These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories. PMID:24215467

Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

2014-01-01

2

High Stakes Decision Making: Normative, Descriptive and Prescriptive Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state of the art of research on individual decision-making in high-stakes, low-probability settings. A central theme is that resolving high-stakes decisions optimally poses a formidable challenge not only to naïve decision makers, but also to users of more sophisticated tools, such as decision analysis. Such decisions are difficult to make because precise information about probabilities is

Howard Kunreuther; Robert Meyer; Richard Zeckhauser; Paul Slovic; Barry Schwartz; Christian Schade; Mary Frances Luce; Steven Lippman; David Krantz; Barbara Kahn; Robin Hogarth

2002-01-01

3

Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

1984-01-01

4

Situational Normativism: A descriptive-normative approach to decision making and policy sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of improving policy making, efforts have recently intensified to integrate behavioral sciences, cost-effectiveness analysis, and related disciplines into an evolving field that has been termed “policy sciences.” After reviewing some aspects of policy sciences, the paper discusses an approach, called situational normativism, by which the components of policy sciences may be put to work effectively on real

Arie Y. Lewin; Melvin F. Shakun

1976-01-01

5

Normative and Descriptive Theories of Decision Making under Risk: A Short Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses some recent developments in analysis of decision making under risk and uncertainty. First we present the expected utility theory and the basic assumptions of rationality. Second we discuss the critique that has been directed towards the expected utility theory. Next we present the alternative theories: regret theory, prospect theory and theory of stochastic preference. Finally we discuss

Niko Suhonen

6

Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs - Duration: 21 minutes.  

NASA Video Gallery

Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

7

Neural signatures of fairness-related normative decision making in the ultimatum game: a coordinate-based meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The willingness to incur personal costs to enforce prosocial norms represents a hallmark of human civilization. Although recent neuroscience studies have used the ultimatum game to understand the neuropsychological mechanisms that underlie the enforcement of fairness norms; however, a precise characterization of the neural systems underlying fairness-related norm enforcement remains elusive. In this study, we used a coordinate-based meta-analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the ultimatum game with the goal to provide an additional level of evidence for the refinement of the underlying neural architecture of this human puzzling behavior. Our results demonstrated a convergence of reported activation foci in brain networks associated with psychological components of fairness-related normative decision making, presumably reflecting a reflexive and intuitive system (System 1) and a reflective and deliberate system (System 2). System 1 (anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex [PFC]) may be associated with the reflexive and intuitive responses to norm violations, representing a motivation to punish norm violators. Those intuitive responses conflict with economic self-interest, encoded in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may engage cognitive control from a reflective and deliberate System 2 to resolve the conflict by either suppressing (ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, left dorsolateral PFC, and rostral ACC) the intuitive responses or over-riding self-interest (right dorsolateral PFC). Taken together, we suggest that fairness-related norm enforcement recruits an intuitive system for rapid evaluation of norm violations and a deliberate system for integrating both social norms and self-interest to regulate the intuitive system in favor of more flexible decision making. PMID:25327760

Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

2015-02-01

8

Natural sources of normativity.  

PubMed

Normativity is widely regarded as being naturalistically problematic. Teleosemantic theories aimed to provide a naturalistic grounding for the normativity of mental representation in biological proper function, but have been subject to a variety of criticisms and would in any case provide only a thin naturalist platform for grounding normativity more generally. Here I present an account that identifies a basic form of valuational normativity in autonomous systems, and show how the account can be extended to encompass key aspects of the normativity of functions and practical reasons. PMID:22326079

Christensen, Wayne

2012-03-01

9

Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Norms for Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Animal Naming, Token Test, Wrat-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data for older African Americans are presented for several clinical neuropsychological measures, including Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Token Test, WRAT-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 309 cognitively normal, community-dwelling individuals, aged 56 through 94, participating in Mayo's

John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Tanis J. Ferman; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

10

36 CFR 51.100 - When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly...Information § 51.100 When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly...concession contracts, the Director will not make publicly available proposals...

