainty attached to the estimated z score and percentile rank of a given raw score is much larger than they report and that it varies as a function of the extremity of the raw score. Methods for quantifying the uncertainty associated with normative data are described and used to illustrate the issues involved. A computer program is provided that, on entry of a normative sample mean, standard deviation, and sample size, provides point and interval estimates of percentiles and z scores for raw scores referred to these normative data. The methods and program provide neuropsychologists with a means of evaluating the adequacy of existing norms and will be useful for those planning normative studies. PMID:18306075

Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H

2008-03-01

97

NACA documents database project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

Smith, Ruth S.

1991-01-01

98

Primary Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a place to find primary documents in American history. This is a great website to find pictures and other images of historical figures and events. They can be used by anybody without fear of breaking copyright laws. Images of American Political History This website is not limited to the Federalist Papers. It is a great website to find historical documents. Federalist Papers This website is great ...

Revelli, Mr.

2006-11-13

99

Interoperable Documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentation provides the context that adds understanding and knowledge to data. The ISO Standards for documenting data (19115, 19115-2), and services (19119) extend the range of standard documentation considerably beyond previously available approaches. They include increased utilization of technologies like UML, XML and linking and content areas like data quality and processing history. These extensions can build an emerging foundation of data interoperability into an infrastructure for interoperable understanding. This process will involve active collaboration between many environmental data providers and archives all over the world that are currently in the process of adopting and understanding how to effectively use the ISO Standards. I will describe ISO capabilities in the context of parallels between metadata tools and data interoperability approaches currently used by scientists and decision-makers. I will demonstrate how directories shared over the web, transport standards, and community conventions build the foundation for documentation access and data understanding. I will also demonstrate crosswalks and connections between ISO, THREDDS, and NetCDF documentation and some ideas and approaches to improving documentation across the entire spectrum of environmental data and products.

Habermann, T.

2011-12-01

100

[The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].  

PubMed

To make criminal conduct liable to punishment, criminal responsibility, defined as individual blameworthiness in terms of social ethics, is required as point of reference--both to create and limit the state's right to punish the offender. Neurobiological findings and more recent investigations in brain research have given rise to serious doubts regarding this "conditio sine qua non" of the state's power monopoly. As a result of preceding unconscious decisions, so the argument goes, Man is not free in his will, and the normative principle of culpability would need to be relinquished in favour of a "law of measures" detached from guilt. A detailed analysis of the underlying experimental setups, in particular the investigations by Benjamin Libet involving the measurement of the readiness potential, has shown, however, that the results of the test methods do not justify the demand for a profound change up to the point of a total revision of criminal law, and that they cannot invalidate the concept of freedom of will apostrophised on principle. The empirical data obtained fail to demonstrate if and why decisions of the will should not be free, the more so as the nomothetic method used ignores completely the idiographic understanding and interpretation of the always context-related and socio-structurally (pre)-moulded personality of the offender. Performed in a laboratory setting as individual actions with a comparatively simple structure and unrelated to a concrete situation, they can by no means be translated to the (more) complex situation under which an offence is committed including the decision-making processes determined by psychodynamic, motivational and intentional aspects as well as highly specific reciprocal interactions within the offender-victim constellation. Even if these experiments had shown the determined nature of human decisions, they would not necessarily have to bring about a conceptual change of paradigms of the normative concept of guilt, because as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will. PMID:17217181

Czerner, Frank

2006-01-01

101

The all-too-flexible abductive method: ATOM's normative status.  

PubMed

The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use of analogical reasoning and the application of exploratory factor analysis leave us with too many candidate theories to choose from, and explanatory coherence cannot be expected to save the day. The author ends with some suggestions to remedy the permissiveness and lack of normative force in ATOM, deriving from the experimental practice within which psychological data are produced. PMID:18633994

Romeijn, Jan-Willem

2008-09-01

102

Text Classification without Labeled Negative Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new solution for the problem of building a text classifier with a small set of labeled positive documents (P) and a large set of unlabeled documents (U). Here, the unlabeled documents are mixed with both of the positive and negative documents. In other words, no document is labeled as negative. This makes the task of building

Gabriel Pui Cheong Fung; Jeffrey Xu Yu; Hongjun Lu; Philip S. Yu

2005-01-01

103

Document Delivery Expert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of an expert system developed using VP-Expert for document delivery decision making in a law library. Presents methods used in knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation after a brief review of the literature on expert system use in libraries. An appendix includes the rules of the expert system. (Author/AEF)

Abate, Anne K.

1995-01-01

104

Good Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dan Bricklin provides this site, a clearinghouse of information collected to help content providers write for the Intranet and Internet media. Rather than stressing site building that will attract the most users, Good Documents provides tips for writing that will be read on-screen. The Techniques and Samples sections provide no-nonsense tips on how to create screen-readable documents and offer examples. The site is interesting in that it assumes that its users want to create content that will be read rather than viewed.

105

Objective Measures of Behavior Manifestations in Adult ADHD and Differentiation from Participants with Bipolar II Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Participants with Disconfirmed ADHD as Well as Normative Participants  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants. Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD. Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms.

Edebol, Hanna; Helldin, Lars; Norlander, Torsten

2012-01-01

106

A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

1993-01-01

107

CERN Document Server: Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters for various exhibitions and workshops at CERN, the Swiss-based European Laboratory for Particle Physics, are now available within the Multimedia collection of the CERN Document Server. At this site, over 220 posters can be searched (keyword, title, or date) or browsed by title. The posters cover CERN projects such as the L3 detector and the End-cap Muon system and exhibitions including "Crystals of China" and "Collaborating through the Cold War." They display labeled diagrams of equipment, specifications, and historical facts. Because the online CERN Document Server is set to provide thorough information about documents in its database, users can find the top ten keywords for each poster, get detailed file format information (.pdf, .gif, .ps), extract figures, and receive documents by email. The printable color posters provide an interesting look into the history of CERN research and outreach and make nice office decorations for science geeks such as this editor.

2001-01-01

108

Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning  

PubMed Central

In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality.

Schurz, Gerhard

2014-01-01

109

Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form (SF-36) is a widely used measure of health-related quality of life. Normative data are the key to determining whether a group or an individual scores above or below the average for their country, age or sex. Published norms for the SF-36 exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Canada. Methods The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study is a prospective cohort study involving 9423 randomly selected Canadian men and women aged 25 years or more living in the community. The sample was drawn within a 50-km radius of 9 Canadian cities, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age- and sex-adjusted normative data for the Canadian population. Results Canadian men scored substantially higher than women on all 8 domains and the 2 summary component scales of the SF-36. Canadians scored higher than their US counterparts on all SF-36 domains and both summary component scales and scored higher than their UK counterparts on 4 domains, although many of the differences are not large. Interpretation The differences in the SF-36 scores between age groups, sexes and countries confirm that these Canadian norms are necessary for comparative purposes. The data will be useful for assessing the health status of the general population and of patient populations, and the effect of interventions on health-related quality of life.

Hopman, Wilma M.; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Tenenhouse, Alan; Poliquin, Suzette; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Brown, Jacques P.; Murray, Timothy M.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hanley, David A.; Papadimitropoulos

2000-01-01

110

FLT Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FLT documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast

111

FMISO Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FMISO documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a

112

FES Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

113

Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.  

PubMed

Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

2010-05-01

114

The Battlefield of Water Rights: Rule Making Amidst Conflicting Normative Frameworks in the Ecuadorian Highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Property relations in irrigation and water rights distribution have become central issues in current policy debates and rural development initiatives. Nevertheless, there is still a great lack of understanding about what water rights-in-practice are, how they function, and how they are created, consolidated, and transformed from abstract sociolegal categories into local procedures and in-the-field practices. Understanding users’ rationality and local

R. Boelens; B. Doornbos

2001-01-01

115

Orbitmpi Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal change...

L. L. Lowe

2000-01-01

116

Official Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stationery Office of the UK provides one-stop shopping for selected UK government publications. Stationery Office publications are available by date, title, or government department. There is also a selected list of publications available from other government departments. As it grows, this site should become a major repository of UK government documents. Note the difference between The Stationery Office and Her Majesty's Stationery Office (there is a link at the site).

1997-01-01

117

Video document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.

Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer W.; Yeo, Boon-Lock

1999-08-01

118

The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

Kristjansson, Kristjan

2003-01-01

119

Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

2009-01-01

120

Vertical jumping and leg power normative data for English school children aged 10–15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although vertical jumping is often incorporated into physical activity tests for both adults and children, normative data for children and adolescents are lacking in the literature. The objectives of this study were to provide normative data of jump height and predicted peak leg power for males and females aged 10.0–15.9 years. Altogether, 1845 children from 12 state primary and secondary

Matthew J. D. Taylor; Daniel Cohen; Christine Voss; Gavin R. H. Sandercock

2010-01-01

121

Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

Ressler, Paula

2005-01-01

122

The Role of Community Service in Identity DevelopmentNormative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses from a nationally representative sample of 13,000 high school seniors were analyzed to identify predictors of normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations among youth. Normative orientation was indexed using indicators of conventional political involvement (e. g., voting), religious attendance, and importance of religion. Unconventional orientation was indexed with unconventional political involvement (e. g., boycotting). Deviance was measured through marijuana use.

James Youniss; Jeffrey A. Mclellan; Yang Su; Miranda Yates

1999-01-01

123

How to Talk About the Body? the Normative Dimension of Science Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science studies has often been against the normative dimension of epistemology, which made a naturalistic study of science impossible. But this is not to say that a new type of normativity cannot be detected at work inscience studies. This is especially true in the second wave of studies dealing with the body, which has aimed at criticizing the physicalization of

Bruno Latour; Marc Berg

2004-01-01

124

The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

Somers, Mark John

2009-01-01

125

Biases in the Perception of Normative Alcohol Use over Time: Perceived Norms Predict Future Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived norms are important mediators of social behavior. Social perception, however, is often biased or inaccurate. Recent research has shown that college students overestimate normative drinking rates. This study examined whether this trend continues over time and if students' perceptions of normative drinking are predictive of personal…

Baer, John S.; And Others

126

Cinco De Mayo, Normative Whiteness, and the Marginalization of Mexican-Descent Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study is concerned with how institutional practices of normative whiteness can impede the school involvement of Mexican-descent students. It examines how damaging forms of white normativity can operate in school settings where one might least expect to find them: in commemorations of Mexican cultural holidays. The author shows how such…

Hurd, Clayton A.

2008-01-01

127

A Methodological Shortnote on Measuring and Assessing the Effects of Normative Clearsightedness about Internality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This shortnote deals with measuring normative clearsightedness about internality and assessing its effects. After raising the issue of how to measure normative clearsightedness, another operationalization of this concept is proposed based on a multilevel model. In an attempt to understand the relationship between pupils' clearsightedness about…

Bressoux, Pascal; Pansu, Pascal

2007-01-01

128

Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

2005-01-01

129

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

130

Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

2007-01-01

131

Taking Fiction Seriously: Young Children Understand the Normative Structure of Joint Pretence Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joint pretence games are implicit rule-governed activities with a normative structure: Given shared fictional stipulations, some acts are appropriate moves, others are inappropriate (i.e., mistakes). The awareness of 2- and 3-year-old children of this normative structure was explored, as indicated by their ability to not only act according to the…

Rakoczy, Hannes

2008-01-01

132

Evidence That Normative Beliefs is a Multidimensional Construct: Personal and Mass Media Referents  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) is commonly used to model normative beliefs that depend on human referents, this study extends the normative belief to allow modelling the mass media referents and linking them to both Subjective Norm (SN) and behavioural intention (BI). This study emphasizes the importance of communication channel's influence (referents). Rogers' theory introduces two types of referents,

Ali Hussein

133

A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

Bucciarelli, Amy

2011-01-01

134

LCS Content Document Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

Hochstadt, Jake

2011-01-01

135

Wideband acoustic immittance normative data: ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation.  

PubMed

This article describes the effect of ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation on wideband acoustic immittance (WAI). This is an important topic to investigate as the goal of any audiological test is optimize the test's sensitivity and specificity. One way to improve the test's sensitivity and specificity is to reduce the variability of the normative data. The impact of the aforementioned demographic characteristics on WAI norms has been reviewed, and where applicable its potential impact on clinical outcome has been discussed. Overall, differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups in adults population may warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms especially for detection of otosclerosis; however, these differences in the school-aged children are not large enough to warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms. It is important to explore whether the observed differences between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups is due to body-size indices and whether these differences can be replicated in other East Asian ethnic groups that share similar body-size indices. The differences observed between school-aged children and adults could also potentially impact clinical decision analysis. Therefore, use of age-specific norm is recommended. The differences in WAI between different systems are not clinically significant, and the use of instrument-specific norms does not result in improved test performance at least for the detection of otosclerosis. However, measuring WAI at ambient pressure (static) or at pressure corresponding to the peak (dynamic mode) could potentially impact the normative data and may prove to be clinically useful in cases of negative and positive middle ear pressure. PMID:23900176

Shahnaz, Navid; Feeney, M Patrick; Schairer, Kim S

2013-07-01

136

Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.  

PubMed

Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society. PMID:20663768

Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

2010-08-01

137

FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENTM NORMATIVE VALUES IN A YOUNG, ACTIVE POPULATION  

PubMed Central

Background: The Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMSTM) is a screening instrument which evaluates selective fundamental movement patterns to determine potential injury risk. However, despite its global use, there are currently no normative values available for the FMSTM. Objectives: To establish normative values for the FMSTM in a population of active, healthy individuals. Secondary aims were to investigate whether performance differed between males and females, between those with and without a previous history of injury, and to establish real-time inter-rater reliability of the FMSTM. Methods: Two hundred and nine (108 females and 101 males) physically active individuals, aged between 18 and 40 years, with no recent (<6 weeks) history of musculoskeletal injury were recruited. All participants performed the FMSTM and were scored using the previously established standardized FMSTM criteria. A representative sub-group participant sample (28%) determined inter rater reliability. Results: The mean composite FMSTM score was 15.7 with a 95% confidence interval between 15.4 and 15.9 out of a possible total of 21. There was no statistically significant difference in scores between females and males (t207 = .979, p = .329), or those who reported a previous injury and those who did not (t207 = .688, p= .492). Inter-rater reliability (ICC3,1) for the composite FMSTM score was .971, demonstrating excellent reliability. Inter-rater reliability (Kappa) for individual test components of the FMSTM demonstrated substantial to excellent agreement (0.70 — 1.0). Discussion and Conclusion: This cross-sectional study provides FMSTM reference values for young, active individuals, which will assist in the interpretation of individual scores when screening athletes for musculoskeletal injury and performance factors.

Davidsson, Asa; Horman, Elvira; Sullivan, S. John

2011-01-01

138

Underestimating protection and overestimating risk: examining descriptive normative perceptions and their association with drinking and sexual behaviors.  

PubMed

Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms-behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms-behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Cronce, Jessica M; Blayney, Jessica A; Gilmore, Amanda K

2014-01-01

139

Perceptions of document relevance  

PubMed Central

This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances.

Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

2014-01-01

140

Normative data for muscle strength in relation to age, knee angle and velocity.  

PubMed

Standardized normal values are necessary to assess the performance with respect to the momentary functional state as well as a documentation of a training or rehabilitation program. The isokinetic extension strength of the right and left knee was investigated in 147 healthy male subjects between 17 and 70 years who were divided into 6 age groups. Normative data are given in dependence on age, knee angle and various velocities and regression equation in relation to the knee angle and for the peak torque in relation to the angular velocity. We found a significant decrease in maximum torque with increasing angle acceleration (p < 0.001) and a correlation between strength and body mass (p < 0.05). The highest values were found in the group of 20- to 29-year olds, while the strength was lower up to age 20. The decrease in force between 25 to 70 years ranges up to 37% at a velocity of 10 degrees/s, up to 41% at a velocity of 60 degrees/s and up to 50% at a velocity of 180 degrees/s. PMID:8585214

Baron, R

1995-01-01

141

Normative Results of Healthy Older Adults on Standard Clinical Vestibular Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment.

Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri

2014-01-01

142

Mini mental Parkinson test: standardization and normative data on an Italian sample.  

PubMed

The mini mental Parkinson (MMP) is a test built to overcome the limits of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in the short-time screening of cognitive disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In fact, in this scale, items tapping executive functioning are included to better capture PD-related cognitive changes. Some data sustain the sensitivity and validity of the MMP in the short neuropsychological screening of these individuals. Here, we report normative data on the MMP we collected on a sample of 307 Italian healthy subjects ranging from 40 to 91 years. The results document a detrimental effect of age and an ameliorative effect of education on the MMP total performance score. We provide for correction grids for age and literacy that derive from results of the regression analyses. Moreover, we also computed equivalent scores in order to allow a direct and fast comparison between the performance on the MMP and on other psychometric measures that can be administered to the subjects. PMID:23479031

Costa, Alberto; Bagoj, Eriola; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; De Rosa, Salvatore; Mundi, Ciro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

2013-10-01

143

Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

2013-01-01

144

The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a norm as an exception and how the other agents react to the violation as exception handling. This paper concentrates on our formal model.

Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

1998-01-01

145

Derivation of normative data for the COPD assessment test (CAT)  

PubMed Central

Background The tradition classification of the severity of COPD, based on spirometry, fails to encompass the heterogeneity of the disease. The COPD assessment test (CAT), a multi-dimensional, patient-filled questionnaire, assesses the overall health status of patients, and is recommended as part of the assessment of individuals with COPD. However, information regarding the range of values for the test in a non-COPD population (normative values) is limited, and consequently, knowledge regarding the optimal cut-off, and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for the test remain largely empirical. Methods CanCOLD is a population-based multi-center cohort study conducted across Canada, the methodology of which is based on the international BOLD initiative. The study includes subjects with COPD, at-risk individuals who smoke, and healthy control subjects. CAT questionnaires were administered at baseline to all subjects. Among non-COPD subjects, normative values for the CAT questionnaire, and psychometric properties of the test were characterized. Predictors of high CAT scores were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 525 non-COPD subjects enrolled, 500 were included in the analysis. Mean FEV1/FVC ratio among the 500 included subjects was 0.77 (SD 0.49); the mean predicted FEV1 was 99.38% (SD 16.88%). The overall mean CAT score was 6 (SD 5.09); scores were higher among females (6.43, SD 5.59), and subjects over 80 years of age (mean 7.58, SD 6.82). Cronbach alpha for the CAT was 0.79, suggesting a high internal consistency for the test. A score of 16 was the 95th percentile for the population, and 27 subjects (5.4%) were found to have a CAT score?>?=16. Current smoking (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.05, 11.02), subject-reported physician-diagnosed asthma (aOR 7.59, 95% CI 2.71, 21.25) and musculoskeletal disease (aOR 4.09, 95% CI 1.72, 9.71) were found to be significantly associated with a score ?16. Conclusions The characterization of CAT scores in the general population will be useful for norm-based comparisons. Longitudinal follow-up of these subjects will help in the optimization of cut-offs for the test.

2014-01-01

146

Omega documentation  

SciTech Connect

OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

1983-08-01

147

Making Longer, Making Shorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem uses linking cubes as a concrete context for exploring simple multiplication and division, doubling, halves and quarters. The problem displays a rod of 4 cubes and asks students how many cubes are necessary to make rods related to it in a variety of ways. It can be used to introduce key concepts and vocabulary. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

2010-01-01

148

Normative development of physical aggression from 8 to 26 months.  

PubMed

This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and fathers reported frequently about their child's use of PA in personal and telephone interviews. Mean number of reports per child was 7.16 (SD 1.70), with 90% having at least 6 reports. We employed Rasch scaling to construct a single linear PA measure and multilevel growth curve modeling to address the research questions. The results confirm that the development of PA is nonlinear, with a peak in frequency at about 20-22 months, which is followed by a decline toward 26 months. There is both within- and between-child variance in the development of PA. Higher levels of PA were predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling, maternal and paternal mental distress, and difficult child temperament (high activity level and distress due to limitations), whereas the main effect of gender was only trend-significant. Growth of PA across this developmental period was predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling and high activity level. The results both support and transcend previous research within this field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24708457

Nćrde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

2014-06-01

149

Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder  

PubMed Central

The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions.

Stier, Marco

2013-01-01

150

Famous face recognition and naming test: a normative study.  

