Science.gov

Sample records for documents making normative

  1. Making Space for Place-Making Pedagogies: Stretching Normative Mandated Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In an era of normative standardised literacy curriculum continuing to make space for culturally responsive literacy pedagogy is on ongoing challenge for early childhood educators. Collaborative participatory research and ethnographic studies of teachers who accomplish innovative and inclusive early childhood education in culturally diverse high


  2. Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

  3. Enhancing Medical Decision-Making Evaluations: Introduction of Normative Data for the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Niccolai, Lindsay; Marson, Daniel; Triebel, Kristen L

    2016-04-01

    A number of measures have been developed to assess medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in adults. However, their clinical utility is limited by a lack of available normative data. In the current study, we introduce age-independent and age-adjusted normative data for a measure of MDC: the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument. The sample consisted of 308 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 19 to 86 years. For age-adjusted norms, individual raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped according to empirically supported age ranges. For age-independent norms, the same method was utilized but without age-corrections being applied or participants being grouped into age ranges. This study has the potential to enhance MDC evaluations by allowing clinicians to compare a patient's performance on the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument with that of adults regardless of age as well as to same age peers. Tables containing normative corrections are supplementary material available online at http://asm.sagepub.com/supplemental. PMID:26282778

  4. Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs - Duration: 21 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

  5. Making the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores meaningful at the patient level through normative scoring and registry data

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. F.; Giesinger, J. M.; Patton, J. T.; MacDonald, D. J.; Simpson, A. H. R. W.; Howie, C. R.; Giesinger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) have been demonstrated to vary according to age and gender, making it difficult to compare results in cohorts with different demographics. The aim of this paper was to calculate reference values for different patient groups and highlight the concept of normative reference data to contextualise an individual’s outcome. Methods We accessed prospectively collected OHS and OKS data for patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasty at a single orthopaedic teaching hospital during a five-year period. T-scores were calculated based on the OHS and OKS distributions. Results Data were obtained from 3203 total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients and 2742 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. The mean age of the patient was 68.0 years (sd 11.3, 58.4% women) in the THA group and in 70.2 (sd 9.4; 57.5% women) in the TKA group. T-scores were calculated for age and gender subgroups by operation. Different T-score thresholds are seen at different time points pre and post surgery. Values are further stratified by operation (THA/TKA) age and gender. Conclusions Normative data interpretation requires a fundamental shift in the thinking as to the use of the Oxford Scores. Instead of reporting actual score points, the patient is rated by their relative position within the group of all patients undergoing the same procedure. It is proposed that this form of transformation is beneficial (a) for more appropriately comparing different patient cohorts and (b) informing an individual patient how they are progressing compared with others of their age and gender. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:137–144 PMID:26311163

  6. Making the EU "risk window" transparent: the normative foundations of the environmental risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Gamborg, Christian; Madsen, Kathrine Hauge; Jűrgensen, Rikke Bagger; von Krauss, Martin Krayer; Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandűe, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, there seems to be widespread, morally based scepticism about the use of GMOs in food production. In response to this scepticism, the revised EU directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms stresses the importance of respecting ethical principles recognized in the Member States. However, the directive fails to reflect the critical role of value judgements in scientific risk assessment and any subsequent approval procedure. In this paper we argue that it is important to make all ethically relevant assumptions involved in the approval procedure transparent and thus available for public scrutiny. Mapping the value judgements that are made in an environmental risk assessment and approval procedure, we describe the political liberal nature of the EU legislation. We then look more closely at the prescriptions for environmental risk assessment and approval of GMOs outlined in the directive. An environmental risk assessment views the world through a "risk window" that only makes visible that which has been predefined as a relevant risk. The importance of the value judgements that define the risk window consists in limiting the information the risk assessment can provide. In the penultimate section of the paper, the significance of the risk window is demonstrated through a case study of the approval of glyphosate resistant fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) in Denmark. PMID:15612414

  7. Neural signatures of fairness-related normative decision making in the ultimatum game: a coordinate-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The willingness to incur personal costs to enforce prosocial norms represents a hallmark of human civilization. Although recent neuroscience studies have used the ultimatum game to understand the neuropsychological mechanisms that underlie the enforcement of fairness norms; however, a precise characterization of the neural systems underlying fairness-related norm enforcement remains elusive. In this study, we used a coordinate-based meta-analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the ultimatum game with the goal to provide an additional level of evidence for the refinement of the underlying neural architecture of this human puzzling behavior. Our results demonstrated a convergence of reported activation foci in brain networks associated with psychological components of fairness-related normative decision making, presumably reflecting a reflexive and intuitive system (System 1) and a reflective and deliberate system (System 2). System 1 (anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex [PFC]) may be associated with the reflexive and intuitive responses to norm violations, representing a motivation to punish norm violators. Those intuitive responses conflict with economic self-interest, encoded in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may engage cognitive control from a reflective and deliberate System 2 to resolve the conflict by either suppressing (ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, left dorsolateral PFC, and rostral ACC) the intuitive responses or over-riding self-interest (right dorsolateral PFC). Taken together, we suggest that fairness-related norm enforcement recruits an intuitive system for rapid evaluation of norm violations and a deliberate system for integrating both social norms and self-interest to regulate the intuitive system in favor of more flexible decision making. PMID:25327760

  8. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Making Oral Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the sixth of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops the ability to make oral reports, a workplace literacy skill identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth direct care…

  9. Notable Government Documents 2001: What a Difference a Year Makes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of notable government documents published in 2001 and lists agencies and distributors for federal, state and local, and international documents. Discusses changes in U.S. government publications since the September 11 terrorist attacks, including agencies shutting down their Web sites, requests to destroy materials, and…

  10. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  11. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  12. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  13. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  14. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  15. Making project documentation a positive tool for management

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, Sandia National Laboratory has been designing and constructing Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. One managerial challenge of a large project is the problem of handling information. The scope of the PBFA-II projet may be gauged by its cost: $19.4 million for the accelerator itself, $9.5 million for buildings and standard utilities, and $9.6 million for specialized utilities and support systems. The first need of the project at its outset, then, was communication, and this remains a chief function of the CPO. If the nature or magnitude of the risk changes in any one area, the entire project team must know. If a design is changed, persons working on interdependent efforts must know. Some of this communication takes place naturally and informally. But project procedures must guarantee that all important communication is received by all necessary people, that the communication creates accountability, and that management receives timely, accurate reports. To put it another way, important communication requires project documentation. Documentation is both a record of the project and a tool for management.

  16. 36 CFR 51.100 - When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available? 51.100 Section 51.100 Parks, Forests, and Public... Information § 51.100 When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available? In...

  17. Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable


  18. Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable…

  19. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  20. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I make my own copies of documents? 1254.70 Section 1254.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Copying Archival Materials Rules Relating...

  1. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  2. The importance of documenting code, and how you might make yourself do it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik Jon; Astropy Project

    2016-01-01

    Your science code is awesome. It reduces data, performs some statistical analysis, or models a physical process better than anyone has done before. You wisely decide that it is worth sharing with your student/advisor, research collaboration, or the whole world. But when you send it out, no one seems willing to use it. Why? Most of the time, it's your documentation. You wrote the code for yourself, so you know what every function, procedure, or class is supposed to do. Unfortunately, your users (sometimes including you 6 months later) do not. In this talk, I will describe some of the tools, both technical and psychological, to make that documentation happen (particularly for the Python ecosystem).

  3. Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

    We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

  4. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that environmental... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are... requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  5. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that environmental... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are... requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  6. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that environmental... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are... requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  7. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that environmental... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are... requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  8. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (g) You may use a hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents... copier or personal scanner to copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures,...

  9. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (g) You may use a hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents... copier or personal scanner to copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures,...

  10. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (g) You may use a hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents... copier or personal scanner to copy some special media records. If you wish to copy motion pictures,...

  11. Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

    This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

  12. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... previously filed, the documentation submitted does not have to be re-submitted; and (2) A death certificate for the deceased countermeasure recipient. If a death certificate is unavailable, the requester must... Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public...

  13. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... previously filed, the documentation submitted does not have to be re-submitted; and (2) A death certificate for the deceased countermeasure recipient. If a death certificate is unavailable, the requester must... Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public...

  14. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... previously filed, the documentation submitted does not have to be re-submitted; and (2) A death certificate for the deceased countermeasure recipient. If a death certificate is unavailable, the requester must... Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public...

  15. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... previously filed, the documentation submitted does not have to be re-submitted; and (2) A death certificate for the deceased countermeasure recipient. If a death certificate is unavailable, the requester must... Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public...

  16. Making Learning Visible in Kindergarten Classrooms: Pedagogical Documentation as a Formative Assessment Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between pedagogical documentation--a formative assessment technique and instructional intervention designed to increase student learning by recording children's experiences--and kindergarten children, families and teachers in the UAE. The study sample comprised six teachers in six kindergarten classrooms, 141…

  17. Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) Phase II: 930 New Normative Photos

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

  18. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-01-01

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  19. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-04-12

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  20. Navigating the Normative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlebowitsh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);


  1. Toddlers View Artifact Function Normatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Terziyan, Treysi; Greene, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    When children use objects like adults, are they simply tracking regularities in others' object use, or are they demonstrating a normatively defined awareness that there are right and wrong ways to act? This study provides the first evidence for the latter possibility. Young 2- and 3-year-olds (n = 32) learned functions of 6 artifacts, both…

  2. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID:18822155

  3. Toward a Practical and Normative Ethics for Librarianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Just about everything that librarians do as professionals carries ethical implications. Matters of intellectual freedom are most commonly recognized as loci for ethics-based decision making, but the totality of individual and collective conduct is in need of practical, normative ethical structure. What is argued for here is a framework founded on…

  4. Dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex orchestrate normative choice.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria; Hotz, Philine; Eisenegger, Christoph; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-11-01

    Humans are noted for their capacity to over-ride self-interest in favor of normatively valued goals. We examined the neural circuitry that is causally involved in normative, fairness-related decisions by generating a temporarily diminished capacity for costly normative behavior, a 'deviant' case, through non-invasive brain stimulation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and compared normal subjects' functional magnetic resonance imaging signals with those of the deviant subjects. When fairness and economic self-interest were in conflict, normal subjects (who make costly normative decisions at a much higher frequency) displayed significantly higher activity in, and connectivity between, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC). In contrast, when there was no conflict between fairness and economic self-interest, both types of subjects displayed identical neural patterns and behaved identically. These findings suggest that a parsimonious prefrontal network, the activation of right DLPFC and pVMPFC, and the connectivity between them, facilitates subjects' willingness to incur the cost of normative decisions. PMID:21964488

  5. Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting

    PubMed Central

    Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a “financial guide” detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to “expert” advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified. PMID:23596504

  6. Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

    2012-09-01

    When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a "financial guide" detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to "expert" advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified. PMID:23596504

  7. Decision Making in the Curriculum Development Process and Raising the Quality of Academic Standards: What Does a Review of Australian Curriculum Documents Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, to which factors in the process of decision making involved in curriculum development in Australia, have determined the quality of curriculum documents. Searches on web sites of education organisations and electronic databases of educational literature were conducted to identify source documents…

  8. Normative inner ear volumetric measurements.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Michael T; Kirkilas, Gary; Seymour, Peter; Sem, Kanik; Iaia, Alberto; Sabra, Omar; Isildak, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we attempted to determine normative inner ear volumetric measurements generated from three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images. In addition, we investigated a correlation between the axial length and the volume of the labyrinth and discussed clinical outcomes of this correlation. Amira 5.2.2 software was used to create three-dimensional isosurface images of the human labyrinth using two-dimensional CT images from 35 anatomically normal patients. With the three-dimensional labyrinths, complete dimensional analysis was performed to gain insight into both the volume and the greatest axial length of the inner ear. Paired t test and Pearson correlation were used. Our volume of the inner ear inquiry reported a mean volume of 221.5 with SD of 24.3 ?L (0.228 ?L for males and 0.218 ?L for females). The length showed a mean of 1.713 cm with SD of 0.064 cm (1.753 cm for males and 1.695 cm for females). The length was used to estimate the volume, and the estimates were within 10% of the measured volume 74.3% of the time. Normative volumetric measurements of the inner ear can be obtained by using three-dimensional CT Imaging by Amira 5.2.2 software. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the axial length of the labyrinth and the volume of the labyrinth. The axial length of the labyrinth could be used to estimate the volume of the labyrinth, which may be clinically important to estimate the concentration of the drug distributed in the inner ear. PMID:25490572

  9. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    PubMed

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances. PMID:15139256

  10. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of lost employment income benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION...

  11. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of lost employment income benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION...

  12. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of lost employment income benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION...

  13. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM...

  14. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM...

  15. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM...

  16. Normative cost allocation structures of power pools

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Chieu Tranh.

    1992-01-01

    Power pooling is a broad concept whereby a group of electric utilities collaborate to coordinate their activities with regard to the generation and transmission of electricity. With the coming deregulation in the electric power industry, power pool cost allocation structures need to be more adaptive to changes. In this research, a survey of different power pools structures is presented. Next, models of capacity expansion planning are reviewed and extended to give an insight into the decision making process of electric utilities in isolation as well as in a pool. The pool is viewed as a linear production game, duality theory of linear programming is then used to derive normative cost allocation scheme for the short-run energy exchange pool (broker pool) and for the long-run central planning pool (tight pool). Simulation runs using actual data of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland power pool are performed to quantify the benefits of the resulting pool structure proposed in this research versus the current structure. Other benefits of the proposed structure regarding the adaptability of power pools in the changing regulatory environment as well as some policy implications on transmission access are also discussed.

  17. Normative data on cognitive measures of depression.

    PubMed

    Dozois, David J A; Covin, Roger; Brinker, Jay K

    2003-02-01

    The assessment of cognition and cognitive change is important for case conceptualization, monitoring the efficacy of specific interventions, and evaluating treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Unfortunately, a paucity of normative data exists on cognitive measures used for psychotherapy outcome research in depression, and little information is available to guide a practitioner's understanding of the magnitude and clinical significance of a patient's cognitive change. This article presents normative data on 6 self-report instruments that assess negative and positive automatic thoughts, hopelessness, cognitive biases and errors, and dysfunctional attitudes. Normative data were derived from studies published from the date of inception of a given cognitive index to the year 2000. Recommendations for the use of these normative data are provided. PMID:12602427

  18. Use of Information and Documentation for Planning and Decision-Making. Summary Report and Proceedings of Joint ESAMI/PADIS/DSE Seminar (Salisbury, Zimbabwe, August 3-7, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, T.; Mushonga, B. L. B.

    The aim of this seminar was twofold: to make senior civil servants of Zimbabwe aware of the importance of information and documentation for planning and decision-making, and to introduce the concept of a national information and documentation center (NIDC) as designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Pan-African Documentation…

  19. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  20. Young Children Attribute Normativity to Novel Actions without Pedagogy or Normative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Young children interpret some acts performed by adults as normatively governed, that is, as capable of being performed either rightly or wrongly. In previous experiments, children have made this interpretation when adults introduced them to novel acts with normative language (e.g. "this is the way it goes"), along with pedagogical cues signaling…

  1. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies. The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082

  2. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers


  3. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and


  4. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

  5. The Methodology of Normative Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christopher; Zeckhauser, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy analyses frequently clash. Their disagreements stem from many sources, including models, empirical estimates, and values such as who should have standing and how different criteria should be weighted. We provide a simple taxonomy of disagreement, identifying distinct categories within both the positive and values domains of normative policy


  6. American College Student Values: A Normative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglovic, Jr., Steve

    The 4 objectives of this study were (1) to conduct a normative study of values held by US college students, (2) to assess a wide range of value commitments of US college students as measured by an instrument validated by previous research, (3) to study the relationship between values and other relevant variables, and (4) to lay the basis for a…

  7. Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

  8. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample. PMID:25072106

  9. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to


  10. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

  11. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  12. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices.

    PubMed

    Elias, John Z; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  13. A normative analysis of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses the question of normative analysis of the value-based aspects of nursing. In our perspective, values in science may be distinguished into (i) epistemic when related to the goals of truth and objectivity and (ii) non-epistemic when related to social, cultural or political aspects. Furthermore, values can be called constitutive when necessary for a scientific enterprise, or contextual when contingently associated with science. Analysis of the roles of the various forms of values and models of knowledge translation provides the ground to understand the specific role of values in nursing. A conceptual framework has been built to classify some of the classical perspectives on nursing knowledge and to examine the relationships between values and different forms of knowledge in nursing. It follows that adopting a normative perspective in the analysis of nursing knowledge provides key elements to identify its proper dimension. PMID:26059480

  14. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  15. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  16. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,…

  17. Normative productivity of the global vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Georgii A; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Background The biosphere models of terrestrial productivity are essential for projecting climate change and assessing mitigation and adaptation options. Many of them have been developed in connection to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) that backs the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the end of 1990s, IGBP sponsored release of a data set summarizing the model outputs and setting certain norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity. Since a number of new models and new versions of old models were developed during the past decade, these normative data require updating. Results Here, we provide the series of updates that reflects evolution of biosphere models and demonstrates evolutional stability of the global and regional estimates of terrestrial productivity. Most of them fit well the long-living Miami model. At the same time we call attention to the emerging alternative: the global potential for net primary production of biomass may be as high as 70 PgC y-1, the productivity of larch forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of taiga zone, and the productivity of rain-green forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of tropical rainforest zone. Conclusion The departure from Miami model's worldview mentioned above cannot be simply ignored. It requires thorough examination using modern observational tools and techniques for model-data fusion. Stability of normative knowledge is not its ultimate goal – the norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity must be evidence-based. PMID:19108718

  18. Accidental Government Documents Librarian: A Review of Experiences and Training Needs of Interim Documents Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelinek, Kathryn; Hinchcliff, Marilou

    2009-01-01

    The results of a survey to determine the training needs and normative experiences of temporary government documents librarians are presented. The results indicate that temporary librarians tend to work in academia, have been in librarianship for a shorter time period, and have fewer technical processing skills than permanent documents librarians.


  19. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Power, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

  20. Normative Stress and Young Families: Adaptation and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Colleen S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Focuses upon number and spacing of children as perpetrators of normative stress. Effects are summarized and a typology of normative stress based on level of family impact is offered. Growth-enhancing aspects of stress are suggested in the context of the family as a system of mutual influences. (Author)

  1. Normative Feedback Effects on Learning a Timing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of normative feedback on learning a sequential timing task. In addition to feedback about their performance per trial, two groups of participants received bogus normative feedback about a peer group's average block-to-block improvement after each block of 10 trials. Scores indicated either greater (better…

  2. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

  3. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton. PMID:25381220

  4. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of deployed combat troops: an empirical investigation of normative performance.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Lowmaster, Sara E; Coldren, Rodney L; Kelly, Mark P; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of the PAI scales were generally quite similar in the Iraq and community samples, with modest differences emerging on only 3 subscales addressing antisocial behavior, issues with close relationships, and interpersonal vigilance. These results suggest that standard normative interpretation of PAI scales is appropriate even when the instrument is administered in a combat zone. In comparison with prior research, the results may suggest that documented mental health issues among combat veterans, when present, may be particularly likely to emerge postdeployment. PMID:21319909

  5. HIV prevention, structural change and social values: the need for an explicit normative approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2012-01-01

    Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well. PMID:22713355

  6. Normative Data for Eight Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A.; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley 6, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurologic disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61–82 years (mean 71 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education specific mean and ?1.5 standard deviation scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics. PMID:24759546

  7. Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

  8. Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: the example of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Rimal, Rajiv N; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

  9. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  10. Toward a normative definition of medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Swick, H M

    2000-06-01

    In recent years, professionalism in medicine has gained increasing attention. Many have called for a return to medical professionalism as a way to respond to the corporate transformation of the U.S. health care system. Yet there is no common understanding of what is meant by the word professionalism. To encourage dialog and to arrive eventually at some consensus, one needs a normative definition. The author proposes such a definition and asserts that the concept of medical professionalism must be grounded both in the nature of a profession and in the nature of physicians' work. Attributes of medical professionalism reflect societal expectations as they relate to physicians' responsibilities, not only to individual patients but to wider communities as well. The author identifies nine behaviors that constitute medical professionalism and that physicians must exhibit if they are to meet their obligations to their patients, their communities, and their profession. (For example, "Physicians subordinate their own interests to the interests of others.") He argues that physicians must fully comprehend what medical professionalism entails. Serious negative consequences will ensue if physicians cease to exemplify the behaviors that constitute medical professionalism and hence abrogate their responsibilities both to their patients and to their chosen calling. PMID:10875505

  11. Preschool children with gender normative and gender non-normative peer preferences: psychosocial and environmental correlates.