2010-07-01

11

Normative KGP agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the logical model of agency known as the KGP model, to support agents with normative concepts, based on the roles an agent plays and the obligations and prohibitions that result from playing these roles. The proposed framework illustrates how the resulting normative concepts, including the roles, can evolve dynamically during the lifetime of the agent. Furthermore, we illustrate

Fariba Sadri; Kostas Stathis; Francesca Toni

2006-01-01

12

Please make a copy of this document for your records. Girl Scout Engineering Saturday  

E-print Network

Please make a copy of this document for your records. Girl Scout Engineering Saturday University) the Girl Scout Engineering Saturday (GSES) Program, sponsored by the Women In Engineering (WIE) Program

Shapiro, Benjamin

13

Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable…

Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

2015-01-01

14

[Medical record management and risk management processes. State of the art and new normative guidelines about the organization and the management of the sanitary documentation in the National Health System or Hospital Trusts].  

PubMed

Recent health care reforms, the start of accreditation processes of health institutions, and the introduction also in the health system of risk management concepts and instruments, borrowed from the enterprise culture and the emphasis put on the protection of privacy, render evident the need and the urgency to define and to implement improvement processes of the organization and management of the medical documentation in the hospital with the aim of facilitation in fulfilment of regional and local health authorities policies about protection of the safety and improvement of quality of care. Currently the normative context that disciplines the management of medical records inside the hospital appears somewhat fragmentary, incomplete and however not able to clearly orientate health operators with the aim of a correct application of the enforced norms in the respect of the interests of the user and of local health authority. In this job we individuate the critical steps in the various phases of management process of the clinical folder and propose a new model of regulations, with the purpose to improve and to simplify the management processes and the modalities of compilation, conservation and release to entitled people of all clinical documentation. PMID:15049537

Spolaore, P; Murolo, G; Sommavilla, M

2003-01-01

15

Toward Normative Expert Systems: Part I The Pathfinder Project  

E-print Network

methods based in probability and decision theory. Keywords: expert systems, decision making, diagnosis number of normative expert systems that use probability and decision theory to acquire, represent, probability theory, decision theory, artificial intelligence, pathology 2 #12;1 Introduction Decision

Horvitz, Eric

16

Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices.  

PubMed

The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an "operant matching law" in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

2014-01-01

17

Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) Phase II: 930 New Normative Photos  

PubMed Central

Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

2014-01-01

18

Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

The purpose of this dissertation is to present what I think is a particularly compelling normative version of sentimentalism. The moral principle which is the foundation of this ethic is: An act, or a failure to act, is ...

Gerrek, Monica

2008-01-09

19

Imprecision in normative domains  

E-print Network

Being rational and being moral can be difficult. However, some theories of rationality and morality make living up to these ideals too difficult by imposing requirements which are excessively rigid. In this dissertation, ...

Schoenfield, Miriam

2012-01-01

20

Navigating the Normative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

Hlebowitsh, Peter

2009-01-01

21

Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

Peter C. Fishburn

1981-01-01

22

Normative data for clustering and switching on verbal fluency tasks.  

PubMed

Normative data for clustering and switching on verbal fluency tasks are provided. Four hundred and eleven healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 91 were given tests of phonemic fluency (FAS or CFL) and semantic fluency (Animals and Supermarket). Raw scores were corrected for demographic (i.e., age, education, and sex) and test (i.e., fluency form) variables that were determined to make sizable contributions to fluency performance. These normative data should be useful for clinicians and researchers in determining the nature of the fluency impairment in any given individual. PMID:10855044

Troyer, A K

2000-06-01

23

Documentation  

E-print Network

Documentation - DRAFT 25 May 2011 - title: tiger2/> Documentation doc version: Draft-mail: tiger2@lists.hu-berlin.de homepage: http://korpling.german.hu-berlin.de/tiger2/ inria-00593903,version2-25May2011 #12;Preamble 1 Preamble tiger2/> is an XML format serializing the ISO meta

Boyer, Edmond

24

Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting.  

PubMed

When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a "financial guide" detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to "expert" advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified. PMID:23596504

Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

2012-09-01

25

Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

26

From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics  

PubMed Central

Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called ‘moral brain’ in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects’ normative expertise. PMID:20194515

Spranger, Tade M.; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

2011-01-01

27

Making Learning Visible in Kindergarten Classrooms: Pedagogical Documentation as a Formative Assessment Technique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated interactions between pedagogical documentation--a formative assessment technique and instructional intervention designed to increase student learning by recording children's experiences--and kindergarten children, families and teachers in the UAE. The study sample comprised six teachers in six kindergarten classrooms, 141…