PubMed

Tests of famous face recognition and naming, and tasks assessing semantic knowledge about famous people after presentation either of their faces or their names are often used in the neuropsychological examination of aphasic, amnesic and demented patients. A total of 187 normal subjects took part in this study. The aim was to collect normative data for a newly devised test including five subtests: famous face naming, fame judgement after face presentation and after name presentation, semantic knowledge about famous people after face presentation and after name presentation. Norms were calculated taking into account demographic variables such as age, sex and education and adjusted scores were used to determine inferential cut-off scores and to compute equivalent scores. Multiple regression analyses showed that age and education influenced significantly the performance on most subtests, but sex had no effect on any of them. Scores of the subtest evaluating fame judgements after name presentation were significantly influenced only by education. The only subtest whose scores were not influenced by any demographic variable was fame judgement after face presentation. PMID:12536284

Rizzo, S; Venneri, A; Papagno, C

2002-10-01

151

Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

2012-01-01

152

Document expansion using relevant web documents for spoken document retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, automatic indexing of a spoken document using a speech recognizer attracts attention. However, index generation from an automatic transcription has many problems because the automatic transcription has many recognition errors and Out-Of-Vocabulary words. To solve this problem, we propose a document expansion method using Web documents. To obtain important keywords which included in the spoken document but lost by

Ryo MASUMURA; Akinori ITO; Y. Uno; M. Ito; S. Makino

2010-01-01

153

On obligations and normative ability: Towards a logical analysis of the social contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a logic of normative ability, as an extension to the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL) of Alur, Henzinger, and Kupferman. While conventional ATL contains cooperation modalities of the form \\

Michael Wooldridge; Wiebe Van Der Hoek

2005-01-01

154

Extremely secure identification documents  

SciTech Connect

The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1997-09-01

155

The Effect of Subjective Normative Social Images of Smokers on Children's Intentions to Smoke  

PubMed Central

This paper expands the literature on peers’ influence on youth’s behaviors through the examination of the effect of subjective normative social images of smokers (perceived peers’ social images of smokers) on subsequent intentions to smoke and the relation between subjective normative social images and the youth’s own social images, or prototypes. Data are from the two oldest cohorts (fourth and fifth graders at the first assessment) and from the first five assessments of the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project, an ongoing longitudinal study. Results showed that both children’s subjective normative social images and prototypes uniquely predicted intentions to smoke cigarettes at the subsequent assessment. Across time, subjective normative social images were more positive than the youth’s own prototypes, and subjective normative social images and children’s own prototypes were reciprocally related over time. Results provide support for subjective normative social images as a risk factor for children’s smoking and suggest targeting this mechanism in smoking prevention programs for children.

Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah; Barckley, Maureen

2008-01-01

156

Digital Document Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Gladney has an established background in the field of digital document management, and he also holds a number of patents. Gladney started publishing the Digital Document Quarterly (DDQ) in 2002 as an online publication that covers everything from the information revolution to providing information about digital preservation solutions. Visitors to the site can read the introduction to the DDQ, and then make their way through all of the previous issues. It's easy to see why different information science professionals and librarians would find the archive useful, as the topics covered here include basic topics in digital preservation, preserving office records, information retrieval, and even the epistemology of digital preservation. The site is rounded out by a nice glossary of terms, which covers everything from "abstract" to "value".

2008-01-01

157

The selection of soils for unstabilised earth building: A normative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth building techniques make use of unbaked earth as a material for constructing walls. We consider that evaluation of soils is a primary question because not all soils are adequate for earth building, and not for any of the earth building techniques. Following a selection of more than 20 technical documents including standards from National Standards Bodies, we analysed the

M. Carmen Jiménez Delgado; Ignacio Cańas Guerrero

2007-01-01

158

Challenging normative orthodoxies in depression: Huxley's Utopia or Dante's Inferno?  

PubMed

Although there appears to be a widespread consensus that depression is a ubiquitous human experience, definitions of depression, its prevalence, and how mental health services respond to it have changed significantly over time, particularly during recent decades. Epistemological limitations notwithstanding, it is now estimated that approximately 121 million people experience depression. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that the last two decades have seen the widespread acceptance of depression as a chemical imbalance and a massive corresponding increase in the prescription of antidepressants, most notably of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness and iatrogenic side effects of antidepressants; related questions have also been asked about whose interests are served by the marketing and sales of these drugs. Accordingly, this article attempts to problematize the normative orthodoxy concerning depression and creates a "space" in which an alternative can be articulated and enacted. In so doing, the article finds that the search for a world where the automatic response to depression is a pharmacological intervention not only ignores the use of alternative efficacious treatment options but may also inhibit the persons' chance to explore the meaning of their experience and thus prevent people from individual growth and personal development. Interestingly, in worlds analogous to this pharmacologically induced depression-free state, such as utopias like that in Huxley's Brave New World, no "properly conditioned citizen" is depressed or suicidal. Yet, in the same Brave New World, no one is free to suffer, to be different, or crucially, to be independent. PMID:20303451

Cutcliffe, John R; Lakeman, Richard

2010-04-01

159

Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

160

Is There a Drop in Normative Clearsightedness in Sixth Grade? Study of Internality and Normative Clearsightedness in Fourth to Seventh Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have demonstrated a decrease in the expression of internality in French sixth graders as compared to fifth graders. The present study examines normative clearsightedness in addition to internality across four French school grades (fourth to seventh). The results confirmed the sixth-grade drop in internality and showed that the…

Bigot, Johann; Pichot, Nathalie; Teste, Benoit

2004-01-01

161

Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding  

PubMed Central

In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.

Klaczynski, Paul A.

2014-01-01

162

Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

163

Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

Binder, Claudia R., E-mail: claudia.binder@geo.uzh.c [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for System Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz (Austria); Feola, Giuseppe [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Steinberger, Julia K. [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)

2010-02-15

164

Individual differences in moral judgment competence influence neural correlates of socio-normative judgments  

PubMed Central

To investigate how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the human brain, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, while 23 participants made either socio-normative or grammatical judgments. Participants with lower moral judgment competence recruited the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the left posterior superior temporal sulcus more than participants with greater competence in this domain when identifying social norm violations. Moreover, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during socio-normative relative to grammatical judgments. Greater activity in right DLPFC in participants with lower moral judgment competence indicates increased recruitment of rule-based knowledge and its controlled application during socio-normative judgments. These data support current models of the neurocognition of morality according to which both emotional and cognitive components play an important role.

Wartenburger, Isabell; Meriau, Katja; Scheibe, Christina; Goodenough, Oliver R.; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

2008-01-01

165

Normative composition and classification of lunar igneous rocks and glasses. II - Lunar glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major element analyses in the literature of lunar glasses are compiled and used in the definition of glass groups based on normative and chemical compositions. Rittman norms were calculated for 1499 major element analyses of individual clear glass particles, and represented in quartz-plagioclase-orthopyroxene and olivine-plagioclase-orthopyroxene triangles according to normative clinopyroxene contents. Although lunar glasses are observed to form a more continuous distribution of normative compositions than lunar rocks, the glass continuum could be divided into 11 groups according to apparent clusters in the diagrams and the six lunar rock groups identified previously. The frequencies of the rock and glass groups at the Apollo and Lunar landing sites are illustrated, and the abundances of chemically corresponding groups are shown to be similar, suggesting genetic relationships. Glass groups most likely originating from the impact fusion of chemically corresponding rocks possibly with alkali volatilization, most likely of volcanic origin are also distinguished.

von Engelhardt, W.; Stengelin, R.

1981-01-01

166

Redactable signatures for signed CDA Documents.  

PubMed

The Clinical Document Architecture, introduced by Health Level Seven, is a XML-based standard intending to specify the encoding, structure, and semantics of clinical documents for exchange. Since the clinical document is in XML form, its authenticity and integrity could be guaranteed by the use of the XML signature published by W3C. While a clinical document wants to conceal some personal or private information, the document needs to be redacted. It makes the signed signature of the original clinical document not be verified. The redactable signature is thus proposed to enable verification for the redacted document. Only a little research does the implementation of the redactable signature, and there still not exists an appropriate scheme for the clinical document. This paper will investigate the existing web-technologies and find a compact and applicable model to implement a suitable redactable signature for the clinical document viewer. PMID:21181244

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Hsueh, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lai, Feipei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang

2012-06-01

167

Document Management on Display.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

Grimshaw, Anne

1998-01-01

168

Wind system documentation  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

1993-01-15

169

Documentation Driven Software Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our objective is to develop an integrated, systematic, documentation centric approach to software development, known as Documentation Driven Software Development (DDD). The research issues for DDD are creation and application of three key documenting tech...

2010-01-01

170

Dynamic Document Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current role of computers in automatic document processing is briefly outlined, and some reasons are given why the early promise of library automation and of the mechanization of documentation processes has not been fulfilled. A new dynamic document e...

G. Salton

1972-01-01

171

Generic safety documentation model  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

Mahn, J.A.

1994-04-01

172

Crossmodal versus intramodal evaluation of the knee joint angle A normative study in a population of young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodier, S., J.P. Euzet, Y. Gahery and J. Paillard, 1991. Crossmodal versus intramodal evaluation of the knee joint angle. A normative study in a population of young adults. Human Movement Science 10, 689-712. Normative data on position sense in the knee joint were obtained from a population of young adults (N = 46, mean age: 22). Kinaesthetic and visual evaluation

S. Rodier; J. P. Euzet; Y. Gahery; J. Paillard

1991-01-01

173

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

174

When Do Normative Standards Matter Most? Understanding the Role of Norm Strength at Multiple National Park Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated variation in the prevalence, importance, and stability of normative standards across different settings and activities. None of these studies, however, has directly used the concept of norm strength to help explain this variation. This study used norm strength to explore variation in normative standards at 52 locations in 13 U.S. national parks. The analysis measured and supported

Walter F. Kuentzel; Daniel Laven; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere

2008-01-01

175

New Document Concept and Metadata Classification for Broadcast Archives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is evident that document is the central concept in any archive, and the basic task is to make these documents searchable and retrievable. Textual documents can be full text indexed therefore they can be searched with the help of very efficient search engines like Google, however non-textual documents as still images, moving images, sounds or mixed audiovisual documents require associated textual information, metadata to make search possible.

Szakadát, István; Knapp, Gábor

176

Documenting Endangered Languages  

NSF Publications Database

... Documenting Endangered Languages Documenting endangered languages. Credit and Larger Version ... preserve key languages before they become extinct. More than 70 at-risk languages will be digitally ...

177

Normative Data on a Malay Version of the Boston Naming Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to describe a Malay version of the Boston Naming Test (M- BNT) and its normative data. The M-BNT follows closely the general administration procedures of the original Boston Naming Test (BNT) but is different in terms of item content. A total of 29 items from the original 60 items on the test were deemed culturally and linguistically

SANDRA VAN DORT; ETAIN VONG; ROGAYAH A. RAZAK; RAHAYU MUSTAFFA KAMAL; HOOI POH MENG

178

Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

2014-01-01

179

Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

Carr, Paul R.

2010-01-01

180

Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

2012-01-01

181

Selective reminding tests: A normative study of verbal learning in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal learning was assessed according to the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) in order to establish normative data and to provide a comparison with measures of immediate attention, verbal IQ, and verbal memory. The 392 subjects, stratified by sex (202 women, 190 men), age (4 groups: 16–70 years), and education (3 groups), were free of conflicting pathologies. Learning curves were established

Ronald M. Ruff; Rudolph H. Light; Margaret Quayhagen

1989-01-01

182

Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

2013-01-01

183

Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

184

Standardised Speech-Language Tests and Students with Intellectual Disability: A Review of Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Before a school speech-language pathologist (SLP) utilises a standardised speech-language test with a student with intellectual disability (ID), the clinician should carefully consider the purpose of the test and whether the test includes students with ID in the normative group. Method: This project reviewed 49 tests published between…

Cascella, Paul W.

2006-01-01

185

Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

2010-01-01

186

Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

2009-01-01

187

The normative dimensions of extending the human lifespan by age-related biomedical innovations.  

PubMed

The current normative debate on age-related biomedical innovations and the extension of the human lifespan has important shortcomings. Mainly, the complexity of the different normative dimensions relevant for ethical and/or juridicial norms is not fully developed and the normative quality of teleological and deontological arguments is not properly distinguished. This article addresses some of these shortcomings and develops the outline of a more comprehensive normative framework covering all relevant dimensions. Such a frame necessarily has to include conceptions of a good life on the individual and societal levels. Furthermore, as a third dimension, a model for the access to and the just distribution of age-related biomedical innovations and technologies extending the human lifespan will be developed. It is argued that such a model has to include the different levels of the general philosophical theories of distributive justice, including social rights and theories of just health care. Furthermore, it has to show how these theories can be applied to the problem area of aging and extending the human lifespan. PMID:18922049

Ehni, Hans-Joerg; Marckmann, Georg

2008-10-01

188

On the Normative Justification for Information Gain in Wason's Selection Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that selecting data according to expected information gain, as proposed by M. Oaksford and N. Chater (1994, 1996), leads to suboptimal performance in Bayesian hypothesis testing. Procedures are presented that are better justified normatively, their psychological implications are explored, and a number of novel predictions are derived under…

Klauer, Karl Christoph

1999-01-01

189

Corporal punishment: Normative data and sociological and psychological correlates in a community college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community college students (N=170) were surveyed regarding the intensity and frequency of methods of corporal punishment they have received and the persons administering the punishment. Results indicate that corporal punishment is a normatively used method of behavioral management. Males reported receiving a greater amount of corporal punishment, especially from their fathers. Overall, those who received a high amount of corporal

Janice Westlund Bryan; Florence Wallach Freed

1982-01-01

190

The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

2009-01-01

191

Normative Childhood Repetitive Routines and Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology in 6-Year-Old Twins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. Methods: In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase…

Bolton, Derek; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Briskman, Jacqueline; Perrin, Sean

2009-01-01

192

The predictability of normative organizational commitment for turnover in Chinese companies: a cultural perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many researchers have shown that affective organizational commitment is the most valuable predicator for organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, the value of normative organizational commitment in predicting working behaviour needs to be clarified. Additionally, indices of organizational outcomes used in prior studies were almost always the employees' perceptions of and attitudes towards organizations, rather than actual behaviour. The

Xiang Yao; Lei Wang

2006-01-01

193

Normative values for the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index: Benchmarking disability in the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) has been commonly used in rheumatology to quantify functional disability in patient groups, but current general population values of this index are not available. This study was undertaken to establish normative values for the HAQ DI in a general population and to analyze its correlates. Methods. The HAQ DI (range of

Eswar Krishnan; Tuulikki Sokka; Helen Hubert; Pekka Hannonen

2004-01-01

194

Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

2009-01-01

195

The Relationship between Student Body Racial Composition and the Normative Environment toward Diversity at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there has been increased scholarship in recent years on diversity in higher education, most of this research has failed to include 2-year institutions in its analyses. This study examined whether the racial composition of the community college student body is correlated with an institution's normative climate toward three diversity…

Jones, Willis A.

2013-01-01

196

Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…

Middlemiss, Wendy

2004-01-01

197

Affective and Normative Commitment to Organization, Supervisor, and Coworkers: Do Collectivist Values Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employees' commitment to their organization is increasingly recognized as comprising of different bases (affect-, obligation-, or cost-based) and different foci (e.g., supervisor, coworkers). Two studies investigated affective and normative commitment to the organization, supervisor and coworkers in the Turkish context. The results of Study 1…

Wasti, S. Arzu; Can, Ozge

2008-01-01

198

Cardiovascular autonomic function tests to provide normative data from a healthy older population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to derive normative data for cardiovascular autonomic function tests (AFT) in an older population using new measures. The AFT were performed in 48 healthy control subjects. The average heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing (DB) (HRDB), Valsalva ratio (VR), magnitude of the HR and blood pressure (BP) response of different phases of the Valsalva maneuver, BP recovery

Jeyaraj Durai Pandian; Kaye Dalton; Justin Scott; Stephen J. Read; Robert D. Henderson

2010-01-01

199

Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…

Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

2007-01-01

200

Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

2012-01-01

201

The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

2013-01-01

202

Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: An Examination of Construct Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past few years, several studies have used the Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment Scales (Allen & Meyer, 1990; Meyer & Allen, 1984, 1991) to assess organizational commitment. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the body of evidence relevant to the construct validity of these measures. Although some empirical questions remain at issue, the overall

Natalie J. Allen; John P. Meyer

1996-01-01

203

Magnetisation transfer ratio of normal brain white matter: a normative database spanning four decades of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To establish a normative database for magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) measurements in the white matter of healthy adult brains. Such MTR values were evaluated for regional variation and evidence of differences associated with aging, sex, and handedness. METHODS: Forty one healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 16 to 55 years, underwent axial brain magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging on a

N C Silver; G J Barker; D G MacManus; P S Tofts; D H Miller

1997-01-01

204

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2013-01-01

205

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

206

The Availability of Normative Data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers. Method: The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural…

Mohr, Caroline; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John; Einfeld, Stewart L.

2012-01-01

207

Religion in Strategic Leadership: A Positivistic, Normative\\/Theological, and Strategic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents positivistic, normative\\/theological, and strategic analyses of the application of religion to the practice of strategic leadership in business. It is argued that elements of religion can enrich several components of strategic leadership. Furthermore, it is argued that the question of whether religion ought to be applied involves the more basic question of whether there is a common

Skip Worden

2005-01-01

208

The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

2006-01-01

209

Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

2011-01-01

210

Factor-Analytic Scales of a Normative Form of the EPPS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 135 items from the EPPS were arranged in 5 choice Likert format and presented to 315 subjects. Results suggested reliabile and meaningful measurement of each of four underlying dimensions in the normative form of the EPPS is possible with the four factor analytic scales developed. (Author)

Sherman, Richard C.; Poe, Charles A.

1970-01-01

211

Solution Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The documents presented here as URLs are a selection from a larger course, offered at Madison Area Technical College, designed to improve the ability of students to complete the various types of math problems commonly encountered in the biotechnology laboratory. The contentof the complete course is described in the flier on the final page of this document. This unit focuses on thepreparation of laboratory solutions â simple solutions with only one solute, and more complex solutions containing multiple solutes.

Kraus, Mary E.

2008-10-27

212

Data Sharing and Science: Legal, Normative, and Social Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume of scientific data, and the interconnectedness of the systems under study, makes integration of data a necessity. For example, life scientists must integrate data from across biology and chemistry to comprehend disease and discover cures, and climate change scientists must integrate data from wildly diverse disciplines to understand our current state and predict the impact of new policies. The technical challenge of such integration is significant, although emerging technologies appear to be helping. But the forest of terms and conditions around data make integration difficult to legally perform in many cases. One approach might be to develop and recommend a single license: any data with this license can be integrated with any other data under this license. But this approach, which implicitly builds on intellectual property rights and the ideas of licensing as understood in software and culture, is difficult to scale for scientific uses. There are too many databases under too many terms already, and it is unlikely that any one license or suite of licenses will have the correct mix of terms to gain critical mass and allow massive- scale machine integration of data. This talk will instead lay out principles for open access data and a protocol for implementing those principles, as well as describe various international efforts to make data and databases legally and technically interoperable.

Wilbanks, J.; Parsons, M.

2008-12-01

213

Perioperative Documentation in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, research studies about perioperative documentation are few, and there are no professional recommendations for perioperative documentation, such as AORN s Standards, Recommended Practices, and Guidelines. Exploring current documentation practices and contents used in Finland is the first step to establishing a standard for perioperative documentation. The need for this type of exploration resulted in a study that found

K. Junttila; S. Salantera; M. Hupli

2000-01-01

214

Interactively Editing Structured Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Document preparation systems that are oriented to an author's preparation of printed material must permit the flexible specification, modification, and reuse of the contents of the document. Interactive document preparation systems commonly have incorporated simple representations—an unconstrained linear list of document objects in the 'What You See Is What You Get' (WYSIWYG) systems. Recent research projects have been directed

Richard Furuta; Vincent Quint; Jacques André

1988-01-01

215

Payload Documentation Enhancement Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late 1998, the Space Shuttle Program recognized a need to revitalize its payload accommodations documentation. As a result a payload documentation enhancement project was initiated to review and update payload documentation and improve the accessibility to that documentation by the Space Shuttle user community.

Brown, Betty G.

1999-01-01

216

Text documents as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

2012-02-01

217

Dual processing model of medical decision-making  

PubMed Central

Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the large extent dominated by expected utility theory. The model also provides a platform for reconciling two groups of competing dual processing theories (parallel competitive with default-interventionalist theories).

2012-01-01

218

Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.

Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan

2013-03-01

219

Desktop Decision Training (DDT) System Design Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the software design of the Desktop Decision Training (DDT) system. It documents how the system's software implements an instructional strategy to train complex decision-making skills to personnel in the Logistics Command and Control d...

B. VandeWetering S. K. Garcia

1996-01-01

220

24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation...sites have been considered outside the floodplain, but within the local...

2013-04-01

221

Integrated Document Management for Decision Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective management of documents is an integral requirement for operational and administrative decision support within\\u000a organizations, irrespective of their size, industry sector, products, and services. Documents are a fundamental part of decision\\u000a making in commercial and government enterprises as well as small to medium businesses. The document paradigm in many organizations\\u000a is one of ineffective management, which may contribute

Len Asprey; Michael Middleton

222

Inverted index compression via online document routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern search engines are expected to make documents searchable shortly after they appear on the ever changing Web. To satisfy this requirement, the Web is frequently crawled. Due to the sheer size of their indexes, search engines distribute the crawled documents among thousands of servers in a scheme called local index-partitioning, such that each server indexes only several million pages.