    PubMed

    Martin, Carol Lynn; DiDonato, Matthew D; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2012-08-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53 % boys; M age = 51 months; 66 % Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer's characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

  12. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of lost employment income benefits. 110.61... make a determination of lost employment income benefits. (a) A requester determined by the Secretary to be eligible for Program benefits and who seeks benefits for lost employment income must provide,...

  13. Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (“A, do X!”) or as a prediction (“the actor A will do X”). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

  14. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

  15. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  16. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  17. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26896561

  18. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  19. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmerus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother--child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment.…

    1. Rurality and the Normative Order in a Developing Country

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Taheri, Beverly Jackson; Willits, Fern K.

      1975-01-01

      It was hypothesized that rurality would be positively related to a traditional normative order represented by moral reality. In general, as rurality declined, the emphasis on the effect of an improper act declined, and the importance of the actor's motives increased. (Author)

    2. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Deaver, Sarah P.

      2009-01-01

      This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

    3. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hennessey, Jessica

      2014-01-01

      In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

    4. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bohn, Annette

      2011-01-01

      Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect


    5. The Determinants of Spouses' Normative Preferences for Family Roles

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cronkite, Ruth C.

      1977-01-01

      Both static and dynamic models are developed which hypothesize effects of background characteristics, socioeconomic factors and family life-cycle stages on three dimensions of normative preferences. The most striking result is the failure of the husband's preferences to dominate the wife's. (Author)

    6. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jensen, Dwight Wm.

      In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and


    7. The Boston Naming Test in Swedish: Normative Data

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tallberg, I.M.

      2005-01-01

      The purpose of the present study was to introduce a Swedish version of the Boston Naming Test and to offer normative data based on a sample of native Swedish-speaking healthy adults stratified concerning age, gender, and length of education. The subjects were assessed with other lexical tests and half of the group also performed tests of global…

    8. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Coulby, David

      2012-01-01

      The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

    9. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Katz, Michael S.

      2009-01-01

      This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

    10. Normativity and Context in Young Children's Pretend Play

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wyman, Emily; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

      2009-01-01

      In two studies 3-year-olds' understanding of the context-specificity of normative rules was investigated through games of pretend play. In the first study, children protested against a character who joined a pretend game but treated the target object according to its real function. However, they did not protest when she performed the same action…

    11. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

      2010-01-01

      Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

    12. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Coulby, David

      2012-01-01

      The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the


    13. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hennessey, Jessica

      2014-01-01

      In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required


    14. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bohn, Annette

      2011-01-01

      Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

    15. An Investigation of the Normative Structure for Community College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Akin, Selenia Renea

      2010-01-01

      This exploratory study was designed to determine if a normative structure exists among a community college student body by extending the work of Caboni, Braxton, Deusterhous, Mundy, McClendon, and Lee (2005). The study also sought to determine if the level of espousal for the norms differed across student characteristics. This study analyzed data


    16. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

      2014-01-01

      This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

    17. Professional autonomy and the normative structure of medical practice.

      PubMed

      Hoogland, J; Jochemsen, H

      2000-01-01

      Professional autonomy is often described as a claim of professionals that has to serve primarily their own interests. However, it can also be seen as an element of a professional ideal that can function as a standard for professional, i.e. medical practice. This normative understanding of the medical profession and professional autonomy faces three threats today. 1) Internal erosion of professional autonomy due to a lack of internal quality control by the medical profession; 2) the increasing upward pressure on health care expenses that calls for a health care policy that could imply limitations for the professional autonomy of physicians; 3) a distorted understanding of the profession as being based on a formal type of knowledge and related technology, in which other normative dimensions of medical practice are neglected and which frustrates meaningful communication between physicians and patients. To answer these threats a normative structure analysis of medical practice is presented, that indicates which principles and norms are constitutive for medical practice. It is concluded that professional autonomy, normatively understood, should be maintained to avoid the lure of the technological imperative and to protect patients against third parties' pressure to undertreatment. However, this professional autonomy can only be maintained if members of the profession subject their activities and decisions to a critical evaluation by other members of the profession and by patients and if they continue to critically reflect on the values that regulate today's medicine. PMID:11142442

    18. Research, Training, and Practice: The Normative Model and Beyond.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Evertson, Carolyn M.

      Four specific purposes were addressed in this study: (1) to identify models of classroom management and instructional management used by effective and less effective teachers; (2) to compare and contrast these models; (3) to compare and contrast a normative model of classroom management used in management training workshops with the models


    19. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jensen, Dwight Wm.

      In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

    20. Establishment of Normative Data on Cognitive Tests for Comparison with Athletes Sustaining Mild Head Injury

      PubMed Central

      Oliaro, Scott M.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Prentice, William E.

      1998-01-01

      Objective: To provide normal data for comparison with objective measures of an athlete's cognitive ability after mild head injury (MHI). Subjects: Seventy-two Division I college athletes. Design and Setting: Athletes were assessed on three test dates (two days apart) in a sports medicine research laboratory. Measurements: Normative data were collected on four cognitive tests (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Test, Reitan Trail-Making Tests, and Wechsler Digit Span Tests). Results: A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant learning effects on all tests except the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. A high correlation was noted between the Stroop and the Trail-Making Tests. Conclusions: These normative data can be used as comparisions to provide an objective measure of an athlete's cognitive ability following MHI. By adding this test battery to the athlete's other physical and neurologic tests, the decision to return an athlete to competition after MHI can be made with greater confidence and with less risk of reinjury. PMID:16558482

    1. The normativity of the concept of heteronormativity.

      PubMed

      Herz, Marcus; Johansson, Thomas

      2015-01-01

      The aim of the article is to analyze and to critically examine use of the concept of heteronormativity. We find it important to adjust the concept to some extent in order to analyze, for example, changes occurring in homosexual families, contemporary gender-equal families, or the progressive youth culture. We find two approaches when using the concept. One minimizes the importance of how sexual practices are embedded in social institutions. The first approach becomes too idealistic, whereas the second approach often is based on a structural view of society. This approach makes it hard to imagine a transformation of the family that could lead to more equal and democratic relations in contemporary families. We suggest a third approach, and the possibility of finding creative ways of analyzing actual change and contestations of heteronormativity. An approach containing a space of reflexivity and aiming at political change both involving subjects as well as structures. PMID:25710334

    2. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

      2011-01-01

      The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

    3. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

      2011-01-01

      The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs


    4. Specialized Documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Munson, Ethan V.; da Pimentel, Maria Graça

      HTML is unquestionably the central document language of the Web, but it is by no means the only language of the Web. In fact, several other specialized types of documents are widely used and have considerable importance. In this chapter, we look at how specialized document types affect accessibility. We do not attempt to consider all possible specialized documents, but rather focus on important examples that illustrate the key issues including Adobe’s Portable Document Format (PDF), microformats, and Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The Accessibility for RIA (ARIA) initiative is presented as an example of an effort to improve the accessibility of specialized documents, while the DAISY initiative is used as an example of how the same technologies can be harnessed to improve accessibility.

    5. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

      2011-01-01

      One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a


    6. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

      2011-01-01

      One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

    7. The Psychoanalytic Mode of Thought and its Application To the Non-Normative Analysis of Sexuality and Gender.

      PubMed

      Kloppenberg, Brian

      2016-02-01

      Freud's psychoanalytic mode of thought, especially as interpreted by William Grossman, functions as an inherently non-normative means of analyzing both the psychic life of the individual and various historical and cultural phenomena. Application of this mode of thought to particular characterizations of gender and sexuality makes possible an essential critique of trait psychology and static formulations of human development, as restricting both clinical practice and theory building. An exploration of the complexities of sexuality and gender in gay men shows how Freud's insistence on variability lends conceptual power at the intersection of classical psychoanalysis, with its problematic history, and the many clinical and theoretical manifestations of contemporary psychoanalysis. The non-normative psychoanalytic mode of thought developed by Freud must be integrated with more recent formulations about gender and sexuality in order to conduct a psychoanalysis. PMID:26819349

    8. Experimental findings on God as an attachment figure: normative processes and moderating effects of internal working models.

      PubMed

      Granqvist, Pehr; Mikulincer, Mario; Gewirtz, Vered; Shaver, Phillip R

      2012-11-01

      Four studies examined implications of attachment theory for psychological aspects of religion among Israeli Jews. Study 1 replicated previous correlational findings indicating correspondence among interpersonal attachment orientations, attachment to God, and image of God. Studies 2-4 were subliminal priming experiments, which documented both normative and individual-difference effects. Regarding normative effects, findings indicated that threat priming heightened cognitive access to God-related concepts in a lexical decision task (Study 2); priming with "God" heightened cognitive access to positive, secure base-related concepts in the same task (Study 3); and priming with a religious symbol caused neutral material to be better liked (Study 4). Regarding individual differences, interpersonal attachment-related avoidance reduced the normative effects (i.e., avoidant participants had lower implicit access to God as a safe haven and secure base). Findings were mostly independent of level of religiousness. The present experiments considerably extend the psychological literature on connections between attachment constructs and aspects of religion. PMID:22800284

    9. FRAMEWORK DOCUMENTS

      EPA Science Inventory

      Defn: Framework Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed.

      Termination Documentation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

      2014-01-01

      In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

    10. Declassified Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Karen M.

      Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

    11. Declassified Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Karen M.

      Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released


    12. Beyond competition: the normative implications of consumer-driven health plans.

      PubMed

      Rosenthal, Meredith; Daniels, Norman

      2006-06-01

      The Federal Trade Commission/Department of Justice 2004 report Improving Health Care: A Dose of Competition appeals to efficiency arguments in promoting a wide range of health care market reforms. But the market-based reforms discussed in Improving Health Care are not simply neutral with regard to equity in access to services; they are likely to have substantial and inequitable distributional effects. We use the case of consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs), the pillar of the Bush administration's private-sector health reform efforts, to illustrate the limitations of viewing health policy reform through the lens of Improving Health Care. We conclude that the speculative efficiency gains from CDHPs need to be balanced against well-documented equity concerns within a normative framework. Moreover, other important ethical issues arise with regard to the risks imposed on the population by the introduction of policies that are based on a faith in markets rather than empirical evidence. PMID:16785304

    13. Chemical dispersion among Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ryder, Graham; Steele, Alison

      1988-01-01

      Analysis of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts for major and minor elements suggests that the hypothesis that the coarser-grained varieties (olivine microgabbros) consist of two chemical groups is incorrect. Instead, it is found that there is a single group including vesicular, coarse-grained, and fine-grained basalts. For the entire suite, the dispersion of compositions along the olivine trend is too great to be explained by short-range unmixing of an unfractionated flow. It is suggested that the general trend for the suite is olivine separation, probably through crystal settling. The textures, mineralogical characteristics, and chemical variation of the olivine-normative basalts are shown to be consistent with a sequence of thin fractionating flows, all from a common parent.

    14. The normative authority of the World Health Organization.

      PubMed

      Gostin, L O; Sridhar, D; Hougendobler, D

      2015-07-01

      The World Health Organization (WHO) was born after the devastation of World War II, as a normative agency endowed with unprecedented constitutional powers. But even as it has achieved stunning successes, such as the eradication of smallpox, it has failed to live up to the exalted expectations of the postwar health and human rights movement - exemplified most recently by its inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic. Our aim is to offer innovative ideas for restoring the Organization to its leadership position by exercising its normative authority, even as it faces a crowded and often chaotic global health architecture. Before doing so, it will be helpful to summarize the main tensions the Organization faces in today's global health landscape. PMID:26100341

    15. Assessment battery for communication (ABaCo): normative data.

      PubMed

      Angeleri, Romina; Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

      2012-09-01

      The Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo) was introduced to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with cerebral lesions. The battery is organized into five evaluation scales focusing on separate components of pragmatic competence. In the present study, we present normative data for individuals 15-75 years of age (N = 300). The sample was stratified by age, sex, and years of education, according to Italian National Institute of Statistics indications in order to be representative of the general national population. Since performance on the ABaCo decreases with age and lower years of education, the norms were stratified for both age and education. The ABaCo is a valuable tool in clinical practice; the normative data provided here will enable clinicians to determine different kinds and specific levels of communicative impairments more precisely. PMID:22180102

    16. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

      PubMed

      Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

      2014-06-01

      We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. PMID:24717645

    17. Nudges and coercion: conceptual, empirical, and normative considerations.

      PubMed

      Cratsley, Kelso

      2015-01-01

      Given that the concept of coercion remains a central concern for bioethics, Quigley's (Monash Bioethics Rev 32:141-158, 2014) recent article provides a helpful analysis of its frequent misapplication in debates over the use of 'nudges'. In this commentary I present a generally sympathetic response to Quigley's argument while also raising several issues that are important for the larger debates about nudges and coercion. I focus on several closely related topics, including the definition of coercion, the role of empirical research, and the normative concerns at the core of these disputes. I suggest that while a degree of precision is certainly required when deploying the relevant concepts, perhaps informed by empirical data, we need to continue to push these debates towards more pressing normative considerations. PMID:26458368

    18. Randotź Preschool Stereoacuity Test: Normative Data and Validity

      PubMed Central

      Birch, Eileen; Williams, Cathy; Drover, James; Fu, Valeria; Cheng, Christina; Northstone, Kate; Courage, Mary; Adams, Russell

      2008-01-01

      Introduction The Randotź Preschool Stereoacuity Test (RPST) is a widely used 3-book test for the assessment of binocular status. Using a prototype, we previously reported high testability in children as young as 3 years, validity data, and some normative data. Here we report extensive normative and validity data for the final version of the test. In addition, we report normative data for a new, fourth book that adds finer disparities. Methods The RPST was administered to 4355 normal children ages 3–18 years and 39 adults in multiple settings. In addition, the RPST along with the new 4th book that added 30 arcsec and 20 arcsec disparity levels was administered to 1402 normal children ages 3–18 years and 33 normal adults. Both the 4-book RPST and the Randot circles were administered to 242 patients with amblyogenic conditions ages 3–18 years. Results Mean normal stereoacuity improved from 100 arcsec at 3 years of age to 60 arcsec by 5 years and 40 arcsec by 7 years. The lower limit of normal was 400 arcsec at 3 years, 200 arcsec at 4 years, and 60 arcsec at 7 years. Using the new 4-book version, further improvement in mean stereoacuity could be appreciated beyond 7 years of age to 30 arcsec in the 11–18-year-old and adult groups. Among the 242 patients, RPST stereoacuity was strongly associated with Randot circle stereoacuity (?2=261.0, p<0.001). Conclusions Normative data for the RPST show a monotonic improvement of stereoacuity from age 3 years through the teen years. Patient data support the validity of the RPST. PMID:17720573

    19. Olfactory event-related potentials and aging: normative data.

      PubMed

      Murphy, C; Morgan, C D; Geisler, M W; Wetter, S; Covington, J W; Madowitz, M D; Nordin, S; Polich, J M

      2000-05-01

      Unlike the clinical usages of evoked potentials (e.g. brain stem auditory evoked potentials for the assessment of auditory function), normative data for the olfactory event-related potential (OERP) have been unavailable. The principal objective was to establish normative data across the human life span for OERPs with a given set of parameters. Participants were 140 persons from seven age groups (16-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years of age), with equal numbers of males and females, screened for nasal health and dementia. The odor stimulus was amyl acetate, presented at nasal temperature in a humidified airstream delivered by an air-dilution olfactometer at a constant flow rate, using a 60-s inter-stimulus interval. OERPs were recorded at Fz, Cz, and Pz electrode sites, amplified and averaged over trials. Amplitudes of the N1/P2 and P3 and latencies of the P2 and P3 were analyzed. Processing speed decreased at a constant rate over decades for the sensory (P2 latency) as well as cognitive (P3 latency) components. Decline in amplitude over decades was also apparent. Normative data will be useful in research on olfactory function and in clinical assessment of olfactory functional status. PMID:10742568

      1. Normative Data for the Balance Error Scoring System in Adults

        PubMed Central

        Iverson, Grant L.; Koehle, Michael S.

        2013-01-01

        Background. The balance error scoring system (BESS) is a brief, easily administered test of static balance. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for this test. Study Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and cohort design. Methods. The sample was drawn from a population of clients taking part in a comprehensive preventive health screen at a multidisciplinary healthcare center. Community-dwelling adults aged 20–69 (N = 1, 236) were administered the BESS within the context of a fitness evaluation. They did not have significant medical, neurological, or lower extremity problems that might have an adverse effect on balance. Results. There was a significant positive correlation between BESS scores and age (r = .34). BESS performance was similar for participants between the ages of 20 and 49 and significantly declined between ages 50 and 69. Men performed slightly better than women on the BESS. Women who were overweight performed significantly more poorly on the test compared to women who were not overweight (P < .0001; Cohen's d = .62). The BESS normative data are stratified by age and sex. Conclusions. These normative data provide a frame of reference for interpreting BESS performance in adults who sustain traumatic brain injuries and adults with diverse neurological or vestibular problems. PMID:23577257

      2. Normative data for the balance error scoring system in adults.

        PubMed

        Iverson, Grant L; Koehle, Michael S

        2013-01-01

        Background. The balance error scoring system (BESS) is a brief, easily administered test of static balance. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for this test. Study Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and cohort design. Methods. The sample was drawn from a population of clients taking part in a comprehensive preventive health screen at a multidisciplinary healthcare center. Community-dwelling adults aged 20-69 (N = 1, 236) were administered the BESS within the context of a fitness evaluation. They did not have significant medical, neurological, or lower extremity problems that might have an adverse effect on balance. Results. There was a significant positive correlation between BESS scores and age (r = .34). BESS performance was similar for participants between the ages of 20 and 49 and significantly declined between ages 50 and 69. Men performed slightly better than women on the BESS. Women who were overweight performed significantly more poorly on the test compared to women who were not overweight (P < .0001; Cohen's d = .62). The BESS normative data are stratified by age and sex. Conclusions. These normative data provide a frame of reference for interpreting BESS performance in adults who sustain traumatic brain injuries and adults with diverse neurological or vestibular problems. PMID:23577257

      3. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

        PubMed Central

        Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

        2004-01-01

        Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

      4. The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Grove, T. L.

        1985-01-01

        The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

      5. Spanish multicenter normative studies (NEURONORMA project): normative data and equivalence of four BNT short-form versions.

        PubMed

        Casals-Coll, Marta; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Meza-Cavazos, Sandra; Manero, Rosa M; Aguilar, Miguel; Badenes, Dolors; Molinuevo, José Luis; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, María Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Blesa, Rafael; Peńa-Casanova, Jordi

        2014-02-01

        The application of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) is time-consuming and shortened versions need to be developed for screening purposes. The aims of this study were to develop four equivalent 15-item forms of a Spanish adaptation of the BNT, to test the equivalence of the new versions in a clinical sample, and to provide normative data. The normative sample consisted of 340 subjects. The clinical sample included 172 patients (76 Mild Cognitive Impairment and 96 Alzheimer's disease). An empirical procedure was used to develop the shortened versions. All new versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency. Pearson's coefficient analysis showed strong relationships among the four short-form versions as well as between each of them and the 60-item test. The inferential confidence interval method demonstrated the equivalence between the four shortened versions. Age and education affected the score of all short-form versions, but sex was found to be unrelated to the performance. Normative data were calculated for midpoint age groups. This paper proposes four 15-item equivalent versions that could be useful and time-saving tools for screening purposes. PMID:24217861

      6. NACA documents database project

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Smith, Ruth S.

        1991-01-01

        The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

      7. Document Monitor

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        1988-01-01

        The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

      8. Assessing Adolescent Decision-Making Competence

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Fischhoff, Baruch

        2008-01-01

        Behavioral decision research offers a general approach to studying cognitive aspects of decision making, as well as a platform for studying their interplay with social and affective processes. Applied to any decision, behavioral decision research involves three interrelated tasks: (a) "normative" analysis, identifying the expected impacts of…

      9. Normative misperceptions about alcohol use in the general population of drinkers: A cross-sectional survey

        PubMed Central

        Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

        2015-01-01

        Introduction Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to others (‘normative misperception’) has been documented in some college student and heavy-alcohol using samples, and may contribute to excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess how far this phenomenon extends to alcohol users more generally in four English-speaking countries and if associations with socio-demographic and drinking variables exist. Methods A cross-sectional online global survey (Global Drugs Survey-2012) was completed by 9820 people aged 18 + from Australia, Canada, the UK and US who had consumed alcohol in the last year. The survey included the AUDIT questionnaire (which assessed alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol dependence), socio-demographic assessment and a question assessing beliefs about how one's drinking compares with others. Associations were analysed by linear regression models. Results Underestimation of own alcohol use relative to others occurred in 46.9% (95% CI: 45.9%, 47.9%) of respondents. 25.4% of participants at risk of alcohol dependence and 36.6% of harmful alcohol users believed their drinking to be average or less. Underestimation was more likely among those who were: younger (16–24; p < 0.003), male (p < 0.001), from the UK (versus US; p < 0.001), less well educated (p = 0.003), white (p = 0.035), and unemployed (versus employed; p < 0.001). Conclusions Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to other drinkers is common in Australia, Canada, the UK and US, with a substantial minority of harmful drinkers believing their consumption to be at or below average. This normative misperception is greater in those who are younger, male, less well educated, unemployed, white, from the UK and high-risk drinkers. PMID:25482365

      10. [The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].

