Sample records for documents making normative

  1. Making Space for Place-Making Pedagogies: Stretching Normative Mandated Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In an era of normative standardised literacy curriculum continuing to make space for culturally responsive literacy pedagogy is on ongoing challenge for early childhood educators. Collaborative participatory research and ethnographic studies of teachers who accomplish innovative and inclusive early childhood education in culturally diverse high…

  2. Is expected utility theory normative for medical decision making?

    PubMed

    Cohen, B J

    1996-01-01

    Expected utility theory is felt by its proponents to be a normative theory of decision making under uncertainty. The theory starts with some simple axioms that are held to be rules that any rational person would follow. It can be shown that if one adheres to these axioms, a numerical quantity, generally referred to as utility, can be assigned to each possible outcome, with the preferred course of action being that which has the highest expected utility. One of these axioms, the independence principle, is controversial, and is frequently violated in experimental situations. Proponents of the theory hold that these violations are irrational. The independence principle is simply an axiom dictating consistency among preferences, in that it dictates that a rational agent should hold a specified preference given another stated preference. When applied to preferences between lotteries, the independence principle can be demonstrated to be a rule that is followed only when preferences are formed in a particular way. The logic of expected utility theory is that this demonstration proves that preferences should be formed in this way. An alternative interpretation is that this demonstrates that the independence principle is not a valid general rule of consistency, but in particular, is a rule that must be followed if one is to consistently apply the decision rule "choose the lottery that has the highest expected utility." This decision rule must be justified on its own terms as a valid rule of rationality by demonstration that violation would lead to decisions that conflict with the decision maker's goals. This rule does not appear to be suitable for medical decisions because often these are one-time decisions in which expectation, a long-run property of a random variable, would not seem to be applicable. This is particularly true for those decisions involving a non-trivial risk of death. PMID:8717589

  3. Law and Everyday Decision Making: Rational, Descriptive, and Normative Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Wiener

    This chapter, and indeed the entire book, focuses on some old topics, namely legal consciousness, legal decision making, and the interaction between the two. One can date the issue back at least to the ideas and writings of the famous (or infamous) psychologist Hugo Münsterberg (1908), who argued, perhaps somewhat unconvincingly at the time, that behavioral science, especially psychology, is

  4. Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

  5. Discrepancies Between Normative and Descriptive Models of Decision Making and the Understanding\\/Acceptance Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith E. Stanovich; Richard F. West

    1999-01-01

    Several tasks from the heuristics and biases literature were examined in light of Slovic and Tversky's (1974) understanding\\/acceptance principle—that the deeper the understanding of a normative principle, the greater the tendency to respond in accord with it. The principle was instantiated both correlationally and experimentally. An individual differences version was used to examine whether individuals higher in tendencies toward reflective

  6. make_latex -Makefile rules for LaTeX documents ~/lib/make_latex

    E-print Network

    Read, Charles

    NAME make_latex - Makefile rules for LaTeX documents SYNOPSIS ~/lib/make_latex DESCRIPTION The make- gest that each user has their own copy, and places it in directory ~/lib Some entries in the make $(HOME)/lib/make_latex FILES = myfile paper myfile.dvi : fig1.ps fig2.ps part2.tex paper.dvi : complex

  7. Decentralized Decision Making Process for Document Server Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Decentralized Decision Making Process for Document Server Networks Aur´elie Beynier Abdel making problem using a set of interactive Markov Decision Processes (MDP), a specific stochastic game then interactive MDPs approach transforming this problem into a decentralized decision making process. I

  8. Education for Sustainable Development and Normativity: A Transactional Analysis of Moral Meaning-Making and Companion Meanings in Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Leif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present and illustrate two different ways of analysing the normativity and discursivity of classroom communication during education for sustainable development (ESD). The two types of analysis can provide important knowledge for discussions of ESD in relation to morals and democracy. Both methods are based…

  9. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  10. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  11. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  12. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  13. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false VA environmental decision making and documents. 26.7 Section... § 26.7 VA environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant...as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The...

  14. Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity «Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity, 2002 Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity ELISABETH PACHERIE CNRS ­ Institut Jean Nicod, Paris The main aim of this paper is to investigate what becomes of normativity in naturalistic epistemologies

  15. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  16. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  17. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  18. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  19. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  20. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Norms for Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Animal Naming, Token Test, Wrat-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Tanis J. Ferman; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

    2005-01-01

    Normative data for older African Americans are presented for several clinical neuropsychological measures, including Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Token Test, WRAT-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 309 cognitively normal, community-dwelling individuals, aged 56 through 94, participating in Mayo's

  1. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Trail-Making Test, the Stroop Test, and MAE Controlled Oral Word Association Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett A. Steinberg; Linas A. Bieliauskas; Glenn E. Smith; Robert J. Ivnik

    2005-01-01

    Although normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments often include adjustments for subject variables, there are reasons to believe that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, years of formal education may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this second of four reanalyses of results

  2. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  3. LegalTransformA Framework for making legal documents accessible to humans

    E-print Network

    Murphy-Hill, Emerson

    LegalTransformA Framework for making legal documents accessible to humans Emerson Murphy Hill, The Evergreen State College #12;In this day and age, we are required to understand legal documents. #12;Credit papers, tax documents, privacy agreements, software end-user license agreements, mattress tags, car

  4. Please make a copy of this document for your records. Girl Scout Engineering Saturday

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Please make a copy of this document for your records. Girl Scout Engineering Saturday University) the Girl Scout Engineering Saturday (GSES) Program, sponsored by the Women In Engineering (WIE) Program

  5. Millsop (1) THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    Millsop (1) THE NATURE OF NORMATIVITY IN KANT'S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP'S I of Kant's philosophy of logic that makes sense of how the laws of logic can be both constitutive and develop the analogy between his moral philosophy and philosophy of logic, which Kant does not make

  6. Age and Gender Trends in Adults' Normative Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Marjorie Roth; Lynn, Tracey; McLean, Patricia; Perri, Lynn

    The construct of moral reasoning may be conceived of as having a dualistic nature, with moral decision-making termed either empirical morality or normative morality. Although it has been tacitly assumed that normative moral values can be inferred from empirical morality methods of investigation, there exists data to suggest that this may not be…

  7. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  8. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  9. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  10. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  11. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

  12. Please Note: Printing this document may make it obsolete. For the latest version of this policy always check the Policy

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    (AED) An automated computerized medical device programmed to analyse heart rhythm, recognize rhythmsPlease Note: Printing this document may make it obsolete. For the latest version of this policy __________________________________________________________ 5 SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION ___________________________________________________ 16 SECTION 4

  13. Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an “operant matching law” in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

  14. The masticatory normative indicator.

    PubMed

    Woda, A; Nicolas, E; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Hennequin, M; Mazille, M-N; Veyrune, J-L; Peyron, M-A

    2010-03-01

    There is no established quantitative, objective method to differentiate individuals with good masticatory function from those lacking this attribute. The aim of this study was to specify a normal range of median particle size values for masticated raw carrots collected just before being swallowed. The masticatory normative indicator (MNI) value thus obtained was based on seven studies carried out by different investigators using different methods for measuring particle size in carrot boluses. A simple mathematical transformation of variables and the choice of an interval of +/-1.96 times the standard deviation gave 4.0 mm as the upper limit of normal median particle size for carrots in a population of young persons with good oral health. This value identifies boluses that may be considered as resulting from impaired mastication, as illustrated in healthy individuals with experimentally hampered mastication, denture wearers, and individuals presenting with obesity or Down syndrome. PMID:20118433

  15. Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) Phase II: 930 New Normative Photos

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

  16. Normative seeds for deadly martyrdoms.

    PubMed

    Tobeña, Adolf; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    Even if Lankford's biographical examination of perpetrators of suicidal attacks serves to alert us on the role played by individual factors in their recruitment, psychological frailties, distress, or coercion do not exhaust the causal pathways to deadly martyrdom. Normative personality attributes must be explored further in order to ascertain plausible roots of murderous sacrifice. We have advanced (Tobeña 2004b; 2009; 2011) a template of normative temperamental traits that could lead activists to the threshold of volunteering for murderous missions. PMID:25162857

  17. Imprecision in normative domains

    E-print Network

    Schoenfield, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Being rational and being moral can be difficult. However, some theories of rationality and morality make living up to these ideals too difficult by imposing requirements which are excessively rigid. In this dissertation, ...

  18. Navigating the Normative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlebowitsh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

  19. Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Fishburn

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

  20. Normative influences on food intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

    2005-01-01

    Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often

  1. Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Gerrek, Monica

    2008-01-09

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present what I think is a particularly compelling normative version of sentimentalism. The moral principle which is the foundation of this ethic is: An act, or a failure to act, is morally wrong if and only...

  2. The Effect of Structured Decision-Making Techniques and Gender on Student Reaction and Quality of Written Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Joan; Echternacht, Lonnie

    1995-01-01

    Experimental groups used four decision-making techniques--reverse brainstorming (RS), dialectical inquiry (DI), devil's advocacy (DA), and consensus--in evaluating writing assignments. Control group produced a better quality document. Student reaction to negative features of RS, DI, and DA were not significant. (SK)

  3. Making UpLib Useful: Personal Document Engineering William C. Janssen, Jeff Breidenbach, Lance Good, Ashok Popat

    E-print Network

    Making UpLib Useful: Personal Document Engineering William C. Janssen, Jeff Breidenbach, Lance Good, Ashok Popat Palo Alto Research Center 3333 Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto, California, 94304 USA {janssen,jbreiden,good their existing practices. In this pa- per, we discuss changes made over the last two years of use of the Up

  4. Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting

    PubMed Central

    Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a “financial guide” detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to “expert” advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified. PMID:23596504

  5. Making automated computer program documentation a feature of total system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, A. W.

    1970-01-01

    It is pointed out that in large-scale computer software systems, program documents are too often fraught with errors, out of date, poorly written, and sometimes nonexistent in whole or in part. The means are described by which many of these typical system documentation problems were overcome in a large and dynamic software project. A systems approach was employed which encompassed such items as: (1) configuration management; (2) standards and conventions; (3) collection of program information into central data banks; (4) interaction among executive, compiler, central data banks, and configuration management; and (5) automatic documentation. A complete description of the overall system is given.

  6. Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a course on documentation. The six sessions of the course cover the following topics: (1) general principles of procedure writing; (2) principles of clear communication (clarity, audience, visuals) and identification of systems types, accounts, and customer requests;…

  7. Documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Laska

    \\u000a In law enforcement, documentation is the prime directive, to borrow television sci-fi terminology. While cyber scientists\\u000a and neuro-specialists may disagree, the mind has a finite capacity, in practical terms, for information storage. The criminal\\u000a justice system often is a sluggish machine, with cases dragging on for many years, whether criminal cases going through the\\u000a appellate process, or civil cases which

  8. The rise and fall of normative control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hechter

    2008-01-01

    Widely-publicized breaches of professional norms among accountants in the United States have kindled their interest in the problem of norms and normative control. This article discusses the current literature on norms. It suggests that normative control, which is always problematic, is especially so when agents are subject to the control of two or more principals having divergent interests. It is

  9. Making \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulio Mori; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Victor M. Ruiz Penichet

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Groupware systems are increasingly embedded in our everyday life, both at the office and at home. Thus groupware systems should\\u000a offer easy interaction for all, including the differently-abled. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of\\u000a a modified version of Google Docs (\\u000a http:\\/\\/docs.google.com\\u000a ) interfaces for collaborative editing of documents. Although consisting of only a few Web

  10. Decision Making in the Curriculum Development Process and Raising the Quality of Academic Standards: What Does a Review of Australian Curriculum Documents Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, to which factors in the process of decision making involved in curriculum development in Australia, have determined the quality of curriculum documents. Searches on web sites of education organisations and electronic databases of educational literature were conducted to identify source documents

  11. A Document Navigation System for the Paperwork An electronic filing system won't make documentation any easier unless a company

    E-print Network

    Loeb, Gerald E.

    . Documentation is at the core of everything a medical device company does. Quality systems can be summed up, and Geoffrey D. V. Salter Managing and locating technical documents is a serious challenge for medical device and expensive online document management systems. However, most small organizations passed the responsibility

  12. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility § 110.51 Documentation an injured countermeasure...

  13. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility § 110.51 Documentation an injured countermeasure...

  14. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility § 110.51 Documentation an injured countermeasure...

  15. Power in Normative Systems Thomas gotnes

    E-print Network

    van der Hoek, Wiebe

    systems, logic, coalitional games, complexity 1. INTRODUCTION Normative systems (a.k.a. social laws) have of accidental non-compliance (or deliberately irrational behaviour) and it is therefore to the issue of non

  16. Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi

    2015-03-01

    Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "Staying normative during gambling"; and "I have changed" (reformed gamblers' presentation of themselves as having changed for the better). The findings underscore the complex dialogue behind the identity construction put forward by women with a gambling problem, their yearning to be perceived by society as normative women and to fit in despite their stigmatized behavior, and the tension they feel in society's relationship toward them. The findings also suggest that practitioners who work with women gamblers may want to pay attention to the power relations shaping identity construction in an interview setting, and look more closely at the women's awareness of the stigma they bear and the complex processes that make up their multidimensional identity. PMID:25822607

  17. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges - how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies . The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082

  18. Supreme Court Bound: An Introduction Concerning the Intrinsic Subjectivity of Supreme Court Decision-Making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Hoorelbeke

    2005-01-01

    There are many theories behind Supreme Court decision-making that are primarily descriptive or normative. Descriptive theories attempt a hermetic explanation that sufficiently applies to all past decisions, and normative theories seek to create a rubric or method, also dependable, for how the justices of the Supreme Court should make decisions. Normative theories can be highly porous and problematic because they

  19. A Normative Agent-based Model for Predicting Smoking Cessation Trends

    E-print Network

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    is ripe for greater inclusion in social simulations. This paper describes a lightweight architecture are an important part of human social systems, gov- erning many aspects of group decision-making. Yet many popularly used social models neglect to model normative ef- fects on human behavior, relying on simple

  20. Psychiatry: insights into depression through normative decision-making models

    E-print Network

    Dayan, Peter

    . The understanding of these systems has benefited significantly from theoretical accounts of optimal control.gatsby.ucl.ac.uk/qhuys/pub.html 1 #12;Yoked Control Master Figure 1: The learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. Three sets of rats by performing an action, usually turning a wheel mounted in front of it. The yoked rat is exposed to precisely

  1. Transcending Normativity: Difference Issues in "College English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The author reads five volumes of "College English" with attention to the extent to which authors account for issues of systemic difference in their writing--both in their representations of themselves as authors and in their representations of others--as one means to explore how (indeed whether) we have begun to transcend normativity in our…

  2. Modeling Control Mechanisms with Normative Multiagent Systems

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    of renewable energy. We apply a conceptual model based on normative multiagent systems (NMAS). We propose for energy sup- pliers to produce evidence of having distributed a certain minimal amount of renewable energy regulative rule. To present evidence of the amount of renewable energy produced, suppliers use so called

  3. Causal Mechanism and Probability: A Normative Approach

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    two major trends in this research, and for a quite different way of thinking about causal mechanismsCausal Mechanism and Probability: A Normative Approach Clark Glymour Patricia W. Cheng University The rationality of human causal judgments has been the focus of a great deal of recent research. We argue against

  4. The Methodology of Normative Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christopher; Zeckhauser, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy analyses frequently clash. Their disagreements stem from many sources, including models, empirical estimates, and values such as who should have standing and how different criteria should be weighted. We provide a simple taxonomy of disagreement, identifying distinct categories within both the positive and values domains of normative policy…

  5. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample. PMID:25072106

  6. NORMATIVITY IN KANT'S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    1 NORMATIVITY IN KANT'S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC REBECCA V. MILLSOP THE PROBLEM 1. Kant claims logic is normative for thought and reasoning. a. Logic does not tell us "how the understanding is and does think Logic 14) 2. For a law to be normative, it must be possible to violate it in some way. a. As Korsgaard

  7. Explosion and the normativity of logic Florian Steinberger

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    Explosion and the normativity of logic Florian Steinberger Logic has traditionally been construed as a normative discipline; it sets forth stan- dards of correct reasoning. Explosion is a valid principle logic should not recognize explosion as a logical law. Call this the `normative argument against

  8. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  9. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...benefits. 110.51 Section 110.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility §...

  10. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To Determine Eligibility §...

  11. Normative Temporal Values of CRP and ESR in Unilateral and Staged Bilateral TKA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwan Kyu Park; Tae Kyun Kim; Chong Bum Chang; Su Won Yoon; Kyoung Un Park

    2008-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) play helpful roles in determining the presence of infection\\u000a after TKA. To provide baseline values, we documented normative temporal values of CRP and ESR in unilateral and staged bilateral\\u000a TKAs for osteoarthritis. Levels of CRP and ESR were evaluated before surgery and on the first, second, fifth, seventh, fourteenth,\\u000a forty-second, and ninetieth

  12. The American white male: a normative stereotype 

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stella Kalliantas

    1990-01-01

    impression, or normative stereotype, of the American white male (AWM) exist, other than the traditional, agentic one which he has perpetrated about himself (Brannon, 1976; Broverman, Vogel, Broverman, Clarkson, & Rosenkrantz, 1972; Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee..., as viewed and expressed not only by himself, but by other groups within our culture. Rather than pursue an examination of the traditional view of the American white male which he has perpetrated about himself, or the more androgynous one now seemingly...

  13. Toward a normative theory of rationality

    E-print Network

    Stovall, Preston John

    2009-05-15

    lecture given at Harvard on April 30, 1903, later entitled The Three Normative Sciences, C.S. Peirce argued that logic (by which Peirce understood scientific methodology generally), ethics, and aesthetics are capable of an ordered definition beginning... were all driven to reconceive the force of Kant?s philosophy in a way that did not rely on the bifurcation of the world into knowable appearances and unknowable things in themselves (much of this relied on the attempt to tease out a theory...

  14. Normative model for cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Walsh, N E; Schoenfeld, L; Ramamurthy, S; Hoffman, J

    1989-02-01

    The cold pressor test elicits an emotional/motivational pain experience from the immersion of a limb in cold water. It has been widely used to evaluate (experimental and chronic) pain. However, normative models for quantification and comparison for pain tolerance have not previously been established. This study developed a normative mathematical model for pain tolerance using the cold pressor test with over 600 subjects. Norms for age, sex, and ethnic group were calculated. In addition, chronic pain patients were compared with pain-free patients to determine normative differences in response. The results indicate that at any given age Anglo-Saxon males have the longest tolerance time followed by non-Anglo-Saxon males, Anglo-Saxon females, and finally non-Anglo-Saxon females. There is a consistent decrease in tolerance time as the male age increases and minimal change in tolerance time as the female age increases. Chronic pain patients exhibited the same type of pain response pattern as healthy volunteers when corrected for age, sex, and ethnocultural subgroup. PMID:2917058

  15. Improving Judgment Calls: Using a Normative Model of Human Inference in the Advanced Preparation of Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Patrick; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    The conceptual orientation that guides the University of Utah's field-based doctoral program in educational administration is described in this paper, with a focus on making judgments within the decision-making process. The first part explains the rationale for adopting the conceptual orientation and the second part describes the normative model…

  16. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in medical students: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, Siddaraju; Ali, Syed Sadat; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan; Shankar, Vinutha; Kutty, Karthiyanee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The median nerve N20 component constitutes the initial response of the primary somatosensory cortex to somatosensory stimulation of the upper extremity. Knowledge of the underlying generators is important for basic understanding of the initial sequence of cortical activation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, normative data of cortical evoked potentials in particular of N20 wave onset and peak latencies by median nerve stimulation in a group of 100 medical students aged between 18 and 30 years were documented and the effect of physiological variables were studied. Descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used to analyze the healthy subjects and to compare N20 latencies for handedness, respectively. Regression analysis was used to show association between average N20 latencies and physiological variables from which regression formulae were calculated to predict normative values of these parameters. Results: The results of the study indicated that N20 onset and peak latency values are significantly affected by limb length at 95% confidence level. Height is showing as a significant factor affecting N20 onset latencies but it is probably because of high correlation of height with limb length. Age though on linear regression showed some significant correlation with N20 onset and peak latency, multiple regressions showed that it does not affect N20 onset and peak latencies in the presence of other variables. Handedness did not affect both N20 onset and peak latency values. Conclusion: Physiological variables do affect the N20 latencies and these should be standardized before usage for research in basic sciences at all age groups. PMID:24223371

  17. Normative productivity of the global vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Georgii A; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Background The biosphere models of terrestrial productivity are essential for projecting climate change and assessing mitigation and adaptation options. Many of them have been developed in connection to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) that backs the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the end of 1990s, IGBP sponsored release of a data set summarizing the model outputs and setting certain norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity. Since a number of new models and new versions of old models were developed during the past decade, these normative data require updating. Results Here, we provide the series of updates that reflects evolution of biosphere models and demonstrates evolutional stability of the global and regional estimates of terrestrial productivity. Most of them fit well the long-living Miami model. At the same time we call attention to the emerging alternative: the global potential for net primary production of biomass may be as high as 70 PgC y-1, the productivity of larch forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of taiga zone, and the productivity of rain-green forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of tropical rainforest zone. Conclusion The departure from Miami model's worldview mentioned above cannot be simply ignored. It requires thorough examination using modern observational tools and techniques for model-data fusion. Stability of normative knowledge is not its ultimate goal – the norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity must be evidence-based. PMID:19108718

  18. HIV prevention, structural change and social values: the need for an explicit normative approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2012-01-01

    Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well. PMID:22713355

  19. Normative Feedback Effects on Learning a Timing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of normative feedback on learning a sequential timing task. In addition to feedback about their performance per trial, two groups of participants received bogus normative feedback about a peer group's average block-to-block improvement after each block of 10 trials. Scores indicated either greater (better…

  20. Constitutive Norms in the Design of Normative Multiagent Systems

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    Constitutive Norms in the Design of Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella1 and Leendert van der of normative multiagent systems composed of both constitutive and regulative norms. We analyze the properties of constitutive norms, in particular their lack of reflexivity, and the trade-off be- tween constitutive

  1. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

  2. Non-verbal memory measured by Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure B: normative data.

    PubMed

    Luzzi, Simona; Pesallaccia, Martina; Fabi, Katia; Muti, Marco; Viticchi, Giovanna; Provinciali, Leandro; Piccirilli, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    One of the major problems that clinical neuropsychology has had in memory clinics is to apply ecological, easily administrable and sensitive tests that can make the diagnosis of dementia both precocious and reliable. Often the choice of the best neuropsychological test is hard because of a number of variables that can influence a subject's performance. In this regard, tests originally devised to investigate cognitive functions in healthy adults are not often appropriate to analyze cognitive performance in old subjects with low education because of their intrinsically complex nature. In the present paper, we present normative values for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure B Test (ROCF-B) a simple test that explores constructional praxis and visuospatial memory. We collected normative data of copy, immediate and delayed recall of the ROCF-B in a group of 346 normal Italian subjects above 40 years. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effect of age, sex, and education on the three tasks administered to the subjects. Age and education had a significant effect on copying, immediate recall, and delayed recall as well as on the rate of forgetting. Correction grids and equivalent scores with cut-off values relative to each task are available. The availability of normative values can make the ROCF-B a valid instrument to assess non-verbal memory in adults and in the elderly for whom the commonly used ROCF-A is too demanding. PMID:21630034

  3. Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

  4. Optimizing Personalized Normative Feedback: The Use of Gender-Specific Referents*

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, MELISSA A.; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON

    2008-01-01

    Objective Many brief interventions include personalized normative feedback (PNF) using gender-specific or gender-neutral referents. Several theories suggest that information pertaining to more socially proximal referents should have greater influence on one’s behavior compared with more socially distal referents. The current research evaluated whether gender specificity of the normative referent employed in PNF related to intervention efficacy. Method Following baseline assessment, 185 college students (45.2% women) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: gender-specific feedback, gender-neutral feedback, or assessment-only control. Immediately after completing measures of perceived norms, alcohol consumption, and gender identity, participants in the gender-neutral and gender-specific intervention conditions were provided with computerized information detailing their own drinking behavior, their perceptions of student drinking, and actual student drinking. Results After a 1-month follow-up, the results indicated that normative feedback was effective in changing perceived norms and reducing alcohol consumption for both intervention groups for women and men. The results provide support, however, for changes in perceived gender-specific norms as a mediator of the effects of normative feedback on reduced drinking behavior for women only. Additionally, gender-specific feedback was found to be more effective for women higher in gender identity, relative to the gender-neutral feedback. A post-assessment follow-up telephone survey administered to assess potential demand characteristics corroborated the intervention effects. Conclusions Results extend previous research documenting efficacy of computer delivered PNF. Gender specificity and gender identity appear to be important elements to consider for PNF intervention efficacy for women. PMID:17286341

  5. Accidental Government Documents Librarian: A Review of Experiences and Training Needs of Interim Documents Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelinek, Kathryn; Hinchcliff, Marilou

    2009-01-01

    The results of a survey to determine the training needs and normative experiences of temporary government documents librarians are presented. The results indicate that temporary librarians tend to work in academia, have been in librarianship for a shorter time period, and have fewer technical processing skills than permanent documents librarians.…

  6. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.61 Documentation a requester who is...