Gal Lavee; Ronny Lempel; Edo Liberty; Oren Somekh

2011-01-01

223

Automatic document classification of biological literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Document classification is a wide-spread problem with many applications, from organizing search engine snippets to spam filtering. We previously described Textpresso, a text- mining system for biological literature, which marks up full text according to a shallow ontology that includes terms of biological interest. This project investigates document classification in the context of biological literature, making use of the

David Chen; Hans-michael Müller; Paul W. Sternberg

2006-01-01

224

Adaptative Filtering of Multilingual Document Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly ubiquitous global information structure makes it possible to examine high-volumetext streams that contain documents written in a variety of languages. Present monolingual adaptivefiltering techniques learn profiles which reflect user preferences and then apply those profilesto reduce the volume of new documents that must be examined by the user to manageable levels.This paper presents three techniques for extending adaptive

Douglas W. Oard

1997-01-01

225

A normative theory of forgetting: lessons from the fruit fly.  

PubMed

Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2014-06-01

226

A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system.

Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2014-01-01

227

Proposal of a new analytical procedure for the measurement of water absorption by stone. Preliminary study for an alternative to the Italian technical normative NORMAL 07-81  

PubMed Central

Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion) by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material.

2012-01-01

228

A politico-economic analysis of decision making in funding health service organisations.  

PubMed

From a normative perspective, conventional economic analysis is often used to establish a framework in which social objectives can be built into the decision-making process. The health economics literature, however, tends to overlook the positive analysis of decision making--often assuming particular social objectives that may or may not correspond with reality. This perhaps explains why exercises in health economics priority setting on occasions break down. This study is a positive analysis of group decision making. It examines the process of deliberating upon proposed changes to funding arrangements across Divisions of General Practice in Queensland, Australia. Existing levels of funding had, for a number of years, largely been determined by an allocation formula. The motivation for this study was a perceived inequity created by the long-term under-funding of smaller (resource poor or 'marginal') Divisions. The challenge in this project was that any change in funding arrangements required the support of all the Divisions but also would potentially create 'winners' and 'losers'. Decision making within such an institutional context was rendered a zero sum game. This paper documents a consultative process whereby the relevant stakeholders, with clear interests in any decision, were asked to participate in deliberations as to how such a problem should be tackled. The objective was, in the face of adverse incentives, to derive recommendations for addressing existing shortfalls experienced by some of these Divisions. The process involved encouraging relevant players to take into consideration the global allocation issues and to move beyond their localised interests. The results indicate that such a process can be effective in not only generating the necessary goodwill to enable such group decision making, but also in establishing a more realistic set of policy recommendations. PMID:12791486

Jan, Stephen; Dommers, Eric; Mooney, Gavin

2003-08-01

229

Making Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor water activity, learners explore how to change the direction of water flow. Learners make puddles in dirt or use existing puddles and sticks to make water flow. Learners will use yarn to measure who can make the longest "river." Learners will also investigate how they can change the direction water flows by digging paths or building walls and dams. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 35 of the PDF.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-01-01

230

27 CFR 479.142 - Stolen or lost documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...include all known facts which may serve to identify the document. Upon receipt of the report, the Director will make such investigation as appears appropriate and may issue a duplicate document upon such conditions as the circumstances...

2011-04-01

231

Concepts of Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theoretical model of documentation which strives to include all potential users and their varying information needs, including nonreaders, through an analysis of the system of documentation. (JVP)

Vickery, B. C.

1978-01-01

232

Documentation and knowledge acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

1990-01-01

233

Intranet Document Management Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

1998-01-01

234

Supporting inquiry learning by promoting normative understanding of multivariable causality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning.

Keselman, Alla

2003-11-01

235

ELECTRONIC PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING: SUPPORTING COMMUNITY DELIBERATION AND DECISION-MAKING WITH ONLINE TOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory budgeting is a relatively new movement in public administration to involve citizens in civic decision-making. Electronic participatory budgeting can lower opportunity costs and engage more citizens in public budgeting. Drawing from research on participatory budgeting in particular and public administration, public policy, and information systems in general, this research establishes two normative frameworks: one to justify adopting participatory budgeting

Cory Allen Heidelberger

236

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

237

Making Movies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

2012-01-01

238

The Document Management Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Document Management Alliance, a standards effort for document management systems that manages and tracks changes to electronic documents created and used by collaborative teams, provides secure access, and facilitates online information retrieval via the Internet and World Wide Web. Future directions are also discussed. (LRW)

Fay, Chuck

1998-01-01

239

Document Conversion Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital imaging technology and examines document database conversion considerations. Two types of document imaging systems are described: (1) a work in process system, and (2) a storage and retrieval system. Conversion methodology is outlined, and a document conversion scenario is presented as a practical guide to conversion. (LRW)

Bovee, Donna

1990-01-01

240

Technical Documentation by \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The craftsmen who maintain the Bell System communications network rely on the availability of high quality documentation. A computer based documentation system - MAGIC - was brought on line in North Carolina in 1976 to facilitate the rapid preparation and editing of technical documentation with high cost-effectiveness over traditional manual publication methods. The North Carolina MAGIC system consists of refresh

J. B. Macdonald; M. K. Podleck; M. J. Pappas

1980-01-01

241

Automated document metadata extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web documents are available in various forms, most of which do not carry additional semantics. This paper presents a model for general document metadata extraction. The model, which combines segmentation by keywords and pattern matching techniques, was implemented using PHP, MySQL, JavaScript and HTML. The system was tested with 40 randomly selected PDF documents (mainly theses). An evaluation of the

Bolanle Adefowoke Ojokoh; Olumide Sunday Adewale; Samuel Oluwole Falaki

2009-01-01

242

Documents in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Government Documents center provides a Documents in the News page. Taken from official sources, this page has full text documents on such subjects as Yitzhak Rabin's assassination, Bosnia, the Oklahoma City Bombing, the Ebola Virus, the United Nations Conference on Women, the G7 Summit, term limits, and the Unabomber, among many others.

York, Grace A.

1999-01-01

243

NaF Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaFWord file Contact Paula M. Jacobs, Ph.D., 301-435-9181, jacobsp@mail.nih.gov, for information. Print

244

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

245

Interactively Restructuring HTML Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

When editing Web pages, a user may desire to transform the documents as freely as with a word processor. But because Web documents must conform to a rigorous structure (defined by the HTML DTD), every transformation is not allowed and the editing system must perform some work to obtain valid HTML documents. This paper presents a solution to the problem

Stéphane Bonhomme; Cécile Roisin

1996-01-01

246

Violin Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is devoted to violin making, care, and maintenance and was created by the violinmaker Hans Johannsson. In addition to the explanation of violin construction, the website also covers the topics of wood, varnish, glue, tools, and design as they relate to violin making. An article on violin sound includes sample sound clips in a variety of formats. This will prove valuable to those interested in the construction or repair of violins.

2006-12-26

247

Three-dimensional osteometric scaling and normative modelling of skeletal segments.  

PubMed

Many analytical biomechanics methods require extensive three-dimensional descriptions of anatomical geometry. In particular, researchers requiring the three-dimensional coordinates of specific boney landmarks (e.g. tendon and ligament attachments) are often forced to extrapolate such measurements from an experimental specimen set to their subject geometry. This work offers an approach to two problems inherent above; accurate extrapolation of specimen landmark locations to subject homologues and statistical accumulation of normative three-dimensional anatomical landmark data bases. A least squares solution for an affine scaling transformation from specimen to subject is used which incorporates both right-left and same hand comparisons. A two stage technique is formulated to consecutively remove landmark location variation and to size a normative specimen from a set of similar specimens. This ability to statistically represent a specimen set will provide better geometric models for other analytical studies and prosthetic design and evaluation. PMID:7096370

Sommer, H J; Miller, N R; Pijanowski, G J

1982-01-01

248

It's Not Just a "Woman Thing:" The Current State of Normative Discontent  

PubMed Central

This study assessed “normative discontent,” the concept that most women experience weight dissatisfaction, as an emerging societal stereotype for women and men (Rodin, Silberstein, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Participants (N = 472) completed measures of stereotypes, eating disorders, and body image. Normative discontent stereotypes were pervasive for women and men. Endorsing stereotypes varied by sex and participants’ own disturbance, with trends towards eating disorder symptomotology being positively correlated with stereotype endorsement. Individuals with higher levels of body image and eating disturbance may normalize their behavior by perceiving that most people share their experiences. Future research needs to test prevention and intervention strategies that incorporate the discrepancies between body image/eating-related stereotypes and reality with focus on preventing normalization of such experiences.

TANTLEFF-DUNN, STACEY; BARNES, RACHEL D.; LAROSE, JESSICA GOKEE

2013-01-01

249

Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

1990-01-01

250

Organism, machine, artifact: The conceptual and normative challenges of synthetic biology.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that aims to apply rational engineering principles in the design and creation of organisms that are exquisitely tailored to human ends. The creation of artificial life raises conceptual, methodological and normative challenges that are ripe for philosophical investigation. This special issue examines the defining concepts and methods of synthetic biology, details the contours of the organism-artifact distinction, situates the products of synthetic biology vis-ŕ-vis this conceptual typology and against historical human manipulation of the living world, and explores the normative implications of these conclusions. In addressing the challenges posed by emerging biotechnologies, new light can be thrown on old problems in the philosophy of biology, such as the nature of the organism, the structure of biological teleology, the utility of engineering metaphors and methods in biological science, and humankind's relationship to nature. PMID:23810468

Holm, Sune; Powell, Russell

2013-12-01

251

Normative auditory brainstem response data for bone conduction in the dog.  

PubMed

Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of hearing disorders in dogs, but is hampered by the lack of published normative data. The aim of the present study was to obtain normative data for bone conduction, without masking, under clearly defined conditions. Subjects comprised 20 Dalmatians and 20 Jack Russell terriers. Two methods were investigated: holding the bone vibrator against the head by hand or by applying a 500 g weight. The results revealed no difference in hearing threshold between the two breeds or for the two methods of applying the bone vibrator to the head. The mean hearing threshold was close to 0 decibels re normal hearing level (dB nHL), which is the biological norm for humans. Hence, bone conduction thresholds can be used for confirmation of conductive hearing impairment in the dog, in the same way as in humans. PMID:9282342

Munro, K J; Paul, B; Cox, C L

1997-08-01

252

Normative commitment in the workplace: A theoretical analysis and re-conceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the components of the Meyer and Allen's [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 64?89] three-component model of organizational commitment, normative commitment (NC) has received the least attention. It is sometimes dismissed as a redundant construct that bears many similarities to affective commitment and does not explain

John P. Meyer; Natalya M. Parfyonova

2010-01-01

253

Framing effects in inference tasks—and why they are normatively defensible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Framing effects occur when logically equivalent redescriptions of objects or outcomes lead to different behaviors, and, traditionally,\\u000a such effects have been seen as irrational. However, recent evidence has shown that a speaker’s choice among logically equivalent\\u000a attribute frames can implicitly convey (or “leak”) normatively relevant information about the speaker’s reference point, among\\u000a other things. In a reinterpretion of data published

Craig R. M. McKenzie

2004-01-01

254

Expanding the flexibility of normative patterns in youth sexuality and prevention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews normative ways of presenting sexual health in intervention programs for the sex education and health\\u000a care of young people in Latin America. These programs usually consider adolescence and youth as naturalizing categories and\\u000a can be described as strongly preventionist. Based on our activities in Brazil, ongoing research and training of health professionals\\u000a and activists, and inspiration from

Vera Paiva; José Ricardo Ayres; Ivan França Jr

2004-01-01

255

Evaluating short-term and working memory in older adults: French normative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term and working memory (WM) capacities are subject to change with ageing, both in normal older adults and in patients with degenerative or non-degenerative neurological disease. Few normative data are available for comparisons of short-term and WM capacities in the verbal, spatial and visual domains. To provide researchers and clinicians with a set of standardised tasks that assess short-term and

Nathalie Fournet; Jean-Luc Roulin; Fanny Vallet; Marine Beaudoin; Stefan Agrigoroaei; Adeline Paignon; Cécile Dantzer; Olivier Desrichard

2012-01-01

256

Mayo's older americans normative studies: WMS-R norms for ages 56 to 94  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained in Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) provide age-specific norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) on a sample of 441 cognitively normal persons age 56 to 94. Memory Indices derived from these norms are termed “MAYO Verbal Memory (MVeMI), MAYO Visual Memory (MViMI), MAYO General Memory (MGMI), MAYO Attention\\/Concentration (MACI), MAYO Delayed Recall (MDRI) and MAYO Percent

Robert J. Ivnik; James F. Malec; Glenn E. Smith; Eric G. Tangalos; Ronald C. Petersen; Emre Kokmen; Leonard T. Kurland

1992-01-01

257

Neonatal Blood Carnitine Concentrations: Normative Data by Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a number of published reports, there is limited infor- mation about carnitine metabolism in the newborn. To establish normative data, we analyzed whole-blood carnitine concentra- tions in 24,644 newborns at age 1.85 0.95 d and umbilical cord whole blood and plasma carnitine concentrations in 50 full-term newborns. Total carnitine (TC), free carnitine (FC), and acylcar- nitine (AC) were measured

DONALD H. CHACE; ROSER PONS; CLAUDIA A. CHIRIBOGA; DONALD J. MCMAHON; INGRID TEIN; DARRYL C. DE VIVO

2003-01-01

258

New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model  

PubMed Central

There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

2014-01-01

259

Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among South Africans  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative scores for two commonly used neuropsychological tests that generate four test scores -- namely the Trail-Making Test (Parts A and B) and the Digit Span Test [Forward (DSF) and Backward (DSB)]. To assess memory and recall, we used the memory item of the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS). Findings One hundred and ten HIV seronegative participants were assessed at McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa between March 3rd and October 31st, 2008. We excluded people with major depressive disorder, substance use abuse and dependence and head injuries (with or without loss of consciousness). All the participants in this study were African and predominantly female with an average age of 28.5 years and 10 years of education. Age and gender influenced neuropsychological functioning, with older people performing worse. The effect of gender was not uniform across all the tests. Conclusion These two neuropsychological tests can be administered with the IHDS in busy antiretroviral clinics. Their performance can be measured against these norms to more accurately diagnose the spectrum and progression of HAND.

2010-01-01

260

The effectiveness of MMPI-A items in discriminating between normative and clinical samples.  

PubMed

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) was released in 1992 and has rapidly become the most widely used objective personality assessment instrument with adolescents. Although the MMPI-A reduced or eliminated several problems associated with the use of the original MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) with adolescents, the MMPI-A does produce a high frequency of within normal limits basic scale profiles for individuals with substantial psychopathology including adolescents in inpatient psychiatric settings. To better understand the reasons for this phenomenon, we compared the item endorsement frequencies for the MMPI-A normative sample with results from two adolescent clinical samples, and these results were contrasted to the item endorsement frequencies for the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) normative sample and a clinical sample of adult psychiatric inpatients. Results showed that the MMPI-A contains a substantial number of items that do not show a significant difference in item endorsement frequency between normative and clinical samples. Furthermore, MMPI-A basic and content scales generally show a much lower percentage of effective items than do the corresponding scales for the MMPI-2. We discuss the findings in relation to the frequent occurrence of low range MMPI-A profiles in clinical samples and the potential usefulness of these results in future efforts to develop viable short forms for the MMPI-A. PMID:11781030

Archer, R P; Handel, R W; Lynch, K D

2001-12-01

261

Group independent component analysis of resting state EEG in large normative samples.  

PubMed

EEG (Electroencephalography) resting state was studied by means of group blind source separation (gBSS), employing a test-retest strategy in two large-sample normative databases (N=57 and N=84). Using a BSS method in the complex Fourier domain and a model-driven distributed inverse solution we closely replicate both the spatial distribution and spectral pattern of seven source components. Norms were then constructed for their spectral power so as to allow testing patients against the norms. As compared to existing normative databases based on scalp spectral measures, the resulting tool defines a smaller number of features with very little inter-correlation. Furthermore, these features are physiologically meaningful as they relate the activity of several brain regions, forming a total of seven patterns, each with a peculiar spatial distribution and spectral profile. This new tool, that we name normative independent component analysis (NICA), may serve as an adjunct to diagnosis and assessment of abnormal brain functioning and aid in research on normal resting state networks. PMID:20598764

Congedo, Marco; John, Roy E; De Ridder, Dirk; Prichep, Leslie

2010-11-01

262

The de Morton Mobility Index: Normative Data for a Clinically Useful Mobility Instrument  

PubMed Central

Determining mobility status is an important component of any health assessment for older adults. In order for a mobility measure to be relevant and meaningful, normative data are required for comparison to a healthy reference population. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument to measure mobility across the spectrum from bed bound to functional levels of independent mobility. In this cross-sectional observational study, normative data were obtained for the DEMMI from a population of 183 healthy, community-dwelling adults age 60+ who resided in Vancouver, Canada and Melbourne, Australia. Older age categories had significantly lower DEMMI mobility mean scores (P < 0.05), as did individuals who walked with a mobility aid or lived in semi-independent living (assisted living or retirement village), whereas DEMMI scores did not differ by sex (P = 0.49) or reported falls history (P = 0.21). Normative data for the DEMMI mobility instrument provides vital reference scores to facilitate its use across the mobility spectrum in clinical, research, and policymaking settings.

Macri, E. M.; Lewis, J. A.; Khan, K. M.; Ashe, M. C.; de Morton, N. A.

2012-01-01

263

Normative data for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC-sexuality items in the general Dutch population  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThe aim of the present study was to generate Dutch reference data for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and for five sexuality items from the EORTC QL-item bank. Furthermore, to evaluate the relative impact of self-reported health problems on these outcomes and compare the Dutch normative EORTC QLQ-C30 overall QoL with available Scandinavian and German normative data.

Lonneke V. van de Poll-Franse; Floortje Mols; Chad M. Gundy; Carien L. Creutzberg; Remi A. Nout; Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; Martin J. Taphoorn; Neil K. Aaronson

2011-01-01

264

Associations between adolescent seatbelt non-use, normative perceptions and screen media exposure: results from a national US survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFailure to use seatbelts in motor vehicles is a major source of youth injuries, and previous research has noted the widespread non-use of seatbelts in popular media.ObjectivesTo explore whether increased exposure to entertainment screen media was associated with inflated normative perceptions regarding seatbelt non-use, and to determine any associations between normative perceptions and seatbelt non-use.MethodsA nationally representative telephone survey of

Sally M Dunlop; Daniel Romer

2010-01-01

265

Making Babies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to introduce learners to genes, genotypes and simple inheritance patterns. In this activity, learners make guesses about their own genotype, create gametes from their genotypes, then make âbabiesâ with a partner. Along the way, learners discover answers to the questions such as: What are genes? How are genes (and traits) passed on? How are gametes different than other cells in our body? Why donât siblings look alike? This activity is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Human Traits" activity from the same resource but can be used alone.

Salter, Irene

2012-04-09

266

ANOPP programming and documentation standards document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standards defining the requirements for preparing software for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) were given. It is the intent of these standards to provide definition, design, coding, and documentation criteria for the achievement of a unity among ANOPP products. These standards apply to all of ANOPP's standard software system. The standards encompass philosophy as well as techniques and conventions.

1976-01-01

267

Making Scheduling \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends towards consolidation and higher-density comput- ing configurations make the problem of heat management one of the critical challenges in emerging data centers. Conventional approaches to addressing this problem have focused at the facilities level to develop new cooling tech- nologies or optimize the deliveryof cooling. In contrastto these approaches, our paper explores an alternate dimen- sion to address this

Justin D. Moore; Jeffrey S. Chase; Parthasarathy Ranganathan; Ratnesh K. Sharma

2005-01-01

268

Toward Parallel Document Clustering  

SciTech Connect

A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

2011-09-01

269

Document clustering with committees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering is useful in many information retrieval tasks: document browsing, organization and viewing of retrieval results, generation of Yahoo-like hierarchies of documents, etc. The general goal of clustering is to group data elements such that the intra-group similarities are high and the inter-group similarities are low. We present a clustering algorithm called CBC (Clustering By Committee) that is shown

Patrick Pantel; Dekang Lin

2002-01-01

270

Contextual Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present a novel algorithm for document clustering. This approach is based on distributional clustering where\\u000a subject related words, which have a narrow context, are identified to form meta-tags for that subject. These contextual words\\u000a form the basis for creating thematic clusters of documents. In a similar fashion to other research papers on document clustering,\\u000a we analyze

Vladimir Dobrynin; David W. Patterson; Niall Rooney

2004-01-01

271

Documentation by Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing documentation can be fun and rewarding, but keeping up with an ever-changing system can take a toll on that joy. The documentation tends to get either expensive (duplication-intense), outdated or non-existing. This demonstration will present an open source tool that addresses these shortcomings by extending the BDD[1] approach to provide rich and human readable documents automatically from a JUnit[2] test suite. You’ll learn how to include snippets, run-time data and more in your documents, all this with minimal effort and intrusion. This approach is suitable both for APIs and GUIs, as will be shown.