        PubMed

        Czerner, Frank

        2006-01-01

        To make criminal conduct liable to punishment, criminal responsibility, defined as individual blameworthiness in terms of social ethics, is required as point of reference--both to create and limit the state's right to punish the offender. Neurobiological findings and more recent investigations in brain research have given rise to serious doubts regarding this "conditio sine qua non" of the state's power monopoly. As a result of preceding unconscious decisions, so the argument goes, Man is not free in his will, and the normative principle of culpability would need to be relinquished in favour of a "law of measures" detached from guilt. A detailed analysis of the underlying experimental setups, in particular the investigations by Benjamin Libet involving the measurement of the readiness potential, has shown, however, that the results of the test methods do not justify the demand for a profound change up to the point of a total revision of criminal law, and that they cannot invalidate the concept of freedom of will apostrophised on principle. The empirical data obtained fail to demonstrate if and why decisions of the will should not be free, the more so as the nomothetic method used ignores completely the idiographic understanding and interpretation of the always context-related and socio-structurally (pre)-moulded personality of the offender. Performed in a laboratory setting as individual actions with a comparatively simple structure and unrelated to a concrete situation, they can by no means be translated to the (more) complex situation under which an offence is committed including the decision-making processes determined by psychodynamic, motivational and intentional aspects as well as highly specific reciprocal interactions within the offender-victim constellation. Even if these experiments had shown the determined nature of human decisions, they would not necessarily have to bring about a conceptual change of paradigms of the normative concept of guilt, because as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will. PMID:17217181

      11. A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

        1993-01-01

        Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

      12. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

        PubMed Central

        Schurz, Gerhard

        2014-01-01

        In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

      13. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

        PubMed

        Yamagishi, Kimihiko

        2003-01-01

        Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed. PMID:12693194

      14. Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

        1998-01-01

        The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

      15. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

        PubMed

        Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

        2010-05-01

        Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

      16. LCS Content Document Application

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Hochstadt, Jake

        2011-01-01

        My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

      17. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hills, Peter Matthew

        2015-01-01

        Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political…

      18. Normative Feedback and Adolescent Readiness to Change: A Small Randomized Trial

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Tabb, Karen M.

        2015-01-01

        For adolescents with substance use problems, it is unknown whether the provision of normative feedback is a necessary active ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI). This study investigated the impact of normative feedback on adolescents' readiness to change and perceptions of MI quality. Adolescents referred for substance use disorder (SUD)…

      19. On the Relationship of the Descriptive, Normative and Pedagogical in Argumentativeness Research.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Jones, Don Paul

        Although research on argumentativeness appears to confirm the centuries-old "commonsense knowledge" that successful arguers enjoy arguing and are adept at remaining "cool and rational" during an argument, the empirical research itself is based on normative assumptions that underlie this Cartesian "commonsense knowledge." Normative judgments have…

      20. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

        2009-01-01

        The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

      1. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bucciarelli, Amy

        2011-01-01

        The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

      2. Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

        2007-01-01

        This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

      3. The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Somers, Mark John

        2009-01-01

        In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.


      4. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Kristjansson, Kristjan

        2003-01-01

        Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's


      5. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Walrod, Michael R.

        A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the


      6. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Ressler, Paula

        2005-01-01

        Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

      7. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hills, Peter Matthew

        2015-01-01

        Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political


      8. Toward an Empirical Delineation of a Normative Structure for College Students

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Caboni, Timothy C.; Braxton, John M.; Deusterhaus, Molly Black; Mundy, Meaghan E.; McClendon, Shederick A.; Lee, Stephanie D.

        2005-01-01

        If one understands the normative structure of a given peer group, one can begin to understand the type of influence that group has on the behavior of its members. Despite the centrality of norms to understanding student peer groups, little or no research has focused on the empirical delineation of normative structures of college students. Thus,


      9. Normative Feedback and Adolescent Readiness to Change: A Small Randomized Trial

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Tabb, Karen M.

        2015-01-01

        For adolescents with substance use problems, it is unknown whether the provision of normative feedback is a necessary active ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI). This study investigated the impact of normative feedback on adolescents' readiness to change and perceptions of MI quality. Adolescents referred for substance use disorder (SUD)


      10. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Ressler, Paula

        2005-01-01

        Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include


      11. The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Somers, Mark John

        2009-01-01

        In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

      12. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Kristjansson, Kristjan

        2003-01-01

        Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

      13. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bucciarelli, Amy

        2011-01-01

        The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the


      14. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

        PubMed

        Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

        2012-02-01

        Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

      15. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.

        PubMed

        Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

        2015-09-01

        The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes. PMID:24912761

      16. Normative data for commercial pineapple juice from concentrate.

        PubMed

        Low, N H; Brause, A; Wilhelmsen, E

        1994-01-01

        Normative data for pineapple juice from concentrate were determined for 19 samples, including 5 that had been aseptically processed and representing 4 of the major pineapple growing regions of the world. Values are reported for sugars, organic acids, including isocitric acid, metals (specifically potassium, sodium calcium, and magnesium), delta 13C, and oligosaccharides. Although geographical variation existed, the observed ranges and variances were small enough to be useful in describing authentic pineapple juice. Two concentrates (one aseptically and one nonaseptically processed) were intentionally adulterated (individually) with 3 commercially available inexpensive sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup, cane invert syrup, and beet medium invert syrup). Oligosaccharide analysis of these samples either by liquid chromatography or by capillary gas chromatography yielded oligosaccharide patterns that were useful for the detection of these sweeteners at 10% levels. Principal-component analysis (PCA) was used to represent graphically both the pure and adulterated samples based on their measured chemical parameters. PMID:8069130

      17. Hippocampal volumetry: Normative data in the Indian population

        PubMed Central

        Mohandas, Aravind Narayan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Prathyusha, Parthipulli Vasuki; Gupta, Arun K.

        2014-01-01

        Background: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative analysis of the hippocampus using volumetry is commonly being used in the diagnosis of MTS and is being used as a marker in prognostication of seizure control. Although normative data for hippocampal volume (HV) is available for the western population, no such data is available for the Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to establish normative data for HV for the Indian population, which can aid in the accurate diagnosis of MTS. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 200 healthy volunteers were acquired using a 3 Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Manual segmentation and volumetry was done using Siemens Syngo software. The data was analyzed using two tailed t-test to detect associations between HV and age, gender, and education. The data so obtained was also correlated with the data available from the rest of the world. Results: A mean HV of 2.411 cm3 (standard deviation -0.299) was found in the study, which was significantly smaller when compared to the data from the western population. The right hippocampus was larger than the left, with a mean volume of 2.424 cm3 and 2.398 cm3, respectively. HV was detected to be significantly higher in males. No association was found between HV and age and education. Conclusion: The values obtained in this study may be adopted as a standard in the evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:25221393

      18. Evaluation of potential kidney donors with the personality assessment inventory: normative data for a unique population.

        PubMed

        Hurst, Duane F; Locke, Dona E C; Osborne, David

        2010-09-01

        Many transplant centers require personality assessment and/or psychiatric clearance prior to allowing an individual to donate a kidney. This is a unique cohort for personality assessment, and there is no normative information available for this population on standardized self-report measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). We evaluated a prospective sample of 434 kidney donor candidates with development of normative T-scores relevant to this specific comparison group. Compared to the original normative group from the PAI manual, potential kidney donors are 5-7 T-score points above the mean on PIM, RXR, DOM, and WRM and 4-6 points below the mean on the majority of the remaining scales. Raw score/T score conversion tables are provided. The normative data provided here is meant to supplement the original normative information and aid psychologists in evaluation of this unique medical population. PMID:20508975

      19. Perceptions of document relevance

        PubMed Central

        Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

        2014-01-01

        This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

      20. Perceptions of document relevance.

        PubMed

        Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

        2014-01-01

        This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

      1. Underestimating protection and overestimating risk: examining descriptive normative perceptions and their association with drinking and sexual behaviors.

        PubMed

        Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Cronce, Jessica M; Blayney, Jessica A; Gilmore, Amanda K

        2014-01-01

        Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms-behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms-behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

      2. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

        PubMed

        Sterkowicz-Przybycie?, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

        2014-12-01

        Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition. PMID:24910957

      3. Omega documentation

        SciTech Connect

        Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

        1983-08-01

        OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

      4. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

        PubMed Central

        Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

        2009-01-01

        This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

      5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

        PubMed

        Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

        2013-01-01

        This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

      6. The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

        1998-01-01

        In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a norm as an exception and how the other agents react to the violation as exception handling. This paper concentrates on our formal model.

      7. Constructing Language Normativity through the Animation of Stance in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

        PubMed Central

        Vickers, Caroline H.; Deckert, Sharon K.; Goble, Ryan

        2013-01-01

        The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

      8. Semantic similarity: normative ratings for 185 Spanish noun triplets.

        PubMed

        Moldovan, Cornelia D; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

        2015-09-01

        The present study introduces the first Spanish database with normative ratings of semantic similarity for 185 word triplets. Each word triplet is constituted by a target word (e.g., guisante [pea]) and two semantically related and nonassociatively related words: a word highly related in meaning to the target (e.g., judía [bean]), and a word less related in meaning to the target (e.g., patata [potato]). The degree of meaning similarity was assessed by 332 participants by using a semantic similarity rating task on a 9-point scale. Pairs having a value of semantic similarity ranging from 5 to 9 were classified as being more semantically related, whereas those with values ranging from 2 to 4.99 were considered as being less semantically related. The relative distance between the two pairs for the same target ranged from 0.48 to 5.07 points. Mean comparisons revealed that participants rated the more similar words as being significantly more similar in meaning to the target word than were the less similar words. In addition to the semantic similarity norms, values of concreteness and familiarity of each word in a triplet are provided. The present database can be a very useful tool for scientists interested in designing experiments to examine the role of semantics in language processing. Since the variable of semantic similarity includes a wide range of values, it can be used as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable. The full database is available in the supplementary materials. PMID:24984982

      9. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder

        PubMed Central

        Stier, Marco

        2013-01-01

        The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

      10. Preschoolers understand the normativity of cooperatively structured competition.

        PubMed

        Schmidt, Marco F H; Hardecker, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

        2016-03-01

        Human institutional practices often involve competition within a cooperative structure of mutually accepted rules. In a competitive game, for instance, we not only expect adherence to the rules of the game but also expect an opponent who tries to win and, thus, follows a rational game-playing strategy. We had 3- and 5-year-olds (N=48) play for a prize against an opponent (a puppet) who played either rationally (trying to win) or irrationally (helping the children to win) while either following or breaking the rules of the game. Both age groups performed costly protest against an opponent who followed the rules but played irrationally by helping the children to win. When facing a rule-breaking opponent, 3-year-olds protested only the rule breaches of an irrational opponent but not irrational play. Five-year-olds also protested the rule breaches of a rational opponent, but in contrast to the 3-year-olds, they protested irrational behavior even in the context of rule breaches. Moreover, many children, in particular 3-year-olds, refrained from protesting. These findings suggest that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, fully understand the dual-level normative structure of cooperatively regulated competition. PMID:26615466

      11. Extremely secure identification documents

        SciTech Connect

        Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

        1997-09-01

        The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

      12. Blood Telomere Length Attrition and Cancer Development in the Normative Aging Study Cohort

        PubMed Central

        Hou, Lifang; Joyce, Brian Thomas; Gao, Tao; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Yinan; Penedo, Frank J.; Liu, Siran; Zhang, Wei; Bergan, Raymond; Dai, Qi; Vokonas, Pantel; Hoxha, Mirjam; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea

        2015-01-01

        Background Accelerated telomere shortening may cause cancer via chromosomal instability, making it a potentially useful biomarker. However, publications on blood telomere length (BTL) and cancer are inconsistent. We prospectively examined BTL measures over time and cancer incidence. Methods We included 792 Normative Aging Study participants with 1–4 BTL measurements from 1999 to 2012. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine BTL attrition by cancer status (relative to increasing age and decreasing years pre-diagnosis), Cox models for time-dependent associations, and logistic regression for cancer incidence stratified by years between BTL measurement and diagnosis. Findings Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases pre-diagnosis than in cancer-free participants (pdifference = 0.017); all participants had similar age-adjusted BTL 8–14 years pre-diagnosis, followed by decelerated attrition in cancer cases resulting in longer BTL three (p = 0.003) and four (p = 0.012) years pre-diagnosis. Longer time-dependent BTL was associated with prostate cancer (HR = 1.79, p = 0.03), and longer BTL measured ? 4 years pre-diagnosis with any (OR = 3.27, p < 0.001) and prostate cancers (OR = 6.87, p < 0.001). Interpretation Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker. PMID:26288820

      13. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

        PubMed Central

        Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

        2016-01-01

        Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic
you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

      14. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations

        PubMed Central

        Bach, Dominik R.

        2015-01-01

        Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder. PMID:26650585

      15. Use of Normative Peer Data as a Standard for Evaluating Classroom Treatment Effects

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Walker, Hill M.; Hops, Hyman

        1976-01-01

        A study involving 24 primary-grade children with behavior problems was conducted to illustrate the use of normative behavioral observation data as a standard for evaluating the practicality of treatment effects produced in other settings. (Author/SB)

      16. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

        PubMed

        Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

        2011-09-01

        The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

      17. Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.

        PubMed

        Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

        2008-08-01

        The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice. PMID:18807420

      18. Document creation, linking, and maintenance system

        DOEpatents

        Claghorn, Ronald

        2011-02-15

        A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

      19. Normative Perceptions of Non-medical Stimulant Use: Associations with Actual Use and Hazardous Drinking

        PubMed Central

        Kilmer, Jason R.; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

        2014-01-01

        Approximately 10% of US college students are engaged in non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and that use is linked to concerning health, educational, and societal consequences. Few studies have assessed normative perceptions surrounding NMUPS. Accordingly, we examined self-reported use and normative perceptions for NMUPS and demographic factors that may be associated with them. We also investigated whether higher normative perceptions for NMUPS were related to the most commonly used and abused substance among college students (alcohol). METHOD 1106 undergraduates participated in an online survey of normative perceptions of NMUPS and students’ own drinking and stimulant use habits. RESULTS Students overestimated NMUPS by other students and those normative estimates were associated with higher NMUPS. Living in a fraternity or sorority was related to higher NMUPS and perceived norms. Finally, higher normative perceptions of NMUPS were associated with higher hazardous drinking. CONCLUSION The large discrepancy between actual use (generally low) and students’ perceptions (generally high), and the relationship of these perceptions to both one’s own use of NMUPS and alcohol suggests that interventions aimed at correcting norms may be useful. PMID:25462654

      20. Effects of Normative Feedback for Drinkers Who Consume Less than the Norm: Dodging the Boomerang

        PubMed Central

        Prince, Mark A.; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B.; Neighbors, Clayton

        2014-01-01

        A number of alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown effective in reducing drinking both as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multi-component intervention. Typically, this feedback is targeted to heavier drinkers, in order to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations, two employing computer delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

      1. Effects of normative feedback for drinkers who consume less than the norm: Dodging the boomerang.

        PubMed

        Prince, Mark A; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B; Neighbors, Clayton

        2014-06-01

        Several alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown to be effective in reducing drinking as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multicomponent intervention. This feedback is typically targeted to heavier drinkers to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations: two using computer-delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

      2. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account

        PubMed Central

        Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

        2015-01-01

        Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable “feeling of knowing” or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core property of the learning process. PMID:26076466

      3. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans.

        PubMed

        Fareri, Dominic S; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G; Lumian, Daniel S; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

        2015-09-01

        Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest that normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence. PMID:26087377

      4. Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

        PubMed Central

        Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Kilts, Clinton D; James, George Andrew

        2014-01-01

        Background Functional neuroimaging has great potential to inform clinical decisions, whether by identifying neural biomarkers of illness progression and severity, predicting therapeutic response, or selecting suitable patients for surgical interventions. Yet a persisting barrier to functional neuroimaging's clinical translation is our incomplete understanding of how normative variance in cognition, personality, and behavior shape the brain's structural and functional organization. We propose that modeling individual differences in these brain–behavior relationships is crucial for improving the accuracy of neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Methods We addressed this goal by initiating the Cognitive Connectome Project, which bridges neuropsychology and neuroimaging by pairing nine cognitive domains typically assessed by clinically validated neuropsychological measures with those tapped by canonical neuroimaging tasks (motor, visuospatial perception, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision making, working memory, and executive function). To date, we have recruited a diverse sample of 53 participants (mean [SD], age = 32 [9.7] years, 31 females). Results As a proof of concept, we first demonstrate that our neuroimaging task battery can replicate previous findings that task performance recruits intrinsic brain networks identified during wakeful rest. We then expand upon these previous findings by showing that the extent to which these networks are recruited by task reflects individual differences in cognitive ability. Specifically, performance on the Judgment of Line Orientation task (a clinically validated measure of visuospatial perception) administered outside of the MRI scanner predicts the magnitude of task-induced activity of the dorsal visual network when performing a direct replication of this task within the MRI scanner. Other networks (such as default mode and right frontoparietal) showed task-induced changes in activity that were unrelated to task performance, suggesting these networks to not be involved in visuospatial perception. Conclusion These findings establish a methodological framework by which clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging may mutually inform one another, thus enhancing the translation of functional neuroimaging into clinical decision making. PMID:25328842

      5. A normative inference approach for optimal sample sizes in decisions from experience

        PubMed Central

        Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger; Hertwig, Ralph

        2015-01-01

        “Decisions from experience” (DFE) refers to a body of work that emerged in research on behavioral decision making over the last decade. One of the major experimental paradigms employed to study experience-based choice is the “sampling paradigm,” which serves as a model of decision making under limited knowledge about the statistical structure of the world. In this paradigm respondents are presented with two payoff distributions, which, in contrast to standard approaches in behavioral economics, are specified not in terms of explicit outcome-probability information, but by the opportunity to sample outcomes from each distribution without economic consequences. Participants are encouraged to explore the distributions until they feel confident enough to decide from which they would prefer to draw from in a final trial involving real monetary payoffs. One commonly employed measure to characterize the behavior of participants in the sampling paradigm is the sample size, that is, the number of outcome draws which participants choose to obtain from each distribution prior to terminating sampling. A natural question that arises in this context concerns the “optimal” sample size, which could be used as a normative benchmark to evaluate human sampling behavior in DFE. In this theoretical study, we relate the DFE sampling paradigm to the classical statistical decision theoretic literature and, under a probabilistic inference assumption, evaluate optimal sample sizes for DFE. In our treatment we go beyond analytically established results by showing how the classical statistical decision theoretic framework can be used to derive optimal sample sizes under arbitrary, but numerically evaluable, constraints. Finally, we critically evaluate the value of deriving optimal sample sizes under this framework as testable predictions for the experimental study of sampling behavior in DFE. PMID:26441720

      6. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

        2012-01-01

        Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such


      7. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

        2012-01-01

        Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

      8. Is There a Drop in Normative Clearsightedness in Sixth Grade? Study of Internality and Normative Clearsightedness in Fourth to Seventh Graders

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bigot, Johann; Pichot, Nathalie; Teste, Benoit

        2004-01-01

        Numerous studies have demonstrated a decrease in the expression of internality in French sixth graders as compared to fifth graders. The present study examines normative clearsightedness in addition to internality across four French school grades (fourth to seventh). The results confirmed the sixth-grade drop in internality and showed that the…

      9. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

        This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

      10. Audits highlight need for documentation.

        PubMed

        2014-09-01

        The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' "Probe and Educate" initiative to determine hospitals'compliance with the two-midnight rule makes it clear that case managers must review physician documentation as well as medical necessity. The Medicare Administrative Contractors are focusing on short stays when physician documentation doesn't support the expectation of a two-midnight stay. They're looking at flawed admission orders, and when the orders to admit are issued by a practitioner who does not have admitting privileges at the hospital. Another area of focus is physician statements without documentation of the reason for the need for inpatient treatment. PMID:25134273

      11. SANSMIC design document.

        SciTech Connect

        Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

        2015-07-01

        The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

      12. Retinal nerve fiber layer and optic disc measurements by spectral domain OCT: normative values and associations in young adults