  7. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.60 Documentation a requester who is...

  8. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.61 Documentation a requester who is...

  9. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.60 Documentation a requester who is...

  10. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.61 Documentation a requester who is...

  11. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.60 Documentation a requester who is...

  12. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined...INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Documentation Required for the Secretary To...Program Benefits § 110.61 Documentation a requester who is...

  13. DOCUMENTATION 04.22.13

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    DOCUMENTATION 04.22.13 CONTENT _ Documentation should contain all. PDF files should be reserved for summary documentation, such as making easily photographs should also be included in the documentation, even if they also appear

  14. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  15. A Normative Pragmatic Perspective on Appealing to Emotions in Argumentation

    E-print Network

    Innocenti, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Is appealing to emotions in argumentation ever legitimate and, if so, what is the best way to analyze and evaluate such appeals? After overviewing a normative pragmatic perspective on appealing to emotions in argumentation, I present answers...

  16. Normative Beliefs About Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca P. Ang; Kit-Aun Tan; Abu Talib Mansor

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator

  17. Young children understand the normative implications of future-directed speech acts.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode ("A, do X!") or as a prediction ("the actor A will do X"). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

  18. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

  19. Tradeoffs Among Social, Resource, and Management Attributes of the Denali Wilderness Experience: A Contextual Approach to Normative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Lawson; Robert E. Manning

    2002-01-01

    Wilderness experiences are thought to be comprised of three primary dimensions, includingsocial,resource,and managementconditions.Decisionsabouthowtomanage wilderness recreation in Denali National Park and Preserve involve potential trade- offs among these conditions. This study extends the normative approach to wilder- ness research by developing and applying a decision-making model that considers social, resource, and managerial attributes of the wilderness experience within a more holistic

  20. Feedback from European Social Partners as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document provides European social partners' responses to the Commission's memorandum on lifelong learning. Part 1, Opinion of the European Center of Enterprises, makes comments and proposals related to the memorandum's six key messages, which are new basic skills for all; more investment in human resources; innovation in teaching and…

  1. The Concept Shifting Test: Adult Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Concept Shifting Test (CST) is a newly developed Trail Making Type test that measures concept shifting and executive functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CST performance was affected by age, gender, educational level, or handedness and to establish the normal range of test performance. The CST was…

  2. Italian Right Hemisphere Language Battery: the normative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zanini; K. Bryan; G. De Luca; A. Bava

    2005-01-01

    Clinical neurolinguistics still lacks consolidated and standardised tools for the assessment of impairments of pragmatics of verbal communication. In the present paper we present norms of the Italian version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (Batteria del Linguaggio dell’Emisfero Destro, BaLED) [1] originally devised by Bryan [2]. The normative study has been conducted with the recruitment of 440 healthy subjects.

  3. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  4. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  5. IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems (Demonstration) Javier Morales1. In this paper we present the Intelligent Robust On-line Norm Synthesis Machine (IRON), a system whose goal is the automated synthesis of norms. IRON is capable of synthesising norms that are at the same time effective (to

  6. Normative self-definitional minority influence: when innovation is valued

    E-print Network

    Babcock, Denette Rae

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test a prediction of the normative self-definitional model of social influence: when a non-n of 1 innovation 's salient and se] f-relevant to person, a minority is more likely to attain influence compared to when a norm...

  7. Rurality and the Normative Order in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Beverly Jackson; Willits, Fern K.

    1975-01-01

    It was hypothesized that rurality would be positively related to a traditional normative order represented by moral reality. In general, as rurality declined, the emphasis on the effect of an improper act declined, and the importance of the actor's motives increased. (Author)

  8. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  9. Normative properties of stock market equilibrium with moral hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Magill; Martine Quinzii

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model of stock market equilibrium with a finite number of corporations and studies its normative properties. Each firm is run by a manager whose effort is unobservable and influences the probabilities of the firm’s outcomes. The Board of Directors of each firm chooses an incentive contract for the manager which maximizes the firm’s market value. With

  10. Normative support for corporal punishment: Attitudes, correlates, and implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifton P. Flynn

    1996-01-01

    Corporal punishment enjoys strong normative support in American society, even in the face of growing evidence suggesting that it may be potentially harmful. This article examines Americans' attitudes toward the physical punishment of children. Support for spanking varies along such social categories as race, education, religion, and region. The article concludes bu discussing the implications of corporal punishment attitudes for

  11. Normative data for the halstead-reitan neuropsychological tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delee Fromm-auch; Lorne T. Yeudall

    1983-01-01

    Normative data from a large neurologically intact, nonpsychiatric adult sample (male=111, female = 82) are presented. Despite the size limitations in the upper age ranges, these data are consistent with previously published norms. Sex effects are evident, with females appearing weaker and slower than males on motor tests. The higher than average WAIS FSIQ displayed by this normal sample and

  12. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

  13. Brief report Normative data for the HADS from a large

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    Objectives. To provide normative data for the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Design. Repeated. The reliability of the HADS is acceptable; the Anxiety and Depression scales are moderately correlated (.53). Tables to convert raw scores to percentiles are presented for females and males. Conclusions. The present

  14. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulby, David

    2012-01-01

    The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

  15. A distributed normative infrastructure for situated multi-agent organisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Y. Okuyama; Rafael H. Bordini; Antônio Carlos Da Rocha Costa

    2008-01-01

    In most of the existing approaches to the design of multi-agent sys- tems, there is no clear way in which to relate organisational and normative struc- tures to the model of the environment where they are to be situated and operate. Our work addresses this problem by putting together, in a practical approach to developing multi-agent systems (and social simulations

  16. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  17. What is Hooking Up? Examining Definitions of Hooking Up in Relation to Behavior and Normative Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dent, David V.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple hooking up definitions among college students and how different definitions might be associated with participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up. Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805

  18. The normativity of the concept of heteronormativity.

    PubMed

    Herz, Marcus; Johansson, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze and to critically examine use of the concept of heteronormativity. We find it important to adjust the concept to some extent in order to analyze, for example, changes occurring in homosexual families, contemporary gender-equal families, or the progressive youth culture. We find two approaches when using the concept. One minimizes the importance of how sexual practices are embedded in social institutions. The first approach becomes too idealistic, whereas the second approach often is based on a structural view of society. This approach makes it hard to imagine a transformation of the family that could lead to more equal and democratic relations in contemporary families. We suggest a third approach, and the possibility of finding creative ways of analyzing actual change and contestations of heteronormativity. An approach containing a space of reflexivity and aiming at political change both involving subjects as well as structures. PMID:25710334

  19. Establishing management standards: Selected examples of the normative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaske, Jerry J.; Donnelly, Maureen P.; Shelby, Bo

    1993-09-01

    The importance of developing evaluative standards for judging the acceptability of impacts caused by recreation is common to all recent natural resource management frameworks. A normative model has been advanced as a useful way to conceptualize, collect, and organize empirical data representing standards for resource management issues. This article summarizes the findings from social and ecological research to illustrate the utility of the normative approach from a manager's perspective. The social data (e.g., encounter norms, proximity norms, and tolerances for launch wait times) were obtained from 13 different study sites, while the ecological data (e.g., tolerances for the amount of bare ground, size of fire rings, instream flows, and wildlife management practices) were collected at three specific sites and from one statewide survey, Findings from the social research indicated that encounter norms exist for particular types of contacts with certain types of visitors at particular places and for certain types of experiences. The recreationists reported norms for acceptable distances between individuals, encounters with others at campsites or attractions, and waiting times to run rapids. These social norm evaluation techniques were also shown to be transferable to normative evaluations of ecological impacts. The users had opinions about ecological impacts and were willing to express them. In addition, the ecological norms were of moderate to high intensity. It is argued that the usefulness of normative approaches lies in their ability to characterize group agreement about appropriate use conditions or impact levels for a particular recreation experience, thus providing the evaluative information needed to establish management standards.

  20. Establishing management standards: Selected examples of the normative approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Bo Shelby

    1993-01-01

    The importance of developing evaluative standards for judging the acceptability of impacts caused by recreation is common\\u000a to all recent natural resource management frameworks. A normative model has been advanced as a useful way to conceptualize,\\u000a collect, and organize empirical data representing standards for resource management issues. This article summarizes the findings\\u000a from social and ecological research to illustrate the

  1. One hundred alleged false confession cases: some normative data.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the psychological characteristics of individuals who retract self-incriminating admissions made during police interviewing. A group of 100 alleged false confessors was compared with 104 other forensic referrals on four psychological variables. The two groups differed significantly on tests of intelligence, suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Normative data are provided for clinicians to evaluate test scores when assessing the psychological characteristics of individuals who claim to have made false confessions. PMID:2364207

  2. Normative orientations of university faculty and doctoral students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa S. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Data from two national surveys of 4,000 faculty and doctoral students in chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology and sociology\\u000a indicate that both faculty and students subscribe strongly to traditional norms but are more likely to see alternative counternorms\\u000a enacted in their departments. They also show significant effects of departmental climate on normative orientations and suggest\\u000a that many researchers express some degree

  3. Normative Beliefs about Factors That Affect Health and Longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth Love; Quint Thurman

    1991-01-01

    Since the release of the Surgeon General's report, Healthy People,1 the general public has been barraged with health information and advice by the popular media. Accordingly, this article introduces a method for examining the public's beliefs about the importance of behavioral risk factors associated with health and longevity. The factorial survey approach—a technique appropriate for studying normative beliefs—seems uniquely suited

  4. A Distributed Normative Infrastructure for Situated Multi-agent Organisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Y. Okuyama; Rafael H. Bordini; Antônio da Rocha Costa

    In most of the existing approaches to the design of multi-agent systems, there is no clear way in which to relate organisational\\u000a and normative structures to the model of the environment where they are to be situated and operate. Our work addresses this\\u000a problem by putting together, in a practical approach to developing multi-agent systems (and social simulations in particular),

  5. The normative constitution of professional power.

    PubMed

    Frankford, D M

    1997-02-01

    This article concerns the manner in which we think and talk about power in health care policy and regulation, and the political and social practices allied with that discourse. I assert that in health care policy and practice we speak of and live within the era of countervailing power. In this language and practice power is a force exercised by one actor to enforce its will against another actor against whom power is exerted. I contend that this language inculcates an individual and social passivity in which citizens rely upon various types of representatives to constitute health care for them in a manner in which they do not and cannot participate. However, this language of power and the political and social practice with which it is associated is merely a contingent, historical product. I claim that an alternative discourse of power is possible, in which power consists of the social interactions in which all of us mutually participate but no one of us can control. Power in this sense is participatory by nature, and because no one is in control, it makes no sense to relegate tasks to specialized, nonparticipatory domains. This alternative discourse of power, therefore, might call forth participatory practices in health care and a concomitant diminution of specialization and expansion of the public sphere. The result would be to blur the lines separating politics from everyday interaction, politics from economy, professionals from patients, and insurers from insureds. Participation would mean much more than casting a vote or writing a check but would also include the mutual sharing of time and energy in the tasks that need to be done: long-term and short-term care, practices of prevention, caring for the chronically ill, and monitoring bureaucratic and professional activities. PMID:9057126

  6. Discrepancies in the normative neonatal blood pressure reference ranges.

    PubMed

    Lalan, Shwetal P; Warady, Bradley A

    2015-08-01

    Numerous normative blood pressure (BP) reference ranges with considerable variation in the data have been published for neonates. This poses unique challenges for the definition and management of BP abnormalities in neonates. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that have led to varying normative BP reference ranges in the studies conducted to date and to discuss potential study designs that would help better define the normative data. An electronic literature search was performed in 'PubMed' for articles published in English between January 1965 and February 2014 related to neonatal BP reference ranges. Common limitations found in the published studies included small sample sizes, combined use of oscillometric and intra-arterial BP measurements, lack of consideration of potentially influential factors such as postconception age, daily weight and medications, and use of data from individuals with wide ranges of gestational age, birth weight, and postconception age. Inconsistencies in the published neonatal BP reference ranges are likely due to a combination of factors related to study design. Attention to these issues should be considered when designing future multicenter studies on this topic. PMID:25756223

  7. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

  8. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

  9. Assessing Adolescent Decision-Making Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral decision research offers a general approach to studying cognitive aspects of decision making, as well as a platform for studying their interplay with social and affective processes. Applied to any decision, behavioral decision research involves three interrelated tasks: (a) "normative" analysis, identifying the expected impacts of…

  10. The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

  11. Objective Measures of Behavior Manifestations in Adult ADHD and Differentiation from Participants with Bipolar II Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Participants with Disconfirmed ADHD as Well as Normative Participants

    PubMed Central

    Edebol, Hanna; Helldin, Lars; Norlander, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants. Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD. Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms. PMID:23166565

  12. Effect of Transformational Leadership on Followers' Affective and Normative Commitment: Culture as Moderator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudha Ramachandran; Venkat R. Krishnan

    Using a sample of 98 employees working in U.S., India, and China, the study shows that affective and normative commitment are positively related to transformational leadership. Normative commitment is higher in India-China combined than in the U.S. Transformational leadership is positively related to normative commitment in India and China but not in the U.S. and to affective commitment in the

  13. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  14. Characteristics of the Normative Database for the Humphrey Matrix Perimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew John; Johnson, Chris A.; Fingeret, Murray; Keltner, John L.; Spry, Paul G. D.; Wall, Michael; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The Humphrey Matrix (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin CA; Welch-Allyn, Skaneateles, NY) is a high-spatial-resolution perimeter that uses frequency-doubling stimuli. It incorporates an efficient test strategy that assumes that age, eccentricity, and test procedure type have only small effects on sensitivity. The results used to create the normative database for the perimeter were examined, to see whether these assumptions were met and to examine the form of the normative data. Method Visual fields were measured (Matrix 30-2, 24-2, 10-2 and Macula patterns) in >275 subjects judged to be normal by a battery of clinical procedures. The right eye was always tested first. Results Sensitivity decreased by approximately 0.7 dB per age decade across all eccentricities; sensitivity decreased with eccentricity, typically by <5 dB at the most peripheral points tested. Although there was no systematic difference in sensitivity between the 30-2 and 24-2 tests, the Macula test sensitivities were typically 1 dB higher than for the 10-2 test. Sensitivity in the left eye was slightly lower than in the right, with the difference being significantly greater in the temporal visual field. In most test locations, the 95% confidence interval of normal sensitivity was approximately 6 dB below the median sensitivity. Conclusions The performance of the test strategy in the Matrix perimeter is appropriately matched to the response characteristics of the normal population. The finding of a spatially nonuniform difference in sensitivity between left and right eyes is attributable to light-adaptation differences between the eyes. This effect is accounted for in the perimeter’s normative database. PMID:15790927

  15. Methodological guidance documents for evaluation of ethical considerations in health technology assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Goeree, Ron

    2014-04-01

    Despite the advances made in the development of ethical frameworks for health technology assessment (HTA), there is no clear agreement on the scope and details of a practical approach to address ethical aspects in HTA. This systematic review aimed to identify existing guidance documents for incorporation of ethics in HTA to provide an overview of their methodological features. The review identified 43 conceptual frameworks or practical guidelines, varying in their philosophical approach, structure, and comprehensiveness. They were designed for different purposes throughout the HTA process, ranging from helping HTA-producers in identification, appraisal and analysis of ethical data to supporting decision-makers in making value-sensitive decisions. They frequently promoted using analytical methods that combined normative reflection with participatory approaches. The choice of a method for collection and analysis of ethical data seems to depend on the context in which technology is being assessed, the purpose of analysis, and availability of required resources. PMID:24625039

  16. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

  17. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

  18. Parents Know Best, But Are They Accurate? Parental Normative Misperceptions and Their Relationship to Students' Alcohol-Related Outcomes*

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; Ehret, Phillip J.; Kenney, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Parents often look to other parents for guidance, but how accurate are their perceptions? Expanding on existing normative literature to include parents of college students, this study first sought to determine whether parents accurately estimated the attitudes of other parents concerning their college student's alcohol-related behaviors. The effect of these (mis)perceived injunctive norms on the alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors of the parents' own children was then examined. Method: Participants were 270 college student-parent dyadic pairs who completed independent online surveys. The student sample was 59% female; the parent sample was 78% female. Results: A structural equation model demonstrated that parents significantly overestimated other parents' approval of alcohol use by their respective child and, further, that these misperceptions strongly influenced parental attitudes toward their own child's drinking. Parental attitudes were sub-sequently found to be significantly associated with their child's attitudes toward drinking but were only marginally associated with the child's actual drinking, thereby underscoring the mediational effect of the child's attitudes. Conclusions: This is the first study to document the influence of parental normative misperceptions regarding alcohol use by their college-age children, reinforcing the importance of parental attitudes on children's alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors in college. These findings support the need to complement student-based interventions with parent-based interventions aimed at increasing parental awareness and involvement. Further, the current findings indicate that normative interventions targeting parents offer a promising avenue by which to indirectly and positively influence college students' alcohol use. PMID:21683033

  19. Making Service Science Mainstream

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    Making Service Science Mainstream A white paper based on the 2009 Service Science Summit;MAKING SERVICE SCIENCE MAINSTREAM 2 Foreword Readers of this document are in good company. Service individuals from diverse stakeholder groups support the objective of making service science mainstream

  20. Fairness in Education--A Normative Analysis of OECD Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bøyum, Steinar

    2014-01-01

    Educational policy depends on assumptions about fairness in education, whether they are made explicit or kept implicit. Without a view of fairness, one would be in the dark as to what should be done about the reproduction of social inequality through education, or whether or not anything should be done at all. The aim of this paper is to uncover…

  1. A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren W. Schnare; James M. D. Day; Marc D. Norman; Yang Liu; Lawrence A. Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have reconciled this compositional diversity by considering the olivine- and quartz-normative basalts as originating from different lunar mantle source regions. To provide new information on the compositions of Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalt

  2. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political…

  3. Early Understanding of Normativity and Freedom to Act in Turkish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçgenç, Bahar; Hohenberger, Annette; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated young 2- and 3-year-old Turkish children's developing understanding of normativity and freedom to act in games. As expected, children, especially 3-year-olds, protested more when there was a norm violation than when there was none. Surprisingly, however, no decrease in normative protest was observed even when the…

  4. Predicting Behavior from Normative Influences: What Insights Can the Fishbein Model Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walster, Dian E.

    The Fishbein Model is an attitude behavior consistency model which is used in both laboratory and field settings for predicting and understanding attitudinal and normative influences on behavior. This paper examines controversy surrounding the Fishbein Model's normative component in the context of a study of library and information science (LIS)…

  5. How to Talk About the Body? the Normative Dimension of Science Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Latour; Marc Berg

    2004-01-01

    Science studies has often been against the normative dimension of epistemology, which made a naturalistic study of science impossible. But this is not to say that a new type of normativity cannot be detected at work inscience studies. This is especially true in the second wave of studies dealing with the body, which has aimed at criticizing the physicalization of

  6. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  7. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycie?, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition. PMID:24910957

  8. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. PMID:25313225

  9. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

  10. Modified Taylor Complex Figure: normative data from 290 adults.

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Alessandra; Papagno, Costanza; Zarino, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Data for copying and delayed recall (after a 15-min delay) of the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF), an alternative form of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), were collected from 290 healthy participants. Normative data are provided. Age and education were significantly correlated with MTCF scores and must be corrected for to interpret results accurately. More specifically, increasing age adversely affected performance, whereas a higher education resulted in a better performance. Twenty-five participants were tested with both complex figures (MTCF and ROCF) in two separate sessions to assess correlation, which proved to be high. The collected data allow using the MTCF as a valid alternative material for testing visual long-term memory avoiding implicit learning that can occur when the same version of the ROCF is used for repeated testing sessions. PMID:23647550

  11. Hippocampal volumetry: Normative data in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Mohandas, Aravind Narayan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Prathyusha, Parthipulli Vasuki; Gupta, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative analysis of the hippocampus using volumetry is commonly being used in the diagnosis of MTS and is being used as a marker in prognostication of seizure control. Although normative data for hippocampal volume (HV) is available for the western population, no such data is available for the Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to establish normative data for HV for the Indian population, which can aid in the accurate diagnosis of MTS. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 200 healthy volunteers were acquired using a 3 Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Manual segmentation and volumetry was done using Siemens Syngo software. The data was analyzed using two tailed t-test to detect associations between HV and age, gender, and education. The data so obtained was also correlated with the data available from the rest of the world. Results: A mean HV of 2.411 cm3 (standard deviation -0.299) was found in the study, which was significantly smaller when compared to the data from the western population. The right hippocampus was larger than the left, with a mean volume of 2.424 cm3 and 2.398 cm3, respectively. HV was detected to be significantly higher in males. No association was found between HV and age and education. Conclusion: The values obtained in this study may be adopted as a standard in the evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:25221393

  12. Mini mental Parkinson test: standardization and normative data on an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Bagoj, Eriola; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; De Rosa, Salvatore; Mundi, Ciro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The mini mental Parkinson (MMP) is a test built to overcome the limits of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in the short-time screening of cognitive disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In fact, in this scale, items tapping executive functioning are included to better capture PD-related cognitive changes. Some data sustain the sensitivity and validity of the MMP in the short neuropsychological screening of these individuals. Here, we report normative data on the MMP we collected on a sample of 307 Italian healthy subjects ranging from 40 to 91 years. The results document a detrimental effect of age and an ameliorative effect of education on the MMP total performance score. We provide for correction grids for age and literacy that derive from results of the regression analyses. Moreover, we also computed equivalent scores in order to allow a direct and fast comparison between the performance on the MMP and on other psychometric measures that can be administered to the subjects. PMID:23479031

  13. Making pain visible: an audit and review of documentation to improve the use of pain assessment by implementing pain as the fifth vital sign.