Brolund, Daniel

272

Making Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Living Graphs, Making Waves is a freely downloaded interactive physics package that helps students visualize and understand the motion and interference of transverse and longitudinal waves. Designed for senior high school and college physics students, the interactive program allows users to manipulate wave properties such as their amplitude, wavelength, phase shift, speed, frequency and damping; standing waves; and mks units. The site even provides online help and tutorials for teachers to help them integrate the software into curricula.

1969-12-31

273

Making Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article examines the reading comprehension strategy known as making connections. It involves linking what is being read (the text) to what is already known (schema, or background knowledge). The author provides links to four online resources that will help readers use the strategy in K-5 science and literacy classrooms. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which integrates science and literacy instruction.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-12-01

274

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

275

Electronic Document Supply Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

Cawkell, A. E.

1991-01-01

276

Map Navigator: User Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This documentation was written to help provide the user with a better understanding of the Map Navigator software. The best way to learn the software, however, is through hands-on use. This documentation provides examples for the user to go through and tr...

B. Powell D. Mayfield

1993-01-01

277

Tobacco Industry Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced by US Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Donna E. Shalala on November 18, the day of the Great American Smokeout, this important new site will allow the public, for the first time, to conduct searches of key tobacco industry documents "made public by state lawsuits, congressional subpoenas, and the November 1998 master settlement agreement." The site is composed of four major sections. The most relevant of these for general users is the Minnesota Select Set, a full-text, searchable database with about 350,000 pages of viewable documents selected by Minnesota lawyers as key to the state's trial. Second is the searchable citation index, or the 4B Index. The 4B Index represents approximately 4 million documents, totalling 27 million pages, that are stored at the Minnesota Depository. Users may submit requests online or by fax for hard copies. Some of the cited documents may also be found via the collection of annotated links to sites that hold tobacco industry documents, most of which are maintained by the various tobacco companies and are supposed to mirror the documents in the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository, according to the Master Settlement Agreement. Background and search tips are provided to help users navigate these sites. The fourth major section is a collection of approximately 7,000 selected British American Tobacco Company documents from Guildford, England, which are stored in Minnesota as part of the Minnesota Select Set and may be viewed online.

278

NASA Software Documentation Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

1991-01-01

279

Computerized classified document accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This step-by-step procedure was established as a guideline to be used with the Savvy PC Database Program for the accountability of classified documents. Its purpose is to eventually phase out the use of logbooks for classified document tracking. The program runs on an IBM PC or compatible computer using a Bernoulli Box, a Hewlett Packard 71B Bar Code Reader, an

C. B. Norris; R. Lewin

1988-01-01

280

Document Design: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles that provide suggestions for teaching document design: (1) "Teaching the Rhetoric of Document Design" (Michael J. Hassett); (2) "Teaching by Example: Suggestions for Assignment Design" (Marilyn A. Dyrud); (3) "Teaching the Page as a Visual Unit" (Bill Hart-Davidson); and (4) "Designing a Home Page for the Web" (Lynette…

Andrews, Deborah C., Ed.; Dyrud, Marilyn, Ed.

1996-01-01

281

Documenting Community Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet offers an introduction to keeping and documenting the history of community organizations. With their variety of purposes these organizations add texture and variety to a community's heritage. A knowledge of that heritage, provided by written documentation as well as oral tradition, proves valuable to members of the organization, to…

Central New York Library Resources Council, Syracuse.

282

System Documentation Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

283

Retrieving Product Documentation Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

2001-01-01

284

Legacy Tobacco Documents Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California, San Francisco Library and the American Legacy Foundation recently released the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL), a collection of more than 20 million previously private documents from tobacco industry files. Ranging from approximately the 1950s to recent years, LTDL offers searching, viewing, and downloading of documents, covering projects central to the tobacco industry like marketing, research and development, cigarette analysis and design, as well as industry efforts to establish business in developing countries. Within the next 18 months, more documents will be added to the already extensive collection. Currently, viewers may perform simple or advanced searches; view documents in Adobe Reader format (.pdf) or tagged image file format (.tif); or for a quick look, utilize the page-by-page option to view .gif images within the browser.

2002-01-01

285

Nuclear weapons decision-making; an application of organization theory to the mini-nuke case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the problem of constructing and developing normative theory responsive to the need for improving the quality of decision-making in the nuclear weapons policy-making. Against the background of a critical evaluation of various paradigms in the literature (systems analysis and opposed-systems designed, the bureaucratic politics model, and the cybernetic theory of decision) an attempt is made to design

1985-01-01

286

NORMATIVE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

287

Make Slime  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make slime from white school glue and Borax detergent. The long chain molecules of the white glue become cross-linked by the Borax into a big network. The result is an even larger polymer of thickened slime. Learners can experiment with the ratios of ingredients and see what effect that has on the resulting slime. Safety note: Borax is an irritant and should be kept out reach of children and pets. While safe in diluted solutions, borax can be harmful if ingested.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

288

Making Sticks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity for children to practice skip-counting and counting on. It lays a foundation for the concept of multiples and proportional thinking. Using linking cubes of two different colors, one color grouped in 2s and the other color grouped in 3s, children look for ways they can make a line of one color equal to a line of the other color. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

2002-10-01

289

Making Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.

Greb, Stephen

290

Normative data and validation of a regression based summary score for assessing meaningful neuropsychological change  

PubMed Central

Reliable detection and quantification of longitudinal cognitive change are of considerable importance in many neurological disorders, particularly to monitor central nervous system effects of disease progression and treatment. In the current study, we developed normative data for repeated neuropsychological (NP) assessments (6 testings) using a modified Standard Regression-Based (SRB) approach in a sample that includes both HIV-uninfected (HIV?, N=172) and neuromedically stable HIV-infected (HIV+, N=124) individuals. Prior analyzes indicated no differences in NP change between the infected and uninfected participants. The norms for change included correction for factors found to significantly affect follow-up performance, using hierarchical regression. The most robust and consistent predictors of follow-up performance were the prior performance on the same test (which contributed in all models) and a measure of prior overall NP competence (predictor in 97% of all models). Demographic variables were predictors in 10%-46% of all models and in small amounts; while test retest interval contributed in only 6% of all models. Based on the regression equations, standardized change scores (z-scores) were computed for each test measure at each interval; these z scores were then averaged to create a total battery change score. An independent sample of HIV? participants who had completed 8 of the 15 tests was used to validate an abridged summary change score. The normative data are available in an electronic format by email request to the first author. Correction for practice effects based on normative data improved the consistency of NP impairment classification in a clinically stable longitudinal cohort after baseline.

Cysique, Lucette A.; Franklin, Donald; Abramson, Ian; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J. Allen; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

291

"Primary" rationing of health services in ageing societies--a normative analysis.  

PubMed

While most of the debate on "rationing in health care" focusses on the distribution of scarce medical resources among competing needs, which we propose to call "secondary rationing," this paper is concerned with "primary rationing," i.e., the conscious decision by society to limit the amount of resources devoted to a collectively financed health care system. Based upon a number of transparent normative criteria, we analyze whether primary rationing should be performed and, if so, what type should be chosen (hard vs. soft, explicit vs. implicit). Finally we discuss whether age should be used as a criterion in any systematic attempt at primary rationing of health care. PMID:14625993

Breyer, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Carlo

2002-11-01

292

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

293

Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

294

Virtual Document Technology: A Means of Simplifying Document Creation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although document management (DM) systems have improved the efficiency of document handling, they do not address the document process itself. Virtual document technology, when incorporated into DM systems, simplifies the document production process and reduces time and costs. Discusses the assembly a virtual document, creation of a complete…

Polaine, Ian

1997-01-01

295

A Framework for Learning Comprehensible Theories in XML Document Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

XML has become the universal data format for a wide variety of information systems. The large number of XML documents existing on the web and in other information storage systems makes classification an important task. As a typical type of semistructured data, XML documents have both structures and contents. Traditional text learning techniques are not very suitable for XML document

Jemma Wu

2012-01-01

296

Making of America Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Making of America (MOA) project at the University of Michigan is one of the oldest collaborative efforts designed to make a wide range of historical journals available online. Started in the fall of 1995, the project has successfully offered access to thousands of pages of journals and books that document American social history from the antebellum period through Reconstruction. With generous assistance from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the MOA digital archive has digitized numerous journals from this period, and made them widely accessible. Visitors will appreciate looking through such pieces as the "Anatomy of Selfishness" from the February 1887 of Catholic World, or the entire contents of the Southern Literary Messenger from November 1845.

297

Regulatory guidance document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The doc...

1994-01-01

298

Taiwan Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed and maintained by Y.C. Chi, this site hosts a large collection of full text documents relating to Taiwan's international relations, history, and legal status. These include treaties dating from 1662 to 1978, documents from World War II, Joint Communiques with Japan and the US, Taiwan-related US legislative activity, and UN documents, among others. The site also features two essays by the site author: an executive summary of international agreements affecting Taiwan's status and a discussion on sovereignty. A number of short pieces on non-legal considerations about the status of Taiwan are planned for the near future. While scholars and others involved on either side of the debate on Taiwan's status may not agree with the site author's views, the original full text documents speak for themselves.

Chi, Y. C.

299

Document Retrieval Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the mathematical properties of a term matching information retrieval system are investigated. It is shown that the common retrieval method of using a query vector, a matching function, and a threshold is equivalent to retrieving documents by requi...

E. A. Mark

1972-01-01

300

SLADOC: SLATEC Documentation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SLADOC is an interactive program which provides on-line documentation for SLATEC routines. SLATEC is a public domain library of over 1000 mathematical routines initiated by a technical exchange committee of the New Mexico Laboratories of Sandia, Los Alamo...

B. Helland N. Imani

1987-01-01

301

Evaluation of online documentation.  

PubMed Central

The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) implemented an online documentation system for patient care orders in 1994-1996. Developed entirely in-house, the INFORMM NIS (Information Network for Online Retrieval & Medical Management Nursing Information System) features order-generated task lists, defaulted charting responses, computer-generated chart forms, and graphical data displays. To measure the impact of automation on user perceptions, and documentation compliance, completeness, time, and location, a team of nursing and information systems representatives captured data before and after implementation. Staff surveys show more positive user perceptions. Documentation results indicate increased compliance and completeness, and a decrease or no change in time. Online documentation occurs mainly at unit workstations.

Prophet, C. M.; Krall, M. E.; Budreau, G. K.; Gibbs, T. D.; Walker, K. P.; Eyman, J. M.; Hafner, M. J.

1998-01-01

302

Integrated document viewer  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In various embodiments of the present invention, documents (eg, PDFs) are converted into HTML 5 (and CSS 3) formats and integrated into existing HTML 5 web pages to preserve the original embedded fonts. The fonts can also be integrated or embedded (e.g., via the standard HTML "iframe" tag) into other web pages. The original appearance of the source document is maintained, the text is preserved as searchable text, and the document is integrated into a web page that can be searched, zoomed, scrolled, and printed utilizing standard web browser controls. A significantly increased "ad inventory" is thereby enabled, wherein advertisements can be integrated between pages, or even within a page. Moreover, the resulting document can be passively shared with members of a user's external social networks (including those within the host website), along with other activities and behaviors performed by the user on the hosting website.

2014-04-22

303

Carbaryl: Decision Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion describe...

1980-01-01

304

GOLD Architecture Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to identify and analyze a software architecture to support the formation, operation and termination of a Virtual Organization. As Virtual Organizations are characterised by the dynamic behaviour that they exhibit, it is necessary...

A. Conlin N. Cook H. Hiden P. Periorellis R. Smith

2005-01-01

305

Computerized classified document accountability  

SciTech Connect

This step-by-step procedure was established as a guideline to be used with the Savvy PC Database Program for the accountability of classified documents. Its purpose is to eventually phase out the use of logbooks for classified document tracking. The program runs on an IBM PC or compatible computer using a Bernoulli Box, a Hewlett Packard 71B Bar Code Reader, an IOMEGA Host Adapter Board for creating mirror images of data for backup purposes, and the Disk Operating System (DOS). The DOS batch files ''IN'' and ''OUT'' invoke the Savvy Databases for either entering incoming or outgoing documents. The main files are DESTRUCTION, INLOG, OUTLOG, and NAME-NUMBER. The fields in the files are Adding/Changing, Routing, Destroying, Search-Print by document identification, Search/Print Audit by bar code number, Print Holdings of a person, and Print Inventory of an office.

Norris, C.B.; Lewin, R. (ed.)

1988-08-01

306

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

Not Available

1993-09-01

307

USAP environmental documents list  

NSF Publications Database

Title : USAP environmental documents list Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 29, 1993 File : opp93000 UNITED STATES ANTARCTIC PROGRAM (USAP) ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTS In its administration of the U.S. Antarctic Program, the National Science Foundation performs evaluations of the possible environmental impact of planned activities. For further information, please contact: Environmental Officer Office of Polar Programs National Science Foundation Washington, D.C. 20550 EAM ...

308

Vcache: Caching Dynamic Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional web caching is currently limited to static documents only. A\\u000apage generated on the fly from a server side script may have different contents\\u000aon different accesses and hence cannot be cached. A number of proposals for\\u000aattacking the problem have emerged based on the observation that different\\u000ainstances of a dynamic document are usually quite similar in

Vipul Goyal; Sugata Sanyal; Dharma P. Agrawal

2010-01-01

309

Assessment for Instructional Decisions: Toward a Proactive\\/Prevention Model of Decision-Making for Early Literacy Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a case study is used to illustrate a problem solving model of educational decision making using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) measures to provide a local normative context, to monitor progress, and to evaluate the effects of interventions on an individual basis. The linkage between assessment information and educational decisions is demonstrated in the

Roland H. Good; Ruth A. Kaminski

1996-01-01

310

Individual, Social-Normative, and Policy Predictors of Smoking Cessation: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the prospective impact of individual, social-normative, and policy predictors of quit attempts and smoking cessation among Massachusetts adults. Methods. We interviewed a representative sample of current and recent smokers in Massachusetts by telephone in 2001 through 2002 and then again twice at 2-year intervals. The unit of analysis was the 2-year transition from wave 1 to wave 2 and from wave 2 to wave 3. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence of longer than 3 months were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Predictors included individual, social-normative, and policy factors. Results. Multivariate analyses of 2-year transitions showed that perceptions of strong antismoking town norms were predictive of abstinence (odds ratio = 2.06; P < .01). Household smoking bans were the only policy associated with abstinence, but smoking bans at one's worksite were significant predictors of quit attempts. Conclusions. Although previous research showed a strong relation between local policy and norms, we found no observable, prospective impact of local policy on smoking cessation over 2 years. Our findings provide clear support for the importance of strong antismoking social norms as a facilitator of smoking cessation.

Hamilton, William L.; Siegel, Michael; Sullivan, Eileen M.

2010-01-01

311

Normative Data for the Singapore English and Chinese SF-36 Version 2 Health Survey.  

PubMed

Introduction: The aim of this study is to report normative data for the Short-Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) for assessing health-related quality of life, in the Singapore general population. Materials and Methods: Data for English and Chinese-speaking participants of the Singapore Prospective Study Programme were analysed. The SF-36v2 scores were norm-based with the English-speaking Singapore general population as reference and reported by age (in decades), gender and ethnicity as well as for the 5 most prevalent chronic medical conditions. Scores were reported separately for the English and Chinese language versions. Results: A total of 6151 English-speaking (61.5% Chinese and 19.2% Malay) and 1194 Chinese-speaking participants provided complete data. Mean (SD) age of all participants was 49.6 (12.58) years with 52.4% being women. In both languages, women reported lower scores than men on all scales. Among the chronic medical conditions, stroke had the largest impact on all English SF-36v2 scales and on 3 Chinese SF-36v2 scales (role-physical, general health and social functioning). Conclusion: We have provided detailed normative data for the Singapore English and Chinese SF-36v2, which would be valuable in furthering HRQoL research in Singapore and possibly the region. PMID:24557461

Sow, Wei Ting; Wee, Hwee Lin; Wu, Yi; Tai, E Shyong; Gandek, Barbara; Lee, Jeannette; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Thumboo, Julian

2014-01-01

312

Both odor identification and ApoE-?4 contribute to normative cognitive aging.  

PubMed

Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ?4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features. PMID:21517181

Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

2011-12-01

313

[Reproductive medicine and the « desire for a child »: from normative judgment to conceptual analysis].  

PubMed

Reproductive medicine is widely discussed today in France, far beyond the borders of medical community. It is a topic of public controversy. The notion of "desire for a child" is very frequently referred to in this debate. It is wrongly considered as an obvious idea. A philosophical examination of the "desire for a child" allows us to elaborate a critical definition of it, cut from the normative judgments made about it. It highlights its double nature, being a desire linked to the private sphere as well as to public policies and social norms. It gives some reasons to understand how it became something that could be said and even claimed for in the public sphere. It examines the explanations that have been proposed about the desire for a child (its origin, the goal it fulfills). It proposes a frame of analysis based on a case-by-case approach and acknowledges as essential features of this desire its complexity, its ambiguous frontiers and its variability. The normative evaluation of the "desire for a child" cannot skip the phase of this conceptual analysis. PMID:24572122

Gaille, Marie

2014-02-01

314

Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.  

PubMed

Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts. PMID:23682754

Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

2014-01-01

315

The Exxon Valdez oil spill revisited and the dangers of normative science.  

PubMed

In the July 2006 issue of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, a paper by Harwell and Gentile was published assessing the present ecological significance of the impacts from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). First, this paper compares the major conclusions of Harwell and Gentile and a paper reviewing the current impacts of EVOS by Peterson et al as published by Science in 2003. Stark differences exist between the conclusions of the 2 papers regarding continuing impacts. Part of the difference appears to be the infusion of different social values or policy goals into each. Normative science is the use or interpretation of data in support of specific values or policies. Examples of values or policies intertwined with science are constructs such as ecosystem health, ecosystem integrity, ecological significance, and recovery. Examination of the environmental risk assessment and toxicology literature reveals that the symptoms of normative science are common and the implications widespread. Separation of science from policy or at a minimum a transparent acknowledgment of the science-policy interaction is clearly necessary in order to obtain a clear picture of the ecological system under investigation. PMID:17695114

Landis, Wayne G

2007-07-01

316

Reliability and normative data for the comprehensive assessment of prospective memory (CAPM).  

PubMed

The Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate frequency of prospective memory (PM) failures in people with brain injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAPM, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and to establish normative data by comparing CAPM scores between groups on the basis of sex, age, and education. Data were collected on 95 people aged 15-60 years living in the community, with no history of brain injury, using the CAPM. The results showed that the test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the CAPM were within acceptable ranges, indicating that the CAPM provides a stable and homogenous measure of an individual's self-report of PM failures. Normative data are presented in two age groups based on the significant difference found between the age groups 15-30 years and 31-60 years. These established norms can be used to describe perceived or observed behaviours indicative of PM failure in patients with brain injury by comparing CAPM ratings from significant others with the norms. The CAPM questionnaire provides researchers or clinicians with a stable and reliable assessment option that specifically focuses on PM for individuals with brain injury. PMID:17852758

Chau, Lien T; Lee, Jessica B; Fleming, Jennifer; Roche, Nadine; Shum, David

2007-12-01

317

Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.  

PubMed

To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

2014-03-01

318

A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) with examples of petrologic problem solving  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.

Stuckless, J. S.; VanTrump, G.

1979-01-01

319

The environmental hypersensitivity symptom inventory: metric properties and normative data from a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides a detailed and broad description of the individual’s symptomology. Methods Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study were used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Västerbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified five significant factors: airway symptoms (9 items; Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 coefficient, KR-20, of internal consistency?=?0.74), skin and eye symptoms (6 items; KR-20?=?0.60), cardiac, dizziness and nausea symptoms (4 items; KR-20?=?0.55), head-related and gastrointestinal symptoms (5 items; KR-20?=?0.55), and cognitive and affective symptoms (10 items; KR-20?=?0.80). The KR-20 was 0.85 for the entire 34-item EHSI. Symptom prevalence rates in percentage for having the specific symptoms every week over the preceding three months constitute normative data. Conclusions The EHSI can be recommended for assessment of symptom prevalence in various types of environmental hypersensitivity, and with the advantage of comparing prevalence rates with normality.

2013-01-01

320

Documentation: No Substitute for Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

Strickland, John

2005-01-01

321

The classification accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent: effects of modifying the normative sample.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants who reported a recent history of referral for counseling or therapy services. The 193 adolescents who reported referral for counseling were removed from the normative sample and uniform T-score values were recalculated for basic clinical scale raw scores. The frequency of within-normal-limits profiles was only marginally reduced by using the revised MMPI-A norms. Furthermore, the overall hit rate, positive predictive power, and sensitivity were only slightly improved by removing normative participants referred for counseling and basing norms on the remaining 1,427 adolescents. PMID:17314183

Hand, Cynthia G; Archer, Robert P; Handel, Richard W; Forbey, Johnathan D

2007-03-01

322

Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences-(Survey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to ``classical'' mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical (``first order cybernetics'') and modern (``second order cybernetics'', ``complexity theory'') systems thinking in social sciences. .