Buldu, Mehmet

2010-01-01

28

The Presence of Norms in the Absence of Groups? The Impact of Normative Influence under Hidden-Profile Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of normative and informational influence with respect to research on hidden profiles, which occur when the members of a group individually hold information favoring a low-quality decision but collectively have the information necessary to make a high-quality decision. Finds that when normative and informational influences are…

Cruz, Michael G.; Henningsen, David Dryden; Williams, Mary Lynn Miller

2000-01-01

29

The prediction of Change: Normative neuropsychological trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the application of normative standards is vital to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, data regarding normative change remains scarce despite the frequency of serial assessments. Based on 285 normal individuals, we provide co-normed baseline data with demographic adjustments and test-retest standardized regression based (SRB) models for three time points for several measures. These models delineate normal, expected change across

Deborah K. Attix; Tyler J. Story; Gordon J. Chelune; J. D. Ball; Michael L. Stutts; Robert P. Hart; Jeffrey T. Barth

2009-01-01

30

THE PREDICTION OF CHANGE: NORMATIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TRAJECTORIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the application of normative standards is vital to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, data regarding normative change remains scarce despite the frequency of serial assessments. Based on 285 normal individuals, we provide co-normed baseline data with demographic adjustments and test-retest standardized regression based (SRB) models for three time points for several measures. These models delineate normal, expected change across

Deborah K. Attix; Tyler J. Story; Gordon J. Chelune; J. D. Ball; Michael L. Stutts; Robert P. Hart; Jeffrey T. Barth

31

Temporalised Normative Positions in Defeasible Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weproposeacomputationallyorientednon-monotonicmulti-modal logicarisingfromthecombinationoftemporalisedagencyandtem- poralised normative positions. We argue about the defeasible na- ture of these notions and then we show how to represent and reason with them in the setting of Defeasible Logic. 1. MOTIVATION AND LAYOUT An increasing number of works on agents assume that in artifi- cial societies normative concepts may play a decisive role, allow- ing for the

Guido Governatori; Antonino Rotolo; Giovanni Sartor

2005-01-01

32

Normative inner ear volumetric measurements.  

PubMed

In the current study, we attempted to determine normative inner ear volumetric measurements generated from three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images. In addition, we investigated a correlation between the axial length and the volume of the labyrinth and discussed clinical outcomes of this correlation. Amira 5.2.2 software was used to create three-dimensional isosurface images of the human labyrinth using two-dimensional CT images from 35 anatomically normal patients. With the three-dimensional labyrinths, complete dimensional analysis was performed to gain insight into both the volume and the greatest axial length of the inner ear. Paired t test and Pearson correlation were used. Our volume of the inner ear inquiry reported a mean volume of 221.5 with SD of 24.3 ?L (0.228 ?L for males and 0.218 ?L for females). The length showed a mean of 1.713 cm with SD of 0.064 cm (1.753 cm for males and 1.695 cm for females). The length was used to estimate the volume, and the estimates were within 10% of the measured volume 74.3% of the time. Normative volumetric measurements of the inner ear can be obtained by using three-dimensional CT Imaging by Amira 5.2.2 software. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the axial length of the labyrinth and the volume of the labyrinth. The axial length of the labyrinth could be used to estimate the volume of the labyrinth, which may be clinically important to estimate the concentration of the drug distributed in the inner ear. PMID:25490572

Teixido, Michael T; Kirkilas, Gary; Seymour, Peter; Sem, Kanik; Iaia, Alberto; Sabra, Omar; Isildak, Huseyin

2015-01-01

33

Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport  

PubMed Central

How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

McKillop, Heather

2005-01-01

34

PLURALISM AND NORMATIVITY IN FRENCH ISLAMIC REASONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Muslims create new, stable communities in Europe and North America, they have asked how best to adapt their normative and legal traditions to their new settings. These traditions are central to Islam. The root meaning of islâm is \\

John R. Bowen

35

Is meaning intrinsically normative?1 Pierre Jacob  

E-print Network

1 Is meaning intrinsically normative?1 Pierre Jacob Institut Jean Nicod, CNRS, Paris, France, jacob, Pascal Engel, Kati Farkas, Paul Horwich, Barry Loewer, Nenad Miscevic, Peter Railton, François Recanati

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Decision Making in the Curriculum Development Process and Raising the Quality of Academic Standards: What Does a Review of Australian Curriculum Documents Tell Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, to which factors in the process of decision making involved in curriculum development in Australia, have determined the quality of curriculum documents. Searches on web sites of education organisations and electronic databases of educational literature were conducted to identify source documents

Watt, Michael G.