    PubMed

    Purser, Liz; Warfield, Kelly; Richardson, Cliff

    2014-03-01

    Pain has been promoted as the fifth vital sign for a decade, but there is little empirical evidence to suggest that doing so has affected the care of individuals suffering pain. This was a three-stage audit of pain assessment in one large teaching hospital in the Northwest of England. Stage one measured the baseline pain assessment activity on surgical and medical wards and identified that the pain assessment tool was not visible to nurses. Stage two redesigned the patient observation charts held at the end of the bed and piloted two versions for clinical utility. Version 2 which had pain assessment alongside the early warning score was adopted and introduced throughout the hospital. Stage three audited pain assessment and management 8 months after the introduction of the new charts. Pain was assessed more regularly at the stage three audit than at the baseline audit. On average, pain was assessed alongside other routine observations 70% of the time across surgical and medical wards. Medical wards appeared to improve their pain assessment using the philosophy of pain being the fifth vital sign better than surgical wards, because they assessed pain alongside routine observations in >90% of cases. Stage three identified that where a high pain score was recorded, analgesia was delivered in the majority of cases (88%). Introducing the philosophy of pain as the fifth vital sign and making pain assessment more visible on the patient observation chart improved the uptake of pain assessment. Pain management strategies were stimulated when high pain scores were identified. PMID:24602432

  14. Understanding the Factors that Affect Sustainable Consumers' Decision Making from an Ethical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Rex

    With the growing concern about the environment and the effects of global warming, there has been increasing academic interest in studies that examine sustainable decision making behaviour, and also ethical approaches to such problems. However, there have been no studies that link consumer decision making and ethical decision making with factors such as moral intensity, demographics, behavioural and normative beliefs,

  15. An STS Case Study about Students' Decision Making on the Waste Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortland, Koos

    1996-01-01

    Assesses students' existing and developing decision-making ability against the background of a normative model of the decision making process. Results indicate that after a unit on household packaging waste the students' arguments about a decision making situation improved in terms of validity and clarity of the criteria used. Contains 16…

  16. Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: an Italian normative study.

    PubMed

    Frasson, P; Ghiretti, R; Catricalà, E; Pomati, S; Marcone, A; Parisi, L; Rossini, P M; Cappa, S F; Mariani, C; Vanacore, N; Clerici, F

    2011-12-01

    The presence of episodic memory impairment is required for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia by all current diagnostic criteria. The new research criteria proposed by Dubois et al. (Lancet Neurol 6:734-746, 2007) require that the impairment should not improve significantly with cueing, recognition testing nor after the control of effective encoding. This is considered to be the core deficit of "prodromal Alzheimer's disease". The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a memory test that allows in assessing these specific features of memory impairment. Here, we report normative data for an Italian version of the FCSRT. The test is based on the 12 pictorial stimuli, 6 belonging to the living domain, and 6 to the non-living domain. Six scores were derived from the performance of 227 healthy Italian adults, with age, sex and education homogenously distributed across subgroups: immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), delayed-free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. In multiple regression analyses, age emerged as an influencing factor for both IFR and DFR, with older people obtaining lower scores. Education and gender appear to influence only IFR, with better performance by more educated subjects and females. Adjusted scores were used to determine inferential cutoff scores and to compute equivalent scores. PMID:21594655

  17. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

  18. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed. PMID:11795070

  19. Windmills or deepwater drills?: Normative Roles of Technology in Norwegian Resource Extraction Policy debates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Windmills or deepwater drills?: Normative Roles of Technology in Norwegian Resource Extraction heritage. Whether offshore in treacherous conditions, or close to the shorelines with thriving ecosystems should invest in developing alternative energy technologies, such as windmills and hydropower. Therefore

  20. Individual Differences in the Relationship between Attitudinal and Normative Determinants of Behavioral Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gregory J.

    1987-01-01

    Confirms the general hypothesis that: persons with relatively undifferentiated political construct systems exhibit substantial collinearity between attitudinal and normative components of the Fishbein-Ajzen behavioral-inventions model. (NKA)

  1. Normative data for healthy older adults and an abbreviated version of the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Kang, Christine; Lee, Grace J; Yi, Dahyun; McPherson, Susan; Rogers, Steven; Tingus, Kathleen; Lu, Po H

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for the Kaplan version of the Stroop Test are presented for 153 healthy, cognitively intact older adults aged 50-89 years. Increasing age was associated with decreased performance on all three subtests (Stroop A, Stroop B, and Stroop C), while years of education was only associated with Stroop B performance. Hence the normative data were stratified by age into three groups (50-64, 65-74, 75-89). Completion times for the first half of each trial (half-time scores) were found to have good split-half reliability and correlated highly with the original full administration scores. Means and standard deviations for the half-time administration are also presented for this sample. The current study provides more comprehensive normative data for older adults than previously available, as well as normative information for half-time scores that may have future clinical utility as an alternative, abbreviated version of the Kaplan Stroop Test. PMID:23259830

  2. Accountability Forces in Performance Appraisal: Effects of Self-Appraisal Information, Normative Information, and Task Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted H. Shore; Armen Tashchian

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of self-appraisal information, normative information, and task performance on performance appraisal ratings. Participants rated a fictitious “subordinate's” performance on a clerical task (which was either very good or moderately poor) subsequent to receiving self-assessment information (high or low) and normative information (present or absent). Self-appraisals affected performance ratings for poor performers but not for good

  3. Normative influences on mens' and womens' physiological and subjective emotional responses 

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Michele Marie

    1992-01-01

    NORMATIVE INFLUENCES ON MENS' AND WOMENS' PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE EMOTIONAL RESPONSES A Thesis by MICHELE MARIE GROSSMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Social Psychology NORMATIVE INFLUENCES ON MENS' AND WOMENS' PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE EMOTIONAL RESPONSES A Thesis by MICHELE MARIE GROSSMAN Approved as to style and content by: Wendy ood...

  4. Reason and Love: A Non-Reductive Analysis of the Normativity of Agent-Relative Reasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo Van Willigenburg

    2005-01-01

    Why do agent-relative reasons have authority over us, reflective creatures? Reductive accounts base the normativity of agent-relative reasons on agent-neutral considerations like ‘having parents caring especially for their own children serves best the interests of all children’. Such accounts, however, beg the question about the source of normativity of agent-relative ways of reason-giving. In this paper, I argue for a

  5. Effects of normative feedback for drinkers who consume less than the norm: Dodging the boomerang.

    PubMed

    Prince, Mark A; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-06-01

    Several alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown to be effective in reducing drinking as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multicomponent intervention. This feedback is typically targeted to heavier drinkers to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations: two using computer-delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

  6. Predictive validity of demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Woods, Steven Paul; Scott, J Cobb; Childers, Meredith; Beck, Jennifer Marquie; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop and validate demographically adjusted normative standards for the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). Given the association between demographic variables and the HDS summary score, demographically adjusted normative standards may enhance the classification accuracy of the HDS. Demographically adjusted normative standards were derived from a sample of 182 seronegative healthy participants and were subsequently applied to a sample of 135 HIV-1 seropositive individuals with multidisciplinary case conference diagnoses of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (e.g., HIV-1-associated dementia and minor-cognitive/motor disorder) in proportions consistent with published epidemiologic reports. In the normative sample, age and education (and their interaction) emerged as the only demographic factors significantly associated with the HDS. In comparison to the traditional HDS cut score (raw score total normative standards significantly improved the sensitivity (from 17.2% to 70.7%, respectively) and overall classification accuracy (increasing the odds ratio from 3 to approximately 6) of the HDS for identifying participants with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. The application of demographically adjusted normative standards on the HDS improves the clinical applicability and accuracy of this cognitive screening measure in the detection of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:17852582

  7. The elite sport and Christianity debate: shifting focus from normative values to the conscious disregard for health.

    PubMed

    Lee Sinden, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Scholars and theologians continue to debate whether or not God's intended purpose of elite sport violates the creational normativity for elite sport. However, while it is important to be aware of the contradictions between elite sport and Christianity, there is a need for more deep-seated discussions about emotions and health problems in elite sport and why so many Christian athletes continue to train for their sport at the expense of their health. This paper summaries the present debate regarding elite sport and Christianity and then shifts the reader to an exploration of the normalization of emotion, and the consequence of emotional suppression on athletes health. In doing so, the author presents the disregard of health problems as a more concrete measure of how far athletes should push themselves in elite sport. The author makes recommendations for emotion education and suggests directions for future research and practice. PMID:22447370

  8. Normative Database of Retinal Oximetry in Asian Indian Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ashwin; Dabir, Supriya; Yadav, Naresh Kumar; Kummelil, Matthew; Kumar, Rajesh S.; Shetty, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the oxygen saturation profile in normal Asian Indian eyes. Design A cross sectional prospective study. Subjects Ninety eight consecutive patients presenting to our hospital with best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 and a normal ophthalmic examination were included in the study. Patients having any ocular or systemic disease were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods Oximetry was performed on all subjects with the Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap hf, Reykjavik, Iceland). Main Outcome Measures The images were analysed for oxygen saturation and diameter. Results The mean age was 33 years (Range: 18-63; SD: 12.4). The average arteriolar saturation was 90.3 ± 6.6% and the venous saturation was 56.9% ± 6.3. The average A-V (arterio-venous) difference was 33.2% ± 5.2. There was an increase in arteriolar (R2 = 0.264; p=0.001) and venous saturation (R2 = 0.151; p=0.001) with age. There was no significant change in the arterio-venous saturation difference (AVSD). The inferotemporal quadrant had the lowest saturations. Age correlated positively with ocular perfusion pressure (OPP)(R2 = 0.07; p=0.007). OPP correlated positively with global arteriolar saturation (R2=0.057, p=0.018). Conclusion This study provides the normative database for an Indian population and is comparable to previous studies. Age, vessel diameter and OPP were the significant factors that influenced the saturation. Arteriolar and venous saturations increased with age while the AVSD did not change significantly. PMID:25923699

  9. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account

    PubMed Central

    Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable “feeling of knowing” or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core property of the learning process. PMID:26076466

  10. ATTACH THIS FORM TO ANY DOCUMENT YOU SEND to the Office of Graduate Admissions in support of your application for admission. Make as many copies of this form as you

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    ATTACH THIS FORM TO ANY DOCUMENT YOU SEND to the Office of Graduate Admissions in support/MM/YY) _________________________________________________________________________________ Name as It Appears on the Attached Document Hall 03 Lubbock, TX 794091030 Cut here Cut here Cut here Cut here ATTACH THIS FORM TO ANY DOCUMENT

  11. Support Applying for Graduate Studies Supplementary Documents

    E-print Network

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    Support ­ Applying for Graduate Studies Supplementary Documents Western makes it possible for you to submit your supporting documents in a digital format. The grid below details the documents required in your Academic History and any additional documents required by the program you are applying to. You

  12. An Experiential Workshop for Meaning Making in Adulthood: The Response of Professional Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlew, Larry D.; Roland, Catherine Buffalino; Moll, Christine

    2000-01-01

    A basic goal for individuals as they struggle to face normative developmental tasks across their life span is to determine how to make meaning of their experiences, real and vicarious. The authors describe a workshop that gave counselors and human service practitioners meaning-making strategies that they could use in their personal and…

  13. Normative Text for QoS Date: 2006-December-22

    E-print Network

    Handover Quality of Service model currently defined in IEEE 802.21 draft D3.0. Notice: This document has and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material the IEEE Patent Committee Administrator at . #12;Content Section 5.1.3 Quality of Service

  14. CERN Document Server: Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Posters for various exhibitions and workshops at CERN, the Swiss-based European Laboratory for Particle Physics, are now available within the Multimedia collection of the CERN Document Server. At this site, over 220 posters can be searched (keyword, title, or date) or browsed by title. The posters cover CERN projects such as the L3 detector and the End-cap Muon system and exhibitions including "Crystals of China" and "Collaborating through the Cold War." They display labeled diagrams of equipment, specifications, and historical facts. Because the online CERN Document Server is set to provide thorough information about documents in its database, users can find the top ten keywords for each poster, get detailed file format information (.pdf, .gif, .ps), extract figures, and receive documents by email. The printable color posters provide an interesting look into the history of CERN research and outreach and make nice office decorations for science geeks such as this editor.

  15. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding

    PubMed Central

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

  16. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Claudia R., E-mail: claudia.binder@geo.uzh.c [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for System Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz (Austria); Feola, Giuseppe [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Steinberger, Julia K. [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  17. Document control and document management.

    PubMed

    Djemal, K K

    1999-12-01

    Most schemes for the accreditation (e.g. United Kingdom Accreditation Service) and certification (e.g. BS EN ISO 9002) of laboratories include a requirement to establish and maintain procedures for the management and control of documents generated internally. Such documents include policy statements, procedures, specifications, and some notices and memoranda. Organisations benefit from using agreed and approved information and from knowing that staff are using agreed and approved methods in their operating procedures. Document control systems are likely to become compulsory as accreditation schemes, such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA) for clinical microbiology laboratories, align with international standards. The Technical Services Division (TSD) in PHLS Headquarters has been developing a control system for various documents that it issues to the PHLS and control of documentation that forms the TSD quality system. The document control system has recently developed into a document management system that provides a mechanism for managing all documents generated or received by the division. TSD's approach is described here to provide laboratories and other organisations with ideas for how they could set up or develop their own document management system to improve accessibility to information. PMID:10598395

  18. Migration method 1 Make use of the default roles and features provided by the OS You can practice this migration method by referring to the technical documentation in the TechNet Library officially provided by Microsoft or by working in collaboration wit

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Migration method 1 ­ Make use of the default roles and features provided by the OS You can practice this migration method by referring to the technical documentation in the TechNet Library officially provided apply this to the migration of both the physical and virtual servers. Migration method 2 ­ Use as web

  19. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

  20. Individual differences in moral judgment competence influence neural correlates of socio-normative judgments

    PubMed Central

    Wartenburger, Isabell; Mériau, Katja; Scheibe, Christina; Goodenough, Oliver R.; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how individual differences in moral judgment competence are reflected in the human brain, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, while 23 participants made either socio-normative or grammatical judgments. Participants with lower moral judgment competence recruited the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the left posterior superior temporal sulcus more than participants with greater competence in this domain when identifying social norm violations. Moreover, moral judgment competence scores were inversely correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during socio-normative relative to grammatical judgments. Greater activity in right DLPFC in participants with lower moral judgment competence indicates increased recruitment of rule-based knowledge and its controlled application during socio-normative judgments. These data support current models of the neurocognition of morality according to which both emotional and cognitive components play an important role. PMID:19015093

  1. Document creation, linking, and maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, Ronald (Pasco, WA)

    2011-02-15

    A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

  2. Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kelly; Beagan, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    Despite increased attention to "culturally competent" practice with diverse populations, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people remain relatively invisible within medicine and other health professions. Health care providers (HCPs) frequently dismiss sexual and gender identity as irrelevant to care. This study uses interviews with 24 physicians and 38 LGBTQ-identified women to explore how routine practices in health care can perpetuate or challenge the marginalization of LGBTQ women. While physicians avoid making assumptions to reduce judgment, a "neutral" stance reinforces the hetero- and gender normative status quo. Cultural competence with LGBTQ patients requires learning with, rather than learning about, LGBTQ people's particular health care concerns as well as paying explicit attention to pervasive power relations and normative contexts. PMID:25196115

  3. Normative data for stretched penile length in term neonates born in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Sudha Rathna; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Bharath, R.; Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Kumutha, J.; Suresh, Seshadri

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To establish normative data for stretched penile length (SPL) in term male neonates born in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: All live term male neonates delivered in a hospital during a given period were included. SPL was measured from the pubic ramus to the tip of the glans. Two consecutive measurements were taken and average was recorded. Results: The mean SPL observed in our study was 2.83 ± 0.49 cm. Conclusion: This study helps establish normative values for SPL in neonates of Tamil Nadu origin. PMID:25143923

  4. A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

    E-print Network

    Perfect, Ed

    basalts Darren W. Schnare a,*, James M.D. Day a,b , Marc D. Norman c , Yang Liu a , Lawrence A. Taylor Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have

  5. 14 CFR 302.7 - Service of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Service of documents. 302.7 Section 302... § 302.7 Service of documents. (a) Who makes service...1) The Department. Formal complaints, notices, orders, and similar documents issued by the...

  6. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  7. MSU at Work in Africa: Cultural Documentation

    E-print Network

    are strongly committed to documenting, preserving, and making accessible the continent's cultural heritage' identifying their cultural heritage. Safeguarding and making accessible the artifacts, oral histories are important cultural heritage priorities that were recognized at the second annual conference and general

  8. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the large extent dominated by expected utility theory. The model also provides a platform for reconciling two groups of competing dual processing theories (parallel competitive with default-interventionalist theories). PMID:22943520

  9. Perceptions of document relevance.

    PubMed

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  10. DocumentCloud

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cloud computing is gaining currency, and this new project is just one of the many initiatives that will make people sit up and take notice. The Document Cloud nonprofit began in 2009 with funds from the Knight News Challenge, and the idea behind the group is that journalists, researchers, and archivists can use the DocumentCloud workspace to upload documents, share them with teams of colleagues, and also conduct structured searches and analyses based on extracted entities (also known as the people, places, and organizations mentioned in the text). The group is in the process of releasing some of their work as open-source projects, and visitors can use the "FAQ" area to learn more about these projects. The site also includes a blog, a "Latest Updates" area, and profiles of the founders over at "Who We Are". [KMG

  11. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

  12. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can-or, as the case may be, cannot-validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met. PMID:25985843

  13. Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement/Normative Update (K-TEA/NU.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lamoine J.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, an individually administered measure of the school achievement of children ages 6 to 18 years. The normative update extended the age range to include examinees from 19 to 22 years. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and validity are discussed. (Contains references.)…

  14. Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised/Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Joe P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests Revised/Normative Update, an instrument designed to assess reading ability in students in grades K-12, undergraduate college students, and adults. The tests evaluate basic reading skills, reading comprehension, and reading readiness. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…

  15. Factor Analysis of the KeyMath--Revised Normative Update Form A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria; Eaves, Ronald C.; Darch, Craig; Woods-Groves, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The factor structure of the "KeyMath--Revised Normative Update" (KMR-NU) "Form A" was analyzed using data from a sample of 130 students. The KMR-NU is composed of 13 subtests that are purported to measure three important aspects of math ability: Basic Concepts, Operations, and Applications. A confirmatory factor analysis employing scaled scores…

  16. Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

  17. Reorganization in Coping Behavior at 1 1/2 Years: Dynamic Systems and Normative Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc D.; Zimmerman, Sara; Hollenstein, Tom; Lamey, Alex V.

    2004-01-01

    By the age of 1 year toddlers demonstrate distinct coping habits for dealing with frustration. However, these habits may be open to change and reorganization at subsequent developmental junctures. We investigated change in coping habits at 18-20 months, a normative age for major advances in social cognition, focusing on the dynamic systems…

  18. An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

  19. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

  20. Exploring evolutionary detected fuzzy equilibria: a link between normative theory and real life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Dumitrescu; Rodica Ioana Lung; Réka Nagy; Daniela Zaharie; Attila Bartha

    2010-01-01

    Based on a study of how people play the centipede game, an equilibrium configuration that models the human behavior is detected. This configuration is a joint equilibrium obtained as a fuzzy combination of Nash and Pareto equilibria. In this way a connection between normative theory, computational game theory and behavioral games is established.

  1. Normative Data on the College Adjustment Scales from a University Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Mark A.; Couillard, Gwena C.; Smith, Timothy B.; Wiswell, Denise K.

    1998-01-01

    Normative data on the College Adjustment Scales (CAS) were gathered from university counseling center clients. Counseling center clients differed significantly from two nonclient student comparison groups, especially in reported problems with anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Undergraduate and graduate students also differed on most CAS…

  2. Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. LaBrie; Joel R. Grossbard; Justin F. Hummer

    2009-01-01

    This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes

  3. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

  4. Normative Trends in Children's Perceptions of Availability and Utilization of Attachment Figures in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kathryn A.; Tomich, Patricia L.; Kim, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Two studies addressed the normative aspects of attachments to mothers and fathers in middle childhood. Using both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons, we tested the hypothesis that children show no changes in perceptions of availability of attachment figures across the later middle childhood years, but do utilize attachment figures less…

  5. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…

  6. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

    This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

  7. Moral intuition: Its neural substrates and normative significance James Woodward a

    E-print Network

    Allman, John M.

    Moral intuition: Its neural substrates and normative significance James Woodward a , John Allman b 1200 E California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125, USA Abstract Philosophers use the phrase ``moral intuition" to describe the appearance in consciousness of moral judgments or assessments without any awareness of having

  8. Performing an Archive of Resistance: Challenging Normative Life Narratives through Literary Reading and Memoir Writing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological…

  9. The Relationship of Attitudes and Normative Beliefs to Cheating in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; Ajzen, Ecek

    1971-01-01

    Highly significant correlations were obtained between the predictors in Fishbein's model--attitudes and normative beliefs toward cheating--and cheating intentions, as well as self-reports of cheating. Indices of religiosity, GPA, sex, type of college, and years in school showed little or no effect on intentions or self-reports. (Author/SD)

  10. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  11. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

  12. Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

    2011-01-01

    This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

  13. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

    2007-01-01

    Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…

  14. Adolescents' Ideas of Normative Life Span Development and Personal Future Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Lar-Erik; Norrgard, Sonja

    1999-01-01

    Presents study results that supports relationship between individual goals and normative expectations about life span development, especially when it comes to domains of education, occupation, and family. Reports that respondents showed an awareness of the accumulation of social problems. Adolescents rated their future as better than the future of…

  15. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need of a Peruvian university population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Bernabé; Carlos Flores-Mir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on orthodontic treatment need in young adults have shown that up to 50% had malocclusions that needed orthodontic treatment. The aims of this study were to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine if the treatment need levels were influenced by sex, age and

  16. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

    2012-01-01

    With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

  17. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  18. Normative development of white matter tracts: Similarities and differences in relation to age, gender and intelligence

    E-print Network

    Clayden, Jonathan D.

    development; from conception to birth, in infancy, and onwards through childhood and adolescence. SeveralNormative development of white matter tracts: Similarities and differences in relation to age of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK; 2 School of Medicine

  19. Social Capital by Design: Normative Systems and Social Structures in Six High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Helen M.