Mesjasz, Czes?aw

2000-05-01

323

Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project  

SciTech Connect

As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

1998-09-01

324

Software for Better Documentation of Other Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

Pinedo, John

2003-01-01

325

Normative data for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 in 7-yr.-old children in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Scores on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in a Czech sample recruited from mainstream urban elementary schools were compared with the U.S. normative sample. 315 children participated (152 boys, M age = 7.1 yr., SD = 0.3; 163 girls, M age = 7.0 yr., SD = 0.3). Differences in raw score means and percentiles were evaluated, showing differences between the Czech and the U.S. normative samples. Standardized U.S. norms for the TGMD-2 should not be generalized to the Czech population without further study. PMID:20865991

Cepicka, Ladislav

2010-06-01

326

Efficient Phrase-Based Document Indexing for Web Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of the document data set, such as the Vector Space Model. To achieve more accurate document clustering, more informative features including phrases and their weights are particularly important in such scenarios. Document clustering is particularly useful in many applications such as automatic categorization of documents, grouping search engine results, building a

Khaled M. Hammouda; Mohamed S. Kamel

2004-01-01

327

Structured Document Generation—A Cornerstone of Document Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pharmaceutical companies are planning to introduce electronic document management systems, but not all are trying to standardize the internal structure and content of the documents themselves. This paper describes the attempts at Novartis to standardize documents through the use of office software tools and international document standards. The advantages of the structured approach to document generation are explored in

Stephen Lander

1998-01-01

328

Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

Sanfilippo, Antonio (Richland, WA); Calapristi, Augustin J. (West Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L. (Richland, WA); Hetzler, Elizabeth G. (Kennewick, WA); Turner, Alan E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-12-22

329

Environmental Scan: A Strategic Planning Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information, perceptions, and predictions from a variety of sources are brought together in this document to help guide planning and decision making at Monroe Community College (MCC). The first section examines national events and trends with implications for the future of MCC, including employment projections; educational norms; data on community…

Osborn, Frances

330

Customer Communication Document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

2009-01-01

331

Outcrop Documentation Lab Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stratigraphy students are tasked with documenting an outcrop (sketches, photographs, and rock descriptions) and providing a three panel display of the results. Students work on the lab in class and receive direct mentoring in rock and outcrop description, then for homework they craft digital professional quality reports to present the data to others. These reports are graded, then returned to everyone simultaneously so they can be placed side by side. Students directly observe how others interpreted the same deposits, which underscores the concepts of sound data documentation, and separating data from interpretations.

Evans, Thomas

332

Documents in Military History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

333

An Automated FORTRAN documenter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of programs designed to help R&D programmers document their FORTRAN programs more effectively were written. The central program reads FORTRAN source code and asks the programmer questions about things it has not heard of before. It inserts the answers to these questions as comments into the FORTRAN code. The comments, as well as extensive cross-reference information, are also written to an unformatted file. Other programs read this file to produce printed information or to act as an interactive document.

Erickson, T.

1982-01-01

334

Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

2010-01-01

335

Document clustering with prior knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering is an important tool for text analysis and is used in many different applications. We propose to incorporate prior knowledge of cluster membership for document cluster analysis and develop a novel semi-supervised document clustering model. The method models a set of documents with weighted graph in which each document is represented as a vertex, and each edge connecting

Xiang Ji; Wei Xu

2006-01-01

336

Documents on Disarmament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

337

Using Primary Source Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

Mintz, Steven

2003-01-01

338

Integrating Training and Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines issues involved in merging training and documentation departments in organizations, and emphasizes the need for leadership, patience, customer involvement through joint field studies, and strategic planning. Discusses the traditional separation of training and publications, personality differences between trainers and writers, problems…

Hackos, JoAnn T.

1997-01-01

339

NACA Documents Database Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced...

R. S. Smith

1991-01-01

340

Slovakia Document Store  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Slovakia Document Store: clickable map of Slovakia containing over 100 pictures of Slovak country, map of the capital and other large cities, history, political system, political parties. Also includes Information for people traveling to Slovakia, like currency, exchange rates, location of ATM (bankomats), small English-Slovak dictionary for tourists, e-mail and other Internet services, much more.

341

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

342

Electronic document interchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

Erwin, Jim

1993-01-01

343

Documenting Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ongoing evaluation of classroom activities, program content, and teaching methods, through a process referred to by the author as "documentation." Among items which may be collected as part of this process are materials produced by individual children, anecdotal notes, goal statements, and teacher journals. Demonstrates how this…

Perrone, Vito

1977-01-01

344

Making biodiversity meaningful through environmental education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity is an emerging theme in science, society and, more recently, education. There is no one single definition of biodiversity that is adequate in all situations. Both the knowledge base and the value base of biodiversity are variable and questionable. Because of these characteristics, biodiversity makes for an interesting vehicle for linking science and society, and the investigation of the normative underpinnings of 'science-in-the making'. Based on a 3-year study, this paper explores the crossroads between science education and environmental education and presents a framework for tapping the environmental education potential of biodiversity. Outlined are a number stepping stones for making biodiversity meaningful to learners. It is argued that, from the perspective of environmental education, the illdefined nature of biodiversity is a useful feature. Biodiversity is renewing the discourse on nature conservation issues by bringing together different groups in society that are searching for a common language to discuss nature conservation issues in relation to sustainability issues. The resulting debate allows the socio-scientific dispute character of 'science-in-the-making' to surface. Participation in such a dispute is an excellent opportunity to learn about a highly relevant, controversial, emotionally charged and debatable topic at the crossroads of science, technology and society

van Weelie, Daan

2002-11-01

345

Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.  

PubMed

This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732

Blackwood, Evelyn

2007-01-01

346

Building a normative decision support system for clinical and operational risk management in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the design and implementation of a decision support system for risk management in hemodialysis (HD) departments. The proposed system exploits a domain ontology to formalize the problem as a Bayesian network. It also relies on a software tool, able to automatically collect HD data, to learn the network conditional probabilities. By merging prior knowledge and the available data, the system allows to estimate risk profiles both for patients and HD departments. The risk management process is completed by an influence diagram that enables scenario analysis to choose the optimal decisions that mitigate a patient's risk. The methods and design of the decision support tool are described in detail, and the derived decision model is presented. Examples and case studies are also shown. The tool is one of the few examples of normative system explicitly conceived to manage operational and clinical risks in health care environments. PMID:18779083

Cornalba, Chiara; Bellazzi, Roberto G; Bellazzi, Riccardo

2008-09-01

347

The Spanos Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire: psychometric characteristics and normative data.  

PubMed

The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a large sample of 925 introductory psychology students. Internal consistency analysis and factor analysis did not support the scale's original factor structure. Accordingly, it is recommended that the subscales be abandoned and that the 14 items of the ATHQ be utilized as a unidimensional scale. Although attitudes toward hypnosis have been described as an important determinant of hypnotic responding, there has been very little research evaluating this association. If employed as a unidimensional scale, the ATHQ could be a very useful tool in future studies on this topic. PMID:22443023

Milling, Leonard S

2012-01-01

348

Normative data for lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in unsedated healthy infants.  

PubMed

Despite association with lung growth and long-term respiratory morbidity, there is a lack of normative lung function data for unsedated infants conforming to latest European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society standards. Lung function was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter in 342 unsedated, healthy, term-born infants at a mean ± sd age of 5.1 ± 0.8 weeks during natural sleep according to the latest standards. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL) and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) measurements were obtained from 100 regular breaths. We aimed for three acceptable measurements for multiple-breath washout and 5-10 acceptable interruption resistance (R(int)) measurements. Acceptable measurements were obtained in ? 285 infants with high variability. Mean values were 7.48 mL·kg?ą (95% limits of agreement 4.95-10.0 mL·kg?ą) for tidal volume, 14.3 ppb (2.6-26.1 ppb) for eNO, 23.9 mL·kg?ą (16.0-31.8 mL·kg?ą) for functional residual capacity, 6.75 (5.63-7.87) for lung clearance index and 3.78 kPa·s·L?ą (1.14-6.42 kPa·s·L?ą) for R(int). In males, TBFVL outcomes were associated with anthropometric parameters and in females, with maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal asthma and Caesarean section. This large normative data set in unsedated infants offers reference values for future research and particularly for studies where sedation may put infants at risk. Furthermore, it highlights the impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on neonatal lung function. PMID:21109556

Fuchs, O; Latzin, P; Thamrin, C; Stern, G; Frischknecht, P; Singer, F; Kieninger, E; Proietti, E; Riedel, T; Frey, U

2011-05-01

349

Retinal Thickness Normative Data in Wild-Type Mice Using Customized Miniature SD-OCT  

PubMed Central

Objective To report normative data for retinal thickness in wild-type C57BL/6 mouse utilizing a miniature SD-OCT system. Methods Thirty adult mice (range: 3–5 months) were anesthetized and secured into the Bioptigen Spectral Domain Ophthalmic Imaging System. Right eye SD-OCT images were standardized by centralizing the optic nerve head (ONH) prior to image acquisition. Global and quadrant total retinal thickness (TRT) values were measured from retinal nerve fiber layer to retinal pigment epithelial layer. Posterior segment analyses also included the outer retinal layer (ORL) and inner retinal layer (IRL). Further sublayer analyses of four layers from the ORL and three layers comprising the IRL were also performed. Results The overall mean±SD global TRT in a C57BL/6 mouse model was 204.41±5.19 µm. Quadrant mean TRT values were 204.85±5.81 µm inferiorly, 204.97±6.71 µm nasally, 205.08±5.44 µm temporally, and 202.74±4.85 µm superiorly. Mean±SD thickness for ORL, and IRL were 126.37±10.01 µm, and 107.03±10.98 µm respectively. The mean±SD estimates for the four layers of the ORL were 18.23±2.73 µm, 26.04±4.21 µm, 63.8±6.23 µm, and 19.22±4.34 µm. Mean±SD values for the three IRL sublayers were 27.82±4.04 µm, 59.62±6.66 µm and 19.12±3.71 µm. Conclusion This study established normative values for the total retinal thickness and sublayer thickness for the wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, it provides a standard of retinal morphology, in a commonly used animal model, for evaluating therapeutic interventions and retinal disease pathophysiology.

Ferguson, Lee R.; Dominguez II, James M.; Balaiya, Sankarathi; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kakarla V.

2013-01-01

350

A Study to Draw a Normative Database of Laryngopharynx pH Profile in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To draw a normative database of laryngopharynx pH profile in Chinese subjects. Methods Normal volunteers were recruited from “www.Ganji.com” and People’s hospital between May 2008 and December 2009. The Restech pH Probes were calibrated in pH 7 and pH 4 buffer solutions according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each volunteer was asked to wear the device for a 24-hour period and was encouraged to participate in normal daily activities. Results The healthy volunteers consisted of 20 males and 9 females with a median age of 23 years (interquartile range, 21 to 32 years). The 95th percentiles for % total times at pH < 4, pH < 4.5, pH < 5.0 and pH < 5.5 for the oropharynx pH catheter were 0.06%, 1.01%, 7.23% and 27.34%, respectively. The 95th percentile for number of reflux events within the 24-hour period at pH < 4, pH < 4.5, pH < 5.0 and pH < 5.5 were 2.0, 18.0, 107.5 and 284.5, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study to systematically assess the degree of reflux detected by the new pH probe in healthy asymptomatic Chinese volunteers and to report normative values in Chinese people. Using an oropharyngeal pH catheter to monitor laryngopharyngeal reflux indicated that in healthy Chinese, reflux should be considered normal if the percent time at pH less than 4.5 is no more than 1%.

Feng, Guijian; Wang, Junyao; Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Yulan

2014-01-01

351

Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (?1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (?1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (?1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (?1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups.

Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

2010-01-01

352

Normative auditory brainstem response data for hearing threshold in the rabbit.  

PubMed

In an experimental study, we determined the physiological hearing threshold of the rabbit in order to use these data as normative values for further experimental investigations. The aim was to use different acoustic stimuli (click and tone-pip stimuli) with different frequency spectra for air and bone conduction (BC) in order to obtain further information about the optimal form of stimulus when recording auditory evoked potentials in the rabbit. For the investigation, we used 46 female New Zealand rabbits weighing 3.2-4.4 kg and aged 6 months. The equipment used to record brainstem auditory evoked potentials was the Nicolet Viking IV P System (Nicolet Biomedical, Inc.). In accordance with the experimental set-up, the measurements took place under intubation anesthesia, with a total of four repeat measurements performed on each ear at different times. Tone-pip and click stimuli with varying intensities of stimulus, transmitted via air conduction and BC, were applied. The I-IV waves proved the most stable for both stimulus modalities. They were registrable in 98.7% of cases, whereas only 30.2% of the V waves could be recorded. Values averaged from all measurements made throughout the study yielded a potential threshold of 34.8 dB peak equivalent (p.e.) SPL for the click stimulus, 13.8 dB p.e. SPL for the tone-pip stimulus at 8 kHz and 34.2 dB p.e. SPL for the click stimulus transmitted via BC. With regard to latencies, the results indicated a good reproducibility through different stimuli with acceptable standard deviations. The values for physiological hearing threshold obtained here can serve as normative data in subsequent experimental animal studies. PMID:16847386

Stieve, M; Mojallal, H; Winter, M; Battmer, R; Lenarz, T

2006-01-01

353

Brain, body, and cognition: neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear.  

PubMed

The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction. PMID:24561099

Schaefer, Hillary S; Larson, Christine L; Davidson, Richard J; Coan, James A

2014-04-01

354

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children: normative data and biometric correlations  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to report normative values of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular parameters in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to perform correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting 113 healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye examination and axial length measurement, RNFL and macular thickness measurements were performed using the Cirrus OCT machine. Main outcome measures were macular volume, macular thickness and RNFL thickness values as well as their correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Right eyes of all subjects were selected for analysis. Results One hundred and eight children were included in the study, 65 females and 43 males. Mean age was 10.7+/?3.1 years, average spherical equivalent refraction (SE) was ?0.02+/?1.77(?4.25 to +5.00) diopters and average axial length was 23.5+/?1.0 (21.5 to 25.8)mm. Mean RNFL thickness was 95.6+/?8.7 ?m, average macular thickness was 279.6+/?12.5 ?m, central macular thickness was 249.1+/?20.2 ?m, and mean macular volume was 10.1+/?0.5 mm3. Central macular thickness values were significantly higher in males (p?normative RNFL and macular parameters in healthy children below 18 years of age were established; measurements varied by age and gender.

2014-01-01

355

Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

Hourcle, Joseph

2014-06-01

356

The Independent School Experience: Aspects of the Normative Environments of Single-Sex and Coed Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The normative environments of single-sex independent schools were found to be more academic, with greater task and competition orientation, than coeducational independent schools. Representative independent schools were compared to each other and to public schools with a discussion of learning involvement, function, purpose, and student and…

Trickett, Edison J.; And Others

1982-01-01

357

How Media Campaigns Influence Children's Physical Activity: Expanding the Normative Mechanisms of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors’ model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention

Hye-Jin Paek; Hyun Jung Oh; Thomas Hove

2012-01-01

358

The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

2007-01-01

359

Strengthening Decentralization - Augmenting The Consolidated Fund of the States by the Thirteenth Finance Commission: A Normative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines issues related to fiscal federalism at the third tier in general and grants to local bodies in particular. The study presents a normative framework to estimate the requirements of operation and maintenance (O&M) expenditure at the local body level based on three important public services that is, water, education and roads. [DRG Study Series No. 29].

Abhay Pethe; B M Mishra; P B Rakhe

2009-01-01

360

Done Wrong or Said Wrong? Young Children Understand the Normative Directions of Fit of Different Speech Acts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children use and comprehend different kinds of speech acts from the beginning of their communicative development. But it is not clear how they understand the conventional and normative structure of such speech acts. In particular, imperative speech acts have a world-to-word direction of fit, such that their fulfillment means that the world…

Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

2009-01-01

361

Percentile Normative Tables for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (1973-74) School Year Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current report summarizes test performance for 771,031 students tested on Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Form 2 during school year 1973-74, with separate normative tables provided by sub-test, aptitude composite, grade, sex and geographic ...

H. D. Wilfong R. J. Armstrong R. K. Huckell

1974-01-01

362

MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

2011-01-01

363

Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted meta-analyses to assess (a) relations among affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization and (b) relations between the three forms of commitment and variables identified as their antecedents, correlates, and consequences in Meyer and Allen's (1991) Three-Component Model. They found that the three forms of commitment are related yet distinguishable from one another as well as

John P. Meyer; David J. Stanley; Lynne Herscovitch; Laryssa Topolnytsky

2002-01-01

364

Antecedents, Mediators, and Consequences of Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment: Empirical Tests of Commitment Effects in Federal Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the constructs and the effects of three subdimensions of federal employees' organizational commitment—affective, normative, and continuance. Using the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) 2000 survey instrument and employing an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, multivariate regression, and a structural equation model, the authors empirically test and measure (a) the dimensionality of the three commitment constructs, (b) how

Sung Min Park; Hal G. Rainey

2007-01-01

365

The Bologna Process as a hegemonic tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): the case of Chilean and Mexican higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two ‘hegemonic tools’: the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as a normative power (NPE) on the

Francis Espinoza Figueroa

2010-01-01

366

A Normative Study of Development in Context: Growth toward Independence in Social Function Skills of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used checklist and interview methods to assess the normative development of children's social function skills. Participants included a large, cross-sectional sample of parents of normal children ranging in age from 6 months to 7.5 years. Parents completed the checklist portion of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disabilities Inventory, a…

Haltiwanger, Jane; Coster, Wendy

367

Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

1990-01-01

368

Peer Assessments of Normative and Individual Teacher-Student Support Predict Social Acceptance and Engagement among Low-Achieving Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used hierarchical linear modeling to predict first grade students' peer acceptance, classroom engagement, and sense of school belonging from measures of normative classroom teacher-student support and individual teacher-student support. Participants were 509 (54.4% male) ethnically diverse, first grade children attending one of three…

Hughes, Jan N.; Zhang, Duan; Hill, Crystal R.

2006-01-01

369

Schooling in the "Iron Cage" and the Crucial Role of Interpretive, Normative, and Critical Perspectives in Social Foundations Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the unique role performed by social foundations programs in colleges of education and in addressing broader issues facing education today, which fundamentally include the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives in academia. All three perspectives serve to create a scholarly framework within which…

Dotts, Brian

2013-01-01

370

Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with higher levels of anger and stronger beliefs that

Denis G. Sukhodolsky; Vladislav V. Ruchkin

2004-01-01

371

Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

2010-01-01

372

Measuring communicative performance with the German version of the FAPCI-instrument: Normative data and longitudinal results  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe German version of the Functioning after Paediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI) inventory was designed to capture the communicative performance of cochlear implanted children. In order to be able to compare cochlear-implanted children to their normal hearing peers, normative growth curves were designed. Furthermore it was of interest how the communicative performance develops over time and whether it is influenced by

Linda Grugel; Barbara Streicher; Ruth Lang-Roth; Martin Walger; Hartmut Meister

2011-01-01

373

The Valuation of Knowledge and Normative Reflection in Teacher Qualification: A Comparison of Teacher Educators, Novice and Experienced Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition from teacher education to work in schools has been described as an "epistemic clash". Teacher educators', novice teachers' and experienced teachers' valuation of the academic, practical and normative demands of teaching are compared using survey data from teacher education and schools. All groups value academic knowledge and…

Caspersen, Joakim

2013-01-01

374

Northeast Document Conservation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.

375

Evolution of document networks  

PubMed Central

How does a network of documents grow without centralized control? This question is becoming crucial as we try to explain the emergent scale-free topology of the World Wide Web and use link analysis to identify important information resources. Existing models of growing information networks have focused on the structure of links but neglected the content of nodes. Here I show that the current models fail to reproduce a critical characteristic of information networks, namely the distribution of textual similarity among linked documents. I propose a more realistic model that generates links by using both popularity and content. This model yields remarkably accurate predictions of both degree and similarity distributions in networks of web pages and scientific literature.

Menczer, Filippo

2004-01-01

376

Evolution of document networks.  

PubMed

How does a network of documents grow without centralized control? This question is becoming crucial as we try to explain the emergent scale-free topology of the World Wide Web and use link analysis to identify important information resources. Existing models of growing information networks have focused on the structure of links but neglected the content of nodes. Here I show that the current models fail to reproduce a critical characteristic of information networks, namely the distribution of textual similarity among linked documents. I propose a more realistic model that generates links by using both popularity and content. This model yields remarkably accurate predictions of both degree and similarity distributions in networks of web pages and scientific literature. PMID:14747653

Menczer, Filippo

2004-04-01

377

Florida Documents Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created as part of the University of Miami Libraries Digital Collections, this rather remarkable offering includes an assortment of documents related to various aspects of FloridaĂ¢â‰¢s history, life, and culture from 1777 to the 1920s. The range of materials here includes correspondence diaries, invoices, receipts, reports, and other documents. Key highlights cover a range from the Seminole Wars to the early days of Miami history. The user interface here is quite useful as visitors can use the Location Map & Timeline to browse around from Pensacola down to the Keys. Also, visitors can use the Subject Index area to look around from "Abstracts of Title" to "Yulee, David Levy." First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the signature of Napoleon B. Broward and then wandering on over to a unique deed from the Florida East Coast Railway.