2008-01-01

37

Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.  

PubMed

Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "Staying normative during gambling"; and "I have changed" (reformed gamblers' presentation of themselves as having changed for the better). The findings underscore the complex dialogue behind the identity construction put forward by women with a gambling problem, their yearning to be perceived by society as normative women and to fit in despite their stigmatized behavior, and the tension they feel in society's relationship toward them. The findings also suggest that practitioners who work with women gamblers may want to pay attention to the power relations shaping identity construction in an interview setting, and look more closely at the women's awareness of the stigma they bear and the complex processes that make up their multidimensional identity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822607

Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi

2015-03-01

38

Public Participation in the Making of Science Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that, because Science and Technology Studies (STS) lost contact with political philosophy, its defense of public participation in policy-making involving technical claims is normatively unsatisfactory. Current penchants for political under-laboring and normative individualism are critiqued, and the connections between STS and theorists of deliberative democracy are explored. A conservative normativity is proposed, and STS positions on public

Darrin Durant

2010-01-01

39

Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Normative Data for Commonly Used Clinical Neuropsychological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the methodology and sample characteristics of Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). These studies reflect a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort by investigators at Mayo Clinic to provide age-appropriate normative data for African American elders on commonly used neuropsychological tests. A sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals over age 55 contributed to the MOAANS sample. Norms were calculated for

Robert J. Ivnik; Floyd B. Willis; Tanis J. Ferman; Glenn E. Smith; Francine C. Parfitt; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

40

A Normative Model for Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiations between a multinational corporation and a host government are considered for an international joint venture. Various negotiating behavior concepts that the two parties may use are discussed. The process of concession-making is formulated as a sequential decision problem, where each party has an opportunity for concession-making in alternating negotiation sessions, the magnitude of the concession depending on the current

Ambar G. Rao; Melvin F. Shakun

1974-01-01

41

Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.  

PubMed

The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges - how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies . The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082

Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

2015-06-01

42

The prediction of change: normative neuropsychological trajectories.  

PubMed

While the application of normative standards is vital to the practice of clinical neuropsychology, data regarding normative change remains scarce despite the frequency of serial assessments. Based on 285 normal individuals, we provide co-normed baseline data with demographic adjustments and test-retest standardized regression based (SRB) models for three time points for several measures. These models delineate normal, expected change across time, and yield standardized z-scores that are comparable across tests. Using a new approach, performance on any previous trial was accounted for in the subsequent models of change, yielding serial normative formulas that model change trajectories rather than simple change from point to point. These equations provide indices of deviation from expected baseline and change for use in clinical or research settings. PMID:18720272

Attix, Deborah K; Story, Tyler J; Chelune, Gordon J; Ball, J D; Stutts, Michael L; Hart, Robert P; Barth, Jeffrey T

2009-01-01

43

Supreme Court Bound: An Introduction Concerning the Intrinsic Subjectivity of Supreme Court Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many theories behind Supreme Court decision-making that are primarily descriptive or normative. Descriptive theories attempt a hermetic explanation that sufficiently applies to all past decisions, and normative theories seek to create a rubric or method, also dependable, for how the justices of the Supreme Court should make decisions. Normative theories can be highly porous and problematic because they

Luke Hoorelbeke

2005-01-01

44

Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback  

PubMed Central

College students have been shown to consistently overestimate the drinking of their peers. As a result, social norms approaches are effective in correcting these misperceived norms to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. In this review of literature, the authors critically evaluated the effectiveness of personalized normative feedback. In addition, the authors reviewed personalized normative feedback interventions and provided suggestions for increasing the efficacy of these interventions by making better use of salient referent group data. PMID:16450845

Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

2008-01-01

45

The Effect of Normative Social Influence and Cultural Diversity on Group Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by concerns regarding the impact of cultural diversity on group interaction processes and a desire to extend the Social Influence Model of Technology Use, this paper discusses the impact of normative social influence on enhancing group media use and group decision making performance over time in different cultural group compositions. This paper proposes that the strength of attraction to