    This paper focuses on investigating the purposive design of learning environments to counter the erosion of social capital in communities and schools in contemporary society. Can schools intentionally replenish stocks of social capital by creating normative systems conducive to the optimal academic and social development of students, and by…

  20. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

  1. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

  2. Evaluation Practices: A Study of College Grading Using Normative and Utilitarian Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, David G.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    To shed light on persistent differences in grading practices among disciplines, this article investigated the differences and concluded that they emanated from basic differences in disciplinary educational objectives and corresponding socialization strategies. Disciplines were dichotomized into normative and utilitarian types. Sociology and the…

  3. Standardised Speech-Language Tests and Students with Intellectual Disability: A Review of Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascella, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Before a school speech-language pathologist (SLP) utilises a standardised speech-language test with a student with intellectual disability (ID), the clinician should carefully consider the purpose of the test and whether the test includes students with ID in the normative group. Method: This project reviewed 49 tests published between…

  4. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent

    E-print Network

    Crawford, John R.

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent structure The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, & Maylor, 2000) was developed to provide a self-report measure of prospective and retrospective memory slips in everyday life

  5. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  6. The Strategic Use of Soft Balancing: The Normative Dimensions of the Chinese–Russian ‘Strategic Partnership’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaka Ferguson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines Chinese and Russian foreign policy and military strategy from the theoretical standpoint of soft balancing. Analysis of their thinking indicates that both seek to offset US military superiority without engaging American power directly. To that end, Chinese and Russian strategists have adopted ‘soft’ or ‘normative’ power assets as strategic capabilities in their military and foreign policy. Alternative

  7. Adults Who Play Violent Video Games and Their Normative Beliefs About Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashely A. Kjos

    2008-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between playing violent video games and subsequent aggression has been mixed. This study further examined the relationship between normative beliefs about the acceptability of both physical and verbal aggression and playing violent video games. A total of 87 participants (27 males and 60 females), ranging in age from 19 to 49, completed three online surveys regarding

  8. A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying Tibor Bosse and Sven Stam

    E-print Network

    Bosse, Tibor

    A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying Tibor Bosse and Sven Stam Vrije Universiteit.stam@gmail.com Abstract -- Automated approaches to prevent the negative effects of cyberbullying mainly focus on affective to minimise the amount of occurrences of cyberbullying in the first place. The approach consists of a system

  9. Normative data on the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, parietal lobe battery, and the boston naming Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan C. Borod; Harold Goodglass; Edith Kaplan

    1980-01-01

    This report describes normative data for the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the “Parietal Lobe Battery” (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972), and the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1978). These tests were administered to 147 neurologically normal adult males, who were right-handed and native English-speaking. For each age and education group, means, standard deviations, and the range are reported. The

  10. Criterion-Referenced vs. Normative-Referenced Mathematics Placement Test Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carson K.

    A study was conducted at Stark Technical College to compare a normative-referenced test for mathematics placement with a criterion-referenced test that had been used by the college. The study sought to compare statistically the scores of 165 students on the Mathematics Inventory Test (MIT--a criterion-referenced test that had been developed…

  11. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  12. Research Data Management - Documentation

    E-print Network

    Collins, Anna

    2013-01-01

    not be in a few months, years, decades… Make sure you can understand your digital material later! Image: DSCN0428BB - Clay Tablets with Liner B Script by archer10 (Dennis) on flickr: www.flickr.com/photos/archer10/5692813531/ Make research material... , and funders that mandate data sharing also allow time for you to publish work based on your findings. Documentation & Metadata Metadata are: Machine readable Written according to standards “A Mohammedan student in the library of the Higher College” © Royal...

  13. Good Documents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dan Bricklin provides this site, a clearinghouse of information collected to help content providers write for the Intranet and Internet media. Rather than stressing site building that will attract the most users, Good Documents provides tips for writing that will be read on-screen. The Techniques and Samples sections provide no-nonsense tips on how to create screen-readable documents and offer examples. The site is interesting in that it assumes that its users want to create content that will be read rather than viewed.

  14. Document image understanding: geometric and logical layout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Haralick

    1994-01-01

    Document image understanding encompasses the technology required to make paper documents equivalent to other computer exchange media like floppies, tapes, and CDROMs. The physical reader of the paper document is the scanner just like the physical reader of the floppy is the floppy drive and the physical reader of the tape cartridge is the tape cartridge drive, and the physical

  15. Proposal of a new analytical procedure for the measurement of water absorption by stone. Preliminary study for an alternative to the Italian technical normative NORMAL 07-81

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion) by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material. PMID:22738248

  16. FES Documentation

    Cancer.gov

    The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

  17. FLT Documentation

    Cancer.gov

    The FLT documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast

  18. FMISO Documentation

    Cancer.gov

    The FMISO documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a

  19. "Supporting" Beginning Secondary Science Teachers through Induction: A Multi-Case Study of Their Meaning Making and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Angela W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the induction experiences of beginning secondary science teachers, including their afforded and enacted identities-in-practice and their meaning making. I applied a model of identities and meaning making that considered the iterative nature of the (a) normative science teacher identities afforded by…

  20. A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

  1. Organism, machine, artifact: The conceptual and normative challenges of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune; Powell, Russell

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that aims to apply rational engineering principles in the design and creation of organisms that are exquisitely tailored to human ends. The creation of artificial life raises conceptual, methodological and normative challenges that are ripe for philosophical investigation. This special issue examines the defining concepts and methods of synthetic biology, details the contours of the organism-artifact distinction, situates the products of synthetic biology vis-à-vis this conceptual typology and against historical human manipulation of the living world, and explores the normative implications of these conclusions. In addressing the challenges posed by emerging biotechnologies, new light can be thrown on old problems in the philosophy of biology, such as the nature of the organism, the structure of biological teleology, the utility of engineering metaphors and methods in biological science, and humankind's relationship to nature. PMID:23810468

  2. It’s Not Just a “Woman Thing:” The Current State of Normative Discontent

    PubMed Central

    TANTLEFF-DUNN, STACEY; BARNES, RACHEL D.; LAROSE, JESSICA GOKEE

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed “normative discontent,” the concept that most women experience weight dissatisfaction, as an emerging societal stereotype for women and men (Rodin, Silberstein, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Participants (N = 472) completed measures of stereotypes, eating disorders, and body image. Normative discontent stereotypes were pervasive for women and men. Endorsing stereotypes varied by sex and participants’ own disturbance, with trends towards eating disorder symptomotology being positively correlated with stereotype endorsement. Individuals with higher levels of body image and eating disturbance may normalize their behavior by perceiving that most people share their experiences. Future research needs to test prevention and intervention strategies that incorporate the discrepancies between body image/eating-related stereotypes and reality with focus on preventing normalization of such experiences. PMID:21932970

  3. Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

  4. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  5. The useful field of view test: normative data for older adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Wadley, Virginia G; Clay, Olivio J; Crowe, Michael; Roenker, Daniel L; Ball, Karlene K

    2006-05-01

    The Useful Field of View test (UFOV) is increasingly used in clinical and rehabilitation settings. To date there have been no normative data for adjusted performance comparisons across demographically-similar, elderly peers. This study examined demographic and cognitive influences on the UFOV in a sample of 2759 participants (65-94 years of age). Performance was found to differ by age and education. Regression analyses examined the relative contributions of age, education, mental status, vision, and health to UFOV performance. All of these factors were found to significantly contribute to UFOV performance, with age accounting for the most variance and education accounting for the least. Normative tables for the UFOV by age and education are provided. These norms will allow researchers and clinicians to compare UFOV performance with similar peers and may help in identifying elderly persons who would benefit from speed of processing training. PMID:16704918

  6. Mayo's older americans normative studies: WMS-R norms for ages 56 to 94

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Ivnik; James F. Malec; Glenn E. Smith; Eric G. Tangalos; Ronald C. Petersen; Emre Kokmen; Leonard T. Kurland

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained in Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) provide age-specific norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) on a sample of 441 cognitively normal persons age 56 to 94. Memory Indices derived from these norms are termed “MAYO Verbal Memory (MVeMI), MAYO Visual Memory (MViMI), MAYO General Memory (MGMI), MAYO Attention\\/Concentration (MACI), MAYO Delayed Recall (MDRI) and MAYO Percent

  7. Suppressed Hostility Predicted Hypertension Incidence Among Middle-Aged Men: The Normative Aging Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Zhang; Raymond Niaura; John F. Todaro; Jeanne M. McCaffery; Biing-Jiun Shen; Avron Spiro III; Kenneth D. Ward

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether suppressed hostility predicted incident hypertension (HTN) in initially nonhypertensive men, using\\u000a prospective data from the Normative Aging Study. Six hundred twenty-seven men who completed the MMPI and participated in a\\u000a subsequent laboratory assessment were included in the study. The Cook–Medley Hostility scale (Ho), a suppression factor, and\\u000a other risk factors were used to predict incident HTN

  8. Development of normative neuropsychological performance in Thailand for the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chairangsaris, Parnsiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Tipsuk, Somporn; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Fletcher, James; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    International studies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are needed to determine the viral and host factors associated with cognitive impairment particularly as more than 80% of HIV+ subjects reside in resource-limited settings. Recent diagnostic nomenclature of HAND requires comparison of cognitive performance specifically to local normative data. To evaluate this need for local norms, we compared normative data obtained locally in Thailand to Western norms. The current study examined cognitive performance in 477 seronegative Thai participants (male = 211, female = 266) who completed a battery of tests sensitive to cognitive changes in HIV. The cohort was divided into three age brackets (20-34; 35-49; 50-65 years) and four educational levels (no education or primary education, less than secondary certificate, high-school/associates degree, bachelor's degree or greater). The Thai cohort was compared (using analysis of covariance, ANCOVA) on a number of measures to a seronegative US cohort (n?=?236; male = 198, female = 38) to examine cultural differences in performance. Normative data are provided with age and education stratification. The Thai and US groups performed significantly differently on all neuropsychological measures with the exception of verbal fluency. The Thai group performed better on measures of verbal learning (p < .001) and memory (p < .001) and measures of psychomotor speed (p < .001). Education was a more powerful predictor of performance in the Thai cohort than in the US group. These results highlight the continued need for the development of normative data within local populations. The use of Western norms as a comparison group could lead to inaccurate identification of HAND in culturally distinct groups. PMID:23113809

  9. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model

    PubMed Central

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

  10. Fertility differentials and the redefinition of the normative structure across racial/ethnic lines

    E-print Network

    Ayala Garcia, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-15

    -Non-Catholic differential. On this, Goldscheider and Uhlenberg (1969) hypothesize that: part of the differential may be attributed to the opposition of the church to efficient methods of contraception, and to normative encouragement of the church for large families... Education In studies of fertility, education is usually included as a proxy for contraception knowledge. The assumption is that with higher levels of education, men and women are more likely to have knowledge about birth control. On the other hand...

  11. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model.

    PubMed

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

  12. Korean Version of Frontal Assessment Battery: Psychometric Properties and Normative Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Hui Kim; Yoonseok Huh; Jin Yeong Choe; Ji Woon Jeong; Joon Hyuk Park; Seok Bum Lee; Jung Jae Lee; Jin Hyeong Jhoo; Dong Young Lee; Jong Inn Woo; Ki Woong Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background: We developed the Korean version of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB-K), evaluated its psychometric properties and constructed normative data for Korean elders. Methods: FAB-K was administered to 300 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and 635 normal controls. Reliability of FAB-K was evaluated by testing its internal consistency, test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities. Validity of FAB-K was evaluated by testing discriminant validity

  13. Black Sexuality in the U.S.: Presentations as Non-normative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin McGruder

    2009-01-01

    Does current sex research in which people of African descent in the United States are the subjects present black sexuality\\u000a as non-normative? If so, what is the impact of these presentations? The methodology used in this study included a qualitative\\u000a review of research on sex and sexuality in which black people in the U.S. were research subjects. The study concludes

  14. Development of normative neuropsychological performance in Thailand for the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chairangsaris, Parnsiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Tipsuk, Somporn; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Fletcher, James; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2013-01-01

    International studies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are needed to determine the viral and host factors associated with cognitive impairment particularly as more than 80% of HIV+ subjects reside in resource-limited settings. Recent diagnostic nomenclature of HAND requires comparison of cognitive performance specifically to local normative data. To evaluate this need for local norms, we compared normative data obtained locally in Thailand to Western norms. The current study examined cognitive performance in 477 seronegative Thai participants (male=211, female=266) who completed a battery of tests sensitive to cognitive changes in HIV. The cohort was divided into three age brackets (20–34; 35–49; 50–65) and four educational levels (no education or primary education, less than secondary certificate, high school/associates degree, Bachelor’s degree or greater). The Thai cohort was compared (using ANCOVA) on a number of measures to a seronegative US cohort (n=236; male=198 female=38) to examine cultural differences in performance. Normative data are provided with age and education stratification. The Thai and US groups performed significantly differently on all neuropsychological measures with the exception of verbal fluency. The Thai group performed better on measures of verbal learning (p<0.001) and memory (p<0.001), and measures of psychomotor speed (p<0.001). Education was a more powerful predictor of performance in the Thai cohort compared to the US group. These results highlight the continued need for the development of normative data within local populations. The use of Western norms as a comparison group could lead to inaccurate identification of HAND in culturally distinct groups. PMID:23113809

  15. The effects of normative classroom aggression and teacher support on changes in ethnically diverse elementary students' aggression 

    E-print Network

    Kuhns, Clarissa Ivette

    2008-10-10

    This study examined the joint effects of the quality of teacher-student relationship support (TSRS) and normative levels of classroom aggression on individual aggression in a sample of 687 second-grade children who entered first grade...

  16. The de Morton Mobility Index: Normative Data for a Clinically Useful Mobility Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Macri, E. M.; Lewis, J. A.; Khan, K. M.; Ashe, M. C.; de Morton, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Determining mobility status is an important component of any health assessment for older adults. In order for a mobility measure to be relevant and meaningful, normative data are required for comparison to a healthy reference population. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument to measure mobility across the spectrum from bed bound to functional levels of independent mobility. In this cross-sectional observational study, normative data were obtained for the DEMMI from a population of 183 healthy, community-dwelling adults age 60+ who resided in Vancouver, Canada and Melbourne, Australia. Older age categories had significantly lower DEMMI mobility mean scores (P < 0.05), as did individuals who walked with a mobility aid or lived in semi-independent living (assisted living or retirement village), whereas DEMMI scores did not differ by sex (P = 0.49) or reported falls history (P = 0.21). Normative data for the DEMMI mobility instrument provides vital reference scores to facilitate its use across the mobility spectrum in clinical, research, and policymaking settings. PMID:22988509

  17. Artificial diet optimized to produce normative adults of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P; Hall, David G

    2010-04-01

    The root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus L. has been continuously reared since 1992 on an artificial diet (F1675) first reported in 1982. The weight of weevils reared on F1675 was more than twice as great as field-collected individuals. Recently, several ingredients included in the original F1675 diet were shown to have little or no effect on insect performance. We examined the effects of varying three ingredients of a simplified diet on the weight of adult D. abbreviatus. We used a geometric design combined with response surface models to evaluate the effects of the amount and proportion of diet ingredients to identify optimal diet recipes for normative weight gain defined in relation to field-collected D. abbreviatus from locations in Florida. Our results showed that it is possible to produce adults of normative weight or, for that matter, any mean weight within a wide range by varying the proportions of cottonseed meal, wheat germ and cellulose, a non-nutritive filler. Although wheat germ contributed to greater weight gain, survival of larvae to adult was lower on diets containing only wheat germ compared with diets containing only cottonseed meal as the principal nutritive components. The analyses of all the variables measured indicate that cottonseed meal is the only major nutritive component, in addition to standard vitamin and salt mixes, required to produce adult D. abbreviatus of normative weight. PMID:20388301

  18. Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions.

    PubMed

    Doumas, Diana M; Workman, Camille; Smith, Diana; Navarro, Anabel

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity and binge drinking frequency than those in the SWF group at follow-up (M = 8 months). Students in the CWF group also reported significantly greater reductions in estimates of peer drinking from baseline to the follow-up assessment than students in the SWF group. In addition, changes in estimates of peer drinking partially mediated the effect of the intervention on changes in drinking. Results suggest that counselor-guided feedback may be more effective in reducing drinking among mandated students relative to self-guided feedback in the long term. PMID:21295938

  19. Making Regolith

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    2013-05-15

    This lesson will helps learners answer the question: How does the bombardment of micrometeoroids make regolith on the moon? In this lesson, learners investigate the effects of micrometeoroid bombardment on simulated regolith formation and develop a conclusion by making inferences about properties of regolith based upon observations.

  20. They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

  1. Reading, Writing, and Documentation and Managing the Development of User Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Wayne; Hoffman, Terrye

    1987-01-01

    The first of two articles addressing the issue of user documentation for computer software discusses the need to teach users how to read documentation. The second presents a guide for writing documentation that is based on the instructional systems design model, and makes suggestions for the desktop publishing of user manuals. (CLB)

  2. Making Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  4. Violin Making

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website is devoted to violin making, care, and maintenance and was created by the violinmaker Hans Johannsson. In addition to the explanation of violin construction, the website also covers the topics of wood, varnish, glue, tools, and design as they relate to violin making. An article on violin sound includes sample sound clips in a variety of formats. This will prove valuable to those interested in the construction or repair of violins.

  5. 2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft provides this material solely for informational purposes. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT. Customers should refer to their li

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    © 2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft provides this material solely for informational purposes. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION and obligations under Microsoft's Volume Licensing Programs. The value and benefit gained through use of Microsoft

  6. Document Supply Services Quick Guide

    E-print Network

    , phrase, ISBN/ISSN in the Search Term field (other options are available in the dropdown menu). Note1 Document Supply Services Quick Guide The DSS Portal makes requesting easy! Search for your item and password. If you are having difficulty please read the login help on the main DSS webpage. 2. Enter a word

  7. Making Babies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irene Salter

    2012-04-09

    This activity is designed to introduce learners to genes, genotypes and simple inheritance patterns. In this activity, learners make guesses about their own genotype, create gametes from their genotypes, then make “babies” with a partner. Along the way, learners discover answers to the questions such as: What are genes? How are genes (and traits) passed on? How are gametes different than other cells in our body? Why don’t siblings look alike? This activity is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Human Traits" activity from the same resource but can be used alone.

  8. Making Faces

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Museum of Minnesota

    2009-01-01

    This online activity lets learners test their ability to 'read' facial expressions. Learners watch videos that show different facial expressions, then choose which emotion they think is being expressed. When the learner chooses the correct emotion, they are presented with a list of the facial muscles that are used to produce that expression. This activity can be used by individuals, pairs and groups. It involves observation and can lead to developing documentation through photography, video and portrait drawing. The biology connections can lead to exploration of the musculature system.

  9. Normative data and validation of a regression based summary score for assessing meaningful neuropsychological change

    PubMed Central

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Franklin, Donald; Abramson, Ian; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J. Allen; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable detection and quantification of longitudinal cognitive change are of considerable importance in many neurological disorders, particularly to monitor central nervous system effects of disease progression and treatment. In the current study, we developed normative data for repeated neuropsychological (NP) assessments (6 testings) using a modified Standard Regression-Based (SRB) approach in a sample that includes both HIV-uninfected (HIV?, N=172) and neuromedically stable HIV-infected (HIV+, N=124) individuals. Prior analyzes indicated no differences in NP change between the infected and uninfected participants. The norms for change included correction for factors found to significantly affect follow-up performance, using hierarchical regression. The most robust and consistent predictors of follow-up performance were the prior performance on the same test (which contributed in all models) and a measure of prior overall NP competence (predictor in 97% of all models). Demographic variables were predictors in 10%-46% of all models and in small amounts; while test retest interval contributed in only 6% of all models. Based on the regression equations, standardized change scores (z-scores) were computed for each test measure at each interval; these z scores were then averaged to create a total battery change score. An independent sample of HIV? participants who had completed 8 of the 15 tests was used to validate an abridged summary change score. The normative data are available in an electronic format by email request to the first author. Correction for practice effects based on normative data improved the consistency of NP impairment classification in a clinically stable longitudinal cohort after baseline. PMID:21391011

  10. NORMATIVE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

  11. Making Waves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Repeated motion is present everywhere in nature. Learn how to ?make waves? with your own movements using a motion detector to plot your position as a function of time, and try to duplicate wave patterns presented in the activity. Investigate the concept of distance versus time graphs and see how your own movement can be represented on a graph.

  12. Making Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Clinton

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life. He states that overall his approach to teaching and researching is about "making sense" where inadequate or incongruous conceptions fall into place or are transformed so they are congruous and adequate. In his teaching the author applies the methods of philosophy to…

  13. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2007-01-01

    The Campaign for Learning, with its partners NIACE and ContinYou, established the National Family Learning Network (NFLN) in 2001. Most of the expertise in any field, including family learning, exists at grassroots level, but all too often stays at the very local, even single-institutional, level, because structures make effective sharing on a…

  14. Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  15. Making Measurements!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Yost

    2009-11-09

    Let's practice converting measurements and finding perimeters. First, play Converting Lengths, where you get to convert units of length. To change it up a little, try Converting Weights. Then in Shape Surveyor, click the level "Hard" and make sure you are doing "Perimeters." Feel free to try "Areas" too! You should know how to do all of it! Find the perimeters ...

  16. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  17. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  18. Collection Statistics for Fast Duplicate Document Detection

    E-print Network

    Collection Statistics for Fast Duplicate Document Detection ABDUR CHOWDHURY, OPHIR FRIEDER, DAVID@ir.iit.edu; ophir@cs.iit.edu; grossman@iit.edu; mcatherm@comcast.net. Permission to make digital/hard copy of part

  19. TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

  20. A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

  1. Makes Cents!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. May

    2008-04-02

    Money is important to understand because we use it on a daily basis. Let\\'s try and make cents of it with these fun games! Help your character by Counting Change! Click on Easy and choose your character to begin. When you have made change click on your charcter to check yourself! How much do you have? Count and add the coins to see how much change you have. Let s Compare by counting the change and seeing who has the most ...

  2. Film Making

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Allan

    2008-09-21

    Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

  3. Making Mosaics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    2003-01-01

    In this archaeology meets art activity, learners make a mosaic and consider the ways in which art communicates. Educators can tie this activity to the study of the Petra site (an ancient city in the Middle East) or any ancient culture/site. Learners discuss the history and use of mosaics and then plan and construct their own mosaics out of cut paper. This can be a whole class activity as well, combining students' mosaics into a large display.