        PubMed Central

        Tariq, Y M; Li, H; Burlutsky, G; Mitchell, P

        2012-01-01

        Purpose To determine normative values and associations of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic disc parameters in normal eyes measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods In a population-based setting, 1521 young adults were examined as part of the Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES). Their mean age was 17.3±0.6 years. RNFL and optic disc parameter measurements were made using Cirrus HD-OCT 4000. Results The average RNFL was found to be 99.4±9.6??m. RNFL thickness was least for the temporal quadrant (69.9±11.2??m), followed by the nasal (74.3±12.8??m), superior (124.7±15.7??m) and inferior (128.8±17.1??m) quadrants. The mean disc area in this population was 1.98±0.38?mm2 with a mean rim area of 1.50±0.30?mm2 and a mean cup/disc ratio of 0.44±0.18. Multivariate-adjusted RNFL thickness was marginally greater in East Asian than in white participants (100.1??m vs 99.5??m; P=0.0005). The RNFL was thinner with greater axial length (P<0.0001), less positive spherical equivalent refractions (P<0.0001), smaller disc area and rim area (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study documents normative values for the RNFL and optic disc measured using Cirrus HD-OCT in young adults. The values and associations reported in this study can inform clinicians on the normal variation in RNFL and optic disc parameters. PMID:23079750

      13. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study

        PubMed Central

        Kushwah, Kuldeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Thaiyar M; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Ilavarasu, Judu V

        2016-01-01

        Background: Electro photonic imaging (EPI) technique is growing as a novel technique of health assessment and is being utilized in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness studies. The existing EPI norms are based mostly on European (EU) population. In order to enhance the practice and research through EPI in India, there is a need for developing norms for the healthy Indian population. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the normative data of EPI for the healthy Indian population, to aid in the accuracy of EPI measurements and interpretations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1297 volunteers were assessed once, who represented different parts of India during December 2013 to December 2014. Among them, 880 volunteers were reported to be healthy (age mean ± standard deviation [SD], 33.55 ± 10.92), with 584 males (age mean ± SD, 33.54 ± 10.86) and 296 females (age mean ± SD, 33.56 ± 11.00). In this study activation coefficient (stress level), integral area (IA) (general health), and integral entropy (disorderliness in energy) parameters were analyzed. Results: As the data were not normally distributed, quartile based statistics was used for setting the norms. The 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated and they were further verified using a bootstrap procedure. Uniquely, the results showed a clear difference in IA parameters under both with filter (physiological) and without filter (psycho-physiological) conditions between the Indian and the EU population. Though other parameters were found almost similar to the EU population, inter quartile ranges were narrower in the Indian population as compared to the EU values. Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analyzes: That is, male versus female genders and age ranges 18–40 versus 40-60. Conclusion: As compared to EU population, Indian population had different range of Integral Area values and narrower range for values of other variables. EPI Studies in India should also adjust for factors such as age and gender. PMID:26865771

      14. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

        PubMed

        Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

        2014-09-01

        Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. PMID:23632008

      15. A method for estimating normative distributions for study-specific populations of clinical trials.

        PubMed

        Holmes, Tyson H; Nichols, Deborah A; Thomander, Darryl; Kushida, Clete A

        2012-03-01

        For any particular psychological instrument, published normative distributions have been derived in one to at most a few specific "reference" populations. Here a method is provided for estimating a normative distribution pertinent to the specific population being evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Normative quantiles are obtained using quantile regression, a method chosen for its flexibility in that no assumptions are made about the parametric form (e.g., Gaussian) of the normative distribution to be estimated. Outcome is regressed on disease severity for the ?th quantile using that sample of consented participants who were not randomized because they fell below the trial's disease severity entry criterion. The ?th quantile of the normative distribution is then estimated by the intercept of this fitted regression function, which corresponds to severity of zero. Additional covariates that explain variation in outcome may be included to permit adjustment for shifts in their distributions between the randomized and non-randomized samples. The method is illustrated using data on a depression instrument (GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) and a neurocognitive instrument (CogScreen Pathfinder Number) from a multicenter clinical trial in sleep apnea patients. PMID:22138103

      16. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

        SciTech Connect

        Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

        2010-02-15

        This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

      17. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dageforde, Mary L.

        This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up the BIP…

      18. Judi Dench's age-inappropriateness and the role of M: challenging normative temporality.

        PubMed

        Krainitzki, Eva

        2014-04-01

        This article approaches Judi Dench's role as M in the long-running James Bond series from a gender and ageing studies' perspective and explores this character's subversion of normative concepts of gender and temporality. Based on the assumption that cultural narratives shape our understanding of ageing, it examines how M disrupts prescribed age- and gender roles, presenting an alternative within films which otherwise perpetuate normative notions of a sexualised, youthful femininity. It focusses on Dench's return as M in Casino Royale (2006), as an instance of anachronism (Russo, 1999), subverting viewers' expectation of linear timelines and examines M's challenge of normative age-appropriateness in Skyfall (2012). Despite M's portrayal as a more vulnerable female character in the latter, this article presents her character as an alternative to traditional portrayals of older women on screen. PMID:24655671

      19. Brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia: normative data in an English-speaking ethnic Chinese sample.

        PubMed

        Eng, Goi Khia; Lam, Max; Bong, Yioe Ling; Subramaniam, Mythily; Bautista, Dianne; Rapisarda, Attilio; Kraus, Michael; Lee, Jimmy; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Chong, Siow Ann; Keefe, Richard S E

        2013-12-01

        There is a dearth of non-Western normative data for neuropsychological batteries designed to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Here, we provide normative data for English-speaking ethnic Chinese on the widely used Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia acquired from 595 healthy community participants between ages 14 and 55. Means and standard deviations of subtests and composite scores were stratified by age group and sex. We also explored linear regression approaches to generate continuous norms adjusted for age, sex, and education. Notable differences in subtest performances were found against a Western comparison sample. Normative data established in the current sample are essential for clinical and research purposes as it serves as a reference source of cognition for ethnic Chinese. PMID:23912998

      20. Development of a normative framework for disaster relief: learning from colonial famine histories in India.

        PubMed

        Akerkar, Supriya

        2015-10-01

        Contemporary academic debates on the history of the colonial Famine Codes in India--also considered to be the first coded and institutionalised normative frameworks for natural disaster response on the continent--generally are based on one of two perspectives. The first focuses on their economic rationale, whereas the second underlines that they constitute an anti-famine contract between the colonial masters and the people of India. This paper demonstrates that both of these viewpoints are limited in scope and that they simplify the nature of governance instituted through famine response practices in Colonial India. It links this reality to current disaster response policies and practices in India and shows that the discussion on the development of normative frameworks underlying disaster response is far from over. The paper goes on to evaluate the development of normative frameworks for disaster response and recovery, which remain embroiled in the politics of governmentality that underlies their development. PMID:26395110

      1. Tensions in agnotology: Normativity in the studies of commercially driven ignorance.

        PubMed

        Pinto, Manuela Fernandez

        2015-04-01

        As scientific research moves increasingly to the private sector, the social organization of science undergoes important transformations. Focusing on the production of ignorance, agnotology has been a fruitful approach to understanding the social and epistemic consequences of the recent commercialization of scientific research. Despite their important contributions, scholars working on agnotology seem to hold implicit normative commitments that are in tension with their descriptive accounts of ignorance-constructive practices. The main aim of this article is to uncover these commitments and to expose the emerging tensions. Thus, this article begins an exploration into normative aspects of the studies of ignorance. In particular, it shows that agnotology still needs the support of a well-articulated normative approach capable of identifying and evaluating the epistemic and social concerns raised by the private funding and performance of science. PMID:26477209

      2. Wind system documentation

        SciTech Connect

        Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

        1993-01-15

        Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

      3. Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

        1988-01-01

        Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

      4. Global variation in grip strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis of normative data

        PubMed Central

        Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

        2016-01-01

        Background: weak grip strength is a key component of sarcopenia and is associated with subsequent disability and mortality. We have recently established life course normative data for grip strength in Great Britain, but it is unclear whether the cut points we derived for weak grip strength are suitable for use in other settings. Our objective was to investigate differences in grip strength by world region using our data as a reference standard. Methods: we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for reporting age- and gender-stratified normative data for grip strength. We extracted each item of normative data and converted it on to a Z-score scale relative to our British centiles. We performed meta-regression to pool the Z-scores and compare them by world region. Findings: our search returned 806 abstracts. Sixty papers met inclusion criteria and reported on 63 different samples. Seven UN regions were represented, although most samples (n = 44) were based in developed regions. We extracted 726 normative data items relating to 96,537 grip strength observations. Normative data from developed regions were broadly similar to our British centiles, with a pooled Z-score 0.12 SDs (95% CI: 0.07, 0.17) above the corresponding British centiles. By comparison, normative data from developing regions were clearly lower, with a pooled Z-score of −0.85 SDs (95% CI: −0.94, −0.76). Interpretation: our findings support the use of our British grip strength centiles and their associated cut points in consensus definitions for sarcopenia and frailty across developed regions, but highlight the need for different cut points in developing regions. PMID:26790455

      5. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

        PubMed Central

        Goldenberg, Maya J

        2005-01-01

        Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

      6. Neuropsychological test performance among healthy persons in northern India: development of normative data.

        PubMed

        Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Ownby, Raymond L; Jones, Deborah L; Sharma, Sunil; Nehra, Ritu; Kumar, Adarsh M; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Kumar, Mahendra

        2015-08-01

        Accurate identification of neurocognitive impairment associated with HIV infection (and other CNS-involved conditions) is dependent upon utilization of appropriate normative neuropsychological test performance data from healthy individuals with a similar background, culture, and characteristics of the target individual or group to be tested. In India, regional differences in language, culture, and availability of resources can significantly affect performance on neuropsychological testing. This study developed age- and education-adjusted normative data for commonly used neuropsychological test scores for use in northern India. PMID:25784168

      7. Generic safety documentation model

        SciTech Connect

        Mahn, J.A.

        1994-04-01

        This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

      8. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

        2012-01-01

        The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

      9. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

        2012-01-01

        The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and


      10. [The scope of expert competence for the evaluation of non-compliance with the requirements of the departmental normative legal acts in the course of forensic medical panel examinations concerning "medical practice" in the criminal legal procedures].

        PubMed

        Kovalev, A V; Pletianova, I V; Fetisov, V A

        2014-01-01

        This article is devoted to the analysis of the problem of expert competence for the evaluation of non-compliance with the requirements of the departmental normative legal acts in the course of forensic medical panel examinations concerning "medical practice" in the criminal legal procedures. The approaches to the solution of his problem are exemplified by forensic medical expertise of selected cases from obstetric and gynecological practice. It is demonstrated that investigations into non-compliance events arising in the work of medical facilities must include the analysis of the departmental normative legal acts that govern the organizational and diagnostic processes. These documents should be regarded as pertaining to an additional direct object and considered to be one of the constituent elements of.the offence to be identified during forensic medical expertise. Such documents are very specific in terms of their content and can not be properly interpreted by independent specialists possessing juristic knowledge alone. Therefore, the expert judgments concerning these issues must include well-reasoned arguments and solidly established evidence of normative legal character. PMID:25764878

      11. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making.

        PubMed

        Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

        2015-01-01

        Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

      12. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

        PubMed Central

        Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

        2015-01-01

        Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

      13. Extensible layout in functional documents

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

        2006-02-01

        Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

      14. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

        2010-01-01

        Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

      15. Reading, Writing, and Documentation and Managing the Development of User Documentation.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lindberg, Wayne; Hoffman, Terrye

        1987-01-01

        The first of two articles addressing the issue of user documentation for computer software discusses the need to teach users how to read documentation. The second presents a guide for writing documentation that is based on the instructional systems design model, and makes suggestions for the desktop publishing of user manuals. (CLB)

      16. Data Sharing and Science: Legal, Normative, and Social Issues

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Wilbanks, J.; Parsons, M.

        2008-12-01

        The volume of scientific data, and the interconnectedness of the systems under study, makes integration of data a necessity. For example, life scientists must integrate data from across biology and chemistry to comprehend disease and discover cures, and climate change scientists must integrate data from wildly diverse disciplines to understand our current state and predict the impact of new policies. The technical challenge of such integration is significant, although emerging technologies appear to be helping. But the forest of terms and conditions around data make integration difficult to legally perform in many cases. One approach might be to develop and recommend a single license: any data with this license can be integrated with any other data under this license. But this approach, which implicitly builds on intellectual property rights and the ideas of licensing as understood in software and culture, is difficult to scale for scientific uses. There are too many databases under too many terms already, and it is unlikely that any one license or suite of licenses will have the correct mix of terms to gain critical mass and allow massive- scale machine integration of data. This talk will instead lay out principles for open access data and a protocol for implementing those principles, as well as describe various international efforts to make data and databases legally and technically interoperable.

      17. Transportation control measure information documents

        SciTech Connect

        Not Available

        1992-03-01

        The document, sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is intended to provide information on Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) to transportation planning and air quality planning management and staff at all government levels. The document provides descriptions and examples of the TCMs listed in Section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act. Each TCM is described in terms of its objectives, variation in the ways it may be applied, expected transportation and emissions impacts, and other important implementation and policy considerations that State, regional, and local decision-making agencies will face.

      18. Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients.

        PubMed

        Baker, Kelly; Beagan, Brenda

        2014-12-01

        Despite increased attention to "culturally competent" practice with diverse populations, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people remain relatively invisible within medicine and other health professions. Health care providers (HCPs) frequently dismiss sexual and gender identity as irrelevant to care. This study uses interviews with 24 physicians and 38 LGBTQ-identified women to explore how routine practices in health care can perpetuate or challenge the marginalization of LGBTQ women. While physicians avoid making assumptions to reduce judgment, a "neutral" stance reinforces the hetero- and gender normative status quo. Cultural competence with LGBTQ patients requires learning with, rather than learning about, LGBTQ people's particular health care concerns as well as paying explicit attention to pervasive power relations and normative contexts. PMID:25196115

      19. Benchmarks for Expected Annual Academic Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Scammacca, Nancy K.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

        2015-01-01

        Effect sizes are commonly reported for the results of educational interventions. However, researchers struggle with interpreting their magnitude in a way that transcends generic guidelines. Effect sizes can be interpreted in a meaningful context by benchmarking them against typical growth for students in the normative distribution. Such benchmarks…

      20. An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

        1990-01-01

        An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

      1. Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

        2010-01-01

        Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

      2. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

        2011-01-01

        The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

      3. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

        2010-01-01

        This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

      4. Criterion-Referenced vs. Normative-Referenced Mathematics Placement Test Comparison.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Miller, Carson K.

        A study was conducted at Stark Technical College to compare a normative-referenced test for mathematics placement with a criterion-referenced test that had been used by the college. The study sought to compare statistically the scores of 165 students on the Mathematics Inventory Test (MIT--a criterion-referenced test that had been developed…

      5. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

        2013-01-01

        This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

      6. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

        2014-01-01

        Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…

      7. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

        2006-01-01

        On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

      8. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

        2014-01-01

        Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical


      9. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

        2007-01-01

        Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…

      10. Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Middlemiss, Wendy

        2004-01-01

        Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…

      11. The Availability of Normative Data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Mohr, Caroline; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John; Einfeld, Stewart L.

        2012-01-01

        Background: Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers. Method: The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural…

      12. The Relationship between Student Body Racial Composition and the Normative Environment toward Diversity at Community Colleges

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Jones, Willis A.

        2013-01-01

        While there has been increased scholarship in recent years on diversity in higher education, most of this research has failed to include 2-year institutions in its analyses. This study examined whether the racial composition of the community college student body is correlated with an institution's normative climate toward three diversity…

      13. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

        2012-01-01

        This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences


      14. Away with Linguists! Normativity, Inequality and Metascientific Reflexivity in Sociolinguistic Fieldwork

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Jaspers, Jürgen; Meeuwis, Michael

        2013-01-01

        This paper addresses the fact that in spite of the descriptive and well-intentioned ambitions of much sociolinguistic-ethnographic research, members of studied groups often continue to interpret such research as a largely vertically organized socio-political activity that communicates a prescriptive social and linguistic normativity the researcher…

      15. Social Capital by Design: Normative Systems and Social Structures in Six High Schools.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Marks, Helen M.

        This paper focuses on investigating the purposive design of learning environments to counter the erosion of social capital in communities and schools in contemporary society. Can schools intentionally replenish stocks of social capital by creating normative systems conducive to the optimal academic and social development of students, and by


      16. Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and nonnormative collective action.

        PubMed

        Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N

        2011-07-01

        A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative actions such as participating in demonstrations. We argue that the relations between emotions, efficacy, and action differ for more extreme, nonnormative actions and propose (a) that nonnormative actions are often driven by a sense of low efficacy and (b) that contempt, which, unlike anger, entails psychological distancing and a lack of reconciliatory intentions, predicts nonnormative action. These ideas were tested in 3 survey studies examining student protests against tuition fees in Germany (N = 332), Indian Muslims' action support in relation to ingroup disadvantage (N = 156), and British Muslims' responses to British foreign policy (N = 466). Results were generally supportive of predictions and indicated that (a) anger was strongly related to normative action but overall unrelated or less strongly related to nonnormative action, (b) contempt was either unrelated or negatively related to normative action but significantly positively predicted nonnormative action, and (c) efficacy was positively related to normative action and negatively related to nonnormative action. The implications of these findings for understanding and dealing with extreme intergroup phenomena such as terrorism are discussed. PMID:21500925

      17. E-Learning: A Comparison between Expected and Observed Attitudes of Normative and Dropout Adolescents.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Romi, Shlomo; Hansenson, Gabriel; Hansenson, Arie

        2002-01-01

        Describes a study in Israel that was conducted to examine the attitudes of dropout adolescents to electronic learning and to compare these to the attitudes of normative 10th graders. Considers demographic differences, including parents' education and computer ownership; motivation; enjoyment; cognition; and accessibility of computers. (LRW)

      18. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

        2006-01-01

        On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would


      19. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

        2012-01-01

        This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

      20. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Carr, Paul R.

        2010-01-01

        Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

      1. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

        2012-01-01

        The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

      2. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

        2009-01-01

        Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

      3. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Serna, Gabriel

        2014-01-01

        This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative


      4. Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

        2014-01-01

        This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

      5. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Fyffe, Richard

        2015-01-01

        This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in


      6. Normative Assumptions in Educational Policy Research: The Case of Jencks's Inequality

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Joseph, Lawrence B.

        1977-01-01

        Jencks's argument is fundamentally misdirected because he is unaware of the normative implications of both the position he is attacking and the position he is advocating. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

      7. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

        PubMed

        Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

        2015-06-01

        Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met. PMID:25985843

      8. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

        2009-01-01

        Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants


      9. Performing an Archive of Resistance: Challenging Normative Life Narratives through Literary Reading and Memoir Writing Research

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

        2011-01-01

        This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological


      10. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

        2015-01-01

        This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

      11. An Observation of Normative Structure for College Admission and Recruitment Officers

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hodum, Robert L.; James, Glenn W.

        2010-01-01

        This study suggests that an unwritten code of ethics exists in the form of a behavioral normative structure for college and university admission officers. Also considered are the influences that personal and institutional factors have on the espousal of these norms. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

      12. The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

        2009-01-01

        There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was


      13. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

        This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

      14. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

        2007-01-01

        Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination


      15. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

        2013-01-01

        Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments


      16. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

        2009-01-01

        We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

      17. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

        This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,


      18. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

        2009-01-01

        Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

      19. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Serna, Gabriel

        2014-01-01

        This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

      20. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

        SciTech Connect

        Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

        1997-04-01

        The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

      1. Espousal of Undergraduate Teaching Normative Patterns of First-Year Teaching Assistants

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Helland, Patricia A.

        2010-01-01

        This study focuses on the espousal of undergraduate teaching normative patterns. Results showed that entering teaching assistants had higher levels of disdain than Research I faculty. The country in which students received their undergraduate degrees and gender variables also showed differences in espousal levels. The results give insight into…

      2. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

        2012-01-01

        With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as


      3. Corporal Punishment: Normative Data and Sociological and Psychological Correlates in a Community College Population.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

        1982-01-01

        In a survey regarding the intensity and frequency of methods of corporal punishment students have received and of the persons administering it, corporal punishment is shown to be used normatively for behavioral management. Males received greater punishment, especially from their fathers. Lower grades and greater problems, such as aggression and…

      4. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

        2009-01-01

        Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123


      5. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

        2011-01-01

        The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of


      6. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

        2013-01-01

        Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

      7. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

        2012-01-01

        The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664


      8. Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

        2011-01-01

        This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

      9. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

        2013-01-01

        This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty


      10. Normative Childhood Repetitive Routines and Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology in 6-Year-Old Twins

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bolton, Derek; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Briskman, Jacqueline; Perrin, Sean

        2009-01-01

        Background: To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. Methods: In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase


      11. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Fyffe, Richard

        2015-01-01

        This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in…

      12. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

        2013-01-01

        The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

      13. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

        2009-01-01

        The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

      14. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

        2012-01-01

        With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

      15. Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

        2010-01-01

        This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

      16. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

        2013-01-01

        Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

      17. Computer software documentation

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Comella, P. A.