Zixiu Guo; Tim Turner; Felix Tan

2006-01-01

46

The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

Weinstock, Daniel

2014-01-01

47

Normative Power Europe: A Credible Utopia? &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractStudies on the international identity of the EU have stressed the normative feature of European foreign policy. At the same time, scholars have pointed out that the inconsistency between the EU's rhetoric and behaviour and the lack of reflexivity undermines its credibility. How does reflexivity affect collective identity? To what extent does the EU's utopian rhetoric affect its credibility as

SIBYLLE SCHEIPERS; DANIELA SICURELLI

2007-01-01

48

Toward a normative ethics for technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to criticise ad hoc approaches to ethics in research and development in technology as descriptive and non-ethical, and based upon a narrow conception of rationality. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach deploys a theory of normativity that can incorporate values and a broad conception of rationality, in order to account for the relevance of

Stephen Rainey; Philippe Goujon

2011-01-01

49

The Normative Context of Research Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reflections on a new type of qualitative research: consensual qualitative research (CQR). Argues that consensus processes and judgments are inherent in the understanding of any form of research practice. Discusses normative understanding of research practice, locates CQR in existing research traditions, and judges the value of CQR practice.…

Hoshmand, Lisa Tsoi

1997-01-01

50

Relationship between Olivine Normative and Quartz Normative lunar Basalts: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the genetic relationship between olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and quartznormative basalts (QNB) found on the Moon. We experimentally test the hypothesis that QNB are derived from a primitive ONB through extensive polybaric and polythermal fractional crystallization.

Nanne, J. A. M.; Tronche, E. J.; van Westrenen, W.

2011-10-01

51

Normative Influences on Aggression in Urban Elementary School Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive

David Henry; Nancy Guerra; Rowell Huesmann; Patrick Tolan; Richard VanAcker; Leonard Eron

2000-01-01

52

Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

2014-01-01

53

How Oedipus falsifies Popper: psychoanalysis as a normative science.  

PubMed

The scientific status of psychoanalysis has been the subject of continual debate. Influential philosophers of science have challenged the form of its theories and the nature of the evidence offered on their behalf. Some have concluded that the theories are beyond testing--i.e., they can neither be confirmed nor refuted, and psychoanalysis is thus intrinsically unscientific, akin to pseudosciences such as astrology. From that body of criticism, I have chosen for examination and rebuttal the issue of falsifiability. I refute the charge that psychoanalysis is not scientific because its theories are not "falsifiable." On the contrary, I show that psychoanalysis contains theories which make strong and unequivocal statements that are subject to the test of possible falsification. This capacity has been concealed and the falsifiability criticism rendered plausible because of the normative judgments which are latent in discussions of human development and human society. In explicating these judgments, I will move from the philosophy of science to the anthropology and sociology of science (and of the professions). The normative character of psychoanalytic science reinforces the ethical code of the therapeutic profession, a combination which imposes a disciplinary rigidity of the theoretical system. PMID:6856721

Wax, M L

1983-05-01

54

A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems  

PubMed Central

Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

2014-01-01

55

A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.  

PubMed

Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

2014-01-01

56

A normative ethical framework in climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article spells out four domains of international distributive justice and the consequent criteria of equity, the purpose\\u000a being to identify a pluralistic normative ethical framework for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Justice and\\u000a equity should play a major role in favouring collective action against climate change, because the more the various dimensions\\u000a of such action are just, the more

Marco Grasso

2007-01-01

57

Improving Judgment Calls: Using a Normative Model of Human Inference in the Advanced Preparation of Educational Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual orientation that guides the University of Utah's field-based doctoral program in educational administration is described in this paper, with a focus on making judgments within the decision-making process. The first part explains the rationale for adopting the conceptual orientation and the second part describes the normative model…

Galvin, Patrick; Ogawa, Rodney T.

58

Normative Comparisons for the Evaluation of Clinical Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative comparisons are a procedure for evaluating the clinical significance of therapeutic interventions. This procedure, consisting of comparing data on treated individuals with that of normative individuals, is described, and a step-by-step statistical methodology for conducting normative comparisons in the context of treatment–outcome research is presented. Four examples of the methodology are outlined in detail. Attention is paid to potential

Philip C. Kendall; Abbe Marrs-Garcia; Sanjay R. Nath; Radley C. Sheldrick

1999-01-01

59

Normativity in Quine's Naturalism: The Technology of Truth-Seeking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I review Quine's response to the normativity charge against naturalized epistemology. On this charge, Quine's\\u000a naturalized epistemology neglects the essential normativity of the traditional theory of knowledge and hence cannot count\\u000a as its successor. According to Quine, normativity is retained in naturalism as ‘the technology of truth-seeking’. I first\\u000a disambiguate Quine's naturalism into three programs of increasing

Wybo Houkes

2002-01-01

60

Normative spatiotemporal gait parameters in older adults.  