  4. Both Odor Identification and ApoE-?4 Contribute to Normative Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ?4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features. PMID:21517181

  5. Normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Vitale, Carmine; Falco, Fabrizia; Bisogno, Rossella; Siano, Pietro; Barone, Paolo; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening battery, also including subtests to assess frontal functions such as set-shifting, abstraction and cognitive flexibility. MoCA seems to be useful to identify non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subcortical dementia; it has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing MCI from mild Alzheimer's Disease. Previous studies revealed that certain items of MoCA may be culturally biased and highlighted the need for population-based norms for the MoCA. The aim of present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Four hundred and fifteen Italian healthy subjects (252 women and 163 men) of different ages (age range 21-95 years) and educational level (from primary to university) underwent MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on MoCA. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for MoCA raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off score, estimated using a non-parametric technique, is 15.5 and equivalent scores were computed. Correlation analysis showed a significant but weak correlation between MoCA adjusted scores with MMSE adjusted scores (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the MoCA in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25380622

  6. Normative values of major SCAT2 and SCAT3 components for a college athlete population.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Adam; Marcinak, Jaquelyn; Hibyan, Stuart; Webbe, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2) is a posttrauma evaluative screener for concussion. Although a revised version (SCAT3) recently was released, the SCAT2 continues in use. Moreover, there have been no reports of normative values with college athletes with the SCAT2 or SCAT3. Similar to the SCAT3, the SCAT2 includes a 22-item self-report symptom scale, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), and a hard surface-only version of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The SCAT3 does not employ a total score and adds an optional gait component. The purpose of this study was to develop normative values for collegiate athletes on the SCAT2 and its subparts with respect to sex, collision risk by sport, and concussion history. In preseason, 477 college athletes (332 male, 145 female) completed the SCAT2. The average total score was 91.08 (SD = 5.60). The average number of symptoms endorsed was 1.75. Average SAC and BESS scores were 27.17 (SD = 2.01) and 25.64 (SD = 4.07), respectively. Little or no difference was found in total and component scores due to sex, sport type, or concussion history. When baseline measurement is lacking, these data provide a good benchmark for interpreting SCAT2 and SCAT3 performance. PMID:25117270

  7. The Relevance of Sociodemographic and Health Variables on MMSE Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most broadly used cognitive screening instrument in clinical and research contexts. The MMSE was administered to a community-based sample of cognitively healthy adults (n = 850), stratified according to several sociodemographic variables, with a distribution similar to that observed in the Portuguese population. This study aimed to analyze the influence of sociodemographic (age, gender, education level, marital and employment status, geographic region, geographic localization, and residence area) and health variables (subjective memory complaints of the participant and evaluated by the informant, depressive symptoms, and family history of dementia) on the participants' performance on the MMSE and to establish normative data for the Portuguese population. Education level and age significantly contributed to the prediction of the MMSE scores and explained 26% of its variance. Regarding health variables, only the subjective memory complaints of the participant showed a small contribution (4%) to the variance of the MMSE scores. According to these results, age and education were considered in the development of the normative data of the MMSE for the Portuguese population. PMID:25531579

  8. Functional movement ScreenTM--normative values in healthy distance runners.

    PubMed

    Agresta, C; Slobodinsky, M; Tucker, C

    2014-12-01

    Recreational runners have an estimated overuse injury incidence rate of up to 79% and 90% for marathoners. A pre-participation screening tool that can identify risk for injury may help reduce overuse injury in runners. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS(TM)) is a reliable clinical tool used with athletes to help predict injury. To date, the FMS(TM) has not been used with endurance athletes. The purpose of this article is to establish normative FMS(TM) values for distance runners. 45 healthy runners performed the FMS(TM). Descriptive statistics were calculated; independent t-tests were performed to examine the effect of gender, experience and injury on scores. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate whether significant differences in scores exist for any component of the FMS(TM). The mean FMS(TM) score was 13.13±1.8. No significant differences in FMS(TM) scores were found between novice and experienced runners (p=0.71) or runners with a history of injury and those without (p=0.20). While male and female runners did not differ significantly in their total FMS(TM) score (p=0.65), significant differences were found in the deep squat (p<0.05), trunk stability push-up (p<0.001) and active straight leg raise components (p=0.002). This study provides normative values for FMS(TM) scores when testing uninjured distance runners. PMID:25144432

  9. Problemas de la ingeniería documental: concepto, contexto y objeto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Tramullas

    Abstract:This paper revises the “document engineering” concept, and shows the problems and limits of this method, making a comparison with Information Science theory and informative features of digital documents. Palabras clave: ingeniería documental, ciencias de la información, documentos digitales, diseño de información Keywords:document engineering, information sciences, digital documents, information design. En un reciente trabajo publicado en el número 148 (Noviembre-Diciembre

  10. Making Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Greb

    In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.

  11. Make Slime

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

    2012-01-01

    Learners make slime from white school glue and Borax detergent. The long chain molecules of the white glue become cross-linked by the Borax into a big network. The result is an even larger polymer of thickened slime. Learners can experiment with the ratios of ingredients and see what effect that has on the resulting slime. Safety note: Borax is an irritant and should be kept out reach of children and pets. While safe in diluted solutions, borax can be harmful if ingested.

  12. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population. PMID:21918879

  13. Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; POST, STEPHEN G.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents. PMID:22544995

  14. SERVICE COMMUN DE DOCUMENTATION DOCUMENTATION ELECTRONIQUE

    E-print Network

    Vermet, Franck

    ­ Service Documentation Electronique ­ Rapport d'activité 2010 D. Corlett Avril 2011 2 Table des matières.................................................................................p 45 #12;UBO ­ SCD ­ Service Documentation Electronique ­ Rapport d'activité 2010 D. Corlett Avril Documentation Electronique ­ Rapport d'activité 2010 D. Corlett Avril 2011 4 - l'abonnement à une nouvelle revue

  15. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  16. 22 CFR 201.72 - Making payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Rights and Responsibilities of Banks § 201.72 Making payments...Collection of documents. The bank shall be responsible for...Supplier's Certificate. The bank shall examine the...

  17. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

  18. Making waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townes, C. H.

    The author takes the reader on a behind-the-scenes tour of his way of working. Along the way, one learns about how the author came upon his surprising findings and how he managed to avoid obstacles in his path. He introduces the reader to the wonders of the universe, from the submicroscopic, most minute - the workings of atoms and the even smaller particles that make them up - to the vast outer reaches of space. His tour takes one along paths Townes pioneered: quantum electronics, microwave spectroscopy and the frontiers of our galaxy where he explored the dark, rarefied clouds of gas and dust where new stars form. The book concludes with a uniquely personal coda in which Townes suggests that science and religion occupy the same terrain.

  19. Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732

  20. Bill and Monica: memory, emotion and normativity in Clinton's Grand Jury testimony.

    PubMed

    Locke, Abigail; Edwards, Derek

    2003-06-01

    We examine links between factual recall, emotion and constructions of normativity in narrative accounts, using as an empirical case President Clinton's descriptions of his relationship with Monica Lewinsky. We analyse those accounts in the sequences of talk in which they occurred, under Grand Jury cross-examination. Clinton's accounts of Lewinsky were part of how he attended to issues alive in court concerning himself, including his possible exploitation and abuse of power in an asymmetrical relationship; his motives, sincerity, credibility and intentions; and, indirectly, his fitness for office as President. Analysis focuses on how Clinton's portrayal of Lewinsky accomplished a reflexive portrayal of himself, not as mendacious and exploitative, but as caring, responsible, sincere, rational and consistent, while reducing the scope and implications of their admitted sexual relationship. This study is linked to a broader discursive psychology of factual description, memory, mental and emotional states, and their relevance to the larger business of institutional settings. PMID:12869247

  1. Normative neurocognitive data for National Football League players: an initial compendium.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

    2015-03-01

    The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research. PMID:25638042

  2. Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernández, Isabel; Tárraga, Lluís; Becker, James T.; Boada, Mercè

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

  3. Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

    2011-02-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

  4. 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference: Task Force on Normative Databases.

    PubMed

    Watts, Nelson B; Leslie, William D; Foldes, A Joseph; Miller, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Following the standard protocol for development of Official Positions for the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, the Expert Panel heard the report and recommendations from the Task Force on Normative Databases; using the RAND methodology, agreement was reached on the following statements: 1. Manufacturers should continue to use their own databases for the lumbar spine as the reference standard for T-scores. 2. Manufacturers should continue to use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data as the reference standard for femoral neck and total hip T-scores. 3. If local reference data are available, they should be used to calculate only Z-scores but not T-scores. 4. A uniform Caucasian (non-race adjusted) female reference database should be used to calculate T-scores for men of all ethnic groups. PMID:24076161

  5. Normative data for IQ, height and head circumference for children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Batterjee, Adel A; Khaleefa, Omar; Ashaer, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Normative data are reported for intelligence, height and head circumference for a sample of 1553 6- to 15-year-olds in Saudi Arabia, and for the correlations between these variables. Intelligence was tested with the Standard Progressive Matrices, on which the Saudi sample obtained a British IQ of 76.2. There were no significant differences in means between boys and girls and differences in variability were inconsistent. The heights of the Saudi sample were generally lower than those of the American norms. The differences in head circumferences between the Saudi children and the American norms were inconsistent. Correlations between IQ and height were weaker than those found in other studies but correlations between IQ and head circumference were positive. PMID:23425395

  6. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'

    PubMed

    Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

    2014-10-10

    Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

  7. Normative Performance on an Executive Clock Drawing Task (CLOX) in a Community-Dwelling Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Michael; Allman, Richard M.; Triebel, Kristen; Sawyer, Patricia; Martin, Roy C.

    2010-01-01

    The CLOX is a clock drawing test used to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but there is limited normative data for this measure. This study presents normative data for the CLOX derived from a diverse sample of 585 community-dwelling older adults with complete cognitive data at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Participants with evidence of baseline impairment or substantial 4-year decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination were excluded from the normative sample. Spontaneous clock drawing (CLOX1) and copy (CLOX2) performances were stratified by age group and reading ability from the Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition (WRAT-3). Lowest mean CLOX scores were observed for the oldest age group (75+ years old) with the lowest WRAT-3 reading scores. For all groups, average scores were higher for CLOX2 than CLOX1. These normative data may be helpful to clinicians and researchers for interpreting CLOX performance in older adults with diverse levels of reading ability. PMID:20601672

  8. Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

  9. Schooling in the "Iron Cage" and the Crucial Role of Interpretive, Normative, and Critical Perspectives in Social Foundations Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotts, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the unique role performed by social foundations programs in colleges of education and in addressing broader issues facing education today, which fundamentally include the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives in academia. All three perspectives serve to create a scholarly framework within which…

  10. Political Divorce of Peoples: A Search for a Right to Secession in International Law and Normative International Relations Theory

    E-print Network

    Randolph, Justice Hoover

    2013-05-31

    Political Divorce of Peoples: A Search for a Right to Secession in International Law and Normative International Relations Theory BY Copyright... 2013 Justice Hoover Randolph Submitted to the graduate degree program in Political Science and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of...

  11. Representative Normative Tables for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (Form 5). Technical Research Note 75-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    J W K International Corp., Annandale, VA.

    Test performance of a representative sample of 35,291 high school students tested on Form 5 of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is summarized. Separate weighted normative tables are provided by subtest, aptitude composite, grade and sex. This research is furnished as a supplement to the ASVAB Counselor's Manual (DOD 1304.12X,…

  12. Normative values for three clinical measures of motor performance used in the neurological assessment of sports concussion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Schneiders; S. John Sullivan; Andrew R. Gray; Graeme D. Hammond-Tooke; Paul R. McCrory

    2010-01-01

    Postural control and motor coordination are essential components of normal athletic activity. Tasks involving balance and coordination are used to determine neurological function in sports-related concussion. Determining normative values for these tasks is therefore essential to provide sports medicine professionals with a frame of reference with which to interpret clinical measures obtained from players suspected of sustaining a concussion. One

  13. What is the Normative Role of Logic? Abstract: The paper tries to spell out a connection between deductive logic and

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    over logic, the party who advocates the incorrect logic is automatically irrational, however compellingWhat is the Normative Role of Logic? Abstract: The paper tries to spell out a connection between deductive logic and rationality, against Harman's arguments that there is no such connection, and also

  14. Lecture 2. What is the Normative Role of Logic? What is the connection between (deductive) logic and

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    the incorrect logic is automatically irrational. It seems that the connection between logic and rationality mustLecture 2. What is the Normative Role of Logic? What is the connection between (deductive) logic and rationality? One extreme: Frege. A law of logic is a law of rational thought. Seems problematic, if rational

  15. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  16. Development and Validation of a Normative Process Model for Determining Priority of Need in Community Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sork, Thomas J.

    Research was conducted to develop and gather evidence of validity for a normative process model to be used by community adult education councils in establishing priority among community-level needs. The study design was based on a five-stage problem solving, systems model involving exploration, model building, design and development, validation,…

  17. MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Normative Beliefs as Predictors of Hookah Smoking Initiation: A Longitudinal Study of University Students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: While cross-sectional studies have shown that hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an increasingly popular behavior among university students, little is known about factors associated with initiation. This study sought to determine associations between knowledge, attitudes, and normative beliefs and initiation of HTS among university students. Methods: Data were from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 569 randomly selected first- and second-year university students. Online questionnaires that were developed in accordance with our composite theoretical model were completed in September 2010 and April 2011. Results: About one-seventh (13%) of participants initiated HTS by follow-up. Positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs were associated with increased adjusted odds of initiation (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.56, 6.59; and AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35, 2.99, respectively), while negative attitudes were associated with decreased adjusted odds (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.80). Correct knowledge regarding toxicants associated with HTS was not significantly associated with initiation. Conclusions: While positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs are associated with initiation of HTS in a cohort of never-users, increased knowledge about toxins is not associated with lower initiation. It may be particularly valuable for educational interventions to attempt to alter positive attitudes and normative beliefs related to HTS. PMID:24323574

  19. Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Meyer; David J. Stanley; Lynne Herscovitch; Laryssa Topolnytsky

    2002-01-01

    The authors conducted meta-analyses to assess (a) relations among affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization and (b) relations between the three forms of commitment and variables identified as their antecedents, correlates, and consequences in Meyer and Allen's (1991) Three-Component Model. They found that the three forms of commitment are related yet distinguishable from one another as well as

  20. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

  1. Prediction of leisure participation from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs: An application of the theory of planned behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Icek Ajzen; B. L. Driver

    1991-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1985, 1987) is offered as a comprehensive framework for understanding of leisure participation. Salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, theoretically the basic determinants of behavior, were assessed with respect to five leisure activities: spending time at the beach, jogging or running, mountain climbing, boating, and biking. College students completed a questionnaire containing measures of

  2. Rarebit Perimetry in Normal Subjects: Test-Retest Variability, Learning Effect, Normative Range, Influence of Optical Defocus, and Cataract Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Letizia Salvetat; Marco Zeppieri; Lucia Parisi; Paolo Brusini

    PURPOSE. To study normative ranges, learning effect (LE), test- retest variability (TRV), and influence of blur and cataract in normal subjects by using rarebit perimetry (RBP). METHODS. Seventy-five normal subjects underwent visual field (VF) testing with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and RBP. LE and TRV for RBP were assessed in repeated examinations conducted on four different days. LE was evaluated

  3. Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces Test in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Arpone, Marta; Realmuto, Sabrina; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    The Ekman 60-Faces (EK-60F) Test is a well-known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty-two healthy Italian participants aged between 20 and 79 years with at least 5 years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK-60F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise). Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure [1]. The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 15 bvFTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition. We provided EK-60F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes. PMID:24442557

  4. The normative value of inflammatory cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yanqing; Wang, Zhiyi; Li, Derong; Ma, Li; Pang, Xinju; Yu, Weidong; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish stable, well-accepted nasal perfusion and a normative value of classifying cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults. Methods A total of 500 healthy adults were divided into two groups of 250 people per group (group A, 16-30 years old and group B, 31-60 years old; male-to-female ratio, 1:1). All volunteers were non-smokers; they were irrigated with saline, and multiple inflammatory cells in the perfusate were analyzed. Results Irrigation was successfully performed in 479 cases, a success rate of 95.80%. The types of inflammatory cells showed a skewed distribution. The median number and interquartile range (IQR) of eosinophils were 0 and 0.2, respectively. These values were 0.4 and 2.2, respectively, for neutrophils and 0 and 0, respectively, for both lymphocytes and macrophages. There was no significant difference between males and females (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the different age groups (P=0.000), but there was no significant difference in the numbers of eosinophils and macrophages (P>0.05). The 95% unilateral upper limited values (UULVs) of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusates were 2.99 and 14.94, respectively, for group A and 1.41 and 17.08 for group B. As a result, the total 95% UULVs of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusate were 2.00 and 16.80. Conclusions We established stable, well-accepted nasal perfusions and normal values for classifying the cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults; the normative values of the inflammatory cells in nasal perfusate are 2.00 for the 95% UULV of eosinophils and 16.80 for neutrophils. Age might be one of the factors affecting the cells in rhinitis. PMID:25093086

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness and Normative Data in Healthy Women, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, MR; Fallahi, AA; Sangari, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related loss of health-related physical fitness and normative data in healthy population women aged 20–60 years old of Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1000 healthy women aged 20–60 years old were randomly selected from northern, southern, eastern, western and center regions of Tehran. Cardiovascular fitness was determined by Ros and Jakson protocol. Body composition were measured using Jackson and Poolak procedure, flexibility was determined by sit and reach test, muscular strength with a standard dynamometer and muscular endurance were measured with Sit-ups test in one minutes. Results: Cardiovascular fitness (vo2max), body composition, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance remained unchanged in the 20 and 30 year old age groups. Around of 40 years old, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and endurance began to gradually decline but body composition increased and flexibility unchanged. Data for Vo2max and the other variables in 4-yr groups provide “normative” results. Result indicated age-related declined in Vo2max (0.43 ml/ kg/min× yr (?1)), muscular strength (0.004 kg/weight ×yr (?1)) and endurance (0.63 repetition ×yr (?1)), and increased in body fat (0.43 % ×yr (?1)) in 30–60 year. One-way ANOVA test showed that all variables significantly differed (P<0.001) among decades except sit and rich test (P< 0.059) between the second and third decades. Vo2max had a significant relationship (P< 0.01) with Age, BMI, body fat percent and muscular strength and endurance. Conclusion: Iranian women have a greater decline in cardiovascular fitness; muscular strength and endurance. The results of this study can be used as reference material for clinical studies in different age groups. PMID:23113042

  6. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children: normative data and biometric correlations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to report normative values of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular parameters in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to perform correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting 113 healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye examination and axial length measurement, RNFL and macular thickness measurements were performed using the Cirrus OCT machine. Main outcome measures were macular volume, macular thickness and RNFL thickness values as well as their correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Right eyes of all subjects were selected for analysis. Results One hundred and eight children were included in the study, 65 females and 43 males. Mean age was 10.7+/?3.1 years, average spherical equivalent refraction (SE) was ?0.02+/?1.77(?4.25 to +5.00) diopters and average axial length was 23.5+/?1.0 (21.5 to 25.8)mm. Mean RNFL thickness was 95.6+/?8.7 ?m, average macular thickness was 279.6+/?12.5 ?m, central macular thickness was 249.1+/?20.2 ?m, and mean macular volume was 10.1+/?0.5 mm3. Central macular thickness values were significantly higher in males (p?normative RNFL and macular parameters in healthy children below 18 years of age were established; measurements varied by age and gender. PMID:24755354

  7. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

    PubMed

    Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Beaumont, Jennifer; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

    2015-05-01

    Demographic factors impact neuropsychological test performances and accounting for them may help to better elucidate current brain functioning. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neuropsychological tool, yet the original norms developed for the battery did not adequately account for important demographic/cultural factors known to impact test performances. We developed norms fully adjusting for all demographic variables within each language group (English and Spanish) separately. The current study describes the standards for individuals tested in English. Neurologically healthy adults (n=1038) and children (n=2917) who completed the NIH Toolbox norming project in English were included. We created uncorrected scores weighted to the 2010 Census demographics, and applied polynomial regression models to develop age-corrected and fully demographically adjusted (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity) scores for each NIHTB-CB test and composite (i.e., Fluid, Crystallized, and Total Composites). On uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores, age and education demonstrated significant, medium-to-large associations, while sex showed smaller, but statistically significant effects. In terms of race/ethnicity, a significant stair-step effect on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores was observed (African Americannormative corrections, NIHTB-CB no longer demonstrated any significant associations with demographic factors. The previously developed norms still maintained significant associations with demographic factors, and demonstrated more variable impairment rates in segments of the healthy normative sample. Similar to other neuropsychological tests, demographic factors demonstrated significant associations with unadjusted NIHTB-CB scores. Application of fully corrected scores will help account for unwanted variance that is associated with non-clinical factors to more accurately reflect effects of disease-related changes in brain function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 378-391). PMID:26030001

  8. Building Documentation Generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arie Van Deursen; Tobias Kuipers

    1999-01-01

    In order to maintain the consistency between sources and documentation, while at the same time providing doc- umentation at the design level, it is necessary to generate documentation from sources in such a way that it can be integrated with hand-written documentation. In order to simplify the construction of documentation genera- tors, we introduce island grammars, which only dene those

  9. CISNET: Detail Documents

    Cancer.gov

    The detail documents pick up where the overview documents leave off. They provide a more fine-grained view of specific aspects of the model. While there is only one overview document of each type, there may be multiple detail documents of the same type in a single model profile.

  10. ECOBAS — modelling and documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Benz; R Hoch; T Legovi?

    2001-01-01

    Until now modelling and model documentation were two different processes. As a consequence, model documentation was prone to error. It was rarely possible to run larger models from their documentation. Model exchange was limited to simple models due to different languages in which they were created. To facilitate more efficient model creation, documentation and exchange we are introducing ECOBAS system.

  11. Active Document Layout Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofan Lin

    2005-01-01

    Document layout analysis has been researched for many years. However, there is little work on the reverse of document layout analysis: document layout synthesis, whose goal is to generate logically correct and aesthetically appealing layout given the text\\/image contents and the flexible layout template. This paper introduces a new automatic document layout synthesis method, which can actively pursue the optimal

  12. A Cognitive Model of Document Use during a Research Project. Study I. Document Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; Soergel, Dagobert

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a model of document selection by real users of a bibliographic retrieval system. Reports on Part I of a longitudinal study of decision making on document use by academics (25 faculty and graduate students in Agricultural Economics). Examines what components are relevant to the users' decisions and what cognitive process may have occurred…

  13. Document text characteristics affect the ranking of the most relevant documents by expanded structured queries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eero Sormunen; Jaana Kekÿlÿinen; Jussi Koivisto; Kalervo Jÿrvelin

    2001-01-01

    The increasing flood of documentary information through the Internet and other information sources challenges the developers of information retrieval systems. It is not enough that an IR system is able to make a distinction between relevant and non-relevant documents. The reduction of information overload requires that IR systems provide the capability of screening the most valuable documents out of the

  14. A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation

    E-print Network

    French, James C.

    UVA A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation Allison L. Powell SOURCE CODE INTERFACE BROWSING INTERFACE STATUS FUTURE PLANS WHY SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AS AN APPLICATION OR INAPPROPRIATE . Document publishing systems: ­ e.g. FrameMaker, Interleaf ­ Make it easier to deal with large

  15. Is Hillary Rodham Clinton the President? Disambiguating Names across Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yael RAVIN; Zunaid KAZI

    1999-01-01

    A number of research and software development groups have developed name identification technology, but few have addressed the issue of cross-document coreference, or identifying the same named entities across documents. In a collection of documents, where there are multiple discourse contexts, there exists a many- to-many correspondence between names and entities, making it a challenge to automatically map them correctly.

  16. Printing a poster? Make an appointment!

    E-print Network

    Niebur, Ernst

    Printing a poster? Make an appointment! Sizing your poster correctly: The first step in successfully printing a poster is making sure that you have your document sized correctly. The poster printer has a maximum width of 42" (all posters will be printed on size 42" paper.) Length can vary beyond

  17. Document Classification Utilising Ontologies and Relations between Documents

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Document Classification Utilising Ontologies and Relations between Documents Katariina Nyberg be utilized in auto- matic document classification as background information: relations between terms. Keywords document classification, ontologies, relational models 1. INTRODUCTION More and more documents

  18. Documents on Documents Collection, 1984-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Margaret T., Comp.; Goldsmith, Jan, Comp.; Kram, Lauri, Comp.