378

New GCRIO Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) periodically releases reports on climate change and related issues. Nearly twenty publications may be requested using the GCRIO Document Request Form; recent additions for 1998 include "People and Pixels: Linking Remote Sensing and Social Science" and "Our Changing Planet: The FY 1999 US Global Change Research Program" (discussed in the July 8, 1998 Scout Report for Science and Engineering).

379

FAO Document Repository  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) allows users to retrieve and view full-text documents from the FAO and related bodies. Users can search by keyword, perform an advanced search with multiple modifiers, or conduct a simple search within selected fields (note this last option is not fully functional at time of review). Search returns include title, an abstract, and a link to the full text in HTML format. Several language options are available.

380

Content Documents Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

2011-01-01

381

Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

Liu, Changzheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-08-01

382

Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.  

PubMed

Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

2012-09-01

383

Efficient techniques for document sanitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitization of a document involves removing sensitive information from the document, so that it may be distributed to a broader au- dience. Such sanitization is needed while declassifying documents involving sensitive or confidential information such as cor porate emails, intelligence reports, medical records, etc. In thi s paper, we present the ERASE framework for performing document sani- tization in an

Venkatesan T. Chakaravarthy; Himanshu Gupta; Prasan Roy; Mukesh K. Mohania

2008-01-01

384

Ensemble LUT classification for degraded document enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast evolution of scanning and computing technologies have led to the creation of large collections of scanned paper documents. Examples of such collections include historical collections, legal depositories, medical archives, and business archives. Moreover, in many situations such as legal litigation and security investigations scanned collections are being used to facilitate systematic exploration of the data. It is almost always the case that scanned documents suffer from some form of degradation. Large degradations make documents hard to read and substantially deteriorate the performance of automated document processing systems. Enhancement of degraded document images is normally performed assuming global degradation models. When the degradation is large, global degradation models do not perform well. In contrast, we propose to estimate local degradation models and use them in enhancing degraded document images. Using a semi-automated enhancement system we have labeled a subset of the Frieder diaries collection.1 This labeled subset was then used to train an ensemble classifier. The component classifiers are based on lookup tables (LUT) in conjunction with the approximated nearest neighbor algorithm. The resulting algorithm is highly effcient. Experimental evaluation results are provided using the Frieder diaries collection.1

Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Agam, Gady; Frieder, Ophir

2008-01-01

385

[Techniques of iconographic documentation].  

PubMed

The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes. PMID:8928672

Motta, G; Valentino, G; Di Lorenzo, G

1996-04-01

386

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

387

Photographs as Historical Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classifies types of photographs, describing which are most effective in social studies and history instruction. Explores problems in textbooks' use of photographs. Outlines a six-step question model to help students make inferences when analyzing photographs. Develops three lessons using historical photographs to discover more about a photo's time…

Allen, Rodney; Felton, Randall G.

1991-01-01

388

MOVIE. BYU user document  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete user instructions are given for the six computer programs which currently make up the MOVIE.BYU system. These programs have the power to manipulate and display three-dimensional geometric models. They are particularly useful for post processing of finite element models.

D. S. Preece; B. A. Lewis

1982-01-01

389

Fee Based Document Delivery by a National Library: Publishing in the New Millennium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the development of document supply relationships between libraries and publishers, based on the British Library's Document Supply Centre, reveals four areas leading to fee based (copyright) document delivery: libraries as markets for publishers; making users aware of what is published; making publications more accessible; and the…

Smith, Malcolm D.

1996-01-01

390

Informed Consent: New Recommendations Aim to Simplify Documents, Improve Quality  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has unveiled new recommendations for informed consent documents that aim to make the forms more understandable and more useful to people who are considering participation in a cancer clinical trial.

391

Whirling Watcher: Make a Stroboscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a stroboscope--a spinning disk with slits around the edge that you look through. Brief but frequent glimpses of images seen through the slits lead to a surprising result, which teaches learners about vision and the human nervous system. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

Exploratorium, The

2007-01-01

392

Google Book Search: Document Understanding on a Massive Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unveiled in late 2004, Google Book Search is an ambi- tious program to make all the world's books discoverable online. The sheer scale of the problem brings a number of unique document analysis and understanding challenges that are outlined in this paper. We also go over some of the ways that Google is working with the document analysis re- search

393

Evaluation of hierarchical clustering algorithms for document datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in providing intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clusters. In particular, hierarchical clustering solutions provide a view of the data at different levels of granularity, making them ideal for people to visualize and interactively explore large document collections.In this

Ying Zhao; George Karypis

2002-01-01

394

Tourism: Manufacturing the Exotic. IWGIA Document No. 61.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this document is to outline the relationship between tourism and cultural minorities. It aims to understand the nature of the relationship, to point out its most serious and harmful effects and to make known some of the survival strategies that cultural minorities employ. The document calls tourism "the greatest economic and…

Rossel, Pierre, Ed.

395

Document Retrieval for the European Physicists: A Project Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today in physics, more and more scientific documents are prepared electronically, are posted and ar- chived. At the same time, an increasing number of heterogeneous Web-servers are dedicated to hosting such archives. While this trend makes available more relevant scientific information, it also complicates the task of finding, retrieving, processing and printing scientific documents. As a consequence physicists could benefit

Uwe M. Borghoff; Eberhard R. Hilf; Remo Pareschi; Thomas Severiens; Heinrich Stamerjohanns; Jutta Willamowski

396

Swarm Intelligence in Text Document Clustering  

SciTech Connect

Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior. The research field that attempts to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices inspired by the collective behavior of social insect colonies is called Swarm Intelligence. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the swarm algorithms are usually flexible, robust, decentralized and self-organized. These characters make the swarm algorithms suitable for solving complex problems, such as document collection clustering. The major challenge of today's information society is being overwhelmed with information on any topic they are searching for. Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in helping users to effectively navigate, summarize, and organize the overwhelmed information. In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. These clustering algorithms use stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks, fish schools and ant food forage.

Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2008-01-01

397

SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

Kleine, H.

1994-01-01

398

Disaster Relief Coordination using a Documentation System for Emergency Medical Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our earlier work we introduced a mobile documentation system for emergency medical services. The system delivers more comprehensive and detailed documentation of prehospital care than existing systems. Also, it makes documentation and patient monitoring easier and gives paramedics more time to treat the patient. Technical solutions for implementing the documentation system are described in this paper. Based on our

Marko Hassinen; Maija Marttila-Kontio

2006-01-01

399

iDocument: How Smartphones and Tablets Are Changing Documentation in Preschool and Primary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make

Parnell, Will; Bartlett, Jackie

2012-01-01

400

Semantic Clinical Guideline Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision-support systems based on clinical practice guidelines can support physicians and other health- care personnel in the process of following best prac- tice consistently. A knowledge-based approach to represent guidelines makes it possible to encode computer-interpretable guidelines in a formal man- ner, perform consistency checks, and use the guide- lines directly in decision-support systems. Decision-support authors and guideline users require

Henrik Eriksson; Samson W. Tu; Mark Musen

2005-01-01

401

Documents Online: Domesday Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

William the Conqueror had a considerable interest in the property holdings of his subjects, and around Christmas 1085 he decided to commission a great survey to discover just what resources were out among the boroughs and manors of England. The massive document that came out of this lengthy process was the Domesday Book. It has fascinated historians for centuries, and recently The UK National Archives created this online guide to the work. Visitors can take a look through the book via interactive features such as âÂÂDiscovery DomesdayâÂÂ, which provides a bit of background on the work, complete with images from its pages. Additionally, the âÂÂWorld of Domesdayâ feature provides some contextual background for understanding what life was like for the people of 11th century England. Visitors can search across the Domesday Book in its entirety by place name, person, or other keyword.

402

Linux Documentation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Linux guru (or guru wanna-be) should bookmark this site. Linux is UNIX freeware available for Intel's x86, Motorola's 680x0, DECS's Alpha CPU and Sun's sun4c and sun4m machines, and is currently being ported to the PowerPC architecture. This meta-site contains documentation in many different languages, links to a great number of applications and utilities that run on Linux, user groups world-wide and other topics of interest. So, whether your question concerns the latest version (2.0.27) or the difference between various distributions, or if you've decided to write the next kernel, this site is a natural place to start.

403

Online NASTRAN documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of NASTRAN User Manual information has been difficult because of the delay in printing and difficulty in identification of all the users. This has caused many users not to have the current information for the release of NASTRAN that could be available to them. The User Manual updates have been supplied with the NASTRAN Releases, but distribution within organizations was not coordinated with access to releases. The Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections are supplied in machine readable format with the 91 Release of NASTRAN. This information is supplied on the release tapes in ASCII format, and a FORTRAN program to access this information is supplied on the release tapes. This will allow each user to have immediate access to User Manual level documentation with the release. The sections on utilities, plotting, and substructures are expected to be prepared for the 92 Release.

Turner, Horace Q.; Harper, David F.

1991-01-01

404

Normative data for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in elderly chinese.  

PubMed

Asia will experience a surge in dementia prevalence within the next 20-40 years, but there is a dearth of well-normed neuropsychological tests that could assist with dementia diagnosis. Here, we report normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in Elderly ethnic Chinese Singaporeans aged 55-91 years of age. A total of 1,165 male and female community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly Chinese persons in Singapore, with varying levels of education and range of languages, were tested with the RBANS version A. The effects of age, education, language and gender on RBANS performance were examined. Negative effects of increased age and positive effects of education on the RBANS subtests, Index and Total Scale scores were found suggesting differential associations between age-related cognitive decline and education that vary according to the specific cognitive ability measured. The findings indicate that unique cultural and educational profile of elderly Chinese should be considered when applying the RBANS in this population. PMID:24903208

Collinson, Simon Lowes; Fang, Sam Hui; Lim, May-Li; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin

2014-08-01

405

Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss.

Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

2010-01-01

406

Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Patients: A Call for Normative Values  

PubMed Central

Background There is emerging evidence that adjuvant treatments for breast cancer negatively impact cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or Vo2max, a key predictor of cardiovascular risk. Although a number of studies have measured CRF in breast cancer patients, there is currently limited data regarding expected CRF values in this patient population. Given that CRF is a poor prognostic sign and recently highlighted as a key measure to standardize by the American Heart Association, we sought to review the available literature on CRF among breast cancer patients. Methods and Results We identified 27 clinical trials and observational studies measuring Vo2max in the pre– and post–adjuvant treatment setting for breast cancer. We compared Vo2max before to Vo2max after adjuvant therapy and compared Vo2max in female breast cancer patients with Vo2max in healthy controls. Conclusions We found that CRF was substantially lower in women with a history of breast cancer compared with healthy women and this was most pronounced among breast cancer patients in the post?adjuvant setting. We conclude that knowledge of normative CRF values is critical to tailor appropriately timed exercise interventions in breast cancer patients susceptible to low CRF and subsequent cardiovascular risk.

Peel, Amanda B.; Thomas, Samantha M.; Dittus, Kim; Jones, Lee W.; Lakoski, Susan G.

2014-01-01

407

Utilizing two-dimensional ultrasound to develop normative curves for estimated placental volume.  

PubMed

Objective?The objective of this study was to use two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) during routine prenatal surveillance to develop normative estimated placental volume (EPV) growth curves. Study Design?Patients???18 years old with singleton pregnancies were prospectively followed from 11 weeks gestational age (GA) until delivery. At routine US visits, placental width, height, and thickness were measured and EPV calculated using a validated mathematical model. Results?In this study, 423 patients were scanned between 9.7 and 39.3 weeks GA to generate a total of 627 EPV calculations. Readings were clustered at 12 and 20 weeks, times of routine scanning. The mean EPV was 73?±?47 cc at 12.5?±?1.5 weeks (n?=?444) and 276?±?106 cc at 20?±?2 weeks (n?=?151). The data best fit a parabolic function as follows: EPV?=?(0.384GA - 0.00366GA(2))(3). Tenth and 90th percentile lines were generated with?±?1.28 SE offset. EPV readings below the 10th or above the 90th percentiles tended to be associated with either small or large newborns, respectively. Conclusion?Routine 2D US created EPV growth curves, which may be useful for stratifying patients into prenatal risk groups. PMID:24108663

Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Troiano, Robert N; da Silva, Raphaella; Greenbaum, Daniella; Kliman, Harvey J

2014-09-01

408

Critical neuroscience--or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system.

Schleim, Stephan

2014-01-01

409

Psychometric examination and normative data for the narcissistic personality inventory 29 item version.  

PubMed

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is commonly used in empirical studies of narcissism. Few population-based studies have been published. Our aim was to do a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the NPI 29 item version with a four-factor structure, in two population-based samples and in a patient sample, and present normative population-based data. The NPI-29 was filled in by 324 respondents from the Norwegian population, 231 from the Swedish population and 167 Norwegian psychiatric patients. The four-factor structure of the NPI-29 with Leadership/Power, Exhibitionism/Self-admiration, Superiority/Arrogance and Uniqueness/Entitlement was reproduced in these samples. The CFA models showed good fit indices in all samples. Mean scores on the NPI-29 and four subscales hardly differed between the samples. For the NPI-29 total score and factors, few significant differences were observed. CFA of the samples supported the factor structure of the NPI-29 formerly identified by principal component analysis of the Swedish population sample. PMID:18826419

Svindseth, Marit F; Sřrebř, Oystein; Nřttestad, Jim Aage; Roaldset, John Olav; Wallin, Juliska; Dahl, Alv A

2009-04-01

410

Normative data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Deficits in episodic memory, related to medial temporal lobe dysfunction, are a core component of schizophrenia. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is one of the most widely used neuropsychological memory tasks in clinical practice but normative data are limited. Over the last 15 years, the RAVLT has been used to assess verbal episodic memory performance as part of the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (WAFSS). This study aims to provide RAVLT norms, derived from the WAFSS, for individuals meeting DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, for use in clinical settings. Performance on three immediate and one delayed recall trials, and additional measures of encoding and forgetting, is presented for 492 patients and 260 healthy community controls. Results indicated that age and sex (both groups) and IQ (schizophrenia group only) significantly influenced performance. Norms are presented, as means and standard deviations, stratified accordingly. Additional between-groups analysis clearly shows a significant memory deficit in schizophrenia even when patients are matched on IQ, age, and sex with healthy controls. PMID:21310743

Badcock, Johanna C; Dragovic, Milan; Dawson, Lisa; Jones, Rochelle

2011-04-01

411

Mothers' Vagal Regulation During the Still-Face Paradigm: Normative Reactivity and Impact of Depression Symptoms  

PubMed Central

This study examined mothers' physiological reactivity in response to infant distress during the Still-Face Paradigm. We aimed to explore normative regulatory profiles and associated physiological and behavioral processes in order to further our understanding of what constitutes regulation in this dyadic context. We examined physiological patterns—vagal tone, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-- while mothers maintained a neutral expression over the course of the still face episode, as well as differential reactivity patterns in mothers with depression symptoms compared to non-depressed mothers. Behavioral and physiological data were collected from mothers of 5-month-old infants during the emotion suppression phase of the Still-Face Paradigm. We used Hierarchical Linear Modeling to examine changes in mothers' RSA during infant distress and explored maternal depression as a predictor of physiological profiles. Mothers were generally able to maintain a neutral expression and simultaneously demonstrated a mean-level increase in RSA during the still face episode compared to baseline, indicating an active regulatory response overall. A more detailed time-course examination of RSA trajectories revealed that an initial RSA increase was typically followed by a decrease in response to peak infant distress, suggesting a physiological mobilization response. However, this was not true of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, who showed no change in RSA during infant distress. These distinct patterns of infant distress-related physiological activation may help to explain differences in maternal sensitivity and adaptive parenting.

Oppenheimer, Julia E.; Measelle, Jeffrey R.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

2013-01-01

412

Reliability and normative data for the Behavioral Health Measure (BHM) in primary care behavioral health settings.  

PubMed

The Behavioral Health Measure (BHM) is a brief self-report measure of general psychological distress and functioning developed for the tracking of mental health outcomes in outpatient psychotherapy settings (Kopta & Lowry, 2002). Although the BHM is used in integrated primary care behavioral health clinics, the scale's psychometric properties have not been evaluated in these settings. The current study investigated the BHM's psychometric properties, including its factor structure and reliability, and presents normative data from 3 large integrated primary care clinics. Mean scores for each of the BHM's 4 scales were significantly lower (i.e., more distress) for women than men, with scores being stable across the 3 primary care samples. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate fit for the 3-factor and 1-factor models, with fit improving when 3 items were omitted. Internal consistency estimates for the BHM's 4 scales ranged from adequate to very good (? range: .72-.93). The 4 scales were highly intercorrelated, suggesting they measure similar constructs. Results suggest a revised, 17-item version of the BHM has adequate structure and reliability estimates, and is appropriate for use in primary care settings. PMID:24447151

Bryan, Craig J; Blount, Tabatha; Kanzler, Kathryn A; Morrow, Chad E; Corso, Kent A; Corso, Meghan A; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie

2014-03-01

413

Quantitative ultrasound calcaneous measurements: normative data for the Italian population. the ESOPO study.  

PubMed

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a reliable technique to evaluate skeletal status, to identify osteoporotic subjects, and to estimate the risk of fractures. The purpose of this study was to generate QUS normative data for Italian females and males aged 60-79 yr participating in the Epidemiologic Study on the Prevalence of Osteoporosis (ESOPO) study, using the Achilles Plus apparatus. ESOPO is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000, aiming at assessing risk of osteoporosis in a random sample of 11,011 women and 4981 men, representative of the Italian population. All participants were administered a questionnaire on the most relevant risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures; 3 QUS parameters were also measured: broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA); speed of sound (SOS); and Stiffness Index (SI). We studied the age-dependent changes in QUS values, and their correlation with body size. For both men and women, weight was the variable with the highest correlation with BUA and SI; for SOS, age among women and body mass index (BMI) among men presented the highest correlation coefficients. Average decreases of 3.0% in BUA, 0.8% in SOS, and 9.1% in SI from 60 to 79 yr were detected for females, whereas no significant changes with age in males were observed. Our data show lower QUS values for women, and a decline at a greater rate than in men. PMID:17470406

Maggi, S; Noale, M; Gonnelli, S; Nuti, R; Di Munno, O; de Feo, D; Giannini, S; Varenna, M; Rossini, M; Gandolini, G; Isaia, G; Adami, S; Crepaldi, G

2007-01-01

414

Normative data for vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population.  

PubMed

To establish normative data of vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population. Prospective study design using a sample of convenience. Eighty five normal controls ranging between the ages 7 and 71 years were asked to provide a written signed consent for the study. Demographic characteristics of the patients were summarized using descriptive statistical methods using SPSS-17 analysing software. The outcome variable (VEMP recording) was expressed in percentiles as function of age. In all patients the stimulus which gave the best response was 95 dB (97.7 %) and 100 dB (95 %). The mean of wave latencies (p1 & n1) for 95-VEMP were, 11.2 ± 3.2 and 17.3 ± 4.7 ms on the right and 11.0 ± 2.8 and 17.0 ± 4.2 ms on the left respectively. The amplitude was 45.1 ± 54 mV on right and 46.9 ± 61.6 mV on the left. The mean of latency difference was 0.87 ms. The VEMP is a relatively simple test. The VEMP response rate was maximum in the younger age group; the optimum intensity was 95 dB. The asymmetry ratio interpretation should be done according to the age specific values. PMID:24822153

Khan, Feroze K; Balraj, Achamma; Lepcha, Anjali

2014-06-01

415

Air Pollution and DNA Methylation: Interaction by Psychological Factors in the VA Normative Aging Study  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM2.5. A 1-?g/m3 increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-?g/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3–4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure.

Madrigano, Jaime; Baccarelli, Andrea; Mittleman, Murray A.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Cantone, Laura; Kubzansky, Laura; Schwartz, Joel

2012-01-01

416

Do DSM-5 Eating Disorder Criteria Overpathologize Normative Eating Patterns among Individuals with Obesity?  

PubMed Central

Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (? = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (? = 0.63, 83% agreement). Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV.

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Murray, Helen B.; Gorman, Mark J.

2014-01-01

417

Critical neuroscience-or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience.  

PubMed

Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline's actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system. PMID:24904376

Schleim, Stephan

2014-01-01

418

Effects of the above the influence brand on adolescent drug use prevention normative beliefs.  