PubMed

While factor analyses have characterized pace, rhythm and variability as factors that explain variance in gait performance in older adults, comprehensive analyses incorporating many gait parameters have not been undertaken and normative data for many of those parameters are lacking. The purposes of this study were to conduct a factor analysis on nearly two dozen spatiotemporal gait parameters and to contribute to the normative database of gait parameters from healthy, able-bodied men and women over the age of 70. Data were extracted from 294 participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Spatiotemporal gait data were obtained as participants completed two walks across a 5.6-m electronic walkway (GAITRite(®)). Five primary domains of spatiotemporal gait performance were identified: a "rhythm" domain was characterized by cadence and temporal parameters such as stride time; a "phase" domain was characterized by temporophasic parameters that constitute distinct divisions of the gait cycle; a "variability" domain encompassed gait cycle and step variability parameters; a "pace" domain was characterized by parameters that included gait speed, step length and stride length; and a "base of support" domain was characterized by step width and step width variability. Several domains differed between men and women and differed across age groups. Reference values of 23 gait parameters are presented which researchers or clinicians can use for assessing and interpreting gait dysfunction in aging persons. PMID:21531139

Hollman, John H; McDade, Eric M; Petersen, Ronald C

2011-05-01

61

The US’ Food and Drug Administration, Normativity of Risk Assessment, GMOs, and American Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of risk assessment of biotechnologies, such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs), has normative dimensions.\\u000a However, the US’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seems committed to the idea that such evaluations are objective. This\\u000a essay makes the case that the agency’s regulatory approach should be changed such that the public is involved in deciding\\u000a any ethical or social questions

Zahra Meghani

2009-01-01

62

HIV prevention, structural change and social values: the need for an explicit normative approach  

PubMed Central

Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well. PMID:22713355

Parkhurst, Justin O

2012-01-01

63

Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

theory mental attitudes such as beliefs, desires, goals and intentions are attributed to autonomous by the author/owner(s). AAMAS'03, July 14­18, 2003, Melbourne, Australia. ACM 1-58113-683-8/03/0007. 2. NORMATIVE SYSTEMS AS AGENTS Normative systems that control and regulate behavior are autonomous, they react

van der Torre, Leon

64

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

65

The Normative Foundations of Emancipatory Theory: Evolutionary versus Pragmatic Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of Habermasian theory for the emancipatory tradition, analyzes certain problems of the theory and argues that an expanded dialogue with American pragmatism would strengthen both its sociological and its normative dimensions. Raises critical questions about pseudohistorical, normative justification in general sociological…

Antonio, Robert J.

1989-01-01

66

Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to ‘normative consent’, a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's ‘greater moral evil principle’, Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it

Michael Potts; Joseph L Verheijde; Mohamed Y Rady; David W Evans

2010-01-01

67

Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges  

E-print Network

Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges Javier V´azquez-Salceda institute;Normative Agents in Health Care: Uses and Challenges Javier V´azquez-Salceda 1 Abstract. The use of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) in health-care domains is increasing. Such Agent-mediated Medical Systems are designed

Utrecht, Universiteit

68

Logical reconstruction of normative RDF Jos de Bruijn1  

E-print Network

Logical reconstruction of normative RDF Jos de Bruijn1 , Enrico Franconi2 , and Sergio Tessaris2 1 paper we introduce a logical reconstruction of the RDF family of languages and the OWL-DL family of languages. We prove that our logical framework is equivalent to the normative W3C definitions of RDF

Franconi, Enrico

69

Being Controlled by Normative Influences: Self-Determination as a Moderator of a Normative Feedback Alcohol Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of computer-delivered personalized normative feedback among heavy drinking college students and to evaluate controlled orientation as a moderator of intervention efficacy. Participants (N = 217) included primarily freshman and sophomore, heavy drinking students who were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive personalized normative feedback immediately following baseline assessment.

Clayton Neighbors; Melissa A. Lewis; Rochelle L. Bergstrom; Mary E. Larimer

2006-01-01

70

Normative Data for 8 Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.  