    This collection of approximately 200 documents gathered during 1984-95 consists of materials used in the administration of state documents depository programs, including: (1) bibliographies; (2) commentaries and letters; (3) depository contracts; (4) forms and form letters; (5) labels; (6) legislation and legal materials; (7) mailing lists; (8)…

  19. Whirling Watcher: Make a Stroboscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners make a stroboscope--a spinning disk with slits around the edge that you look through. Brief but frequent glimpses of images seen through the slits lead to a surprising result, which teaches learners about vision and the human nervous system. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

  20. Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

    1998-09-01

    As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

  1. Nicotinic alteration of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25498234

  2. Lead Exposure and Tremor among Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Hu, Howard; Louis, Elan D.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tremor is one of the most common neurological signs, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Case–control studies suggest an association between blood lead and essential tremor, and that this association is modified by polymorphisms in the ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD) gene. Objective: We aimed to examine the relationship between lead and tremor, including modification by ALAD, in a prospective cohort study, using both blood lead and bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure. Methods: We measured tibia (n = 670) and patella (n = 672) bone lead and blood lead (n = 807) among older men (age range, 50–98 years) in the VA Normative Aging Study cohort. A tremor score was created based on an approach using hand-drawing samples. ALAD genotype was dichotomized as ALAD-2 carriers or not. We used linear regression adjusted for age, education, smoking, and alcohol intake to estimate the associations between lead biomarkers and tremor score. Results: In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginal association between quintiles of all lead biomarkers and tremor scores (p-values < 0.13), which did not persist in adjusted models. Age was the strongest predictor of tremor. Among those younger than the median age (68.9 years), tremor increased significantly with blood lead (p = 0.03), but this pattern was not apparent for bone lead. We did not see modification by ALAD or an association between bone lead and change in tremor score over time. Conclusion: Our results do not strongly support an association between lead exposure and tremor, and suggest no association with cumulative lead biomarkers, although there is some suggestion that blood lead may be associated with tremor among the younger men in our cohort. Citation: Ji JS, Power MC, Sparrow D, Spiro A III, Hu H, Louis ED, Weisskopf MG. 2015. Lead exposure and tremor among older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:445–450;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408535 PMID:25633720

  3. Wideband reflectance in newborns: Normative regions and relationship to hearing screening results

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Lapsley Miller, Judi A.; Jeng, Patricia S.; Bohning, Susie

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To develop normative data for wideband middle-ear reflectance in a newborn hearing-screening population, and to compare test performance with 1-kHz tympanometry for prediction of OAE screening outcome. Design Wideband middle-ear reflectance (using both tone and chirp stimuli over 0.2 to 6 kHz), 1-kHz tympanometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPs) were measured in 324 infants at two test sites. Ears were categorized into DP-pass and DP-refer groups. Results Normative reflectance values were defined over various frequency regions for both tone and chirp stimuli in ambient pressure conditions, and for reflectance area indices (RAIs) integrated over various frequency ranges. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that reflectance provides the best discriminability of DP status in frequency ranges involving 2 kHz, and greater discriminability of DP status than 1-kHz tympanometry. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) established that (a) there were significant differences in reflectance as a function of DP status and frequency, but not sex or ear; (b) tone and chirp stimulus reflectance values are essentially indistinguishable, and (c) newborns from two geographic sites had similar reflectance patterns above 1-kHz. Birth type and weight did not contribute to differences in reflectance. Conclusions Referrals in OAE-based infant hearing screening were strongly associated with increased wideband reflectance, suggesting middle-ear dysfunction at birth. Reflectance improved significantly over the first 4 days after birth with normalization of middle-ear function. Reflectance scores can be achieved within seconds using the same equipment used for OAE screening. Newborns with high reflectance scores at Stage I screening should be rescreened within a few hours to a few days, as most middle-ear problems are transient and resolve spontaneously. If reflectance and OAE are not passed upon Stage II screening, referral to an otologist for ear examination is suggested along with diagnostic testing. Newborns with normal reflectance and a refer result for the OAE screen should be referred immediately to an audiologist for diagnostic testing with threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR) due to higher risk for permanent hearing loss. PMID:20520553

  4. A trainable document summarizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Kupiec; Jan O. Pedersen; Francine Chen

    1995-01-01

    To summarize is to reduce in complexity, and hence in length, while retaining some of the essential qualities of the original. This paper focusses on document extracts, a particular kind of computed document summary.

  5. CISNET: Overview Documents

    Cancer.gov

    The Overview Documents provide a general description of the model profiles, and the standardized format allows information to be easily compared between models. More specific aspects of the model are provided in the detail documents.

  6. Web document engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

  7. A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  8. Document Length Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated document retrieval relevance based on document length in an experimental text collection. Topics include term weighting and document ranking, retrieval strategies such as the vector-space cosine match, and a modified technique called the pivoted cosine normalization. (LRW)

  9. Structured Multimedia Document Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Denoyer; Jean-Noel Vittaut; Patrick Gallinari; Sylvie Brunesseaux; Stephan Brunesseaux

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new statistical model for the classification of structured documents and consider its use for multimedia document classification. Its main originality is its ability to simultaneously take into account the structural and the content information present in a structured document, and also to cope with different types of content (text, image, etc). We present experiments on the classification

  10. Back | Next Sample Documents

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Back | Next Home Experience Details Sample Documents Research Calculator Project Info Printable | VERSION 1.1 | JULY 2010 Print Page This document presents guidelines for Minnesota county engineers on how the roads under its jurisdiction. This document focuses on road-related issues. Issues that are outside

  11. NEED HELP ? Submitting Documents

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    NEED HELP ? Submitting Documents 1. Read everything the Office of Financial Aid sends you. We payment of your financial aid award. After a week, if you are confident that you submitted your documents in mind that incomplete documents will not be posted to your record and will be returned to you. 4. Follow

  12. Documenting Software Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieniazek, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Automated Software Documentation Utility is package of software designed to provide automated drafts of manual documentation directly from compatible C source code in UNIX environment. Programs designed to simplify and streamline crucial yet often neglected chore of documentation of programs. Written in C and Unix Shell.

  13. Documentation: Effective AND Literate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Burdett Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

  14. NaF Documentation

    Cancer.gov

    The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaF Word file Contact G. Craig Hill, Ph.D. for information. Email: hillgc@mail.nih.gov, Phone: 240-276-5913 Print

  15. Documents in the News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    York, Grace Ann.

    1999-01-01

    The University of Michigan Government Documents center provides a Documents in the News page. Taken from official sources, this page has full text documents on such subjects as Yitzhak Rabin's assassination, Bosnia, the Oklahoma City Bombing, the Ebola Virus, the United Nations Conference on Women, the G7 Summit, term limits, and the Unabomber, among many others.

  16. Normative data for the Rey-Osterrieth and the Taylor complex figure tests in Quebec-French people.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Potvin, Olivier; Callahan, Brandy L; Belleville, Sylvie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Caza, Nicole; Ferland, Guylaine; Hudon, Carol; Macoir, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth (ROCF) and Taylor (TCF) complex figure tests are widely used to assess visuospatial and constructional abilities as well as visual/non-verbal memory. Normative data adjusted to the cultural and linguistic reality of older Quebec-French individuals is still nonexistent for these tests. In this article, we report the results of two studies that aimed to establish normative data for Quebec-French people (aged at least 50 years) for the copy, immediate recall, and delayed recall trials of the ROCF (Study 1) and the TCF (Study 2). For both studies, the impact of age, education, and sex on test performance was examined. Moreover, the impact of copy time on test performance, the impact of copy score on immediate and delayed recall score, and the impact of immediate recall score on delayed recall performance were examined. Based on regression models, equations to calculate Z scores for copy and recall scores are provided for both tests. PMID:25472685

  17. Normative data for vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population.

    PubMed

    Khan, Feroze K; Balraj, Achamma; Lepcha, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    To establish normative data of vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population. Prospective study design using a sample of convenience. Eighty five normal controls ranging between the ages 7 and 71 years were asked to provide a written signed consent for the study. Demographic characteristics of the patients were summarized using descriptive statistical methods using SPSS-17 analysing software. The outcome variable (VEMP recording) was expressed in percentiles as function of age. In all patients the stimulus which gave the best response was 95 dB (97.7 %) and 100 dB (95 %). The mean of wave latencies (p1 & n1) for 95-VEMP were, 11.2 ± 3.2 and 17.3 ± 4.7 ms on the right and 11.0 ± 2.8 and 17.0 ± 4.2 ms on the left respectively. The amplitude was 45.1 ± 54 mV on right and 46.9 ± 61.6 mV on the left. The mean of latency difference was 0.87 ms. The VEMP is a relatively simple test. The VEMP response rate was maximum in the younger age group; the optimum intensity was 95 dB. The asymmetry ratio interpretation should be done according to the age specific values. PMID:24822153

  18. Modeling intraindividual change in personality traits: findings from the normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2003-05-01

    To advance an intraindividual life-span approach to the issue of stability and change, we studied personality trait trajectories in adulthood. Growth curves for extraversion and neuroticism were estimated for over 1600 men (initially aged 43-91) in the Normative Aging Study, who were followed over 12 years. We found significant individual differences in intraindividual change for both traits, as well as different trajectories for extraversion and neuroticism. The overall extraversion trajectory was best defined by a linear model, but neuroticism was characterized by quadratic decline with age. We then considered several variables as predictors of individual differences around these overall trajectories. Birth cohort, marriage or remarriage, death of spouse, and memory complaints were all significant predictors, explaining variability in both level and rate of personality trait change. These findings suggest that there is a good deal of variability in personality trajectories, and that some of this variability can be explained by birth cohort as well as by age-graded life events. PMID:12730308

  19. Remote vs. In-lab Computer-delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Interventions for College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rinker, Dipali V.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lazorwitz, Brenda; Gonzales, Rubi G.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Computer-based interventions aimed at reducing college student drinking have shown positive effects. This paper compares differences in effects of computer-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions based on delivery modality (in-person vs. remotely) across six previously evaluated studies with similar content. Method Three studies included evaluations of a computer-based PNF intervention where baseline and intervention procedures took place inside a laboratory setting; three separate studies included evaluations of the same intervention where participants completed the procedures remotely over the web. Thus, we tested for differences in intervention efficacy by delivery modality. Outcomes included drinks per week, drinking-related consequences, and the putative intervention mechanism, perceived drinking norms. Results Evidence from hierarchical linear models indicated that computer-based interventions are less effective at reducing drinking and related consequences when delivered remotely than when delivered in-person. Conclusion The advantages of interventions delivered remotely are not without cost. Suggestions for why remote computer-based interventions may be less effective are discussed. PMID:25798730

  20. Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

  1. Reliability and normative data for the Behavioral Health Measure (BHM) in primary care behavioral health settings.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Blount, Tabatha; Kanzler, Kathryn A; Morrow, Chad E; Corso, Kent A; Corso, Meghan A; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie

    2014-03-01

    The Behavioral Health Measure (BHM) is a brief self-report measure of general psychological distress and functioning developed for the tracking of mental health outcomes in outpatient psychotherapy settings (Kopta & Lowry, 2002). Although the BHM is used in integrated primary care behavioral health clinics, the scale's psychometric properties have not been evaluated in these settings. The current study investigated the BHM's psychometric properties, including its factor structure and reliability, and presents normative data from 3 large integrated primary care clinics. Mean scores for each of the BHM's 4 scales were significantly lower (i.e., more distress) for women than men, with scores being stable across the 3 primary care samples. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate fit for the 3-factor and 1-factor models, with fit improving when 3 items were omitted. Internal consistency estimates for the BHM's 4 scales ranged from adequate to very good (? range: .72-.93). The 4 scales were highly intercorrelated, suggesting they measure similar constructs. Results suggest a revised, 17-item version of the BHM has adequate structure and reliability estimates, and is appropriate for use in primary care settings. PMID:24447151

  2. Psychometric examination and normative data for the narcissistic personality inventory 29 item version.

    PubMed

    Svindseth, Marit F; Sørebø, Oystein; Nøttestad, Jim Aage; Roaldset, John Olav; Wallin, Juliska; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is commonly used in empirical studies of narcissism. Few population-based studies have been published. Our aim was to do a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the NPI 29 item version with a four-factor structure, in two population-based samples and in a patient sample, and present normative population-based data. The NPI-29 was filled in by 324 respondents from the Norwegian population, 231 from the Swedish population and 167 Norwegian psychiatric patients. The four-factor structure of the NPI-29 with Leadership/Power, Exhibitionism/Self-admiration, Superiority/Arrogance and Uniqueness/Entitlement was reproduced in these samples. The CFA models showed good fit indices in all samples. Mean scores on the NPI-29 and four subscales hardly differed between the samples. For the NPI-29 total score and factors, few significant differences were observed. CFA of the samples supported the factor structure of the NPI-29 formerly identified by principal component analysis of the Swedish population sample. PMID:18826419

  3. Voluntary agreements in industry: A comparative description of the process and a normative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, K.; Larsen, A.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the authors analyze voluntary agreements used as policy instruments to increase energy efficiency in industrial production processes. The analysis is based on case studies of voluntary agreements in Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden. The viewpoint in the approach will be the policy process starting with the political choice of the use of voluntary agreements as a political instrument ending with the effects at company level. The agreements are negotiated between representatives from the industry and the authorities. The targets are the main issues during the negotiations. Methods for monitoring and sanctions have only been minor issues in the negotiations. The choice of voluntary agreements follows a tradition in industrial policy of using voluntary approaches or softer measures in general. The design of the voluntary agreements differs substantially in scope and design. Concerning the normative assessment, the authors use seven criteria based on suggestions put forward by the European Commission and the International Energy Agency among others. Looking at the agreement through these glasses, they do not look very good. The Dutch and the Danish agreements come out as the winners. But other glasses could be used. Voluntary agreements could also be considered as an early instrument in a new policy area in situations where a more coercive regulation with taxes or prohibitions is impossible.

  4. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  5. The subjective postural vertical in standing: reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools. PMID:25522832

  6. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  7. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    PubMed

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. PMID:25547105

  8. Do DSM-5 Eating Disorder Criteria Overpathologize Normative Eating Patterns among Individuals with Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Murray, Helen B.; Gorman, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (? = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (? = 0.63, 83% agreement). Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV. PMID:25057413

  9. Normative influences on intentions to smoke among Greek adolescents: the moderating role of smoking status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social norms influence adolescent smoking intentions, but this effect may differentiate depending on current smoking experiences. The presented study assessed the moderation effects of smoking status on the relationship between social norms and smoking intentions among Greek adolescents. Methods A cross-section survey-based design was used. Overall, 251 Greek secondary school students (M age?=?16.1 years, 61.2% females) completed structured and anonymous questionnaires including demographic characteristics (age, gender), subjective and descriptive social norms towards smoking, self-reported tobacco use, and intentions to smoke in the next 12 months. Results Linear regression analysis showed that social norms overall predicted 36.4% (Adjusted R2) of the variance in intentions. Perceived prevalence of smoking in same age peers and adults, having more close friends who smoke and perceived social approval of smoking predicted intentions to smoke in one year. Moderated regression analysis showed that the effects of social norms on smoking intentions were significantly moderated by smoking status. Conclusions Social norms predict smoking intentions, but this effect is stronger among ever (than never) smoker adolescents. Adolescents with smoking experiences may selectively attend to pro-smoking social cues and this perpetuates into their motivation to keep up the habit. School-based interventions should target normative beliefs and related cognitive processes, especially among adolescents who have already initiated tobacco use. PMID:24670201

  10. Normative findings for periocular anthropometric measurements among Chinese young adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Deutsch, Curtis K; Zwahlen, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of periocular structures is of value in several clinical specialties including ophthalmology, optometry, medical and clinical genetics, oculoplastic surgery, and traumatology. Therefore we aimed to determine the periocular anthropometric norms for Chinese young adults using a noninvasive 3D stereophotography system. Craniofacial images using the 3dMDface system were acquired for 103 Chinese subjects (51 males and 52 females) between the ages of 18 and 35 years. Anthropometric landmarks were identified on these digital images according to standard definitions, and linear distances between these landmarks were calculated. It was found that ocular measurements were significantly larger in Chinese males than females for intercanthal width, biocular width, and eye fissure lengths. No gender differences were found in the eye fissure height and the canthal index which ranged between 43 and 44. Both right and left eye fissure height-length ratios were significantly larger in females. This is the first study to employ 3D stereophotogrammetry to create a database of anthropometric normative data for periocular measurements. These data would be useful for clinical interpretation of periocular pathology and serve as reference values when planning aesthetic and posttraumatic surgical interventions. PMID:23957005

  11. Critical neuroscience—or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system. PMID:24904376

  12. The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Normative Data for American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diane; Reilly, Judy

    2002-01-01

    To This is a 1 test per thousand learn more about normal language development in deaf children, we have developed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for American Sign Language (ASL-CDI), a parent report that measures early sign production. The ASL-CDI is an inventory of sign glosses organized into semantic categories targeted to assess sign language skills in children ages 8 to 36 months. The ASL-CDI uses a recognition format in which parents check off signs that their child produces. The form has demonstrated excellent reliability and validity. To date, normative data have been collected from 69 deaf children with deaf parents who are learning sign language as a first language. We discuss the development of the ASl-CDI and preliminary cross-sectional and longitudinal findings from this early data collection with particular focus on parallels with spoken language acquisition. We also discuss the acquisition of first signs, negation, wh-questions, and fingerspelling with developmental patterns provided based on age, as well as vocabulary size. PMID:15451878

  13. Is normative integrated water resources management implementable? Charting a practical course with lessons from Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrey, D. J.

    At the seventh Waternet/WARFSA/GWP-SA Symposium, Lewis Jonker described the “perceived failure of implementing IWRM in South Africa.” This paper starts from Jonker’s observation - which can certainly be defended - and argues that attempts to implement full Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are doomed to failure and disappointment. The paper therefore offers a more practical ‘expedient’ solution. The paper is based on research done in Tanzania (Ruaha Basin) and South Africa (Olifants Basin) that is further informed by a growing literature critical of the IWRM paradigm as currently understood and practiced. As a guide to actual policies and their implementation in developing countries, IWRM has led to mis-guided priorities and paralysis of development programmes. An alternative approach is one in which basin managers identify priority problem areas, and focus specifically on finding solutions to these problems within an integrated framework, rather than starting with a broad set of principles and trying to implement these. The paper proposes that a shift away from IWRM as a normative concept is now overdue, and argues for realism and action by focusing attention on and prioritizing the critical needs of poor people in Africa. People cannot wait forever .

  14. Normative data for three tests of visuocognitive function in primary school children: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cathy; Gilchrist, Iain D; Fraser, Sue; McCarthy, HM; Parker, Julie; Warnes, Penny; Young, Jill; Hyvarinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There is an increasing recognition that visuocognitive difficulties occur in children with neurodevelopmental problems. We obtained normative data for the performance of primary school children using three tests of visuocognitive function that are practicable in a clinical setting. Methods We tested 214 children aged between 4 and 11?years without known developmental problems, using tests to assess (1) orientation recognition and adaptive movement (postbox task), (2) object recognition (rectangles task) and (3) spatial integration (contours task). Results 96% could do the postbox task with ease—only 4% (all aged <9?years) exhibited minor difficulties. Errors in the rectangles task decreased with age: 33% of children aged 4–5?years had major difficulties but >99% of children aged ?6?years had no, or minor, difficulties. Median scores for the contours task improved with age, and after age 8?years, 99% could see the contour using long-range spatial integration rather than density. Conclusions These different aspects of children’s visuocognitive performance were testable in a field setting. The data provide a benchmark by which to judge performance of children with neurodevelopmental problems and may be useful in assessment with a view to providing effective supportive strategies for children whose visuocognitive skills are lower than the expectation for their age. PMID:25712824

  15. Insandare till Svenska matematikersamfundets Bulletin Accepterad 2014-02-08 Stark Normat genom att vidga dess bas!

    E-print Network

    Kiselman, Christer

    Ins¨andare till Svenska matematikersamfundets Bulletin Accepterad 2014-02-08 St¨ark Normat genom tanken att publicera p°a danska, norska och svenska ¨ar vacker, men jag har sett n°agon unders¨okning som¨anningar och finskspr°akiga. S°a problemet ¨ar nog inte bara att yngre svenska matematiker inte vill skriva f

  16. Heidelberg Phoneme Discrimination Test (HLAD): Normative Data for Children of the Third Grade and Correlation with Spelling Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brunner; C. Baeumer; S. Dockter; F. Feldhusen; P. Plinkert; U. Proeschel

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The Heidelberg Phoneme Discrimination Test (HLAD), developed and standardized in 1998, is widely used in the differential diagnosis of dyslexia. Normative data have only been available for children of the 2nd and 4th grades, while norms for the 3rd grade are still missing. Patients andMethods: We assessed three HLAD subtests [auditory phoneme discrimination, kinesthetic phoneme discrimination (repeating minimal pairs)

  17. Associations between repression, general maladjustment, body weight, and body shape in older males: The normative aging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond S. Niaura; Laura R. Stroud; John Todaro; Kenneth D. Ward; Avron Spiro; Carolyn Aldwin; Lewis Landsberg; Scott T. Weiss

    2003-01-01

    We examined relationships between repression, general maladjustment, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).\\u000a The participants were 1,081 healthy older men from the Normative Aging Study. Repression and General Maladjustment Scales\\u000a of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were composite measures of personality. Repression was associated with\\u000a lower BMI and WHR, and maladjustment with higher BMI and WHR. However, associations

  18. The BigCAT: A Normative and Comparative Investigation of the Communication Attitude of Nonstuttering and Stuttering Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to provide normative and comparative data for the BigCAT, the adult form of the Communication Attitude Test, a sub-test of the Behavior Assessment Battery. The BigCAT, a 35-item self-report test of speech-associated attitude was administered to 96 adults who stutter (PWS) and 216 adults who do not (PWNS). The…

  19. Whether western normative laboratory values used for clinical diagnosis are applicable to Indian population? An overview on reference interval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Malati

    2009-01-01

    Reference Intervals denote normative values related to laboratory parameters\\/analytes used by diagnostic centers for clinical\\u000a diagnosis. International guidelines recommend that every country must establish reference intervals for healthy individuals\\u000a belonging to a group of homogeneous population. Considering enormous racial and ethnic diversity of Indian population, it\\u000a is mandatory to establish reference intervals specific to Indian population. The overview on reference

  20. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

  1. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  2. Starlink Document Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  3. Between same-sex marriages and the Large Hadron Collider: making sense of the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan

    2010-09-01

    The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190

  4. Making a Solar Air Heater Lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Orzali, Joe

    This lesson plan teaches students about renewable energy and passive solar heating by creating a solar air heater to heat the classroom. The document includes links to useful YouTube videos which will support the hands-on classroom activity. Making and utilizing the heater should take about two 45 minute class periods. A step by step procedure with illustrations is provided for the lab portion of the lesson. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  5. Published November, 1997 1997 Documentation

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Published November, 1997 1997 Documentation Guidelines for Evaluation and Management Services...............................................................................................................................2 What Is Documentation and Why Is it Important?.................................................................................2 General Principles of Medical Record Documentation

  6. Fee Based Document Delivery by a National Library: Publishing in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malcolm D.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the development of document supply relationships between libraries and publishers, based on the British Library's Document Supply Centre, reveals four areas leading to fee based (copyright) document delivery: libraries as markets for publishers; making users aware of what is published; making publications more accessible; and the…

  7. Software for Better Documentation of Other Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinedo, John

    2003-01-01

    The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

  8. When public health and genetic privacy collide: positive and normative theories explaining how ACA's expansion of corporate wellness programs conflicts with GINA's privacy rules.