        1973-01-01

        A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

      18. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

        1986-01-01

        Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

      19. Text documents as social networks

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

        2012-03-01

        The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

      20. [Audioscan automatic audiometry: theoretical basis and normative data].

        PubMed

        Pelosi, G; Hatzopoulos, S; Martini, A

        1999-08-01

        Audioscan automatic audiometry is a high resolution method to explore hearing thresholds in the 125 Hz-16 KHz range offering a resolution of 64 points per octave. This procedure makes it possible to study hearing threshold levels at intermediate frequencies which are not measured by conventional audiometry. As suggested in the literature, it is possible to identify hearing threshold notches, considered indicators of mild or subclinical cochlear pathology. In clinical practice, the use of a new audiometric technique requires affirmation of reliability, sensitivity and replicability in time. It also requires defining standard criteria for use in various otologic pathologies. The present study examined 50 normal hearing subjects with conventional audiometry and Audioscan (Essilor model) measurements. A standard acquisition protocol was followed where three Audioscan measurements were conducted per subject. Subjects with a history of acute otologic pathology and familiarity for genetic deafness were ruled out of the study. Multiple, pairwise correlation analyses of the audiometric and Audioscan responses indicate that: (1) there are no significant differences between threshold levels measured by Audioscan and conventional audiometry; (2) there are no significant variations in the hearing levels measured by three Audioscan retests. Three mean indicators of the threshold level have been defined, expressing Audioscan normality in three different frequency ranges. The data suggest that there are some difficulties in the subjectivity of the Audioscan method and some technical problems regarding the lower octave frequencies and these need to be addressed. The results obtained in this study confirmed reliability of the Audioscan in the mid and high frequencies. The definition of the standard mi criteria makes it easier to interpret the Audioscan measurements from cases presenting various otologic pathologies. Therefore, the plasticity and high detection sensitivity of hearing loss make the automatic Audioscan audiometry a useful clinical tool for diagnostic and/or preventive purposes. PMID:10736925

      1. Normative Study of the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment in Illiterate and Literate Elderly Koreans

        PubMed Central

        Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, Seong-Jin; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Choi, Seong Hye; Han, Seol-Heui; Shim, Yong S.; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Jeong, Jee H.

        2015-01-01

        Objective The aim of this study was to provide normative data on the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment (LICA) and to explore the effects of age, education/literacy, and gender on the performance of this test. Methods Eight hundred and eighty-eight healthy elderly subjects, including 164 healthy illiterate subjects, participated in this study. None of the participants had serious medical, psychiatric, or neurological disorders including dementia. Bivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of age, education/literacy, and sex on the score in each of the LICA cognitive tests. The normative scores for each age and education/literacy groups are presented. Results Bivariate linear regression analyses revealed that total score and all cognitive tests of the LICA were significantly influenced by both age and education/literacy. Younger and more-educated subjects outperformed older and illiterate or less-educated subjects, respectively, in all of the tests. The normative scores of LICA total score and subset score were presented according to age (60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-80, and ≄80 years) and educational levels (illiterate, and 0-3, 4-6, and ≄7 years of education). Conclusion These results on demographic variables suggest that age and education should be taken into account when attempting to accurately interpret the results of the LICA cognitive subtests. These normative data will be useful for clinical interpretations of the LICA neuropsychological battery in illiterate and literate elderly Koreans. Similar normative studies and validations of the LICA involving different ethnic groups will help to enhance the dementia diagnosis of illiterate people of different ethnicities. PMID:26207122

      2. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

        SciTech Connect

        Coutant, C.C.

        1998-09-23

        Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

      3. Degraded document image enhancement

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

        2007-01-01

        Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

      4. Making the Past Present

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hawkins, B. Denise

        2006-01-01

        Lonnie G. Bunch III, the founding director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, is at work to make his vision, which is to build a national museum devoted exclusively to the documentation of African-American life, art, history and culture, a reality. Currently the museum location has not been decided, but…

      5. A normative theory of forgetting: lessons from the fruit fly.

        PubMed

        Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

        2014-06-01

        Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

      6. Federal Documents in Microform.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Chambers, Joan

        1978-01-01

        Describes all of the commercial and governmental micropublishers and the U.S. government documents now available in microform. A list is included of selected sources of Federal documents in microform. (CMV)

      7. Web document engineering

        SciTech Connect

        White, B.

        1996-05-01

        This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

      8. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

        1990-01-01

        Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

      9. Intranet Document Management Systems.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

        1998-01-01

        Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

      10. JSC document index

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        1988-01-01

        The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

      11. FLT Documentation Page

        Cancer.gov

        These documents include a full set of manufacturing and QC documents and an Investigator Drug Brochure, all of which have been accepted by the FDA as part of the NCI IND. The synthetic method implemented in these documents was reported in an abstract by Blocher, A.

      12. DCFBC Documentation Page

        Cancer.gov

        Component documents for an IND for N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-(18)F-fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine ([18F] DCFBC) Documents in this section include: [18F] DCFBC Production Documents in compressed Zip format. Individual files within the Zip file

      13. NaF Documentation

        Cancer.gov

        The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaF Word file Contact G. Craig Hill, Ph.D. for information. Email: hillgc@mail.nih.gov, Phone: 240-276-5913 Print

      14. Program analysis for documentation

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Lolmaugh, G. H.

        1970-01-01

        A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

      15. Automated Management Of Documents

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Boy, Guy

        1995-01-01

        Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

      16. Decision making under uncertain categorization

        PubMed Central

        Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

        2014-01-01

        Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475

      17. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

        PubMed Central

        2012-01-01

        Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the large extent dominated by expected utility theory. The model also provides a platform for reconciling two groups of competing dual processing theories (parallel competitive with default-interventionalist theories). PMID:22943520

      18. Document Flowdown Tool

        Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

        2010-12-31

        DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). •more » Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level« less

      19. Cognitive complaints in cancer: The French version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog), normative data from a healthy population.

        PubMed

        Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Morel, Nastassja; Eustache, Francis; Joly, Florence; Giffard, Bénédicte

        2016-06-01

        Cancer patients often report cognitive changes after chemotherapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses these changes. The aims of the present study were (1) to establish normative data, and (2) to compare the scores of patients and healthy controls to assess whether or not the questionnaire is able to discriminate between these populations. The normative sample included 213 healthy participants. The patient group included 63 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, who were compared to a subsample of 63 matched healthy controls. The questionnaire had good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas = .74-.91). The oldest patients had significantly more cognitive complaints (p < .001). Cognitive complaints were significantly related with Trail Making Test scores (p < .001). Furthermore, the FACT-Cog subscales correlated significantly with anxiety and depression. Patients had more complaints than matched controls on the subscales Perceived Cognitive Impairments (p = .01), Impact on Quality of Life (p = .001) and Perceived Cognitive Abilities (p = .027). The reference values from the healthy population reported here could be used for comparison with the values measured in French-speaking cancer patients. The values provide a benchmark against which clinicians can evaluate the impact of the disease and/or the treatments on cognitive complaints and help to improve quality of life by providing appropriate care. PMID:25947039

      20. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching.

        PubMed

        Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

        2015-01-01

        Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' "empirical" or "normative" expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

      1. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

        PubMed Central

        Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M. Teresa; GarcĂ­a-Madruga, Juan A.; ElosĂșa, M. Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

        2015-01-01

        The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided. PMID:26500594

      2. Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness.

        PubMed

        Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A

        2010-01-01

        This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness. PMID:20438455

      3. Organism, machine, artifact: The conceptual and normative challenges of synthetic biology.

        PubMed

        Holm, Sune; Powell, Russell

        2013-12-01

        Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that aims to apply rational engineering principles in the design and creation of organisms that are exquisitely tailored to human ends. The creation of artificial life raises conceptual, methodological and normative challenges that are ripe for philosophical investigation. This special issue examines the defining concepts and methods of synthetic biology, details the contours of the organism-artifact distinction, situates the products of synthetic biology vis-à-vis this conceptual typology and against historical human manipulation of the living world, and explores the normative implications of these conclusions. In addressing the challenges posed by emerging biotechnologies, new light can be thrown on old problems in the philosophy of biology, such as the nature of the organism, the structure of biological teleology, the utility of engineering metaphors and methods in biological science, and humankind's relationship to nature. PMID:23810468

      4. Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

        1990-01-01

        The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

      5. Normative data for the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (1969) in Spanish.

        PubMed

        Marful, Alejandra; DĂ­ez, Emiliano; Fernandez, Angel

        2015-09-01

        Knowledge of specific characteristics of verbal material is imperative in cognitive research, and this need calls for periodical updating of normative data. With this aim, and considering that the most recent Spanish-language category norms for adults date back to more than 30 years ago, and that they do not include some very common categories, a new normative study was conducted. In this study, production data for exemplars in the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 1-46, 1969) were collected from a pool of 284 young adults who were native speakers of Spanish using an exemplar production task. With the goal of providing a useful tool for cognitive research to be conducted with Spanish-speaking samples, indices of frequency, rank, and lexical availability for the exemplars of each category are provided in a computerized database. The norms described are available for downloading as supplemental material with this article. PMID:25159692

      6. Effects of normative antismoking messages in China-a brief report.

        PubMed

        Bresnahan, Mary J; Zhuang, Jie

        2016-03-01

        The negative health effects of smoking are especially problematic in China, where 30% of the world's smokers reside and where male smoking continues to be the accepted norm. Smoking resistance is an important issue for both smokers and nonsmokers in China, where there is widespread acceptance of smoking. While smoking norms have been studied extensively in China, the effects of smoking prevention messages based on descriptive and injunctive norms have not yet been tested with Chinese respondents. Based on a 2 Ś 2 between-subjects factorial design, data were obtained from 143 working adults in China. The message describing high prevalence and disapproval of smoking resulted in stronger smoking resistance. Smoking status, group identity, and outcome expectancy influenced the impact of normative messages on smoking resistance. The results suggest the usefulness of adopting normative messages in smoking prevention and cessation campaigns. PMID:26327284

      7. Emotional and physiological responses to normative and idiographic positive stimuli in bipolar disorder

        PubMed Central

        Gruber, June; Dutra, Sunny; Eidelman, Polina; Johnson, Sheri L.; Harvey, Allison G.

        2012-01-01

        Background Few studies have examined differences in emotional responding among distinct types of positive stimuli. This is important to understand both for individuals characterized by extreme positive mood (i.e., bipolar disorder) and healthy adults. Methods Using a multi-method within-subjects design, the current study examined physiological, behavioral, and self-reported responses to normative (film) and idiographic (memory) happy stimuli in bipolar (BD; n=25) and healthy control groups (CTL; n=23). Results For both groups, the happy films were associated with greater self-reported and behavioral displays of positive emotion compared to the happy memory. Furthermore, the BD group displayed greater cardiac vagal tone – a putative marker of positive emotion – across both the film and memory. Conclusion Normative stimuli were more potent elicitors of positive emotion compared to idiographic stimuli. The study provided further evidence for cardiac vagal tone as a potential biomarker of extreme positive emotion in BD. PMID:21601926

      8. Barred from each other: why normative husbands remain married to incarcerated wives--an exploratory study.

        PubMed

        Einat, Tomer; Harel-Aviram, Inbal; Rabinovitz, Sharon

        2015-06-01

        This study explores men's motivation and justification to remain married to their criminal, imprisoned wives. Using semistructured interviews and content-analysis, data were collected and analyzed from eight men who maintain stable marriage relationships with their incarcerated wives. Participants are normative men who describe incarceration as a challenge that enhances mutual responsibility and commitment. They exaggerate the extent to which their partners resemble archetypal romantic ideals. They use motivational accounts to explain the woman's criminal conduct, which is perceived as nonrelevant to her real identity. Physical separation and lack of physical intimacy are perceived as the major difficulties in maintaining their marriage relations. Length of imprisonment and marriage was found to be related to the decision whether to continue or terminate the relationships. Women-inmates' partners experience difficulties and use coping strategies very similar to those cited by other normative spouses facing lengthy separation. PMID:24285832

      9. ANOPP programming and documentation standards document

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        1976-01-01

        Standards defining the requirements for preparing software for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) were given. It is the intent of these standards to provide definition, design, coding, and documentation criteria for the achievement of a unity among ANOPP products. These standards apply to all of ANOPP's standard software system. The standards encompass philosophy as well as techniques and conventions.

      10. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model

        PubMed Central

        Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

        2014-01-01

        There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

      11. Contributions of Work Stressors, Alcohol, and Normative Beliefs to Partner Violence

        PubMed Central

        Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn

        2013-01-01

        Objective: A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Method: Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Results: Analyses of data revealed that men’s and women’s normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to male-to-female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners’ levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner’s frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner’s adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and work-related factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. Discussion: These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture. PMID:23384367

      12. Demonstration of the need for cardiovascular and pulmonary normative data for cancer survivors.

        PubMed

        Schneider, C M; Repka, C P; Brown, J M; Lalonde, T L; Dallow, K T; Barlow, C E; Hayward, R

        2014-12-01

        Despite evidence that cancer and its treatments severely reduce cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), normative data for cancer survivors do not exist. The present study identifies age and gender-specific CRF distributions in a cancer population. The use of cancer-specific normative CRF data may help stratify initial fitness status and assess improvements in response to exercise interventions in cancer survivors. Data from 703 cancer survivors were analyzed for this study. Quintiles were compiled for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) for males and females in 5 age groups (19-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ≄70 years of age). VO2peak values for the cancer population were significantly lower than the general US population. The cancer population average in each age group fell within the "very poor" classification of VO2peak values for the general population. FVC values in the cancer population were similar to the general population. Cancer survivors had very low age group-specific VO2peak values compared to the apparently healthy general US population. Previously, CRF values of cancer survivors were compared to normative values for the apparently healthy general population, which yielded imprecise classifications of initial fitness and changes in fitness, resulting in patient discouragement. PMID:24995960

      13. Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions.

        PubMed

        Doumas, Diana M; Workman, Camille; Smith, Diana; Navarro, Anabel

        2011-06-01

        This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity and binge drinking frequency than those in the SWF group at follow-up (M = 8 months). Students in the CWF group also reported significantly greater reductions in estimates of peer drinking from baseline to the follow-up assessment than students in the SWF group. In addition, changes in estimates of peer drinking partially mediated the effect of the intervention on changes in drinking. Results suggest that counselor-guided feedback may be more effective in reducing drinking among mandated students relative to self-guided feedback in the long term. PMID:21295938

      14. Prediction of IQ in the Mayo Older Adult Normative sample using multiple methods.

        PubMed

        McCarthy, Frances M; Sellers, Alfred H; Burns, William J; Smith, Glenn; Ivnik, R J; Malec, J F

        2003-04-01

        Using the Mayo Older Adult Normative sample (Ivnik et al., 1992) as our database, we developed regression models for estimating premorbid Full Scale (FSIQs), Verbal (VIQs), and Performance (PIQs) IQs for elderly adults. Age, years of education, and sex were the only demographic variables that showed sufficient variability; therefore, they were used as predictor variables in three stepwise procedures. The Mayo Normative FSIQs, VIQs, and PIQs served as the dependent variables. Both education and sex added significantly to the accounting of variance of both FSIQ and VIQ ( p < .001), whereas education ( p < .001) and age ( p < .05) were significant predictors of PIQ. These models produced statistically significant multiple Rs of .54, .58, and .35 ( p < .0001), with standard errors of estimate of 9.02, 8.28, and 10.77 for FSIQ, VIQ, and PIQ, respectively. Estimated FSIQs generated with the present model and the model developed by Barona and colleagues (Barona, Reynolds, & Chastain, 1984) were compared. The correlation between estimated IQs was large, the mean difference between IQs was very small, the standard deviations were nearly equal, and the categorical distributions of the two were similar. Because the Barona model is likely to be familiar to most clinicians, these findings argue in favor of the continued use of the Barona model, even when assessing people older than the WAIS-R normative sample. Extensions of these models to the WAIS-III also are discussed. PMID:12652637

      15. An updated Italian normative dataset for the Stroop color word test (SCWT).

        PubMed

        Brugnolo, A; De Carli, F; Accardo, J; Amore, M; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ferrara, M; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Girtler, N

        2016-03-01

        The Stroop color and word test (SCWT) is widely used to evaluate attention, information processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. Normative values for the Italian population are available only for selected age groups, or for the short version of the test. The aim of this study was to provide updated normal values for the full version, balancing groups across gender, age decades, and education. Two kinds of indexes were derived from the performance of 192 normal subjects, divided by decade (from 20 to 90) and level of education (4 levels: 3-5; 6-8; 9-13; >13 years). They were (i) the correct answers achieved for each table in the first 30 s (word items, WI; color items, CI; color word items, CWI) and (ii) the total time required for reading the three tables (word time, WT; color time, CT; color word time, CWT). For each index, the regression model was evaluated using age, education, and gender as independent variables. The normative data were then computed following the equivalent scores method. In the regression model, age and education significantly influenced the performance in each of the 6 indexes, whereas gender had no significant effect. This study confirms the effect of age and education on the main indexes of the Stroop test and provides updated normative data for an Italian healthy population, well balanced across age, education, and gender. It will be useful to Italian researchers studying attentional functions in health and disease. PMID:26621362

      16. The Effect of Framing and Normative Messages in Building Support for Climate Policies

        PubMed Central

        Hurlstone, Mark J.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Newell, Ben R.; Sewell, Brittany

        2014-01-01

        Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a “foregone-gain”—incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts—rather than as a “loss”—incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts. PMID:25501009

      17. "Supporting" Beginning Secondary Science Teachers through Induction: A Multi-Case Study of Their Meaning Making and Identities

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Webb, Angela W.

        2012-01-01

        The purpose of this study was to explore the induction experiences of beginning secondary science teachers, including their afforded and enacted identities-in-practice and their meaning making. I applied a model of identities and meaning making that considered the iterative nature of the (a) normative science teacher identities afforded by…

      18. "Supporting" Beginning Secondary Science Teachers through Induction: A Multi-Case Study of Their Meaning Making and Identities

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Webb, Angela W.

        2012-01-01

        The purpose of this study was to explore the induction experiences of beginning secondary science teachers, including their afforded and enacted identities-in-practice and their meaning making. I applied a model of identities and meaning making that considered the iterative nature of the (a) normative science teacher identities afforded by


      19. On the possibility of a pragmatic discourse bioethics: Putnam, Habermas, and the normative logic of bioethical inquiry.

        PubMed

        Cooke, Elizabeth F

        2003-01-01

        Pragmatic bioethics represents a novel approach to the discipline of bioethics, yet has met with criticisms which have beset the discipline of bioethics in the past. In particular, pragmatic bioethics has been criticized for its excessively fuzzy approach to fundamental questions of normativity, which are crucial to a field like bioethics. Normative questions need answers, and consensus is not always enough. The approach here is to apply elements of the discourse ethics of Habermas and Putnam to the sphere of bioethics, in order to develop a normative structure out of the framework of bioethical inquiry as it stands. The idea here is that the process of inquiry contains its own normative structure as it aims to discover norms. Such an approach, which fuses pragmatic bioethics with discourse ethics (which equally draws on pragmatism), may rightly be called a "Pragmatic Discourse Bioethics." PMID:14972765

      20. Making Pickles

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Klein, Sarah

        1977-01-01

        Making pickles developed from a laboratory lesson during a unit on solutions, suspensions, acids, and bases. The pickle lab has been used as a summation and application of these topics. Directions for setting up the lab experience and actually making the pickles are included. (MA)

      1. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

        SciTech Connect

        Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

        2011-09-01

        A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

      2. Making Movies

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

        2012-01-01

        Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

      3. IDC System Specification Document.

        SciTech Connect

        Clifford, David J.

        2014-12-01

        This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

      4. Program automated documentation methods

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Lanzano, B. C.

        1970-01-01

        The mission analysis and trajectory simulation program is summarized; it provides an understanding of the size and complexity of one simulation for which documentation is mandatory. Programs for automating documentation of subroutines, flow charts, and internal cross reference information are also included.

      5. MSEIP Documentation Supplement.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Mitchell, James E.

        The Midwestern States Educational Information Project's "MSEIP Documentation Supplement" is a companion publication to "MSEIP Documentation of Project Development and General System Design; Revised, June 1969." (LI 003275). The supplement starts with an overview of the MSEIP Data Control System which explains many of the techniques used in the…

      6. System Documentation Manual.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

        The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

      7. Tobacco document research reporting

        PubMed Central

        Carter, S

        2005-01-01

        Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

      8. NASA Software Documentation Standard

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        1991-01-01

        The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

      9. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Cawkell, A. E.