PubMed

Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurological disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education-specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61 to 82 years (mean 71 y) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education-specific mean and -1.5 SD scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics. PMID:24759546

Schneider, Andrea L C; Sharrett, Albert Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley, Thomas H

2015-01-01

71

Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

2014-01-01

72

Accidental Government Documents Librarian: A Review of Experiences and Training Needs of Interim Documents Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a survey to determine the training needs and normative experiences of temporary government documents librarians are presented. The results indicate that temporary librarians tend to work in academia, have been in librarianship for a shorter time period, and have fewer technical processing skills than permanent documents librarians.…

Yelinek, Kathryn; Hinchcliff, Marilou

2009-01-01

73

Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

Funk, Ken

1991-01-01

74

Normative Beliefs About Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator

Rebecca P. Ang; Kit-Aun Tan; Abu Talib Mansor

2011-01-01

75

Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts  

PubMed Central

Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (“A, do X!”) or as a prediction (“the actor A will do X”). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

Lohse, Karoline; Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

2014-01-01

76

Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates  

PubMed Central

We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

2013-01-01

77

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

78

Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

1996-01-01

79

The Concept Shifting Test: Adult Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Concept Shifting Test (CST) is a newly developed Trail Making Type test that measures concept shifting and executive functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CST performance was affected by age, gender, educational level, or handedness and to establish the normal range of test performance. The CST was…

Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

2006-01-01

80

Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

2011-01-01

81

Facilitating Normative Judgments of Conditional Probability: Frequency or Nested Sets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the \\

Kimihiko Yamagishi

2003-01-01

82

Normative data on Revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data are presented for 570 children on newly revised versions of the Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Symptom ratings were factor analyzed and structures compared favorably with those obtained using earlier versions of the questionnaires. Interrater correlations (mother-father, parent-teacher) were also reported. Age and sex effects were found to be significant determinants of children 's scores, while social

Charles H. Goyette; C. Keith Conners; Richard F. Ulrich

1978-01-01

83

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

84

IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems  

E-print Network

IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems (Demonstration) Javier Morales1. In this paper we present the Intelligent Robust On-line Norm Synthesis Machine (IRON), a system whose goal is the automated synthesis of norms. IRON is capable of synthesising norms that are at the same time effective (to

López-Sánchez, Maite

85

Normative and Descriptive Aspects of Sex-Role Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For some time, the traditional stereotype of women which described them as gentle and dependent was considered normative and the concept that women were a unitary group dominated gender-role stereotype research. In contrast, the social cognitive approach described three subcategories of women: the housewife, the professional woman, and the sex…

England, Eileen M.

86

Philosophy, Science and Business Ethics: Frederick's New Normative Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

After examining Frederick's charge in his recently published Values, Nature, and Culture in the American Corporation that philosophers and others in the field of business ethics and business and society ignore nature and technology, the paper investigates Frederick's attempt to articulate and defend a New Normative Synthesis (NNS). Since the NNS is the result of a synthesis between Frederick's theory

John R. Danley

2000-01-01

87

Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

Coulby, David

2012-01-01

88

Normative self-definitional minority influence: when innovation is valued  

E-print Network

The goal of this study was to test a prediction of the normative self-definitional model of social influence: when a non-n of 1 innovation 's salient and se] f-relevant to person, a minority is more likely to attain influence compared to when a norm...

Babcock, Denette Rae

1998-01-01

89

Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

Hennessey, Jessica

2014-01-01

90

The Woodcock Reading Mastery Test: Impact of Normative Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the magnitude of differences in standard scores, convergent validity, and concurrent validity when an individual's performance was gauged using the revised and the normative update (Woodcock, 1998) editions of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test in which the actual test items remained identical but norms have been updated. From…

Pae, Hye Kyeong; Wise, Justin C.; Cirino, Paul T.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne; Morris, Robin D.