    PubMed

    Bard, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) contains many provisions intended to increase access to and lower the cost of health care by adopting public health measures. One of these promotes the use of at-work wellness programs by both providing employers with grants to develop these programs and also increasing their ability to tie the price employees pay for health insurance for participating in these programs and meeting specific health goals. Yet despite ACA's specific alteration of three different statues which had in the past shielded employees from having to contribute to the cost of their health insurance based on their achieving employer-designated health markers, it chose to leave alone recently enacted rules implementing the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (GINA), which prohibits employers from asking employees about their family health history in any context, including assessing their risk for setting wellness targets. This article reviews how both the changes made by ACA and the restrictions recently put place by GINA will affect the way employers are likely to structure Wellness Programs. It also considers how these changes reflect the competing social goals of both ACA, which seeks to expand access to the population by lowering costs, and GINA, which seeks to protect individuals from discrimination. It does so by analyzing both positive theories about how these new laws will function and normative theories explaining the likelihood of future friction between the interests of the population of the United States as a whole who are in need of increased and affordable access to health care, and of the individuals living in this country who risk discrimination, as science and medicine continue to make advances in linking genetic make-up to risk of future illness. PMID:21871043

  9. Rule-based document structure understanding with a fuzzy combination of layout and textual features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Klink; Thomas Kieninger

    2001-01-01

    Document image processing is a crucial process in t he office automation and begins from the 'OCR' phase with difficulty of the document 'analys is' and 'understanding'. This paper presents a hybrid and comprehensive approach to document structure analysis. Hybrid in the sense, that it makes use of layout (geometrical) as well as textua l features of a given document.

  10. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  11. Controlling Underage Drinking: Fear of Law Enforcement or Internalized Normative Values?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on alcohol control policies has generally taken a deterrence perspective. Whether internalized normative values, consistent with the changes intended by alcohol policies, were a potential base for securing public compliance with them has received little research attention. To fill this gap, this study examined whether underage young adults’ support for underage drinking laws was associated with their alcohol use. Methods National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) data collected in 1995–2005 were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included: sex, race, education level, household income, positive alcohol expectancies, the perceived likelihood of law enforcement, and the availability and affordability of alcohol. Results Controlling for other covariates, support for underage drinking laws was significantly associated with some drinking outcomes. Underage young adults who were not supportive of the minimum legal drinking age law were more likely to engage in frequent binge drinking (OR=3.08) and drinking driving (OR=4.17), and to have initiated drinking at age 16 or younger (OR=2.37). Those who indicated a lower degree of support for the zero-tolerance drunk driving law had higher odds of drinking driving (OR=4.36), as well as higher odds of having ever had alcohol (OR=5.46), current drinking (OR=5.36), and having initiated drinking at the age of 16 or younger (OR=3.09). The perceived likelihood of law enforcement was protective only from frequent binge drinking (OR=0.09). Conclusion A clear articulation of potential harms associated with underage drinking to help legitimize underage drinking laws, along with their rigorous enforcement, may help reduce underage drinking. PMID:25243198

  12. Normative data for measuring performance change on parallel forms of a 15-word list recall test.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, Giovanni A; De Risi, Marco; Monaco, Marco; Costa, Alberto; Fadda, Lucia; Picardi, Angelo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Grammaldo, Liliana

    2014-05-01

    Declarative memory evaluation is an essential step in the clinical and neuropsychological assessment of a variety of neurological disorders. It typically addresses the issue of normality/abnormality of an individual's performance. Another clinical application of the neuropsychological assessment of declarative memory is the longitudinal evaluation of an individual's performance change. In fact, in a variety of neurological conditions repeated assessments are needed to evaluate the modifications of a memory disorder as a function of time or in response to a pharmacological or rehabilitation treatment. This study was aimed at collecting data for measuring and interpreting performance change on a memory test for verbal material. For this purpose, we administered to 100 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years; years of formal education range 8-17 years) three parallel forms of a test requiring the immediate and delayed recall of a 15-word list. The subjects performed the recall test three times (each time with a different list) at least 1 week apart. The order of the lists was randomized across subjects. Results revealed that performance on the three lists was highly correlated and did not vary as a function of the order of presentation. However, accuracy of recall was slightly better on a list compared to the others. Based on a method devised by Payne and Jones (J Clin Psychol 13:115-121, 1957), we provide normative data for establishing whether a discrepancy in recall accuracy on two versions of the test exceeds the discrepancy expected based on the performance of normal controls. PMID:24218156

  13. Grip Strength across the Life Course: Normative Data from Twelve British Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Benzeval, Michaela; Deary, Ian J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Der, Geoff; Gale, Catharine R.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Tilling, Kate; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol. Methods We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing). Results Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males’ peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position. Conclusion This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty. PMID:25474696

  14. Linear models in decision making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn M. Dawes; Bernard Corrigan

    1974-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that linear models are frequently used in situations in which decisions are made on the basis of multiple codable inputs. These models are sometimes used (a) normatively to aid the decision maker, (b) as a contrast with the decision maker in the clinical vs statistical controversy, (c) to represent the decision maker \\

  15. Testing documentation with \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Novick

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces low-tech simulation as a technique for testing procedures and their documentation. The key idea is to test the interface-procedure-documentation set in the early stages of development, where changes can be still be made easily, using extremely low-cost simulation materials. Using this low-tech method, developers can test and improve the usability of documentation for user interfaces that are

  16. Making Meaningful: Intention in Children's Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice…

  17. Computer Cluster Policy This document contains

    E-print Network

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Computer Cluster Policy This document contains: Intent of policy Computer cluster criteria Purchasing a cluster Tagging a cluster Making repairs to existing clusters Expanding and/or upgrading an existing cluster Cluster FAQs Contact Information Intent of policy: The purpose of this policy

  18. Copy Detection Mechanisms for Digital Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Brin; James Davis; Hector Garcia-Molina

    1995-01-01

    In a digital library system, documents are available in digital form and therefore are more easily copied and their copyrights are more easily violated. This is a very serious problem, as it discourages owners of valuable information from sharing it with authorized users. There are two main philosophies for addressing this problem: prevention and detection. The former actually makes unauthorized

  19. Rapid Exploitation and Analysis of Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Buttler; D Andrzejewski; K D Stevens; D Anastasiu; B Gao

    2011-01-01

    Analysts are overwhelmed with information. They have large archives of historical data, both structured and unstructured, and continuous streams of relevant messages and documents that they need to match to current tasks, digest, and incorporate into their analysis. The purpose of the READ project is to develop technologies to make it easier to catalog, classify, and locate relevant information. We

  20. A robust segmentation of scanned documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyung Jun; Yi, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    The image quality of reprinted documents that were scanned at a high resolution may not satisfy human viewers who anticipate at least the same image quality as the original document. Moiré artifacts without proper descreening, text blurred by the poor scanner modulation transfer function (MTF), and color distortion resulting from misclassification between color and gray may make the reprint quality worse. To remedy these shortcomings from reprinting, the documents should be classified into various attributes such as image or text, edge or non-edge, continuous-tone or halftone, color or gray, and so on. The improvement of the reprint quality could be achieved by applying proper enhancement with these attributes. In this paper, we introduce a robust and effective approach to classify scanned documents into the attributes of each pixel. The proposed document segmentation algorithm utilizes simple features such as variance-to-mean (VMR), gradient, etc in various combinations of sizes and positions of a processing kernel. We also exploit each direction of gradients in the multiple positions of the same kernel to detect as small as 4-point text. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs well over various types of the scanned documents including the documents that were printed in a resolution of low lines per inch (LPI).

  1. FBI releases carnivore documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Madsen

    2000-01-01

    Documents released to the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) on 2 October 2000 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) shed some new light on the technical genesis of the Carnivore Internet collection system. The release of the documents follow a lawsuit brought against the FBI by EPIC following a refusal to release them under the Freedom of Information Act.

  2. Documenting Community Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central New York Library Resources Council, Syracuse.

    This booklet offers an introduction to keeping and documenting the history of community organizations. With their variety of purposes these organizations add texture and variety to a community's heritage. A knowledge of that heritage, provided by written documentation as well as oral tradition, proves valuable to members of the organization, to…

  3. Enriching software architecture documentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Jansen; Jan Salvador Van Der Ven

    2009-01-01

    The eective documentation of Architectural Knowledge (AK) is one of the key factors in leveraging the paradigm shift toward sharing and reusing AK. However, current documentation approaches have severe shortcomings in capturing the knowl- edge of large and complex systems and subsequently facilitating its usage. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem through the enrichment of traditional architectural

  4. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  5. Requirements for Test Documentation

    E-print Network

    © Cem Kaner. All rights reserved. Scripting: Good Practice? Alleged Benefits ­ fully reproducible testRequirements for Test Documentation Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D., ASQ-CQE Contact Information: kaner Clara, CA 95052 #12;2Requirements for Test Documentation. Copyright © Cem Kaner. All rights reserved

  6. MSEIP Documentation Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    The Midwestern States Educational Information Project's "MSEIP Documentation Supplement" is a companion publication to "MSEIP Documentation of Project Development and General System Design; Revised, June 1969." (LI 003275). The supplement starts with an overview of the MSEIP Data Control System which explains many of the techniques used in the…

  7. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  8. Documentation: No Substitute for Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, John

    2005-01-01

    SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

  9. Documents to the People

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stanford University has a number of worthy digital collections, and this particular archive will be of special interest to students of library and information science. The collection contains issues of the journal "DttP: Documents to the People" from 1972 to 2002. Drawn from the print holdings of the Stanford University Libraries, the journal documents both the organizational history of the Government Documents Round Table of the American Library Association and the emergence of the government documents specialization within the field of librarianship. Various items document the transition from a print- to a digital-publishing environment, and still others focus on barriers to citizen access to public information in the United States. Visitors can perform a simple search across these volumes, or also browse the collection by year.

  10. The Modified Five-Point Test: normative data for a sample of Italian healthy adults aged 16-60.

    PubMed

    Cattelani, Raffaella; Dal Sasso, Flora; Corsini, Delfina; Posteraro, Lucio

    2011-08-01

    The Five-Point Test is one of the various measures of figural fluency functions that have been developed as nonverbal analogues to word fluency tasks, and used in neuropsychological assessment to evaluate the ability to initiate and sustain mental productivity, and to self-monitor and regulate responding in the visual-spatial domain. The aim of the current study was to collect normative data for a version of the Five-Point Test (M-FPT) administered to a sample of Italian healthy adults aged 16-60 (n = 332). Performance on the M-FPT was scored by computing the cumulative number of unique designs (UDs) performed on a 3-min administration time. Two supplemental scores were also computed: (a) the cumulative strategies (CSs) consisting with the number of UDs incorporated into enumerative or rotational strategies; (b) the error index (ErrI), consisting with the percentage between the number of perseverative or rule-breaking errors and the number of designs overall. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant effect of age and education, but not gender, for both UDs and CSs. Equivalent scores and cut-off scores were then determined for UDs and CSs. Descriptive statistical analyses and cut-off scores were reported for ErrI. The availability of normative data for the M-FPT will be valuable in clinical settings for assessing of executive dysfunctions on the visual-spatial subdomain of subjects with brain injury. However, in order to increase the usefulness of the test, the upper limits of the age range of the normative sample should be widened. Moreover, further analyses should be required for determining the inter-rater and test-retest reliability for M-FPT performances, and providing evidence of the sensitivity of this measure to brain disturbances generally and to frontal lobe dysfunction specifically. PMID:21327400

  11. From fact to recommendation: explicit value premises make the conclusion more convincing.

    PubMed

    Nilstun, T; Sjökvist, P

    2001-02-01

    In this article we describe one way to use value premises, i.e. conceptions of what is right or wrong, good or bad, just or unjust. They may, in combination with the results from surveys on attitudes, be used to defend normative conclusions, for example changes in professional guidelines. Several ethical principles may be relevant when discussing an end-of-life decision. We use the preferences of those involved in or affected by that decision (the principle of autonomy) and the obligation to maximize benefits and minimize harm (the principle of beneficence) as value premises. To illustrate the ethical, empirical and logical issues relevant to assess normative conclusions, we present a Swedish survey of the attitudes of health care workers and the general public. In this survey, the physicians stated that they do not want the family to be the sole decision-maker, whilst the public did not want the physician to be the sole decision-maker. As a third option we propose joint decision-making regarding end-of-life decisions. This normative conclusion may be rationally discussed, not only by questioning scientific aspects of the survey, but also by critically assessing value premises (autonomy and beneficence) and the logic of the argument. PMID:11258361

  12. A normative value pilot study: Levels of uranium in urine samples from UK civilians

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.D. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alan.jones@iom-world.org; Miller, B.G. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Walker, S. [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Anderson, J. [Scientifics Ltd (United Kingdom); Colvin, A.P. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hutchison, P.A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Soutar, C.A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    A normative study of the levels of urinary uranium in the general UK population is needed for comparison with levels in UK military and ex-military personnel who served where munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used. As preparation, this pilot study trialled the process of collecting 24-h samples from adult male civilians, and compared the measurements from 24-h samples with those from spot samples taken over the subsequent 24 h. The purpose was to assess the relative utility of the two types of samples. Twenty-five convalescent hospital in-patients were recruited as participants. Uranium concentrations in the 24-h samples ranged from 1 to 10.6 ng l{sup -1}; in the spots, from not detectable to 38.1 ng l{sup -1}. Normalised to creatinine, concentrations in the 24 h samples ranged from approximately 100 to 800 ng mol{sup -1} creatinine; in the spot samples, from not detectable to approximately 4000 ng mol{sup -1} creatinine. The ranges appear similar to those reported for residents of the US. The distribution of spot sample results indicated that 95% of a participant's creatinine-adjusted concentrations from spot samples would be within the range 40-250% of his mean. Adjusting for creatinine almost entirely eliminated a slight indication of diurnal variation in urinary uranium concentration in spot samples. All the 24-h samples and 131 out of the 133 spot samples showed ratios of isotopes {sup 238}U to {sup 235}U consistent with natural uranium (i.e. neither enriched nor depleted). Slightly elevated ratios in two spot samples were not supported by other samples from the same participants, indicating that slightly elevated ratios may be recorded on very low concentration (<1 ng l{sup -1}) samples. In the main, quantification of this isotope ratio from spot samples was only slightly more variable than from 24-h samples. Complete 24-h urine samples gave better precision than spot samples in estimating uranium concentrations at these low levels, but presented more logistic difficulties in the collection of the samples. Clarification of the relative merits of alternative sampling strategies enables the design of a wider study to be optimised.

  13. XHTML documents with inline, policy-aware provenance

    E-print Network

    Jones, Harvey C., III

    2007-01-01

    Constructing code that aids users in making information policy decisions in a decentralized Web-based environment will require seamless integration between document content and metadata. A system of embedding and reasoning ...

  14. Factor structure, construct validity, and age- and education-based normative data for the Parametric Go/No-Go Test

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Kristen L.; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) test assesses cognitive domains including attention and executive functioning with three levels of increasing difficulty. Level 1 measures accuracy and response time to three targets. Level 2 adds a nonrepeating rule, measuring response time to two targets, accuracy for targets, and accuracy for appropriate inhibition. Level 3 has three targets with the same nonrepeating rule. The task shows good construct validity, and factor analyses show adequate ability to distinguish between processing speed, sustained attention, and inhibition. Normative data for the PGNG, stratified by age and education, as well as strategies for identifying atypical responding, are presented. PMID:23289626

  15. Picturing space for lesbian nonsexualities: rethinking sex-normative commitments through The Kids Are All Right (2010).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines representations of lesbian nonsexuality in the film The Kids Are All Right and in responses to the film by feminist and queer scholars. In some moments, the film offers a limited endorsement of lesbian nonsexuality, placing pressure on the category lesbian to include nonsexuality and asexuality. However, in their responses to the film, many feminist and queer scholars rejected nonsexuality as an aspect of lesbian experience, placing pressure on the category lesbian to exclude nonsexual and asexual women. Asexual activism challenges scholars to question their sex-normative commitments and to keep the category lesbian open and flexible. PMID:23316844

  16. The Use of Documentation in a Participatory System of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picchio, Mariacristina; Di Giandomenico, Isabella; Musatti, Tullia

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogical documentation is a practice currently used in Italian early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to make visible children's learning processes in ECEC, to promote parents' participation and to support professionals' reflexive competences. These functions of pedagogical documentation have been enhanced within a…

  17. Restrictive clustering and metaclustering for self-organizing document collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Siersdorfer; Sergej Sizov

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatically structuring heterogenous document collections by using clustering methods. In contrast to traditional clustering, we study restrictive methods and ensemble-based meta methods that may decide to leave out some documents rather than assigning them to inappropriate clusters with low confidence. These techniques result in higher cluster purity, better overall accuracy, and make unsupervised self-organization

  18. Google Book Search: Document Understanding on a Massive Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unveiled in late 2004, Google Book Search is an ambi- tious program to make all the world's books discoverable online. The sheer scale of the problem brings a number of unique document analysis and understanding challenges that are outlined in this paper. We also go over some of the ways that Google is working with the document analysis re- search

  19. Evaluation of hierarchical clustering algorithms for document datasets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhao; George Karypis

    2002-01-01

    Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in providing intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clusters. In particular, hierarchical clustering solutions provide a view of the data at different levels of granularity, making them ideal for people to visualize and interactively explore large document collections.In this

  20. Active Documents as a Paradigm for Human-Computer Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent QUINT

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of active documents and shows how it can be used for making the user interface of applications that handle programs. A system for active documents is briefly presented as well as a few examples of its use for building syntax-driven editors.

  1. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

  2. System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

  3. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Sanfilippo, Antonio (Richland, WA); Calapristi, Augustin J. (West Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L. (Richland, WA); Hetzler, Elizabeth G. (Kennewick, WA); Turner, Alan E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  4. Towards a documentation maturity model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shihong Huang; Scott R. Tilley

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary work towards a maturity model for system documentation. The Documentation Maturity Model (DMM) is specifically targeted towards assessing the quality of documentation used in aiding program understanding. Software engineers and technical writers produce such documentation during regular product development lifecycles. The documentation can also be recreated after the fact via reverse engineering. The DMM has both

  5. MAKE A COMEBACK MAKE A COMEBACK

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    BED BUGS MAKE A COMEBACK BED BUGS MAKE A COMEBACK What You Need to Know About a Reverse Mortgage and presentations in both English and Spanish on preventing and controlling bed bugs including "Bed Bug Prevention Methods," "How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation," "Non-Chemical Bed Bug Management," and "Bed Bug

  6. How Much Pharyngeal Exposure Is “Normal”? Normative Data for Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Events Using Hypopharyngeal Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance (HMII)

    PubMed Central

    Hoppo, Toshitaka; Sanz, Alejandro F.; Nason, Katie S.; Carroll, Thomas L.; Rosen, Clark; Normolle, Daniel P.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Luketich, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can cause atypical symptoms, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to establish the normative data for LPR using hypopharyngeal multichannel intraluminal impedancepH (HMII). Methods Asymptomatic subjects underwent endoscopy followed by 24-h HMII using a specialized impedance catheter configured to detect LPR before and after a 2-week course of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Subjects were excluded if they had esophageal pathology or a positive DeMeester score. A cohort of 24 LPR patients who had a complete response to treatment was used for comparison with the normative data. Results Forty subjects were enrolled. Thirty-four subjects completed one, and 25 completed both HMII testing periods off and on PPI. There was no difference in the total number of reflux events between off and on PPI [22 (8–32) and 24 (10–28), respectively, p=0.89]. The 95th percentiles of LPR off and on PPI were 0 and 1, respectively. All patients with treatment responsive LPR had pre-treatment HMII values of LPR greater than the 95th percentile. Conclusion LPR events are rare in an asymptomatic population. One or more LPR events should be considered abnormal in patients with LPR symptoms regardless of whether there is a positive DeMeester score. PMID:22033702

  7. Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Sarah E.; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items are now outdated and parallel forms of the test do not exist to allow cognitive estimation abilities to be assessed on more than one occasion. In the present study, we devised two new 9-item parallel forms of the CET. These versions were administered to 184 healthy male and female participants aged 18–79 years with 9–22 years of education. Increasing age and years of education were found to be associated with successful CET performance as well as gender, intellect, naming, arithmetic and semantic memory abilities. To validate that the parallel forms of the CET were sensitive to frontal lobe damage, both versions were administered to 24 patients with frontal lobe lesions and 48 age-, gender- and education-matched controls. The frontal patients’ error scores were significantly higher than the healthy controls on both versions of the task. This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects. PMID:24671170

  8. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. PMID:25366676

  9. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

    2004-03-18

    This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

  10. Towards Rational Decision-Making in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Elchanan

    Without a conscious effort to achieve optimum resource allocation, there is a real danger that educational resources may be wasted. This document uses input-output analysis to develop a model for rational decision-making in secondary education. (LLR)

  11. Common Technical Document (CTD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Nahler

    \\u000a Harmonised format of documentation to be submitted for marketing applications in the three ICH-regions; Module 1 contains\\u000a the administrative and prescribing information documents specific to each regional regulatory agency; Module 2 contains the\\u000a quality overall summary, the nonclinical overview and the clinical overview followed by nonclinical written summaries and\\u000a the clinical summary. A one-page introduction of the pharmaceutical description should

  12. CISNET: Standardized Model Documents

    Cancer.gov

    Modeling is a complex endeavor, and often it is very difficult to reconcile results from different models. To aid in this process of model description and comparison, CISNET has developed and implemented standardized model documentation. Model profiles are standardized descriptions that facilitate the comparison of models and their results. Users can read documentation about a single model or read side-by-side descriptions that contrast how models address different components of the process.

  13. Getting documentation right.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola

    2014-12-31

    Between medication administration, care tasks and communication with colleagues and patients' families, documentation often gets put on the back-burner. However, it is a critical aspect of nursing care that provides a precise account of your actions that is vital for your legal protection and that of your employer. Below are a few suggestions to ensure your documentation is accurate and timely. PMID:25515489

  14. The Manhattan Project Documents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    These documents chronicle the establishment of a secret program?which came to be known as the Manhattan Project?to develop an atomic bomb, a powerful explosive nuclear weapon. Principal documents include: ?The Quebec Agreement,? The Roosevelt-Churchill "Tube Alloys" Deal, Interim Committee's Report, ?Report of the Committee on Political and Social Problems (The Franck Report), and ?Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (The Smyth Report).?