        1991-01-01

        Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

      10. A Multi-site Randomized Trial of Normative Feedback for Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison versus Social Comparison plus Correction of Normative Misperceptions

        PubMed Central

        Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Knee, C. Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

        2015-01-01

        Objective Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from three universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and three- and six-months post-baseline. Results Primary analyses examined differences across four drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at three- and six-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at three months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on six-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at three months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at three months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and six-month perceived norms. Conclusions The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms in order to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. PMID:26727407

      11. Magnetic imaging of currencies and secure documents

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Jagielinski, Tomasz M.; Chamberlain, Fred

        2002-04-01

        Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and transit documents. A solution to forensics is magnetic imaging where invisible magnetic patterns or recorded information can be displayed as an image for comparison with an optical scan. The use of small, highly sensitive detectors enables high resolution scanning of magnetic documents, creating magnetic images with fine detail. Depending on the design of a document, if the magnetic image is identical to the optical image, the document may be a counterfeit. In this paper, we will address the issues related to magnetic scanning of security documents. We will present and discuss magnetic images of documents printed with magnetic inks. We will also show how magnetic imaging can provide valuable information in understanding the alteration of magnetic data in documents such as tickets, licenses with pictures, and holograms.

      12. NORMATIVE SCIENCE

        EPA Science Inventory

        Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

      13. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

        PubMed

        Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Marquine, Maria; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mungas, Daniel; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

        2016-03-01

        Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnicity in the United States, yet there are limited well-validated neuropsychological tools in Spanish, and an even greater paucity of normative standards representing this population. The Spanish NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neurocognitive screener; however, the original norms were developed combining Spanish- and English-versions of the battery. We developed normative standards for the Spanish NIHTB-CB, fully adjusting for demographic variables and based entirely on a Spanish-speaking sample. A total of 408 Spanish-speaking neurologically healthy adults (ages 18-85 years) and 496 children (ages 3-7 years) completed the NIH Toolbox norming project. We developed three types of scores: uncorrected based on the entire Spanish-speaking cohort, age-corrected, and fully demographically corrected (age, education, sex) scores for each of the seven NIHTB-CB tests and three composites (Fluid, Crystallized, Total Composites). Corrected scores were developed using polynomial regression models. Demographic factors demonstrated medium-to-large effects on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores in a pattern that differed from that observed on the English NIHTB-CB. For example, in Spanish-speaking adults, education was more strongly associated with Fluid scores, but showed the strongest association with Crystallized scores among English-speaking adults. Demographic factors were no longer associated with fully corrected scores. The original norms were not successful in eliminating demographic effects, overestimating children's performances, and underestimating adults' performances on the Spanish NIHTB-CB. The disparate pattern of demographic associations on the Spanish versus English NIHTB-CB supports the need for distinct normative standards developed separately for each population. Fully adjusted scores presented here will aid in more accurately characterizing acquired brain dysfunction among U.S. Spanish-speakers. (JINS, 2016, 21, 364-374). PMID:26817924

      14. Reliability, minimal detectable change, and normative values for tests of upper extremity function and power.

        PubMed

        Negrete, Rodney J; Hanney, William J; Kolber, Morey J; Davies, George J; Ansley, Megan K; McBride, Amanda B; Overstreet, Amber L

        2010-12-01

        The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and determine normative values of 3 upper extremity (UE) tests of function and power. One hundred eighty participants, men (n = 69) and women (n = 111), were tested on 3 UE strength and power maneuvers in a multicenter study to determine baseline normative values. Forty-six subjects returned for a second day of testing within 5 days of the initial assessment for the reliability component of the investigation. Explosive power was assessed via a seated shot-put test for the dominant and nondominant arms. Relationships between the dominant and nondominant arms were also analyzed. A push-up and modified pull-up were performed to measure the amount of work performed in short (15-second) bursts of activity. The relationship between the push-up and modified pull-up was also determined. Analysis showed test-retest reliability for the modified pull-up, timed push-up, dominant single-arm seated shot-put tests, and nondominant single-arm seated shot-put tests to be intraclass correlation coefficient(3,1) 0.958, 0.989, 0.988, and 0.971, respectively. The MDC for both the push-up and modified pull-up was 2 repetitions. The MDCs for the shot put with the dominant arm and the nondominant arm were 17 and 18 in., respectively. The result of this study indicates that these field tests possess excellent reliability. Normative values have been identified, which require further validation. These tests demonstrate a practical and effective method to measure upper extremity functional power. PMID:21088548

      15. Software Document Inventory Program

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Merwarth, P. D.

        1984-01-01

        Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

      16. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

        SciTech Connect

        Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

        2004-03-18

        This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

      17. Controlled Document Tracking Software

        Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

        1992-08-24

        MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

      18. Controlled Document Tracking Software

        SciTech Connect

        Haas, Roswitha T.

        1992-08-24

        MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

      19. Transportation System Requirements Document

        SciTech Connect

        Not Available

        1993-09-01

        This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

      20. Getting documentation right.

        PubMed

        Davies, Nicola

        2014-12-31

        Between medication administration, care tasks and communication with colleagues and patients' families, documentation often gets put on the back-burner. However, it is a critical aspect of nursing care that provides a precise account of your actions that is vital for your legal protection and that of your employer. Below are a few suggestions to ensure your documentation is accurate and timely. PMID:25515489

      1. "Primary" rationing of health services in ageing societies--a normative analysis.

        PubMed

        Breyer, Friedrich; Schultheiss, Carlo

        2002-11-01

        While most of the debate on "rationing in health care" focusses on the distribution of scarce medical resources among competing needs, which we propose to call "secondary rationing," this paper is concerned with "primary rationing," i.e., the conscious decision by society to limit the amount of resources devoted to a collectively financed health care system. Based upon a number of transparent normative criteria, we analyze whether primary rationing should be performed and, if so, what type should be chosen (hard vs. soft, explicit vs. implicit). Finally we discuss whether age should be used as a criterion in any systematic attempt at primary rationing of health care. PMID:14625993

      2. Corporal punishment: Normative data and sociological and psychological correlates in a community college population.

        PubMed

        Bryan, J W; Freed, F W

        1982-04-01

        Community college students (N=170) were surveyed regarding the intensity and frequency of methods of corporal punishment they have received and the persons administering the punishment. Results indicate that corporal punishment is a normatively used method of behavioral management. Males reported receiving a greater amount of corporal punishment, especially from their fathers. Overall, those who received a high amount of corporal punishment reported lower grades and a significantly greater number of problems, such as aggression, delinquency, depression, and anxiety. These findings are cause for concern and intervention. PMID:24310725

      3. The critique of the HRNES in the Handbook of Normative Data for Neuropsychological Assessment.

        PubMed

        Russel, Elbert W

        2003-03-01

        While providing excellent coverage for the norms used in a number of neuropsychological tests, the Handbook of Normative Data for Neuropsychological Assessment (Handbook) singles out for rejection a single set of norms, the Halstead Russell Neuropsychological Evaluation System (HRNES). The stated grounds for this rejection were not applied to any other of the several hundred sets of norms included in the book. The HRNES was rejected even though it fully meets the Handbook's selection criterion for tests to be included in the book. PMID:14591469

      4. Making Sense

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Golding, Clinton

        2009-01-01

        In this article, the author provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life. He states that overall his approach to teaching and researching is about "making sense" where inadequate or incongruous conceptions fall into place or are transformed so they are congruous and adequate. In his teaching the author applies the methods of philosophy to…

      5. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

        2010-02-01

        Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

      6. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Fruchterman, James R.

        2007-01-01

        Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

      7. 7 CFR 1717.303 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

        2010-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.303 Section 1717... RUS documents. (a) Pursuant to the terms of the RUS documents each power supply borrower shall... borrower will be able to make required payments on secured loans. (b) Pursuant to the terms of the...

      8. 7 CFR 1717.303 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

        2011-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.303 Section 1717... RUS documents. (a) Pursuant to the terms of the RUS documents each power supply borrower shall... borrower will be able to make required payments on secured loans. (b) Pursuant to the terms of the...

      9. 7 CFR 1717.303 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

        2013-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.303 Section 1717... RUS documents. (a) Pursuant to the terms of the RUS documents each power supply borrower shall... borrower will be able to make required payments on secured loans. (b) Pursuant to the terms of the...

      10. 6 CFR 37.13 - Document verification requirements.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

        2010-01-01

        ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document verification requirements. 37.13... LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.13 Document verification requirements. (a) States shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that...

      11. 6 CFR 37.13 - Document verification requirements.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

        2011-01-01

        ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Document verification requirements. 37.13... LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.13 Document verification requirements. (a) States shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that...

      12. 7 CFR 1717.303 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

        2014-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.303 Section 1717... RUS documents. (a) Pursuant to the terms of the RUS documents each power supply borrower shall... borrower will be able to make required payments on secured loans. (b) Pursuant to the terms of the...

      13. Comparing Post-Concussive Neurocognitive Test Data to Normative Data Presents Risks for Under-Classifying “Above Average” Athletes

        PubMed Central

        Schatz, Philip; Robertshaw, Stacey

        2014-01-01

        We compared classification accuracy of post-concussion test data against baseline and normative data, accounting for baseline level of performance. Athletes (N = 250) completed baseline and post-concussion ImPACT assessments, within 7 days of concussion (verified by sports medicine professionals and self-reported symptoms). Athletes were classified as “below average,” “average,” or “above average” at baseline. Change from baseline was calculated using reliable change indices (RCIs) and regression-based measures (RBz), and comparison to normative data was achieved using z-scores. Normative comparisons identified fewer symptomatic, concussed athletes than RCIs and RBz. Both RCIs and RBz consistently identified “impairment” at 1 and 1.5 SD, regardless of baseline level, whereas normative comparisons identified 46–48% fewer athletes performing “above average” at baseline using a cut-off of 1 SD and 36-38% fewer using a cut-off of 1.5 SD. The use of normative comparisons may differentially classify concussed, symptomatic athletes who are outside the “average” range at baseline. PMID:25178629

      14. Documentation: No Substitute for Communication

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Strickland, John

        2005-01-01

        SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

      15. The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.

        SciTech Connect

        Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L.

        2002-10-01

        The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.

      16. Document Concurrence System

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

        2003-01-01

        The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list had concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

      17. Document Concurrence System

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

        2004-01-01

        The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

      18. Document Concurrence System

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

        2003-01-01

        The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

      19. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

        PubMed

        Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

        2016-01-01

        The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined use of APACS with other neuropsychological tests could also improve our understanding of the cognitive substrates of pragmatic abilities and their breakdown. PMID:26903894

      20. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

        PubMed Central

        Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

        2016-01-01

        The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined use of APACS with other neuropsychological tests could also improve our understanding of the cognitive substrates of pragmatic abilities and their breakdown. PMID:26903894

      1. A Normative Study of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) in Children and Adolescents

        PubMed Central

        Snyder, Aliyah R.; Bauer, Russell M.

        2014-01-01

        Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool [SCAT2]) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of ‘normal’ or ‘impaired’ score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption. PMID:25244434

      2. Normative values of major SCAT2 and SCAT3 components for a college athlete population.

        PubMed

        Zimmer, Adam; Marcinak, Jaquelyn; Hibyan, Stuart; Webbe, Frank

        2015-01-01

        The Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2) is a posttrauma evaluative screener for concussion. Although a revised version (SCAT3) recently was released, the SCAT2 continues in use. Moreover, there have been no reports of normative values with college athletes with the SCAT2 or SCAT3. Similar to the SCAT3, the SCAT2 includes a 22-item self-report symptom scale, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), and a hard surface-only version of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The SCAT3 does not employ a total score and adds an optional gait component. The purpose of this study was to develop normative values for collegiate athletes on the SCAT2 and its subparts with respect to sex, collision risk by sport, and concussion history. In preseason, 477 college athletes (332 male, 145 female) completed the SCAT2. The average total score was 91.08 (SD = 5.60). The average number of symptoms endorsed was 1.75. Average SAC and BESS scores were 27.17 (SD = 2.01) and 25.64 (SD = 4.07), respectively. Little or no difference was found in total and component scores due to sex, sport type, or concussion history. When baseline measurement is lacking, these data provide a good benchmark for interpreting SCAT2 and SCAT3 performance. PMID:25117270

      3. A Normative Study of Lexical Verbal Fluency in an Educationally-Diverse Elderly Population

        PubMed Central

        Kim, Bong Jo; Lee, Cheol Soon; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Kang Soo; Son, Sang Joon; Han, Changsu; Park, Moon Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Tae Hui; Park, Joon Hyuk

        2013-01-01

        Objective Lexical fluency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the influences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. Methods We administered the lexical verbal fluency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. Results In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had significant effects on LVFT scores (p<0.001), but gender did not (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506, p>0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratified by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ?80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ?13 years). Conclusion The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24474982

      4. Category fluency test: normative data for English- and Spanish-speaking elderly.

        PubMed

        Acevedo, A; Loewenstein, D A; Barker, W W; Harwood, D G; Luis, C; Bravo, M; Hurwitz, D A; Aguero, H; Greenfield, L; Duara, R

        2000-11-01

        Category fluency tasks are an important component of neuropsychological assessment, especially when evaluating for dementia syndromes. The growth in the number of Spanish-speaking elderly in the United States has increased the need for appropriate neuropsychological measures and normative data for this population. This study provides norms for English and Spanish speakers, over the age of 50, on 3 frequently used measures of category fluency: animals, vegetables, and fruits. In addition, it examines the impact of age, education, gender, language, and depressed mood on total fluency scores and on scores on each of these fluency measures. A sample of 702 cognitively intact elderly, 424 English speakers, and 278 Spanish speakers, participated in the study. Normative data are provided stratified by language, age, education, and gender. Results evidence that regardless of the primary language of the examinee, age, education, and gender are the strongest predictors of total category fluency scores, with gender being the best predictor of performance after adjusting for age and education. English and Spanish speakers obtained similar scores on animal and fruit fluency, but English speakers generated more vegetable exemplars than Spanish speakers. Results also indicate that different fluency measures are affected by various factors to different degrees. PMID:11105466

      5. Both odor identification and ApoE-?4 contribute to normative cognitive aging.

        PubMed

        Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

        2011-12-01

        Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ?4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features. PMID:21517181

      6. [Reproductive medicine and the « desire for a child »: from normative judgment to conceptual analysis].

        PubMed

        Gaille, Marie

        2014-02-01

        Reproductive medicine is widely discussed today in France, far beyond the borders of medical community. It is a topic of public controversy. The notion of "desire for a child" is very frequently referred to in this debate. It is wrongly considered as an obvious idea. A philosophical examination of the "desire for a child" allows us to elaborate a critical definition of it, cut from the normative judgments made about it. It highlights its double nature, being a desire linked to the private sphere as well as to public policies and social norms. It gives some reasons to understand how it became something that could be said and even claimed for in the public sphere. It examines the explanations that have been proposed about the desire for a child (its origin, the goal it fulfills). It proposes a frame of analysis based on a case-by-case approach and acknowledges as essential features of this desire its complexity, its ambiguous frontiers and its variability. The normative evaluation of the "desire for a child" cannot skip the phase of this conceptual analysis. PMID:24572122

      7. Do Hassles and Uplifts Change with Age? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

        PubMed Central

        Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

        2014-01-01

        To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed three scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Growth based modelling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative non-linear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

      8. The Relevance of Sociodemographic and Health Variables on MMSE Normative Data.

        PubMed

        Freitas, Sandra; Simőes, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

        2015-01-01

        The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most broadly used cognitive screening instrument in clinical and research contexts. The MMSE was administered to a community-based sample of cognitively healthy adults (n = 850), stratified according to several sociodemographic variables, with a distribution similar to that observed in the Portuguese population. This study aimed to analyze the influence of sociodemographic (age, gender, education level, marital and employment status, geographic region, geographic localization, and residence area) and health variables (subjective memory complaints of the participant and evaluated by the informant, depressive symptoms, and family history of dementia) on the participants' performance on the MMSE and to establish normative data for the Portuguese population. Education level and age significantly contributed to the prediction of the MMSE scores and explained 26% of its variance. Regarding health variables, only the subjective memory complaints of the participant showed a small contribution (4%) to the variance of the MMSE scores. According to these results, age and education were considered in the development of the normative data of the MMSE for the Portuguese population. PMID:25531579

      9. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

        PubMed

        Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

        2014-01-01

        Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts. PMID:23682754

      10. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

        PubMed

        Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

        2016-02-01

        Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

      11. King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.

        PubMed

        Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

        2015-06-01

        The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median?=?22.0 years, range?=?16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0?s (SD?=?6.1?s, range?=?24.0-65.7?s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC?=?0.92, Pearson?=?0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

      12. The environmental hypersensitivity symptom inventory: metric properties and normative data from a population-based study

        PubMed Central

        2013-01-01

        Background High concomitant intolerance attributed to odorous/pungent chemicals, certain buildings, electromagnetic fields (EMF), and everyday sounds calls for a questionnaire instrument that can assess symptom prevalence in various environmental intolerances. The Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory (EHSI) was therefore developed and metrically evaluated, and normative data were established. The EHSI consists of 34 symptom items, requires limited time to respond to, and provides a detailed and broad description of the individual’s symptomology. Methods Data from 3406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study were used. The participants constitute a random sample of inhabitants in the county of Västerbotten in Sweden, aged 18 to 79 years, stratified for age and gender. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified five significant factors: airway symptoms (9 items; Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 coefficient, KR-20, of internal consistency?=?0.74), skin and eye symptoms (6 items; KR-20?=?0.60), cardiac, dizziness and nausea symptoms (4 items; KR-20?=?0.55), head-related and gastrointestinal symptoms (5 items; KR-20?=?0.55), and cognitive and affective symptoms (10 items; KR-20?=?0.80). The KR-20 was 0.85 for the entire 34-item EHSI. Symptom prevalence rates in percentage for having the specific symptoms every week over the preceding three months constitute normative data. Conclusions The EHSI can be recommended for assessment of symptom prevalence in various types of environmental hypersensitivity, and with the advantage of comparing prevalence rates with normality. PMID:23837629

      13. A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) with examples of petrologic problem solving

        USGS Publications Warehouse

        Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, G.

        1979-01-01

        A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.

      14. Reliability and normative data for the comprehensive assessment of prospective memory (CAPM).

        PubMed

        Chau, Lien T; Lee, Jessica B; Fleming, Jennifer; Roche, Nadine; Shum, David

        2007-12-01

        The Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate frequency of prospective memory (PM) failures in people with brain injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAPM, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and to establish normative data by comparing CAPM scores between groups on the basis of sex, age, and education. Data were collected on 95 people aged 15-60 years living in the community, with no history of brain injury, using the CAPM. The results showed that the test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the CAPM were within acceptable ranges, indicating that the CAPM provides a stable and homogenous measure of an individual's self-report of PM failures. Normative data are presented in two age groups based on the significant difference found between the age groups 15-30 years and 31-60 years. These established norms can be used to describe perceived or observed behaviours indicative of PM failure in patients with brain injury by comparing CAPM ratings from significant others with the norms. The CAPM questionnaire provides researchers or clinicians with a stable and reliable assessment option that specifically focuses on PM for individuals with brain injury. PMID:17852758

      15. The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.

        PubMed

        Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

        2014-12-01

        Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness. PMID:23799900

      16. [A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].

        PubMed

        Dorschel, A

        1992-01-01

        Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr. PMID:1342729

      17. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

        PubMed

        Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

        2015-01-01

        Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD. PMID:25679880

      18. Hazard baseline documentation

        SciTech Connect

        Not Available

        1994-08-01

        This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

      19. Computer integrated documentation

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Boy, Guy

        1991-01-01

        The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

      20. Luminescence Imaging Document Analyzer

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Varshneya, D.; Jeffers, L. A.

        1986-12-01

        A system has been developed to investigate documents that are suspected of having been altered, forged, or erased. The system is based on the fact that each ink and paper has characteristic luminescence properties. Lasers are used to excite luminescence from the document, and the luminescence, along with its spectral distribution, is detected by a set of scanning mirrors that efficiently couple the light to a wavelength selector (monochromator) and photodiodes. Compared to previous systems, this system offers major improvements in sensitivity, versatility, and convenience of operation. These refine-ments are achieved by exploiting the capabilities of the lasers and of digital data processing/acquisition.

      1. Related environmental documents

        SciTech Connect

        1995-10-01

        This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

      2. Customer Communication Document

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        2009-01-01

        This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

      3. Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences—(Survey)

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Mesjasz, Czes?aw

        2000-05-01

        Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to "classical" mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical ("first order cybernetics") and modern ("second order cybernetics", "complexity theory") systems thinking in social sciences.