PubMed

Health brands are based on the relations between individuals and health behaviors and lifestyles. Brands can be measured by the brand equity construct validated in previous studies. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign brands alternative, non-drug use behaviors as a behavior change strategy. This study goes beyond previous campaign evaluations, which did not include specific brand equity measurements. Using data from a nationally representative media tracking, this study examined the relation between antidrug campaign brand equity and adoption of targeted attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Data were gathered before the relaunch of the campaign, and follow-up data collected 3 months later. On the basis of factor analysis, the authors developed a higher order antidrug brand equity factor and regressed campaign outcomes on that factor in multivariable models. The authors observed significant effects of higher brand equity on higher levels of targeted antidrug attitudes and normative beliefs at follow-up. The authors also observed some counterintuitive relations (i.e., less positive attitudes at follow-up). They interpreted these results in light of the changing messages and campaign strategy. The authors conclude that antidrug brand equity is an important construct for understanding campaign effectiveness. The present campaign shows signs of changing targeted antidrug attitudes and beliefs among youth with brand equity. PMID:24499473

Evans, W Douglas; Holtz, Kristen; White, Tanya; Snider, Jeremy

2014-06-01

419

Modeling intraindividual change in personality traits: findings from the normative aging study.  

PubMed

To advance an intraindividual life-span approach to the issue of stability and change, we studied personality trait trajectories in adulthood. Growth curves for extraversion and neuroticism were estimated for over 1600 men (initially aged 43-91) in the Normative Aging Study, who were followed over 12 years. We found significant individual differences in intraindividual change for both traits, as well as different trajectories for extraversion and neuroticism. The overall extraversion trajectory was best defined by a linear model, but neuroticism was characterized by quadratic decline with age. We then considered several variables as predictors of individual differences around these overall trajectories. Birth cohort, marriage or remarriage, death of spouse, and memory complaints were all significant predictors, explaining variability in both level and rate of personality trait change. These findings suggest that there is a good deal of variability in personality trajectories, and that some of this variability can be explained by birth cohort as well as by age-graded life events. PMID:12730308

Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

2003-05-01

420

Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

1993-01-01

421

Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin.

2013-01-01

422

Concentric Needle Quantitative EMG of Pubovisceralis Muscle Group: Normative Data from Asymptomatic Nulliparous Women.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The muscles of the pelvic floor closest to the vaginal opening are subject to the greatest degree of stretch during vaginal childbirth. We aim to define normative quantitative EMG (QEMG) parameters for the pubovisceralis (PV) muscle in nulliparous women, and compare them to the external anal sphincter (EAS). METHODS: In 31 asymptomatic nulliparous women, concentric Needle EMG of the PV and the EAS was performed. Multi-motor unit action potential (Multi-MUAP) and interference pattern (IP) algorithms were utilized to obtain QEMG parameters. We used paired t-tests to compare PV and EAS parameters. RESULTS: The motor units for the PV were of greater duration (p < 0.002) and had more turns (p = 0.03) than the paired motor units in the EAS. The EAS demonstrated more turns/second (p = 0.02), greater activity (p = 0.01), and more short segments (p = 0.009) than the PV. CONCLUSIONS: The PV has longer and more complex motor units than the EAS. This knowledge continues to improve our ability to detect neuropathic changes in this vulnerable muscle area following childbirth or in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. In addition, the PV muscle group appears less responsive to requests for increased neuromuscular activity than the EAS. This needs to be further evaluated, as it may be associated with understanding which portion of the muscle functionally shortens to maintain the closure of the levator hiatus. PMID:21113313

Gregory, W Thomas; Worstell, Teresa; Clark, Amanda L; Lou, Jau-Shin

2010-05-01

423

Concentric Needle Quantitative EMG of Pubovisceralis Muscle Group: Normative Data from Asymptomatic Nulliparous Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives The muscles of the pelvic floor closest to the vaginal opening are subject to the greatest degree of stretch during vaginal childbirth. We aim to define normative quantitative EMG (QEMG) parameters for the pubovisceralis (PV) muscle in nulliparous women, and compare them to the external anal sphincter (EAS). Methods In 31 asymptomatic nulliparous women, concentric Needle EMG of the PV and the EAS was performed. Multi-motor unit action potential (Multi-MUAP) and interference pattern (IP) algorithms were utilized to obtain QEMG parameters. We used paired t-tests to compare PV and EAS parameters. Results The motor units for the PV were of greater duration (p < 0.002) and had more turns (p = 0.03) than the paired motor units in the EAS. The EAS demonstrated more turns/second (p = 0.02), greater activity (p = 0.01), and more short segments (p = 0.009) than the PV. Conclusions The PV has longer and more complex motor units than the EAS. This knowledge continues to improve our ability to detect neuropathic changes in this vulnerable muscle area following childbirth or in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. In addition, the PV muscle group appears less responsive to requests for increased neuromuscular activity than the EAS. This needs to be further evaluated, as it may be associated with understanding which portion of the muscle functionally shortens to maintain the closure of the levator hiatus.

Gregory, W. Thomas; Worstell, Teresa; Clark, Amanda L.; Lou, Jau-Shin

2010-01-01

424

Millisecond by millisecond, year by year: normative EEG microstates and developmental stages.  

PubMed

Most studies of continuous EEG data have used frequency transformation, which allows the quantification of brain states that vary over seconds. For the analysis of shorter, transient EEG events, it is possible to identify and quantify brain electric microstates as subsecond time epochs with stable field topography. These microstates may correspond to basic building blocks of human information processing. Microstate analysis yields a compact and comprehensive repertoire of short lasting classes of brain topographic maps, which may be considered to reflect global functional states. Each microstate class is described by topography, mean duration, frequency of occurrence and percentage analysis time occupied. This paper presents normative microstate data for resting EEG obtained from a database of 496 subjects between the age of 6 and 80 years. The extracted microstate variables showed a lawful, complex evolution with age. The pattern of changes with age is compatible with the existence of developmental stages as claimed by developmental psychologists. The results are discussed in the framework of state dependent information processing and suggest the existence of biologically predetermined top-down processes that bias brain electric activity to functional states appropriate for age-specific learning and behavior. PMID:11969316

Koenig, Thomas; Prichep, Leslie; Lehmann, Dietrich; Sosa, Pedro Valdes; Braeker, Elisabeth; Kleinlogel, Horst; Isenhart, Robert; John, E Roy

2002-05-01

425

The Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery version B: normative values with age, education and gender corrections in an Italian population.  

PubMed

The Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB) of Neuropsychological Tests is one of the most widely used instruments to assess cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis patients. However, to date, normative data for the Italian population are available only for the version A, which limits the use of the battery in longitudinal evaluations. We administered the BRB version B to 132 healthy subjects to obtain normative values taking into account the influences of demographic factors on the test scores and calculating corrections for these relevant factors (age, gender and education). Higher age and educational level were associated with better performance on all the tests. The World List Generation was also influenced by gender, since women performed better than men. Moreover, some tests of the version B seem to be easier than those of version A. Our data can improve the applicability of the BRB for both clinical and research purposes in longitudinal assessments. PMID:24101117

Goretti, B; Patti, F; Cilia, S; Mattioli, F; Stampatori, C; Scarpazza, C; Amato, M P; Portaccio, E

2014-01-01

426

Normative foundations of technology transfer and transnational benefit principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.  

PubMed

The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international human rights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application. PMID:19395367

Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

2009-06-01

427

Social and personal normative influences on healthcare professionals to use information technology: Towards a more robust social ergonomics  

PubMed Central

Social structures and processes are increasingly acknowledged and studied within the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) discipline. At the same time, social phenomena are rarely the focus of HFE work, leaving a knowledge gap. The present study directly addresses social and personal normative forces that influence technology use and performance. Social and personal normative influence to use electronic health records (EHR) were investigated using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 attending physicians at two US hospitals. Analyses used a comprehensive framework based on leading social scientific theories and revealed numerous sources of influence, including hospital administration, colleagues, patients, clinical and professional groups, government, and one’s self. Influence was achieved through different means and invoked different psychological processes. Findings motivate a new view of professionals’ technology use as a highly social process occurring in a social context, with implications for research, policy, design, and in general the development of a robust social ergonomics.

Holden, Richard J

2011-01-01

428

Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.  

PubMed

The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352

Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

2012-03-01

429

Document Cards: A Top Trumps Visualization for Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding suitable, less space consuming views for a document's main content is crucial to provide convenient access to large document collections on display devices of different size. We present a novel compact visualization which represents the document's key semantic as a mixture of images and important key terms, similar to cards in a top trumps game. The key terms are

Hendrik Strobelt; Daniela Oelke; Christian Rohrdantz; Andreas Stoffel; Daniel A. Keim; Oliver Deussen

2009-01-01

430

BJC Health Systems. Improving Department Documentation. Better Documentation Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two publications that were developed to help employees of a health system's department of food and nutrition improve their department's documentation. Included in the first publication, "Improving Department Documentation," are the following: a self-assessment designed to help employees rate their skills in completing…

Saint Louis Community Coll., MO.

431

Relations of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the Normative Aging Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relations between plasma concentrations of homocysteine and vitamins B- 12 and B-6 and folate, and scores from a battery of cognitive tests for 70 male subjects, aged 54-81 y, in the Normative Aging Study. Lower concentrations of vitamin B-l2 (P = 0.04) and folate (P = 0.003) and higher concentrations of homocysteine (P = 0.0009) were associated

Karen M Riggs; Avron Spiro Ill; Katherine Tucker; David Rush

432

Peer assessments of normative and individual teacher–student support predict social acceptance and engagement among low-achieving children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used hierarchical linear modeling to predict first grade students' peer acceptance, classroom engagement, and sense of school belonging from measures of normative classroom teacher–student support and individual teacher–student support. Participants were 509 (54.4% male) ethnically diverse, first grade children attending one of three Texas School districts (1 urban, 2 small city) who scored below their school district median

Jan N. Hughes; Duan Zhang; Crystal R. Hill

2006-01-01

433

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

434

A brief live interactive normative group intervention using wireless keypads to reduce drinking and alcohol consequences in college student athletes  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aims Misperceptions of how members of one’s social group think and act influence behaviour. The current study was designed to extend the research of group-specific normative feedback interventions among salient campus groups with heightened risk. Although not a randomised controlled trial, this research used normative feedback that was obtained using wireless keypad technology during a live session, within sex-specific student athlete groups to extend the proof of concept of using this brief interactive intervention. Design and Methods Participants included 660 intercollegiate athletes from all varsity athletic teams at two private, mid-size universities. Intervention data were gathered in vivo using computerised handheld keypads into which group members entered in personal responses to a series of alcohol-related questions. These questions assessed perceptions of normative group behaviour and attitudes as well as actual individual behaviour and attitudes. These data were then immediately presented back in graphical form to illustrate discrepancies between perceived and actual group norms. Results Results revealed that at 1 month post-intervention, perceived group norms, behaviour, attitudes and consequences reduced compared with baseline. These reductions were maintained at 2 month follow up. Latent growth modelling suggested that the reductions in perceived norms and attitudes were associated with reductions in individual drinking behaviour and negative consequences. Discussion and Conclusions These results are among the first to suggest the effectiveness of a novel, group-based normative alcohol intervention among student athletes. Limitations of the design preclude strong inferences about efficacy; however, the findings support further trialling of such information technology in alcohol treatment research.

LABRIE, JOSEPH W.; HUMMER, JUSTIN F.; HUCHTING, KAREN K.; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

2013-01-01

435

Pathways to Aggression and Violence Among African American Adolescent Males: The Influence of Normative Beliefs, Neighborhood, and Depressive Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth violence continues to present a serious public health challenge in the United States, particularly so for African American adolescent males. The present study utilized a multilevel approach to predict aggression within a community sample of low-income, urban African American adolescent males (n = 80). Participants' self-report data on normative beliefs about aggression, exposure to community violence, and depressive symptoms were used

W. LaVome Robinson; Keisha C. Paxton; Lynn P. Jonen

2011-01-01

436

Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors From Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems (EXT). Cheating behavior was measured using two resistance-to-temptation tasks and coded for extent of

Kevin A. Callender; Sheryl L. Olson; David C. R. Kerr; Arnold J. Sameroff

2010-01-01

437

28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparation of legal documents. (a) The Warden shall make materials in the inmate law...including evening and weekend hours. The Warden shall allow an inmate a reasonable...legal documents. Where practical, the Warden shall allow preparation of...

2010-07-01

438

28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...preparation of legal documents. (a) The Warden shall make materials in the inmate law...including evening and weekend hours. The Warden shall allow an inmate a reasonable...legal documents. Where practical, the Warden shall allow preparation of...

2013-07-01

439

28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparation of legal documents. (a) The Warden shall make materials in the inmate law...including evening and weekend hours. The Warden shall allow an inmate a reasonable...legal documents. Where practical, the Warden shall allow preparation of...

2009-07-01

440

75 FR 52305 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...treatment evaluation document that discusses the existing treatment schedule, describes the new treatment schedule, and explains why these change are necessary. We are making the treatment evaluation document available to the public for review and...

2010-08-25

441

Quality of Education and Memory Test Performance in Older Men: The New York University Paragraph Recall Test Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders. One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one’s literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Method Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Results Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. Discussion The current study provides evidence and support for normative data stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C.; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

2014-01-01

442

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.  

PubMed

Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed. PMID:23957313

Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

2013-01-01

443

The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.  

PubMed

Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

2014-06-01

444

Resource Recovery Technology Application Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to provide guidance to Naval shore facilities in planning and selecting solid waste management and resource recovery technology. The document consists of a state-of-the-art review of technology available for materials and energy ...

1982-01-01

445

Simulation Host Software Requirements Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document describes the requirements placed upon the simulator host computer as far as the simulation software is concerned. In the SIMONA Research Simulator Software Requirements Document, the simulator host computer is described as the device which e...

P. C. A. van Gool

1996-01-01

446

The Early Years: Documenting Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children's work documents their thinking and the details they note as they learn more. Over time, by drawing, dictating, or writing about their observations, children can reveal and deepen their understanding of science concepts. Documenting work to furth

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-11-01

447

Enhanced information retrieval from narrative German-language clinical text documents using automated document classification.  

PubMed

The amount of narrative clinical text documents stored in Electronic Patient Records (EPR) of Hospital Information Systems is increasing. Physicians spend a lot of time finding relevant patient-related information for medical decision making in these clinical text documents. Thus, efficient and topical retrieval of relevant patient-related information is an important task in an EPR system. This paper describes the prototype of a medical information retrieval system (MIRS) for clinical text documents. The open-source information retrieval framework Apache Lucene has been used to implement the prototype of the MIRS. Additionally, a multi-label classification system based on the open-source data mining framework WEKA generates metadata from the clinical text document set. The metadata is used for influencing the rank order of documents retrieved by physicians. Combining information retrieval and automated document classification offers an enhanced approach to let physicians and in the near future patients define their information needs for information stored in an EPR. The system has been designed as a J2EE Web-application. First findings are based on a sample of 18,000 unstructured, clinical text documents written in German. PMID:18487776

Spat, Stephan; Cadonna, Bruno; Rakovac, Ivo; Gütl, Christian; Leitner, Hubert; Stark, Günther; Beck, Peter

2008-01-01

448

Sense and significance: a mixed methods examination of meaning making after the loss of one's child.  

PubMed

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify specific themes of meaning making (sense making and benefit finding) among bereaved parents, as well as to examine associations of these themes to the severity of grief symptomatology. A sample of 156 bereaved parents responded in writing to open-ended questions about sense making and benefit finding. We assessed normative grief symptoms with the Core Bereavement Items (Burnett, Middleton, Raphael, & Martinek, 1997) and maladaptive grief symptoms with the Inventory of Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al., 1995). Qualitative analyses revealed 45% of the sample could not make sense of their loss, and 21% could not identify benefits related to their loss experience. These parents had more severe normative and maladaptive grief symptoms. Overall, parents discussed 32 distinct approaches to finding meaning in their child's death, 14 of which involved sense making, and 18 involved themes of benefit finding. The most common sense-making themes involved spirituality and religious beliefs, and the most common benefit-finding themes entailed an increase in the desire to help and compassion for others' suffering. These results further reinforce the importance of meaning making for many bereaved parents and suggest the utility of developing and evaluating meaning-centered grief interventions with this population. PMID:20527057

Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Currier, Joseph M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Keesee, Nancy J

2010-07-01

449

Sense and Significance: A Mixed Methods Examination of Meaning Making After the Loss of One's Child  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify specific themes of meaning making (sense making and benefit finding) among bereaved parents, as well as to examine associations of these themes to the severity of grief symptomatology. A sample of 156 bereaved parents responded in writing to open-ended questions about sense making and benefit finding. We assessed normative grief symptoms with the Core Bereavement Items (Burnett, Middleton, Raphael, & Martinek, 1997) and maladaptive grief symptoms with the Inventory of Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al., 1995). Qualitative analyses revealed 45% of the sample could not make sense of their loss, and 21% could not identify benefits related to their loss experience. These parents had more severe normative and maladaptive grief symptoms. Overall, parents discussed 32 distinct approaches to finding meaning in their child’s death, 14 of which involved sense making, and 18 involved themes of benefit finding. The most common sense-making themes involved spirituality and religious beliefs, and the most common benefit-finding themes entailed an increase in the desire to help and compassion for others’ suffering. These results further reinforce the importance of meaning making for many bereaved parents and suggest the utility of developing and evaluating meaning-centered grief interventions with this population.

Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Currier, Joseph M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Keesee, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

450

Grammatical Inference in Document Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the Pattern Recognition applied to paper documents based on the grammatical inference (GI) for\\u000a classes of structured documents like summaries, dictionaries, bibliographic data basis, encyclopaedias and so on. In this\\u000a task, the inference engine takes as input a set of individual examples of these documents and outputs a set of rules that\\u000a recognise similar documents.

Alexander S. Saidi; Souad Tayeb-bey

1998-01-01

451

Linear models in decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature indicates that linear models are frequently used in situations in which decisions are made on the basis of multiple codable inputs. These models are sometimes used (a) normatively to aid the decision maker, (b) as a contrast with the decision maker in the clinical vs statistical controversy, (c) to represent the decision maker \\

Robyn M. Dawes; Bernard Corrigan

1974-01-01

452

Fossil energy program. Summary document  

SciTech Connect

This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

None

1980-05-01

453

Rey's verbal learning test: Normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24–81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Verbal Learning Test (VLT; Rey, 1958) evaluates the declarative memory. Despite its extensive use, it has been difficult to establish normative,data because test administration has not been uniform. The purpose of the present study was to gather normative,data for the VLT for a large number,(N 5 1855) of healthy participants aged 24?81 years, using a procedure in which

WIM VAN DER ELST; MARTIN P. J. VAN BOXTEL; GERARD J. P. VAN BREUKELEN; JELLE JOLLES

2005-01-01

454

Civil Conversations Using Primary Documents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary source documents can be a key element in conversation and deliberation. They lend authenticity to student consideration of issues facing people's democracy and stimulate student interest. In addition, conversation about a primary document leads to a much deeper understanding of that document and can raise authentic questions for further…

Singleton, Laurel; Pereira, Carolyn

2005-01-01

455

Understanding multi-articled documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A document understanding method based on the tree representation of document structures is proposed. It is shown that documents have an obvious hierarchical structure in their geometry which is represented by a tree. A small number of rules are introduced to transform the geometric structure into the logical structure which represents the semantics. The virtual field separator technique is employed

Shuichi TSUJIMOTO; Haruo ASADA

1990-01-01

456

Producing HTML Documents With Scribe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scribe is a document production system that supports the generation of many different types of documents on many different types of output devices. HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the native format for documents in the World Wide Web (WWW). The web is...

G. Trewitt

1994-01-01

457

Making Meaningful: Intention in Children's Art Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice…

Malin, Heather

2013-01-01

458

Documenting the American South  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Academic Affairs Library at the University of Chapel Hill, Documenting the American South (last mentioned in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) is a collection of sources on Southern history, literature, and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. This Web site has grown considerably since its inception and currently contains over 1,000 books and manuscripts that depict slavery, literature, education, and religion in the South through the words of the people who experienced them. This digitized collection currently contains six chapters: First-Person Narratives of the American South; Library of Southern Literature; North American Slave Narratives; The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865; The Church in the Southern Black Community; and The North Carolina Experience, Beginnings to 1940. One of six chapters on the site is what Joe Hewitt, North Carolina's associate provost for university libraries, calls "our signature project," which is an expansive collection of North American slave narratives published in English in books and pamphlets up to 1920. At present, more than 230 narratives are available online from persons including Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and many others. In short, this phenomenal collection is not just for educators and researchers, but for anyone interested in Southern slavery and history.

1998-01-01

459

Tool Gear Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Tool Gear is designed to allow tool developers to insert instrumentation code into target programs using the DPCL library. This code can gather data and send it back to the Client for display or analysis. Tools can use the Tool Gear client without using the DPCL Collector. Any collector using the right protocols can send data to the Client for display and analysis. However, this document will focus on how to gather data with the DPCL Collector. There are three parts to the task of using Tool Gear to gather data through DPCL: (1) Write the instrumentation code that will be loaded and run in the target program. The code should be in the form of one or more functions, which can pass data structures back to the Client by way of DPCL. The collections of functions is compiled into a library, as described in this report. (2) Write the code that tells the DPCL Collector about the instrumentation and how to forward data back to the Client. (3) Extend the client to accept data from the Collector and display it in a useful way. The rest of this report describes how to carry out each of these steps.