  15. PCA, Continuous, & Epidural Narcotic Infusion Documentation (07.2013) Documentation

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    PCA, Continuous, & Epidural Narcotic Infusion Documentation (07.2013) Documentation Required Continuous Narcotic Infusions PCA Only PCA + Basal (Continuous) Infusion Epidural and Epidural PCA Continuous

  16. Normative Feedback for Parents of College Students: Piloting a Parent Based Intervention to Correct Misperceptions of Students’ Alcohol Use and Other Parents’ Approval of Drinking

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multi-component parent-based interventions (PBIs) provide a promising avenue for targeting alcohol use and related consequences in college students. Parents of college-aged children can have a significant influence on their children’s alcohol use decisions. However, parents tend to underestimate their own child’s alcohol use and overestimate other similar parents’ approval of student drinking. These misperceptions could have important implications for parents’ own attitudes and alcohol-related communication with their student. Targeting these misperceptions through normative feedback could help promote greater and more in-depth alcohol-related communication. The present study examines the potential efficacy of web-based alcohol-related normative feedback for parents of college students. Method A sample of 144 parents of college students received web-based normative feedback about students’ alcohol use and approval, as well as other same-college parents’ alcohol approval. Parents completed measures of perceived student alcohol use, student alcohol approval, other-parent alcohol approval, and intentions to discuss alcohol use both pre- and post-normative feedback. Results Post-feedback, parents reported stronger intentions to talk to their student about alcohol, were less confident in their knowledge of their students’ alcohol use, and believed that their student drank in greater quantity and more frequently than pre-feedback. Parents also perceived other parents to be less approving of alcohol use after viewing normative feedback. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary support for the use of web-based normative feedback for parents of college students. Given these promising results, further research developing and testing this approach merits attention. PMID:24099892

  17. iDocument: How Smartphones and Tablets Are Changing Documentation in Preschool and Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Will; Bartlett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make

  18. DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION Combining Structure and Content

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION Combining Structure and Content Samaneh Chagheri, Sylvie Calabretto.dumoulin@continew.fr Keywords: Document Classification, Document Structure, Technical Document, Support Vector Machine, Vector Space Model. Abstract: Technical documentation such as user manual and manufacturing document is now

  19. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  20. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list had concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  1. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  2. Swiss Diplomatic Documents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Swiss Diplomatic Documents, a site maintained by the Swiss Federal Archives, provides public access to documents on Swiss foreign policy and international relations. This site contains two valuable information resources: the DoDiS database and a comprehensive bibliography. The DoDiS (Diplomatische Dokumente der Schweiz, or Documents Diplomatiques Suisses) database currently includes entries on over 2,000 foreign policy documents, 6,000 persons, 7,000 organizations, and 1,650 geographical terms. The database also contains international agreements, federal laws, and decisions of the Federal Council and of the Federal Assembly. DoDiS is searchable and provides detailed bibliographic data for each entry. Recently about one-fourth of the documents have also been made available in a full-text format (.pdf). The other significant resource at this site is a bibliography on Swiss international relations and foreign policy from 1945 to the present. The extensive bibliography is organized by subject and includes references in German, French, and English.

  3. SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

  4. Software documentation, Page 1, Printed 7/11/01 Documentation

    E-print Network

    Sommerville, Ian

    Software documentation, Page 1, Printed 7/11/01 Software Documentation Ian Sommerville Lancaster University, UK #12;Software documentation, Page 2, Printed 7/11/01 Introduction All large software development projects, irrespective of application, generate a large amount of associated documentation

  5. Technology Innovation Program Guidelines and Documentation

    E-print Network

    Magee, Joseph W.

    #12;Technology Innovation Program Guidelines and Documentation Requirements for Research Involving ............................................................................ 5 F. Required Documentation.............................................................................. 16 D. Required Documentation

  6. "That Teacher Takes Everything Badly": Discursively Reframing Non-Normative Behaviors in Therapy Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jessica Nina; Paulus, Trena M.

    2014-01-01

    While some scholars have emphasized the culturally contingent nature of disabilities, far less research has attended to the situated and discursive contexts within which those with disabilities and their communities make relevant their own understandings and representations of disability. Drawing from a larger ethnographic study, in this article…

  7. Computer integrated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1991-01-01

    The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

  8. Outcrop Documentation Lab Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas Evans

    Stratigraphy students are tasked with documenting an outcrop (sketches, photographs, and rock descriptions) and providing a three panel display of the results. Students work on the lab in class and receive direct mentoring in rock and outcrop description, then for homework they craft digital professional quality reports to present the data to others. These reports are graded, then returned to everyone simultaneously so they can be placed side by side. Students directly observe how others interpreted the same deposits, which underscores the concepts of sound data documentation, and separating data from interpretations.

  9. Related environmental documents

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

  10. Documents in Military History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

  11. Make a Topographic Map!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides instructions for students to make their own model mountain and then make a topographic map of the model. Materials and procedure are explained so younger students can follow the direction with minimum supervision.

  12. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  13. What Makes the Fizz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimkanin, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to answer the question, "What makes soda pop fizz?". Lists necessary materials and describes the procedure for making soda pop. Discusses the fermentation process and how it occurs. (NB)

  14. Make a Speaker

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-07-01

    In this activity, learners explore how an electromagnet works by making a simple one. Using this knowledge, learners design a diagram to make a working speaker using household materials. Then learners follow instructions on one method of making a speaker, and test their own designs to compare results.

  15. I: Making Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2014-01-01

    Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

  16. Document Model Issues for Hypermedia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda Hardman; Dick C. A. Bulterman

    1997-01-01

    A number of different systems exist for creating multimedia or hypermedia applications—each with its own internal document model. This leads to problems in comparing documents created by these systems, and in describing the information captured by a document for long-term (system independent) storage and future playback. We discuss the components which should be considered for a hypermedia document model. These

  17. Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents Improving the way of Transportation Paula Hammond Chief of Staff #12;Reader-Friendly Environmental Documents What's the problem? "Documents are much too cumbersome for either the public or decision-makers to identify relevant issues

  18. Registrariat Demande de documents officiels

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Remi

    Registrariat Demande de documents officiels IMPORTANT : Veuillez écrire lisiblement en caractères d'imprimerie 2- DOCUMENT(S) DEMANDÉ(S) Relevé de notes (nombre de copie(s) ________ ) Attestation d'obtention de/Année : Autres documents (nombre de copie(s) ________ ) Spécifier : 3- INSTRUCTIONS PARTICULIÈRES D'ENVOI OU DE

  19. Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected…

  20. Normative data for P1\\/N1-latencies of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by air- or bone-conducted tone bursts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Basta; Ingo Todt; Arne Ernst

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveThe response characteristics of acoustically elicited vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) largely depend on the stimuli applied. A tone-burst stimulation of 500Hz seems to be clinically most appropriate because those VEMPs can be elicited at the lowest stimulus intensity possible. The aim of the present paper was to describe normative data for tone-burst evoked VEMPs.

  1. Experimental Tests of Normative Group Influence and Representation Effects in Computer-Mediated Communication: When Interacting Via Computers Differs from Interacting With Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Nass, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Presents two experiments to address the questions of if and how normative social influence operates in anonymous computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction. Finds that the perception of interaction partner (human vs. computer) moderated the group conformity effect such that the undergraduate student subjects expressed greater…

  2. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

  3. Normativeness, Relevance, and Temporality in Specifying and Reasoning about Information Security and Assurance: Can We have a Formal Logic System as a Unified Logical Basis? (Position Paper)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingde Cheng

    This position paper points out the 'NRT problem' in specifying and reasoning about information security and assurance: Although it is necessary to deal with normative, relevance, and temporal notions explicitly and soundly in specifying and reasoning about information security and assurance, until now there is no formal logic system can be used as a unified logical basis for the purpose.

  4. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the Visual Spatial Learning Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett A. Steinberg; Linas A. Bieliauskas; Glenn E. Smith; Robert J. Ivnik; James F. Malec

    2005-01-01

    Although normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments frequently feature adjustments for subject variables, there are reasons to believe that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, years of education may be less closely associated with test performances than is overall intellectual functioning. In this last of four reanalyses of results from

  5. Normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the elderly Quebec-French population.

    PubMed

    Dion, Mélissa; Potvin, Olivier; Belleville, Sylvie; Ferland, Guylaine; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis; Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Simard, Martine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lecomte, Sarah; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50-88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants' age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions). PMID:24815338

  6. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

  7. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  8. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  9. Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MCST, MWCST): Normative Data in Children 4–13 Years Old, According to Classical and New Types of Scoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Cianchetti; Simona Corona; Maria Foscoliano; Daniela Contu; Giuseppina Sannio-Fancello

    2007-01-01

    According to Nelson's (1976) criteria, the MCST (MWCST) is a simplification of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). As the MCST is particularly suitable for children, the aim of this study was to establish the normative data presently lacking for that group. The MCST was administered to 1126 normal children aged 4 to 13 years. Scoring was based on all

  10. The Advanced Raven's Progressive Matrices: Normative Data for an American University Population and an Examination of the Relationship with Spearman's g.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    Normative data for the Advanced Raven's Progressive Matrices are presented based on 300 University of California, Berkeley, students. Correlations with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Terman Concept Mastery Test are explored. The relationship between the Advanced Raven's Progressive Matrices and Spearman's g is explored. (Author)

  11. Are Academics in Kazakhstan Capable of Self-Regulation? A Study of Faculty's Normative Structure in the Midst of Higher Education Decentralization Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.; Caboni, Timothy C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the state and structure of professional norms in the context of undergraduate teaching in a university in Kazakhstan. The purpose is to understand the belief system held by academics with regards to their professional duties in the context of teaching. Evidence of such normative structure would suggest that the Kazakhstani…

  12. [German version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-German)--overview and evaluation of initial validation and normative results].

    PubMed

    Klasen, Henrikje; Woerner, Wolfgang; Rothenberger, Aribert; Goodman, Robert

    2003-09-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a short behavioural screening questionnaire which can be completed in about five minutes by parents and teachers of 4- to 16-year-olds or as self-report by 11- to 16-year-olds. The English original has already been fully evaluated and is widely used in research and clinical practice. The instrument was translated into German in 1997, and several evaluative studies have since been completed. The present paper gives an overview of this novel instrument and summarizes the normative and validation studies to date. A normative study on a field sample of 930 children demonstrated that the distributions of raw scores in the German parent SDQ closely resemble those found in the English version, while a factor analysis of the German data yielded a pattern of loadings which convincingly replicated the original scale structure. Initial validation studies showed that the parent-, teacher-, and self-completed SDQ-Deu correlates well with the considerably longer German versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and respective teacher and self-report derivatives (TRF, YSR). Both parent-rated instruments are equally able to distinguish between a community and a clinic sample, and between subgroups with and without specified categories of disorders within a clinic sample. After discussing possible uses of the SDQ-Deu as well as similarities and differences to other scales, we conclude that the German SDQ is just as useful and valid an instrument for many clinical and research purposes as the English original. PMID:14526759

  13. RCT of Web-based Personalized Normative Feedback for College Drinking Prevention: Are Typical Student Norms Good Enough?

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Zheng, Cheng; R. Kenney, Shannon; Napper, Lucy E.; Walter, Theresa; Kilmer, Jason R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Grossbard, Joel; Ghaidarov, Tehniat M.; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are generally effective at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing risky alcohol consumption among college students. However, research has yet to establish what level of reference group specificity is most efficacious in delivering PNF. This study compared the efficacy of a web-based PNF intervention employing eight increasingly-specific reference groups against a Web-BASICS intervention and a repeated-assessment control in reducing risky drinking and associated consequences. Method Participants were 1663 heavy drinking Caucasian and Asian undergraduates at two universities. The referent for web-based PNF was either the typical same-campus student, or a same-campus student at one (either gender, race, or Greek-affiliation), or a combination of two (e.g., gender and race), or all three levels of specificity (i.e., gender, race, and Greek-affiliation). Hypotheses were tested using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models fit by generalized estimating equations. Results The PNF intervention participants showed modest reductions in all four outcomes (average total drinks, peak drinking, drinking days, and drinking consequences) compared to control participants. No significant differences in drinking outcomes were found between the PNF group as a whole and the Web-BASICS group. Among the eight PNF conditions, participants receiving typical student PNF demonstrated greater reductions in all four outcomes compared to those receiving PNF for more specific reference groups. Perceived drinking norms and discrepancies between individual behavior and actual norms mediated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest a web-based PNF intervention using the typical student referent offers a parsimonious approach to reducing problematic alcohol use outcomes among college students. PMID:23937346

  14. Normative Data of the EORTC QLQ-C30 For the German Population: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Annika; Schubert, Daniel; Katalinic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to generate up-to-date normative data for health-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the “European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30)” in a random sample of the population in Northern Germany. Methods We conducted a population-based survey of a random sample of 10,000 persons aged 16 years or older. The postal questionnaire included questions regarding lifetime prevalence of common diseases and quality of life. EORTC QLQ-C30 scales were scored according to standard procedures. The results were stratified for age and sex. Results The questionnaire was completed by 4,684 (47%) of 9,928 eligible persons. Mean age of the participants was 51.7 years (standard deviation: 18.5) and 57% were females. Missing values for the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales and items were sparse (minimum: 0.2%, maximum: 1.5%). Self-reported health related QoL varied by age and sex. Generally, men reported better functioning and fewer symptoms than women. In both sexes function declined and symptoms increased with increasing age. Symptoms most frequently reported were fatigue, pain and insomnia. Compared to the German reference data published in 2001 our participants scored more than 10 points higher on the latter three scales/items. The most frequently reported diseases were hypertension (36%), hyperlipidemia (26%) and arthritis (30%). Lifetime prevalence of depression was 16% in women and 11% in men. Conclusion Our study participants are representative for the German general population with regard to age, sex and education. Of special interest is the high proportion of participants reporting depression which is also mirrored by high fatigue, pain and insomnia scores. The normative data provided should be used as comparison health-related QoL data when evaluating the QoL in German cancer patients. PMID:24058523

  15. The Influence of Social Adjustment on Normative and Risky Health Behaviors in Emerging Adults With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Lennon, Jaclyn M.; Devine, Katie A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Klages, Kimberly; Potthoff, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the rates of normative and risky health behaviors and the influence of prior and current social adjustment on health risk behaviors in emerging adults with spina bifida (SB). Method These data are part of a larger longitudinal study of youth with SB; at ages 18–19, 50 emerging adults with SB and 60 typically developing (TD) youth participated. Social adjustment was measured at ages 12/13, 14/15, 16/17, and 18/19. Substance use and sexual activity were self-reported by emerging adults. Results The SB group reported similar frequencies (i.e., number of days in the previous month) of cigarette and marijuana use. Fewer individuals with SB reported initiation of both alcohol use (i.e., ever used) and sexual activity (i.e., ever had sex) compared to TD peers. The SB group also reported less frequent alcohol use and fewer sexual partners. Better social adjustment during early adolescence (ages 12/13) predicted more frequent alcohol use and a greater number of sexual partners for all youth. Social adjustment also mediated the effect of group status on health risk behaviors. Conclusions Emerging adults with SB lag behind TD peers in terms of normative initiation of alcohol use and sexual activity. However, this population participates in some risky health behaviors at similar rates compared to their TD peers (e.g., smoking). Youths’ health risk behaviors may be influenced by their level of social adjustment. A challenge for future interventions for this population will be finding methods of improving social functioning without increasing the rate of health risk behavior. PMID:24490647

  16. Understanding Clinician Information Demands and Synthesis of Clinical Documents in Electronic Health Record Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farri, Oladimeji Feyisetan

    2012-01-01

    Large quantities of redundant clinical data are usually transferred from one clinical document to another, making the review of such documents cognitively burdensome and potentially error-prone. Inadequate designs of electronic health record (EHR) clinical document user interfaces probably contribute to the difficulties clinicians experience while…

  17. GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

    E-print Network

    Sethuraman, Al

    GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.3, 3 November 2008 Copyright c 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007 verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other func- tional and useful document "free" in the sense

  18. Xed: A New Tool for eXtracting Hidden Structures from Electronic Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karim Hadjar; Maurizio Rigamonti; Denis Lalanne; Rolf Ingold

    2004-01-01

    PDF became a very common format for exchanging printable documents. Further, it can be easily generated from the major documents formats, which make a huge number of PDF documents available over the net. However its use is limited to displaying and printing, which considerably reduces the search and retrieval capabilities. For this reason, additional tools have recently appeared that allow

  19. 12 CFR 602.19 - Request for testimony or production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Request for testimony or production of documents. 602.19 Section 602.19 Banks...INFORMATION Testimony and Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which FCA is...Request for testimony or production of documents. (a) How to make and address a...

  20. 12 CFR 602.19 - Request for testimony or production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Request for testimony or production of documents. 602.19 Section 602.19 Banks...INFORMATION Testimony and Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which FCA is...Request for testimony or production of documents. (a) How to make and address a...

  1. 12 CFR 602.19 - Request for testimony or production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Request for testimony or production of documents. 602.19 Section 602.19 Banks...INFORMATION Testimony and Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which FCA is...Request for testimony or production of documents. (a) How to make and address a...

  2. 12 CFR 602.19 - Request for testimony or production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Request for testimony or production of documents. 602.19 Section 602.19 Banks...INFORMATION Testimony and Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which FCA is...Request for testimony or production of documents. (a) How to make and address a...

  3. 12 CFR 602.19 - Request for testimony or production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Request for testimony or production of documents. 602.19 Section 602.19 Banks...INFORMATION Testimony and Production of Documents in Legal Proceedings in Which FCA is...Request for testimony or production of documents. (a) How to make and address a...

  4. Tangler: a censorship-resistant publishing system based on document entanglements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Waldman; David Mazières

    2001-01-01

    We describe the design of a censorship-resistant system that employs a unique document storage mechanism. Newly published documents are dependent on the blocks of previously published documents. We call this dependency an entanglement. Entanglement makes replication of previously published content an intrinsic part of the publication process. Groups of files, called collections, can be published together and named in a

  5. Intercontinental Document Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satenik Avakian; Ken Frankel

    2003-01-01

    Describes a pilot project in overseas document delivery via Ariel, conducted by the American University of Armenia (AUA) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU). Background information on the history of Armenia and AUA is provided, followed by discussions of the origins of the project, the development of a formal agreement to provide guidelines, implementation of Ariel at AUA, and evaluation and

  6. Dynamic Document Creator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Dynamic Document Creator by Strategis (described in the December 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics) assembles international market research reports according to user-defined specifications. Each report draws on US Department of Commerce data and any number of regions, countries, industry sectors, and keywords are available for selection.

  7. On Archiving Architecture Documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rambabu Duddukuri; T. V. Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective on archiving architecture documents in large organizations. Designing and architecting a system deals with modeling the high level structure of a system in terms of views, architectural patterns and styles. Aspects such as knowledge management and archiving of architecture work done on artifacts of software projects challenge the large organizations. Knowledge management in such

  8. Nineteenth Century Documents Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benson, Lloyd.

    Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

  9. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  10. [Vascular anomalies: information documents].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Petit, P; Bartoli, J-M; Magalon, G

    2011-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are a complex pathological group. They are composed of hemangiomas and other vascular tumors and congenital vascular malformations: venous, lymphatic, arteriovenous and capillary malformations. The management of these anomalies is difficult and must involve an interdisciplinary approach. To help patients to understand their pathology, we have made some information documents. PMID:20598795

  11. Adaptive document image binarization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaakko J. Sauvola; Matti Pietikäinen

    2000-01-01

    A new method is presented for adaptive document image binarization, where the page is considered as a collection of subcomponents such as text, background and picture. The problems caused by noise, illumination and many source type-related degradations are addressed. Two new algorithms are applied to determine a local threshold for each pixel. The performance evaluation of the algorithm utilizes test

  12. ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document

    E-print Network

    ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document JANUARY 2006 Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term #12;Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long term #12;OUR ENERGY CHALLENGE ­ SECURING CLEAN, AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR THE LONG TERM ii Why is the government

  13. ELT Documents, January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    The theme of this issue of ELT Documents is the use of the language laboratory in language learning. An article by A. Maley summarizes the conference on the use of the language laboratory for advanced learners, held in Paris, 2-4 Oct. 1974, from which two main perspectives emerged. One is critical of the structuralist audio-lingual assumptions…

  14. Document retrieval and reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlouch, J. J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    ASRES system of computer programs provides for acquisition, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information in form of bibliographic citations of technical documents. Persons with little or no computer experience can operate ASRES. System should be applicable to any definable body of technical literature consisting of up to 32,750 citations.

  15. Documents in Microform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Janet, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Illinois Libraries" contains the papers delivered at a 1974 workshop on government publications in microform. Twelve articles focus on such issues as: 1) reasons to collect microforms; 2) criteria for selecting microform documents; 3) microform hardware and software; 4) procurement procedures; 5) bibliographic control; and 6)…

  16. Historical Documents and Reports

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This section features a collection of some of the documents and reports that have shaped the atomic age. Categories include: The Nuclear Age Begins, The Manhattan Project, The Trinity Test, The Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Developing the Hydrogen Bomb, The Oppenheimer Affair, Cuban Missile Crisis, Arms Control, Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation, and Missile Defense.

  17. Cuban Missile Crisis Documents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    These documents chronicle the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 15, 1962, the Soviet Union was discovered attempting to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. These missiles would have been capable of quickly reaching the United States. President Kennedy responded with a naval blockade. After several days of increasing tensions, the Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles.

  18. Office Automation Document Preparation

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Office Automation and Document Preparation for the v' University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.3.4 Scheduling · 2 Office Automation in the University 2.1 Implementation 2.1.1 Service-Oriented · 2 research into office automation. * In implementing office automation, the University should concentrate

  19. The HL7 Clinical Document Architecture.

    PubMed

    Dolin, R H; Alschuler, L; Beebe, C; Biron, P V; Boyer, S L; Essin, D; Kimber, E; Lincoln, T; Mattison, J E

    2001-01-01

    Many people know of Health Level 7 (HL7) as an organization that creates health care messaging standards. Health Level 7 is also developing standards for the representation of clinical documents (such as discharge summaries and progress notes). These document standards make up the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA). The HL7 CDA Framework, release 1.0, became an ANSI-approved HL7 standard in November 2000. This article presents the approach and objectives of the CDA, along with a technical overview of the standard. The CDA is a document markup standard that specifies the structure and semantics of clinical documents. A CDA document is a defined and complete information object that can include text, images, sounds, and other multimedia content. The document can be sent inside an HL7 message and can exist independently, outside a transferring message. The first release of the standard has attempted to fill an important gap by addressing common and largely narrative clinical notes. It deliberately leaves out certain advanced and complex semantics, both to foster broad implementation and to give time for these complex semantics to be fleshed out within HL7. Being a part of the emerging HL7 version 3 family of standards, the CDA derives its semantic content from the shared HL7 Reference Information Model and is implemented in Extensible Markup Language. The HL7 mission is to develop standards that enable semantic interoperability across all platforms. The HL7 version 3 family of standards, including the CDA, are moving us closer to the realization of this vision. PMID:11687563

  20. Sustainable Development: Problematising Normative Constructions of Gender within Global Environmental Governmentality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma A. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Systems of governance are legitimised as an almost indispensable response to global co-ordination over matters of environmental degradation. Considering sustainable development as the key label for ‘common-sense’ political approaches to environmental degradation and a key informant for international environmental policy-making activity, this article seeks to problematise such a widespread discourse as (re)productive of (hetero)sexist power relations. As such, this article,