      4. System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

        1989-01-01

        This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

      5. Software for Better Documentation of Other Software

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Pinedo, John

        2003-01-01

        The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

      6. NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER

        PubMed Central

        Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lűnbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

        2014-01-01

        Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ?0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ?0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of Evidence: 2A PMID:24567857

      7. Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project

        SciTech Connect

        Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

        1998-09-01

        As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

      8. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

        DOEpatents

        Sanfilippo, Antonio; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

        2009-12-22

        Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

      9. Documents in Microform.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Lyons, Janet, Ed.

        1976-01-01

        This issue of "Illinois Libraries" contains the papers delivered at a 1974 workshop on government publications in microform. Twelve articles focus on such issues as: 1) reasons to collect microforms; 2) criteria for selecting microform documents; 3) microform hardware and software; 4) procurement procedures; 5) bibliographic control; and 6)…

      10. [Vascular anomalies: information documents].

        PubMed

        Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Magalon, G

        2011-06-01

        Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are composed of hemangiomas and other vascular tumors and congenital vascular malformations: venous, lymphatic, arteriovenous and capillary malformations. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach. To help patients to understand their pathology, we have made some information documents. PMID:20598795

      11. Documentation of Employee Performance.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Frels, Kelly; Cooper, Timothy

        Although the main purpose of a school district's evaluation system is to improve employees' performance, the evaluation procedures and the supporting documentation must also serve as evidence in the termination hearings of an unsatisfactory employee. Accordingly, this chapter provides practical advice to school administrators concerning…

      12. Teaching America's Founding Documents.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Tucker, James

        1993-01-01

        Reflects on the author's experiences teaching a course on great documents in American history to high school students, concentrating on teaching the Declaration of Independence and the "Federalist Papers." Countering the students' tendencies toward superficial reading and encouraging deep analysis are the teacher's primary goals. (SLD)

      13. Stressor Identification Guidance Document

        EPA Science Inventory

        EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance doc...

      14. STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

        EPA Science Inventory

        EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance...

      15. Using Primary Source Documents.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Mintz, Steven

        2003-01-01

        Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

      16. USGS Documents 2015 Drought

        USGS Multimedia Gallery

        A hydrologic technician from the USGS Idaho Water Science Center measures streamflow in Fall Creek near Anderson Ranch Dam in southwestern Idaho. The USGS is collecting data at hundreds of sites on rivers and streams in six western states to document the 2015 drought. USGS scientists will analy...

      17. Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

        PubMed Central

        CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; POST, STEPHEN G.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

        2012-01-01

        The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents. PMID:22544995

      18. Simulation Detection in Handwritten Documents by Forensic Document Examiners.

        PubMed

        Kam, Moshe; Abichandani, Pramod; Hewett, Tom

        2015-07-01

        This study documents the results of a controlled experiment designed to quantify the abilities of forensic document examiners (FDEs) and laypersons to detect simulations in handwritten documents. Nineteen professional FDEs and 26 laypersons (typical of a jury pool) were asked to inspect test packages that contained six (6) known handwritten documents written by the same person and two (2) questioned handwritten documents. Each questioned document was either written by the person who wrote the known documents, or written by a different person who tried to simulate the writing of the person who wrote the known document. The error rates of the FDEs were smaller than those of the laypersons when detecting simulations in the questioned documents. Among other findings, the FDEs never labeled a questioned document that was written by the same person who wrote the known documents as "simulation." There was a significant statistical difference between the responses of the FDEs and layperson for documents without simulations. PMID:26190151

      19. TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

        EPA Science Inventory

        In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

      20. Technical approach document

        SciTech Connect

        Not Available

        1989-12-01

        The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

      1. Making Aliens

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Andreadis, A.

        During the next few decades, the decisions we make will determine the future of our biosphere and our species. In this context, space exploration will literally answer a question that has preoccupied us ever since we became self-aware: What is going to happen to us? Reaching and inhabiting other planets is often considered an extension of human exploration and occupation of Earth but the analogy is useful only as a metaphor. Whatever the extremes of Earth, we can live almost everywhere on it because we started and evolved here. Given the vagaries of chance in every event of planetmaking, we will never find an Earth twin. To live under strange skies will require courage, ingenuity and stamina ­ but above all, it will require a hard look at our assumptions, including what it means to be human.

      2. Heart Rate Variability in Adolescents – Normative Data Stratified by Sex and Physical Activity

        PubMed Central

        Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Rajendran, Rajathi

        2015-01-01

        Background Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the cardiac rhythm occurring due to modulation of the pacemaker (sinoatrial node) activity of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors are increasingly occurring at a younger age (children and adolescents) and recording of HRV in them will help us to identify cardiovascular autonomic derangement earlier. However, to be used clinically, normative data has to be established in this age group considering other major factors that can influence HRV such as sex, physical activity, and BMI. Materials and Methods Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology has provided the standards for measurement of heart rate variability and we have followed the same. In the present study, we have described the normative data for HRV in the adolescent in the age group of 12-17 years, stratified based on sex and physical activity. Results Data given below are expressed as median with interquartile range (Median (IQR)) in the following order: non-athlete girls, non athlete boys, athlete girls and athlete boys. Time domain indices - SDNN - 66.35 (40.78), 63.20 (36.20), 113.00 (31.40) and 94.20 (35.55); RMSSD – 69.00 (50.55), 58.70 (43.40), 94.90 (42.10) and 100.30 (47.50); NN50 - 137.50 (100.25), 116.00 (90.50), 137.00 (81.00) and 156.00 (81.50). The frequency domain indices – LF power 1015.00 (1098.75), 945.00 (831.00), 1465 (642.25), and 1211.00 (811.37); HF power – 1324.00 (1707.00), 988.00 (1426.50), 2409.00 (1387.50), and 2219.00 (1752.00); Total power – 3374.50 (3094.25), 2757.00 (2641.00), 5202.00 (2501.50) and 5273.00 (3507.50); LFnu – 45.44 (16.61), 47.63 (29.98), 38.59 (11.81) and 37.10 (11.21); HFnu – 54.56 (16.61), 52.37 (29.98), 61.41 (11.81) and 62.90 (11.21). Conclusion We have given sex and physical activity stratified HRV normative data for adolescents in the age between 12-17 years. PMID:26557514

      3. A model of reward- and effort-based optimal decision making and motor control.

        PubMed

        Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

        2012-01-01

        Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

      4. A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control

        PubMed Central

        Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

        2012-01-01

        Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

      5. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Hourcle, Joseph

        2014-06-01

        Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

      6. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

        2010-01-01

        Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

      7. Cadmium technical support document

        SciTech Connect

        Not Available

        1986-09-01

        This Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion described in 40 CFR Part 154. Potential hazards will be examined further to determine the nature and extent of the risk, and considering the benefits of the subject active ingredient, whether such risks cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.

      8. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching

        PubMed Central

        Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

        2015-01-01

        Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' “empirical” or “normative” expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

      9. Benchmarks for Expected Annual Academic Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution

        PubMed Central

        Scammacca, Nancy K.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

        2015-01-01

        Effect sizes are commonly reported for the results of educational interventions. However, researchers struggle with interpreting their magnitude in a way that transcends generic guidelines. Effect sizes can be interpreted in a meaningful context by benchmarking them against typical growth for students in the normative distribution. Such benchmarks are not currently available for students in the bottom quartile. This report remedies this by providing a comparative context for interventions involving these students. Annual growth effect sizes for K–12 students were computed from nationally normed assessments and a longitudinal study of students in special education. They reveal declining growth over time, especially for reading and math. These results allow researchers to better interpret the effects of their interventions and help practitioners by quantifying typical growth for struggling students. More longitudinal research is needed to show growth trajectories for students in the bottom quartile.

      10. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'.

        PubMed

        Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

        2015-10-01

        Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

      11. Influence of temperature and humidity on titanium electrodes intended for an above normative conditions sensors

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Mroczkowski, Mateusz; Firek, Piotr; Kalenik, Jerzy; Koz?owski, Miros?aw; Szmidt, Jan; Kowalska, Ewa; Czerwosz, El?bieta

        2015-09-01

        A series of test titanium electrodes, intended for a new generation of hydrogen and hydrogen compounds sensors was prepared. This new generation of hydrogen sensors is expected to operate in above normative conditions. In order to investigate the influence of temperature and moisture on titanium electrodes a series of experiments was conducted. Test samples were exposed to elevated levels of temperature (up to 165°C) and moisture (relative humidity up to 80%). These test allowed to measure resistivity as a function of temperature and to determine the long-term stability of electrical parameters of electrodes. Results of this studies will be used in fabrication of reliable electrodes for a new generation of hydrogen sensors.

      12. Normative neurocognitive data for National Football League players: an initial compendium.

        PubMed

        Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

        2015-03-01

        The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research. PMID:25638042

      13. Young children's understanding of the context-relativity of normative rules in conventional games.

        PubMed

        Rakoczy, Hannes; Brosche, Nina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

        2009-06-01

        We investigated young children's awareness of the context-relative rule structure of simple games. Two contexts were established in the form of spatial locations. Familiar objects were used in their conventional way at location 1, but acquired specific functions in a rule game at location 2. A third party then performed the conventional act at either of the two locations, constituting a mistake at location 2 (experimental condition), but appropriate at location 1 (control condition). Three-year-olds (but not 2-year-olds) systematically distinguished the two conditions, spontaneously intervening with normative protest against the third party act in the experimental, but not in the control condition. Young children thus understand context-specific rules even when the context marking is non-linguistic. These results are discussed in the broader context of the development of social cognition and cultural learning. PMID:19998540

      14. Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49

        PubMed Central

        Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernåndez, Isabel; Tårraga, Lluís; Becker, James T.; Boada, MercÚ

        2011-01-01

        There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of FundaciĂł ACE, Institut CatalĂ  de NeurociĂšncies Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

      15. Normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population sample.

        PubMed

        Pigliautile, Martina; Chiesi, Francesca; Rossetti, Sonia; Conestabile Della Staffa, Manuela; Ricci, Monica; Federici, Stefano; Chiloiro, Dora; Primi, Caterina; Mecocci, Patrizia

        2015-12-01

        The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a brief cognitive screening instrument also proposed to detect mild cognitive impairment, a high-risk condition for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. In this study, we report normative data on the ACE-R-Italian version, collected on a sample of 264 Italian healthy subjects aging between 60 and 93 years, and with a formal education from 1 to 19 years. The global normal cognition was established in accordance with the Italian version of the Mini-Mental State Examination score and with exclusion criteria derived by a consensus process. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and education on the ACE-R total performance score. We provide correction grids to adjust raw scores and equivalent scores with cut-off value to allow comparison between ACE-R performance and others neuropsychological test scores that can be administered to the same subject. PMID:26216492

      16. Building a normative decision support system for clinical and operational risk management in hemodialysis.

        PubMed

        Cornalba, Chiara; Bellazzi, Roberto G; Bellazzi, Riccardo

        2008-09-01

        This paper describes the design and implementation of a decision support system for risk management in hemodialysis (HD) departments. The proposed system exploits a domain ontology to formalize the problem as a Bayesian network. It also relies on a software tool, able to automatically collect HD data, to learn the network conditional probabilities. By merging prior knowledge and the available data, the system allows to estimate risk profiles both for patients and HD departments. The risk management process is completed by an influence diagram that enables scenario analysis to choose the optimal decisions that mitigate a patient's risk. The methods and design of the decision support tool are described in detail, and the derived decision model is presented. Examples and case studies are also shown. The tool is one of the few examples of normative system explicitly conceived to manage operational and clinical risks in health care environments. PMID:18779083

      17. Psychometric evaluation of the social phobia and anxiety inventory for children: concurrent validity and normative data.

        PubMed

        Morris, T L; Masia, C L

        1998-12-01

        Examined the relation of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) to the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R). The association between the SPAI-C and the SASC-R was moderate, suggesting that the measures assess overlapping, although not identical, constructs. Initial normative data are reported on the SPAI-C for a community sample of 277 4th-through 6th-grade children. Girls reported higher social anxiety on both measures than did boys. Notably, a substantial proportion of children were found to exceed suggested cut-off scores on both measures for identifying children with high levels of social anxiety, which suggests the importance of screening elementary-age children for social fears. PMID:9866082

      18. Social normative perceptions of alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among Central and Eastern European adolescents.

        TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

        Page RM; Ihasz F; Hantiu I; Simonek J; Klarova R

        2008-01-01

        This study examined alcohol use and related social normative perceptions among a sample of 1,886 Central-Eastern European high school students. The youth represented in the study averaged 16.5 years of age and were from several localities in the countries of Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Romania. Data for the study were collected through a school-based alcohol use survey that was completed in June 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that drinking was related to perception of the prevalence of alcohol use by schoolmates and by the number of friends who drink and/or engage in episodic heavy drinking. Specific implications of findings in terms of substance use prevention are discussed. In addition, the need for future research and the limitations of the current research are discussed. This study was largely financially supported through an international grant from the College of Health and Human Performance, Brigham Young University.

      19. Social normative perceptions of alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among Central and Eastern European adolescents.

        PubMed

        Page, Randy M; Ihasz, Ferenc; Hantiu, Iacob; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata

        2008-01-01

        This study examined alcohol use and related social normative perceptions among a sample of 1,886 Central-Eastern European high school students. The youth represented in the study averaged 16.5 years of age and were from several localities in the countries of Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Romania. Data for the study were collected through a school-based alcohol use survey that was completed in June 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that drinking was related to perception of the prevalence of alcohol use by schoolmates and by the number of friends who drink and/or engage in episodic heavy drinking. Specific implications of findings in terms of substance use prevention are discussed. In addition, the need for future research and the limitations of the current research are discussed. This study was largely financially supported through an international grant from the College of Health and Human Performance, Brigham Young University. PMID:18365937

      20. Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers.

        PubMed

        Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

        2011-02-01

        Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

      1. A robust segmentation of scanned documents

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Park, Hyung Jun; Yi, Ji Young

        2015-01-01

        The image quality of reprinted documents that were scanned at a high resolution may not satisfy human viewers who anticipate at least the same image quality as the original document. Moiré artifacts without proper descreening, text blurred by the poor scanner modulation transfer function (MTF), and color distortion resulting from misclassification between color and gray may make the reprint quality worse. To remedy these shortcomings from reprinting, the documents should be classified into various attributes such as image or text, edge or non-edge, continuous-tone or halftone, color or gray, and so on. The improvement of the reprint quality could be achieved by applying proper enhancement with these attributes. In this paper, we introduce a robust and effective approach to classify scanned documents into the attributes of each pixel. The proposed document segmentation algorithm utilizes simple features such as variance-to-mean (VMR), gradient, etc in various combinations of sizes and positions of a processing kernel. We also exploit each direction of gradients in the multiple positions of the same kernel to detect as small as 4-point text. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs well over various types of the scanned documents including the documents that were printed in a resolution of low lines per inch (LPI).

      2. Content Documents Management

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

        2011-01-01

        The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

      3. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

        PubMed

        Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Beaumont, Jennifer; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

        2015-05-01

        Demographic factors impact neuropsychological test performances and accounting for them may help to better elucidate current brain functioning. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neuropsychological tool, yet the original norms developed for the battery did not adequately account for important demographic/cultural factors known to impact test performances. We developed norms fully adjusting for all demographic variables within each language group (English and Spanish) separately. The current study describes the standards for individuals tested in English. Neurologically healthy adults (n=1038) and children (n=2917) who completed the NIH Toolbox norming project in English were included. We created uncorrected scores weighted to the 2010 Census demographics, and applied polynomial regression models to develop age-corrected and fully demographically adjusted (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity) scores for each NIHTB-CB test and composite (i.e., Fluid, Crystallized, and Total Composites). On uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores, age and education demonstrated significant, medium-to-large associations, while sex showed smaller, but statistically significant effects. In terms of race/ethnicity, a significant stair-step effect on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores was observed (African Americannormative corrections, NIHTB-CB no longer demonstrated any significant associations with demographic factors. The previously developed norms still maintained significant associations with demographic factors, and demonstrated more variable impairment rates in segments of the healthy normative sample. Similar to other neuropsychological tests, demographic factors demonstrated significant associations with unadjusted NIHTB-CB scores. Application of fully corrected scores will help account for unwanted variance that is associated with non-clinical factors to more accurately reflect effects of disease-related changes in brain function. PMID:26030001

      4. The role of adaptation to disability and disease in health state valuation: a preliminary normative analysis.

        PubMed

        Menzel, Paul; Dolan, Paul; Richardson, Jeff; Olsen, Jan Abel

        2002-12-01

        Chronically ill and disabled patients generally rate the value of their lives in a given health state more highly than do hypothetical patients imagining themselves to be in such states. Much of this difference may be due to actual patients' adaptation to their health states, a phenomenon that would not typically affect the ratings of persons who only hypothetically imagine themselves to be patients. This article pursues a non-empirical, normative question: does such adaptation render actual patients' ratings of quality of life morally questionable for purposes of resource allocation? Distinguishing the different basic elements in patient adaptation reveals why, and in what respects, people are pulled strongly in opposite directions in responding to this question. Several more explicit moral arguments against using adapted patients' ratings have been articulated by economists and philosophers, and others are developed by the authors. While most of these arguments do not survive careful analysis, several do. Given the subsequent complexity of the matter, it is argued that: (1) Neither solely actual nor solely hypothetical patient perspectives should be used for rating quality of life. (2) Even if representatives of the general public acting as hypothetical patients provide ultimately the best perspective from which to discern societal values about health states, patients' values that are often influenced by adaptation must still be conveyed to and clearly understood by public representatives as a critically important fact about health-related quality of life. The article also points to the need for much additional work on adaptation, both empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:12409128

      5. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

        PubMed

        Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

        2016-02-01

        The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50°C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na(+)] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na(+)] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na(+)] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na(+)] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na(+)] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions. PMID:26070030

      6. Normative data for lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in unsedated healthy infants.

        PubMed

        Fuchs, O; Latzin, P; Thamrin, C; Stern, G; Frischknecht, P; Singer, F; Kieninger, E; Proietti, E; Riedel, T; Frey, U

        2011-05-01

        Despite association with lung growth and long-term respiratory morbidity, there is a lack of normative lung function data for unsedated infants conforming to latest European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society standards. Lung function was measured using an ultrasonic flow meter in 342 unsedated, healthy, term-born infants at a mean ± sd age of 5.1 ± 0.8 weeks during natural sleep according to the latest standards. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL) and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) measurements were obtained from 100 regular breaths. We aimed for three acceptable measurements for multiple-breath washout and 5-10 acceptable interruption resistance (R(int)) measurements. Acceptable measurements were obtained in ? 285 infants with high variability. Mean values were 7.48 mL·kg?č (95% limits of agreement 4.95-10.0 mL·kg?č) for tidal volume, 14.3 ppb (2.6-26.1 ppb) for eNO, 23.9 mL·kg?č (16.0-31.8 mL·kg?č) for functional residual capacity, 6.75 (5.63-7.87) for lung clearance index and 3.78 kPa·s·L?č (1.14-6.42 kPa·s·L?č) for R(int). In males, TBFVL outcomes were associated with anthropometric parameters and in females, with maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal asthma and Caesarean section. This large normative data set in unsedated infants offers reference values for future research and particularly for studies where sedation may put infants at risk. Furthermore, it highlights the impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on neonatal lung function. PMID:21109556

      7. Sex Differences in Neurophysiological Activation Patterns During Phonological Input Processing: An Influencing Factor for Normative Data.

        PubMed

        Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

        2015-11-01

        In the context of neurophysiological normative data, it has been established that aging has a significant impact on neurophysiological correlates of auditory phonological input processes, such as phoneme discrimination (PD) and word recognition (WR). Besides age, sex is another demographic factor that influences several language processes. We aimed to disentangle whether sex has a similar effect on PD and WR. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 20 men and 24 women. During PD, three phonemic contrasts (place and manner of articulation and voicing) were compared using the attentive P300 and pre-attentive Mismatch Negativity. To investigate WR, real words were contrasted with pseudowords in a pre-attentive oddball task. Women demonstrated a larger sensitivity to spectrotemporal differences, as evidenced by larger P300 responses to the place of articulation (PoA) contrast and larger P300 and MMN responses than men in PoA-based PD. Men did not display such sensitivity. Attention played an important role, considering that women needed more attentional resources to differentiate between PoA and the other phonemic contrasts. During WR, pseudowords evoked larger amplitudes already 100 ms post-stimulus independent of sex. However, women had decreased P200 latencies, but longer N400 latencies in response to pseudowords, whereas men showed increased N400 latencies compared to women in response to real words. The current results demonstrate significant sex-related influences on phonological input processes. Therefore, existing neurophysiological normative data for age should be complemented for the factor sex. PMID:26014826

      8. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

        PubMed

        DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

        2016-02-01

        Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26011476

      9. Brain, body, and cognition: Neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear

        PubMed Central

        Schaefer, Hillary S.; Larson, Christine L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Coan, James A.