May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

2002-04-03

460

Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

Criddle, J.D. Jr.

1994-09-01

461

Solicitors and enduring documents: current practice and best practice.  

PubMed

Queensland's guardianship legislation requires that a witness to an enduring power of attorney or advance health directive not only certify that the principal signed the document in their presence, but also that the principal appeared to have the capacity necessary to make the enduring document. This article examines how solicitors fulfil this obligation to certify the principal's capacity when witnessing these documents, drawing on empirical research and a review of publicly available court and tribunal decisions. The article concludes that the current practice of solicitors when certifying the capacity of principals to complete these documents falls short of best practice. PMID:19205309

Willmott, Lindy; White, Ben

2008-12-01

462

Iridocorneal angle measurements in mammalian species: normative data by optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

Objective? Gonioscopy provides limited quantitative information to compare the iridocorneal anatomy across different species. In addition, the anatomic relationships by histologic examination are altered during processing. As a result, the comparative anatomy of the iridocorneal angle across several mammalian species was evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Methods? Cats, beagle dogs, minipigs, owl monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, and rhesus monkeys (n = 6 or 7 per species) were evaluated. Imaging was performed using the OCT. The anterior chamber angle (ACA), angle opening distance (AOD), and the angle recess area (ARA) were evaluated. Results? AC angle: cat (63 ± 6°) > owl monkey (54 ± 4°) > beagle dog (42 ± 4°) > minipig (40 ± 3°) > rhesus monkey (36 ± 1°) > cynomolgus monkey (34 ± 2°). AOD: cat (3.3 ± 0.5 mm) > owl monkey (2.05 ± 0.2 mm) > beagle dog (1.08 ± 0.1 mm) > rhesus monkey (0.92 ± 0.06 mm) > minipig (0.64 ± 0.04 mm) > cynomolgus monkey (0.43 ± 0.03 mm). ARA: cat (3.5 ± 0.1 mm(2) ) > owl monkey (1.41 ± 0.2 mm(2) ) > dog (0.88 ± 0.1 mm(2) ) > rhesus monkey (0.62 ± 0.06 mm(2) ) > minipig (0.21 ± 0.05 mm(2) ) > cynomolgus monkey (0.15 ± 0.01 mm(2) ). Conclusions? This study benchmarks the normative iridocorneal angle measurements across different mammalian species by OCT. These data can be useful to compare iridocorneal angle measurements in disease states as OCT evolves as a common diagnostic tool in veterinary ophthalmic research and practice. PMID:22612298

Almazan, Alexandra; Tsai, Susan; Miller, Paul E; Lee, Susan S; Vilupuru, Abhiram S; Burke, James A; Robinson, Michael R

2013-03-01

463

Evaluation of orthodontic treatment need by patient-based methods compared with normative method  

PubMed Central

Background: A comprehensive system of assessing orthodontic need requires the integration of normative clinical measures with patient-based indicators. This study sought to discover weather an oral health-related quality of life measure or Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN) could be used as a predictor of orthodontic treatment need. Factors affecting the judgment of patient and dentist about this need are discussed. Materials and Methods: Oral examination on 597 Iranian students between 13 years and 18 years was done to reach the grade of Dental Health Component (DHC). The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and AC-IOTN were recorded. The diagnostic values of subjective tests were assessed. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to investigate the role of variables in the persons’ perceptions. Results: Half of the 570 eligible students did not need orthodontic treatment either on professional or self-assessment; 60% of patients with definite need had a distinct impact on their quality of life. The specificity of AC to detect the healthy persons was excellent (0.99) but its sensitivity was low (0.08). COHIP score gave a better sensitivity but its specificity was 50%. Caries experience, quality of life, father's education, and brushing habits were the factors relating to the same judgment of persons and dentists (P > 0.02). Conclusion: Regarding the discrepancies between two assessment methods, present instruments did not meet the predictor's competencies. The patient-based methods could not substitute the professional assessment, but by identification, the persons with higher impacts would benefit the prioritization process.

Asgari, Imaneh; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Eslamipour, Faezeh

2013-01-01

464

Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for critical investigations of these disorders and further delineation of potential treatments, particularly sex-specific approaches to gene and drug discoveries that involve hypothalamic nuclei.

Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

2013-01-01

465

Making a Solar Air Heater Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan teaches students about renewable energy and passive solar heating by creating a solar air heater to heat the classroom. The document includes links to useful YouTube videos which will support the hands-on classroom activity. Making and utilizing the heater should take about two 45 minute class periods. A step by step procedure with illustrations is provided for the lab portion of the lesson. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

2011-12-09

466

Document Skimming Support Environment for Surveying Documents in Creative Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a document skimming environment for surveying documents in our research. Although there are a lot of on-line documents on our surroundings, people, generally, prefer printing out on-line research papers from computer screen. For this reason, although skimming is used for reading documents in our daily life, it is difficult for us to skim documents from computer screens. Therefore, we developed a document skimming environment. The environment has a skimming support system and a recommendation system. The skimming support system supports skimming documents from computer screens by the interface, which is applied the Fisheye effect and the Overview+detail effect. Focus points of the Fisheye effect are the sentences selected by the original sentence extraction algorithm based on the value of standard distribution, and the Overview interface is displayed automatically the generated table of contents. The recommendation system generates personalized summaries by the collaborate filtering, which use users' log of the skimming support system. Furthermore, evaluation results show as follows; The value of F-measure of our sentence extraction algorithm is higher than it of the sentence extraction algorithm based on TF or Japanese lexical chaining method, the skimming support system is more effective method to skim documents from computer screen than paper, and the skimming support environment is more effective method to product research proposal documents than paper.

Hayama, Tessai; Kanai, Takashi; Kunifuji, Susumu

467

[AEL Career Decision-Making Program]. Exploring Career Decision-Making. Teacher Edition. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Career Decision-Making (CDM) Program consists of two components: the Exploring Career Decision-Making (ECDM) curriculum materials and the supportive Career Information System (CIS). (See CE 019 229 for a description of the total CDM program.) This document contains the teacher's guide to the ECDM materials, which represent fifteen career…

Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

468

Meaning making in the aftermath of homicide.  

PubMed

Although sense making or finding benefit are well documented examples of meaning making processes, meaning making grounded in action has received less attention. This article adds a specific demonstration of the relevance of performed meanings to homicide survivors and other traumatized populations through a qualitative study of 38 members of 14 families. The central finding of the study points to "the intense pursuit of what matters" as a major avenue for meaning making in the aftermath of homicide, one which is expressed in action. Implications of this mode of meaning reconstruction are discussed relative to the re-establishment of a sense of coherence and self-continuity. PMID:12814131

Armour, Marilyn

2003-07-01

469

Explaining East-West Differences in the Likelihood of Making Favorable Self-Evaluation: The Role of Evaluation Apprehension and Directness of Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors contend that although people in both Eastern and Western cultures are motivated to make favorable self-evaluations, the actual likelihood of expressing favorable self-evaluations in a concrete situation depends on (a) the dominant self-presentation norms in the culture, (b) how salient the norm is in the immediate situation, and (c) the availability of normatively permissible means to make favorable

Y. H. Kim; C. Y. Chiu; Si-qing Peng; H. Cai; William TOV

2009-01-01

470

Explaining East-West Differences in the Likelihood of Making Favorable Self-Evaluations: The Role of Evaluation Apprehension and Directness of Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors contend that although people in both Eastern and Western cultures are motivated to make favorable self-evaluations, the actual likelihood of expressing favorable self-evaluations in a concrete situation depends on (a) the dominant self-presentation norms in the culture, (b) how salient the norm is in the immediate situation, and (c) the availability of normatively permissible means to make favorable

Young-Hoon Kim; Chi-Yue Chiu; Siqing Peng; Huajian Cai; William Tov

2010-01-01

471

FACILITY WORKER TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-13033, ''Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA). It describes the criteria and methodology for allocating controls to hazardous conditions with significant facility worker (FW) consequence and presents the results of the allocation. The criteria and methodology for identifying controls that address FW safety are in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''.

SHULTZ, M.V.

2005-03-31

472

Calibration interval technical basis document  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a method for the establishment and evaluation of calibration intervals for radiation protection instrumentation. This document is applicable to instrumentation used by personnel at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for the measurement of radioactive contamination and the measurement and monitoring of radiation fields for protection of personnel and the environment. Special calibrations are not addressed by this document and should be handled separately.

Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

1998-09-01

473

Use of Computer-based Records, Completeness of Documentation, and Appropriateness of Documented Clinical Decisions  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate whether using a computer-based patient record (CPR) affects the completeness of documentation and appropriateness of documented clinical decisions. Design: A blinded expert panel of four experienced internists evaluated 50 progress notes of patients who had chronic diseases and whose physicians used either a CPR or a traditional paper record. Measurements: Completeness of problem and medication lists in progress notes, allergies noted in the entire record, consideration of relevant patient factors in the progress note's diagnostic and treatment plans, and appropriateness of documented clinical decisions. Results: The expert reviewers rated the problem lists and medication lists in the CPR progress notes as more complete (1.79/2.00 vs. 0.93/2.00, P < 0.001, and 1.75/2.00 vs. 0.91/2.00, P < 0.001, respectively) than those in the paper record. The allergy lists in both records were similar. Providers using a CPR documented consideration of more relevant patient factors when making their decisions (1.53/2.00 vs. 1.07/2.00, P < 0.001), and documented more appropriate clinical decisions (3.63/5.00 vs. 2.50/5.00, P < 0.001), compared with providers who used traditional paper records. Conclusions: Physicians in our study who used a CPR produced more complete documentation and documented more appropriate clinical decisions, as judged by an expert review panel. Because the physicians who used the CPR in our study volunteered to do so, further study is warranted to test whether the same conclusions would apply to all CPR users and whether the improvement in documentation leads to better clinical outcomes.

Tang, Paul C.; LaRosa, Michael P.; Gorden, Susan M.

1999-01-01

474

Authorship Attribution for Electronic Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic analysis of questioned electronic documents is difficult because the nature of the documents eliminates many kinds of informative differences. Recent work in authorship attribution demonstrates the practicality of analyzing documents based on authorial style, but the state of the art is confusing. Analyses are difficult to apply, little is known about error types and rates, and no best practices are available. This paper discusses efforts to address these issues, partly through the development of a systematic testbed for multilingual, multigenre authorship attribution accuracy, and partly through the development and concurrent analysis of a uniform and portable software tool that applies multiple methods to analyze electronic documents for authorship based on authorial style.

Juola, Patrick

475

Hibernia will emphasize electronic documentation  

SciTech Connect

The extensive and detailed documentation required for operating the Hibernia platform, offshore Newfoundland, will largely be in an electric form. Instead of depending on paper, Hibernia Management and Development Co. (HMDC) has implemented a state-of-the-art technical document management system (TDMS), which catalogs, searches, retrieves, assembles, and distributes electronic documentation on the platform and onshore. Using software developed by Interleaf Inc., the system handles the technical information required to support the safe and efficient operation of the platform. Engineering and fabrication drawings, operating system manuals, vendor manuals, material safety data sheets, procedures, and change control documents are also available in seconds from any PC on the platform.

Stavnes, T.; Kearley, A.C.

1997-05-05

476

Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents is published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration and contains statements, messages, and other Presidential materials released by the White House during the preceding week." This new online version is a pilot project designed to provide the public with easier access to Presidential documents. The site is searchable and contains documents from January 6, 1997 to the present. Search returns offer document summaries and as well as full-text in ascii or .pdf formats.

President., United S.

1998-01-01

477

Brazilian Government Document Digitization Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Latin American Microfilm Project (LAMP) at the Center for Research Libraries (CRL) has "digitize[d] executive branch serial documents issued by Brazil's national government during the period between 1821 and 1993," as well as provincial government documents from the "the end of the Empire to 1889." The documents are arranged in four collections: Provincial Presidential Reports, 1830-1960; Presidential Messages, 1889-1993; Ministerial Reports, 1821-1960; and Almanak Administrativo, Mercantil e Industrial do Rio de Janeiro, 1844-1889. The digitized documents, created from microfilm copies of the originals, are presented in both .gif and .tif formats.

478

Maintaining equipment qualification documents current with configuration  

SciTech Connect

Generic Letter 88-07 is the NRC's effort in establishing a firm policy regarding the application and enforcement of 10 CFR 50.49, Environmental Qualification of Electric Equipment Important to Safety for Nuclear Power Plants. This letter requires the licensee, when a potential deficiency has been identified, to make a prompt determination of its impact on operability, take immediate steps to establish a corrective action plan, and have a documented justification for continued operation. This paper explains the continuing effort required to maintain equipment qualification by assessing and documenting proposed changes to the equipment. These changes may be due to plant modifications, repairs, parts replacement, operability changes, or maintenance. The paper also shows how to maintain the qualification files consistent with the installed equipment configuration.

Spisak, M.J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-01-01

479

Mapping DICOM to OpenDocument format  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the readability, extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, we have introduced XML into DICOM file system (SPIE Volume 5748)[1] and the multilayer tree structure into DICOM (SPIE Volume 6145)[2]. In this paper, we proposed mapping DICOM to ODF(OpenDocument Format), for it is also based on XML. As a result, the new format realizes the separation of content(including text content and image) and display style. Meanwhile, since OpenDocument files take the format of a ZIP compressed archive, the new kind of DICOM files can benefit from ZIP's lossless compression to reduce file size. Moreover, this open format can also guarantee long-term access to data without legal or technical barriers, making medical images accessible to various fields.

Yu, Cong; Yao, Zhihong

2009-02-01

480

NILDE, Network Inter Library Document Exchange: An Italian Document Delivery System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents NILDE, a document delivery system supporting the exchange of documents via the internet. The system has been set up by the Central Library of the National Research Council of Bologna (Italy) in order to make use of new internet technology, to promote cooperation between Italian university libraries and research libraries, and to achieve quick response times in satisfying DD requests. The Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory Library was the first astronomical library to join the NILDE project from its earliest days in 2002. Many were the reasons for this choice: automation of the DD processes, security and reliability of the network, creation of usage statistics and reports, reduction of DD System management costs and so on. This work describes the benefits of NILDE and discusses the role of an organized document delivery system as an important tool to cope with the difficult constraints of the publishing market.

Brunetti, F.; Gasperini, A.; Mangiaracina, S.

2007-10-01

481

Normative Data for a User-friendly Paradigm for Pattern Electroretinogram Recording  

PubMed Central

Purpose To provide normative data for a user-friendly paradigm for the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) optimized for glaucoma screening (PERGLA). Design Prospective nonrandomized case series. Participants Ninety-three normal subjects ranging in age between 22 and 85 years. Methods A circular black–white grating of 25° visual angle, reversing 16.28 times per second, was presented on a television monitor placed inside a Ganzfeld bowl. The PERG was recorded simultaneously from both eyes with undilated pupils by means of skin cup electrodes taped over the lower eyelids. Reference electrodes were taped on the ipsilateral temples. Electrophysiologic signals were conventionally amplified, filtered, and digitized. Six hundred artifact-free repetitions were averaged. The response component at the reversal frequency was isolated automatically by digital Fourier transforms and was expressed as a deviation from the age-corrected average. The procedure took approximately 4 minutes. Main Outcome Measures Pattern electroretinogram amplitude (?V) and phase (? rad); response variability (coefficient of variation [CV] = standard deviation [SD] / mean × 100) of amplitude and phase of 2 partial averages that build up the PERG waveform; amplitude (?V) of background noise waveform, obtained by multiplying alternate sweeps by +1 and ?1; and interocular asymmetry (CV of amplitude and phase of the PERG of the 2 eyes). Results On average, the PERG has a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 13:1. The CVs of intrasession and intersession variabilities in amplitude and phase are lower than 10% and 2%, respectively, and do not depend on the operator. The CV of interocular asymmetries in amplitude and phase are 9.8±8.8% and 1.5±1.4%, respectively. The PERG amplitude and phase decrease with age. Residuals of linear regression lines have normal distribution, with an SD of 0.1 log units for amplitude and 0.019 log units for phase. Age-corrected confidence limits (P<0.05) are defined as ±2 SD of residuals. Conclusions The PERGLA paradigm yields responses as reliable as the best previously reported using standard protocols. The ease of execution and interpretation of results of PERGLA indicate a potential value for objective screening and follow-up of glaucoma.

Porciatti, Vittorio; Ventura, Lori M.

2009-01-01

482

A normative value pilot study: Levels of uranium in urine samples from UK civilians  

SciTech Connect

A normative study of the levels of urinary uranium in the general UK population is needed for comparison with levels in UK military and ex-military personnel who served where munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used. As preparation, this pilot study trialled the process of collecting 24-h samples from adult male civilians, and compared the measurements from 24-h samples with those from spot samples taken over the subsequent 24 h. The purpose was to assess the relative utility of the two types of samples. Twenty-five convalescent hospital in-patients were recruited as participants. Uranium concentrations in the 24-h samples ranged from 1 to 10.6 ng l{sup -1}; in the spots, from not detectable to 38.1 ng l{sup -1}. Normalised to creatinine, concentrations in the 24 h samples ranged from approximately 100 to 800 ng mol{sup -1} creatinine; in the spot samples, from not detectable to approximately 4000 ng mol{sup -1} creatinine. The ranges appear similar to those reported for residents of the US. The distribution of spot sample results indicated that 95% of a participant's creatinine-adjusted concentrations from spot samples would be within the range 40-250% of his mean. Adjusting for creatinine almost entirely eliminated a slight indication of diurnal variation in urinary uranium concentration in spot samples. All the 24-h samples and 131 out of the 133 spot samples showed ratios of isotopes {sup 238}U to {sup 235}U consistent with natural uranium (i.e. neither enriched nor depleted). Slightly elevated ratios in two spot samples were not supported by other samples from the same participants, indicating that slightly elevated ratios may be recorded on very low concentration (<1 ng l{sup -1}) samples. In the main, quantification of this isotope ratio from spot samples was only slightly more variable than from 24-h samples. Complete 24-h urine samples gave better precision than spot samples in estimating uranium concentrations at these low levels, but presented more logistic difficulties in the collection of the samples. Clarification of the relative merits of alternative sampling strategies enables the design of a wider study to be optimised.

Jones, A.D. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alan.jones@iom-world.org; Miller, B.G. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Walker, S. [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Anderson, J. [Scientifics Ltd (United Kingdom); Colvin, A.P. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hutchison, P.A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Soutar, C.A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2007-06-15

483

Making Riverscapes Real (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and function of rivers have long been characterized either by: (1) qualitative models such as the River Continuum Concept or Serial Discontinuity Concept which paint broad descriptive portraits of how river habitats and communities vary, or (2) quantitative models, such as Downstream Hydraulic Geometry, which rely on a limited number of measurements spread widely throughout a river basin. In contrast, Fausch et al. (2002) proposed applying landscape ecology methods to rivers to create “riverscapes.” Application of the riverscape concept requires information on the spatial distribution of organism-scale habitats throughout entire river systems. In practical terms, this means that researchers must replicate maps of local habitat continuously throughout entire rivers to document and predict total habitat availability, structure, and function. Likewise, information on time-dependent variations in these river habitats is necessary. Given these requirements, it is not surprising that the riverscape approach has largely remained a conceptual framework with limited practical application. Recent advances in remote sensing and desktop computing, however, make the riverscape concept more achievable from a mapping perspective. Remote sensing methods now enable sub-meter measurements of depth, water surface slope, grain size, biotypes, algae, and plants, as well as estimation of derived parameters such as velocity and stream power. Although significant obstacles remain to basin-extent sub-meter mapping of physical habitat, recent advances are overcoming these obstacles and allowing the riverscape concept to be put into use by different agencies - at least from a physical habitat perspective. More problematic to the riverscape approach, however, are two major issues that cannot be solved with technical solutions. First is the difficulty in acquiring maps of fauna, whether they be macroinvertebrates, fish, or microorganisms, at scales and spatial extents comparable to physical habitat data. Given that funding will not be available in most rivers to map organism distributions across all scales and locations, modeling of organism distributions over space and time will have to be an integral part of making riverscapes “real.” A second challenge is that existing quantitative and qualitative models do not capture or explain the multiple scales of spatial variability shown by continuous, high resolution maps of riverscapes. Riverscapes thus challenge our existing understanding of how rivers structure themselves and will force development of new paradigms. Absent these new paradigms, riverscape maps provide an information overload that scientists and managers have trouble conceptualizing and using. This paper presents examples of riverscape mapping from around the world, demonstrates ways in which the maps can be used, and discusses the fundamental ways in which multiscalar, basin-extent riverscapes challenge our present understanding of river structure and function.

Marcus, A.; Carbonneau, P.; Fonstad, M. A.; Walther, S. C.

2009-12-01

484

Effectiveness guidance document (EGD) for acupuncture research - a consensus document for conducting trials  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for more Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) to strengthen the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Effectiveness