        2014-01-01

        The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction. PMID:24561099

      10. Normative Data on Nasalance Scores for Swedish as Measured on the Nasometer: Influence of Dialect, Gender, and Age

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Brunnegard, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

        2009-01-01

        This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer[TM] II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were…

      11. A procedure for constructing the normative characteristics of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers from the results of field measurements

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Kalatuzov, V. A.

        2007-11-01

        A procedure for constructing the normative characteristics of chimney-type evaporative cooling towers equipped with different designs of heat-and-mass transfer (spraying) devices is developed using the results of balance tests carried out for many years on 34 cooling towers of different designs with areas ranging from 500 to 10000 m2.

      12. The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

        2007-01-01

        Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants


      13. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Normative Beliefs as Predictors of Hookah Smoking Initiation: A Longitudinal Study of University Students

        PubMed Central

        2014-01-01

        Introduction: While cross-sectional studies have shown that hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an increasingly popular behavior among university students, little is known about factors associated with initiation. This study sought to determine associations between knowledge, attitudes, and normative beliefs and initiation of HTS among university students. Methods: Data were from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 569 randomly selected first- and second-year university students. Online questionnaires that were developed in accordance with our composite theoretical model were completed in September 2010 and April 2011. Results: About one-seventh (13%) of participants initiated HTS by follow-up. Positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs were associated with increased adjusted odds of initiation (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.56, 6.59; and AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35, 2.99, respectively), while negative attitudes were associated with decreased adjusted odds (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.80). Correct knowledge regarding toxicants associated with HTS was not significantly associated with initiation. Conclusions: While positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs are associated with initiation of HTS in a cohort of never-users, increased knowledge about toxins is not associated with lower initiation. It may be particularly valuable for educational interventions to attempt to alter positive attitudes and normative beliefs related to HTS. PMID:24323574

      14. MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

        2011-01-01

        In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

      15. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

        Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

        The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

      16. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

        1990-01-01

        A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

      17. Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Herscovitch, Lynne; Topolnytsky, Laryssa

        2002-01-01

        Meta-analysis of 155 research reports that used one of three commitment scales (affective, continuance, or normative) found strong correlations between the scales and correlates of jobs satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. All three were negatively related to withdrawal and turnover. Perceived organizational support had…

      18. Type of Student Residence as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Consumption and Social Normative Perceptions regarding Alcohol Use

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Page, Randy M.; O'Hegarty, Michelle

        2006-01-01

        The purpose of this study was to determine alcohol use (particularly heavy drinking) and social normative estimations of alcohol use according to student residence (fraternity, sorority, residence hall, or apartment complex). To achieve this purpose, a survey was conducted in all 34 sections of a general education core English class at a…

      19. Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

        2010-01-01

        The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

      20. Normative Data for the Boston Naming Test in Native Dutch-Speaking Belgian Children and the Relation with Intelligence

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Storms, Gert; Saerens, Jos; De Deyn, Peter P.

        2004-01-01

        This paper reports the results of a normative study of the 60-item version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of 371 native Dutch-speaking Flemish children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Analysis of test results revealed that BNT performance was significantly affected by age and gender. The gathered norms were shown to be…

      1. Evaluations of and Reasoning about Normative and Deviant Ingroup and Outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

        2014-01-01

        Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social


      2. Schooling in the "Iron Cage" and the Crucial Role of Interpretive, Normative, and Critical Perspectives in Social Foundations Studies

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dotts, Brian

        2013-01-01

        This article addresses the unique role performed by social foundations programs in colleges of education and in addressing broader issues facing education today, which fundamentally include the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives in academia. All three perspectives serve to create a scholarly framework within which…

      3. Young People, Trouble, and Crime: Restorative Justice as a Normative Theory of Informal Social Control and Social Support.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Bazemore, Gordon

        2001-01-01

        Reviews the normative theory of restorative justice in youth crime, highlighting three core principles: repairing the harm of crime; involving stakeholders; and transforming community and government roles in response to crime. Considers connections between restorative intervention theories and informal social control and social support mechanisms…

      4. Schooling in the "Iron Cage" and the Crucial Role of Interpretive, Normative, and Critical Perspectives in Social Foundations Studies

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Dotts, Brian

        2013-01-01

        This article addresses the unique role performed by social foundations programs in colleges of education and in addressing broader issues facing education today, which fundamentally include the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives in academia. All three perspectives serve to create a scholarly framework within which


      5. Attitudinal and Social Normative Factors as Predictors of Intended Alcohol Abuse among Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Students.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        London, F. Betty

        1982-01-01

        Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)

      6. 1981-82 Iowa Study of Alcohol and Drug Attitudes and Behaviors among Youth. Report 1: Normative and Trend Data.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Wright, David

        As part of a series of tri-annual studies of youths' substance use and abuse behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge, begun in 1975, this report provides normative and trend data for the 1981-82 study. The research issues which were the foci of this study are: present status and important trends of youths' substance use, attitudes, and knowledge;…

      7. The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

        2007-01-01

        Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

      8. Normative Performance on an Executive Clock Drawing Task (CLOX) in a Community-Dwelling Sample of Older Adults

        PubMed Central

        Crowe, Michael; Allman, Richard M.; Triebel, Kristen; Sawyer, Patricia; Martin, Roy C.

        2010-01-01

        The CLOX is a clock drawing test used to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but there is limited normative data for this measure. This study presents normative data for the CLOX derived from a diverse sample of 585 community-dwelling older adults with complete cognitive data at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Participants with evidence of baseline impairment or substantial 4-year decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination were excluded from the normative sample. Spontaneous clock drawing (CLOX1) and copy (CLOX2) performances were stratified by age group and reading ability from the Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition (WRAT-3). Lowest mean CLOX scores were observed for the oldest age group (75+ years old) with the lowest WRAT-3 reading scores. For all groups, average scores were higher for CLOX2 than CLOX1. These normative data may be helpful to clinicians and researchers for interpreting CLOX performance in older adults with diverse levels of reading ability. PMID:20601672

      9. Evaluations of and Reasoning about Normative and Deviant Ingroup and Outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

        2014-01-01

        Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social…

      10. The Valuation of Knowledge and Normative Reflection in Teacher Qualification: A Comparison of Teacher Educators, Novice and Experienced Teachers

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Caspersen, Joakim

        2013-01-01

        The transition from teacher education to work in schools has been described as an "epistemic clash". Teacher educators', novice teachers' and experienced teachers' valuation of the academic, practical and normative demands of teaching are compared using survey data from teacher education and schools. All groups value academic knowledge and…

      11. Congruence and Personality. A Normative Study of Counsellors and Teachers in Training, Priests, High School Students and Army Officer Cadets.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Eberlein, Larry; And Others

        A study was conducted to obtain normative data on self concept (S) and ideal-self concept (I) congruence for the Interpersonal Check List (ICL) (Leary, 1957) and to examine differences in self concept, ideal-self concept, and S-I congruence between a variety of groups with different functional roles. The ICL was administered to a sample consisting…

      12. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

        SciTech Connect

        Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

        2012-08-01

        In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

      13. [Documentation of injuries].

        PubMed

        Betz, P; Eisenmenger, W

        1993-09-01

        The expert assessment of injuries due to criminal offenses is of great importance for any later legal proceedings. The initial medical examination of severe lesions is very often performed by clinicians; however, and when it which must be surgically shows that immediate surgical treatment is indicated later forensic interpretation is only possible if precise records documenting the nature of the wounds have been kept by the first doctor involved. The most frequent patterns of these injuries and relevant forensic aspects are discussed. PMID:8235688

      14. Focus theory of normative conduct and terror-management theory: the interactive impact of mortality salience and norm salience on social judgment.

        PubMed

        Jonas, Eva; Martens, Andy; Kayser, Daniela Niesta; Fritsche, Immo; Sullivan, Daniel; Greenberg, Jeff

        2008-12-01

        Research on terror-management theory has shown that after mortality salience (MS) people attempt to live up to cultural values. But cultures often value very different and sometimes even contradictory standards, leading to difficulties in predicting behavior as a consequence of terror-management needs. The authors report 4 studies to demonstrate that the effect of MS on people's social judgments depends on the salience of norms. In Study 1, making salient opposite norms (prosocial vs. proself) led to reactions consistent with the activated norms following MS compared with the control condition. Study 2 showed that, in combination with a pacifism prime, MS increased pacifistic attitudes. In Study 3, making salient a conservatism/security prime led people to recommend harsher bonds for an illegal prostitute when they were reminded of death, whereas a benevolence prime counteracted this effect. In Study 4 a help prime, combined with MS, increased people's helpfulness. Discussion focuses briefly on how these findings inform both terror-management theory and the focus theory of normative conduct. PMID:19025281

      15. Software design and documentation language

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Kleine, H.

        1980-01-01

        Language supports design and documentation of complex software. Included are: design and documentation language for expressing design concepts; processor that produces intelligble documentation based on design specifications; and methodology for using language and processor to create well-structured top-down programs and documentation. Processor is written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5 programming language for use on UNIVAC, IBM, and CDC machines.

      16. Regulatory guidance document

        SciTech Connect

        1994-05-01

        The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

      17. Critical Issues in an Electronic Documentation System

        PubMed Central

        Weir, Charlene R.; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

        2007-01-01

        The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system. PMID:18693944

      18. Ensemble LUT classification for degraded document enhancement

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Agam, Gady; Frieder, Ophir

        2008-01-01

        The fast evolution of scanning and computing technologies have led to the creation of large collections of scanned paper documents. Examples of such collections include historical collections, legal depositories, medical archives, and business archives. Moreover, in many situations such as legal litigation and security investigations scanned collections are being used to facilitate systematic exploration of the data. It is almost always the case that scanned documents suffer from some form of degradation. Large degradations make documents hard to read and substantially deteriorate the performance of automated document processing systems. Enhancement of degraded document images is normally performed assuming global degradation models. When the degradation is large, global degradation models do not perform well. In contrast, we propose to estimate local degradation models and use them in enhancing degraded document images. Using a semi-automated enhancement system we have labeled a subset of the Frieder diaries collection.1 This labeled subset was then used to train an ensemble classifier. The component classifiers are based on lookup tables (LUT) in conjunction with the approximated nearest neighbor algorithm. The resulting algorithm is highly effcient. Experimental evaluation results are provided using the Frieder diaries collection.1

      19. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

        PubMed Central

        Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

        2016-01-01

        People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

      20. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

        PubMed

        Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

        2016-01-01

        People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

      1. Making biodiversity meaningful through environmental education

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        van Weelie, Daan

        2002-11-01

        Biodiversity is an emerging theme in science, society and, more recently, education. There is no one single definition of biodiversity that is adequate in all situations. Both the knowledge base and the value base of biodiversity are variable and questionable. Because of these characteristics, biodiversity makes for an interesting vehicle for linking science and society, and the investigation of the normative underpinnings of 'science-in-the making'. Based on a 3-year study, this paper explores the crossroads between science education and environmental education and presents a framework for tapping the environmental education potential of biodiversity. Outlined are a number stepping stones for making biodiversity meaningful to learners. It is argued that, from the perspective of environmental education, the illdefined nature of biodiversity is a useful feature. Biodiversity is renewing the discourse on nature conservation issues by bringing together different groups in society that are searching for a common language to discuss nature conservation issues in relation to sustainability issues. The resulting debate allows the socio-scientific dispute character of 'science-in-the-making' to surface. Participation in such a dispute is an excellent opportunity to learn about a highly relevant, controversial, emotionally charged and debatable topic at the crossroads of science, technology and society

      2. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy

        PubMed Central

        Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

        2012-01-01

        Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18–65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

      3. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

        PubMed

        Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

        2012-09-01

        Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

      4. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

        PubMed

        Boulinier, G

        1996-01-01

        In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the HĂŽtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field. PMID:11624878

      5. CRRESPRO documentation. Technical report

        SciTech Connect

        Meffert, J.D.; Gussenhoven, M.S.

        1994-07-28

        This technical report documents the software package CRRESPRO developed by the Phillips Laboratory. The CRRESPRO utility calculates proton omnidirectional fluence and integral omnidirectional fluence over the energy range 1-100 MeV for orbits specified by the user. Proton fluence is calculated from proton flux models created using data measured by the proton telescope (PROTEL) on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES), which flew in a geosynchronous transfer orbit for 14 months during solar maximum. Because the March 1991 magnetic storm caused a reconfiguration of the inner magnetosphere resulting in double proton belts for certain energies, two CRRES models were constructed. The quiet (single proton belt) model uses PROTEL data from July 1990 to March 1991, and the active (double proton belt) model uses data from March 1991 to October 1991. CRRESPRO is best applied to orbits with altitudes greater than 1000 km. Unlike its sister program, CRRESRAD, CRRESPRO gives 100 percent coverage for orbits of any inclination.

      6. Normative Amplitude Integrated EEG (aEEG) Measures in Preterm Infants

        PubMed Central

        Vesoulis, Zachary A.; Paul, Rachel A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Wong, Connie; Inder, Terrie E.; Mathur, Amit M.

        2014-01-01

        Objective Assessing qualitative patterns of amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) maturation of preterm infants requires personnel with training in interpretation and an investment of time. Quantitative algorithms provide a method for rapidly and reproducibly assessing an aEEG recording independent of provider skill level. Although there are several qualitative and quantitative normative datasets in the literature, this study provides the broadest array of quantitative aEEG measures in a carefully selected and followed cohort of preterm infants with mild or no visible injury on term equivalent MRI and subsequently normal neurodevelopment at 2 and 7 years of age. Study Design A two-channel aEEG recording was obtained on days 4,7,14, and 28 of life for infants born ?30 weeks EGA. Measures of amplitude and continuity, spectral edge frequency, percentage of trace in interburst interval, interburst interval length, and frequency counts of smooth delta waves, delta brushes and theta bursts were obtained. MRI was obtained at term-equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental testing was conducted at 2 and 7 years of corrected age. Result Correlations were found between increasing post-menstrual age (PMA) and decreasing maximum amplitude (R=?0.23, p=0.05), increasing minimum amplitude (R=0.46, p=0.002), and increasing spectral edge frequency (R=0.78, p=4.17x10?14). Negative correlations were noted between increasing PMA and counts of smooth delta waves (R=?0.39, p=0.001), delta brushes (R=?0.37, p=0.003), and theta bursts (R=?0.61, p=5.66x10?8). Increasing PMA was also associated with a decreased amount of time spent in the interburst interval (R=?0.38, p=0.001) and a shorter length of the maximum IBI (R=?0.27, p=0.03). Conclusion This analysis supports a strong correlation between quantitatively determined aEEG measures and PMA, in a cohort of preterm infants with normal TEA neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years of age, which is both predictable and reproducible. These “normative” quantitative values support the pattern of maturation previously identified by qualitative analysis. PMID:25521561

      7. Lead Exposure and Tremor among Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

        PubMed Central

        Power, Melinda C.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Hu, Howard; Louis, Elan D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

        2015-01-01

        Background: Tremor is one of the most common neurological signs, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Case–control studies suggest an association between blood lead and essential tremor, and that this association is modified by polymorphisms in the ή-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) gene. Objective: We aimed to examine the relationship between lead and tremor, including modification by ALAD, in a prospective cohort study, using both blood lead and bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure. Methods: We measured tibia (n = 670) and patella (n = 672) bone lead and blood lead (n = 807) among older men (age range, 50–98 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort. A tremor score was created based on an approach using hand-drawing samples. ALAD genotype was dichotomized as ALAD-2 carriers or not. We used linear regression adjusted for age, education, smoking, and alcohol intake to estimate the associations between lead biomarkers and tremor score. Results: In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginal association between quintiles of all lead biomarkers and tremor scores (p-values < 0.13), which did not persist in adjusted models. Age was the strongest predictor of tremor. Among those younger than the median age (68.9 years), tremor increased significantly with blood lead (p = 0.03), but this pattern was not apparent for bone lead. We did not see modification by ALAD or an association between bone lead and change in tremor score over time. Conclusion: Our results do not strongly support an association between lead exposure and tremor, and suggest no association with cumulative lead biomarkers, although there is some suggestion that blood lead may be associated with tremor among the younger men in our cohort. Citation: Ji JS, Power MC, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Hu H, Louis ED, Weisskopf MG. 2015. Lead exposure and tremor among older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:445–450; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408535 PMID:25633720

      8. Swarm Intelligence in Text Document Clustering

        SciTech Connect

        Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

        2008-01-01

        Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior. The research field that attempts to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices inspired by the collective behavior of social insect colonies is called Swarm Intelligence. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the swarm algorithms are usually flexible, robust, decentralized and self-organized. These characters make the swarm algorithms suitable for solving complex problems, such as document collection clustering. The major challenge of today's information society is being overwhelmed with information on any topic they are searching for. Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in helping users to effectively navigate, summarize, and organize the overwhelmed information. In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. These clustering algorithms use stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks, fish schools and ant food forage.

      9. SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE

        NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

        Kleine, H.

        1994-01-01

        Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

      10. Content-based document image retrieval in complex document collections

        NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

        Agam, G.; Argamon, S.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.; Lewis, D.

        2007-01-01

        We address the problem of content-based image retrieval in the context of complex document images. Complex documents typically start out on paper and are then electronically scanned. These documents have rich internal structure and might only be available in image form. Additionally, they may have been produced by a combination of printing technologies (or by handwriting); and include diagrams, graphics, tables and other non-textual elements. Large collections of such complex documents are commonly found in legal and security investigations. The indexing and analysis of large document collections is currently limited to textual features based OCR data and ignore the structural context of the document as well as important non-textual elements such as signatures, logos, stamps, tables, diagrams, and images. Handwritten comments are also normally ignored due to the inherent complexity of offline handwriting recognition. We address important research issues concerning content-based document image retrieval and describe a prototype for integrated retrieval and aggregation of diverse information contained in scanned paper documents we are developing. Such complex document information processing combines several forms of image processing together with textual/linguistic processing to enable effective analysis of complex document collections, a necessity for a wide range of applications. Our prototype automatically generates rich metadata about a complex document and then applies query tools to integrate the metadata with text search. To ensure a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of our prototype, we are developing a test collection containing millions of document images.

      11. iDocument: How Smartphones and Tablets Are Changing Documentation in Preschool and Primary Classrooms

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Parnell, Will; Bartlett, Jackie

        2012-01-01

        With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make…

      12. 7 CFR 1717.353 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

        2011-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.353 Section 1717... Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With RUS Electric Borrowers in Bankruptcy § 1717.353 Requirements of RUS documents. Each borrower shall establish and adjust rates for electric service as set...

      13. 7 CFR 1717.353 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

        2010-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.353 Section 1717... Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With RUS Electric Borrowers in Bankruptcy § 1717.353 Requirements of RUS documents. Each borrower shall establish and adjust rates for electric service as set...

      14. 7 CFR 1717.353 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

        2013-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.353 Section 1717... Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With RUS Electric Borrowers in Bankruptcy § 1717.353 Requirements of RUS documents. Each borrower shall establish and adjust rates for electric service as set...

      15. Tourism: Manufacturing the Exotic. IWGIA Document No. 61.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Rossel, Pierre, Ed.

        The objective of this document is to outline the relationship between tourism and cultural minorities. It aims to understand the nature of the relationship, to point out its most serious and harmful effects and to make known some of the survival strategies that cultural minorities employ. The document calls tourism "the greatest economic and…

      16. We Get Mail: Documenting the Rhetoric of Our Academic Institutions.

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Hurlbert, C. Mark

        Much of what characterizes, critiques, defines and describes an educator's profession and practice occurs in the form of documents which get delivered every day to the faculty mailroom. These documents are connected to cultural processes which establish hierarchies of power, exclude individuals from decision making, and foster an illusion of the…

      17. 15 CFR 280.101 - Petitions for approval of documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

        2012-01-01

        ... accredited third party may petition the Director, NIST, to approve such document for use as described in...: FQA Document Certification, NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (3) The Director, NIST... information to allow the Director, NIST, to make this determination. (b) Accreditation. (1) A...

      18. 15 CFR 280.101 - Petitions for approval of documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

        2014-01-01

        ... accredited third party may petition the Director, NIST, to approve such document for use as described in...: FQA Document Certification, NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899. (3) The Director, NIST... information to allow the Director, NIST, to make this determination. (b) Accreditation. (1) A...

      19. Styles of Documentation in German Early Childhood Education

        ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

        Knauf, Helen

        2015-01-01

        The pedagogical documentation of educational processes in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centres is an important concern of early childhood education. Its purpose is to make learning visible and to stimulate discussion between educators and parents. In the academic discourse, however, pedagogical documentation is subject to differing…

      20. 7 CFR 1717.353 - Requirements of RUS documents.

        Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

        2014-01-01

        ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements of RUS documents. 1717.353 Section 1717... Federal Pre-emption in Rate Making in Connection With RUS Electric Borrowers in Bankruptcy § 1717.353 Requirements of RUS documents. Each borrower shall establish and adjust rates for electric service as set...