2005-01-01

91

Social Normative Beliefs About Smoking Among Vietnamese Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco-related deaths in Vietnam are forecast to climb from 40 000 annually to 70 000 by 2030. Previous research in Western nations has found social factors to be important determinants of adolescent smoking. Because these factors remain unexplored in Vietnamese youth, the purpose of this study was to examine social normative beliefs regarding smoking in a school-based sample of North

Randy M. Page; Nguyen Thanh Huong; Hoang Khanh Chi; Truong Quang Tien

2012-01-01

92

Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria  

PubMed Central

Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268

Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi

2015-01-01

93

Are Past Normative Behaviors Predictive of Future Behavioral Intentions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We acknowledge the limitations in measures of moral reasoning and pursue an alternative technique by investigating past behaviors as they relate to present behavioral intentions. Our purpose is to evaluate the merits of patterned normative behavior for predicting present and future, morally relevant outcomes. Participants (N = 177) completed a policy capturing experimental design responding to questions that orthogonally varied

George W. Watson; Thomas Douglas; Robyn Berkley; Ram Madapulli; Yuping Zeng

2009-01-01

94

Using Normative Markov Decision Processes for Evaluating Electronic Contracts  

E-print Network

1 Using Normative Markov Decision Processes for Evaluating Electronic Contracts Moser Silva electronic contracts, a rational agent should estimate the expected utilities of these contracts Decision Process, an extension of the Markov Decision Pro- cess for explicitly representing norms. In order

Luck, Michael

95

Constitutive Norms in the Design of Normative Multiagent Systems  

E-print Network

instead of houses and fields. This more natural and economical way to model the relation between the commonsense world under legal categories, like contract, money, property, marriage. Regulative norms can refer nature exhibits some basic properties enjoyed by the usual normative links". Thus constitutive

van der Torre, Leon

96

Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

2010-01-01

97

Normative Ontologies for Data-Centric Business Process Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of describing and analyzing data manipulation within business process workflow specifications. We apply a model-driven approach. We begin with business requirement specifications, consisting of an ontology and an associated set of normative rules, that define the ways in which business processes can interact. We then transform this specification into a Petri Net workflow model and,

Iman Poernomo; Timur Umarov

2008-01-01

98

Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

2011-01-01

99

Locus of Control and Social Influence Susceptibility: Are Externals Normative or Informational Conformers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personality variable locus of control has been related empirically to social influence susceptibility, but it is not clear if this relation is due to a normative or informational process. One hundred and fifty-seven undergraduate students completed Rotter's locus of control scale and Sistrunk's Survey of Normative and Informational Predispositions. Locus of control was significantly correlated with normative tendencies but

Paul E. Spector

1983-01-01

100

Who is the typical college student? Implications for personalized normative feedback interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalized normative feedback approaches focus on correcting overestimated peer drinking norms in order to reduce problematic drinking among college students. Generally, personalized normative feedback utilizes the “typical college student” as a normative referent. Prior research has found these interventions to be less effective for women and has suggested the implementation of the typical student referent as one possible explanation. The

Melissa A. Lewis; Clayton Neighbors

2006-01-01

101

The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.  

PubMed

We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. PMID:24717645

Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

2014-06-01

102

Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Health-Related Behavior or Normative Transgression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations among measures of adolescent behavior were examined to determine whether cigarette smoking fits into a structure of problem behaviors—behaviors that involve normative transgression—or a structure of health-related behaviors, or both. In an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1782 male and female high school adolescents, four first-order problem behavior latent variables—sexual intercourse experience, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and

Mark S. Turbin; Richard Jessor; Frances M. Costa

2000-01-01

103

Cognitive Akrasia in Moral Psychology and Normative Motivation  

E-print Network

of normative motivation. 10 CHAPTER 1: WHAT COUNTS AS AKRASIA? The above passage finds the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius struggling with himself to get up in the morning. This sort of experience is not unique to emperors, and his words speak to us... 1 Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, Book V 2 INTRODUCTION Akrasia, a Greek term often translated ‘weakness of will’ or less often ‘incontinence’, means, in a nutshell, acting intentionally against your own better judgment. Akrasia represents a...

Gillette, Brandon S.

2013-12-31

104

Normative orientations of university faculty and doctoral students.  

PubMed

Data from two national surveys of 4,000 faculty and doctoral students in chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology and sociology indicate that both faculty and students subscribe strongly to traditional norms but are more likely to see alternative counternorms enacted in their departments. They also show significant effects of departmental climate on normative orientations and suggest that many researchers express some degree of ambivalence about traditional norms. PMID:11228769

Anderson, M S

2000-10-01

105

Preliminary Normative Neuropsychological Data for an Elderly Chinese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological testing is key to diagnosing and assessing for dementia but there is a dearth of normative neuropsychological data for ethnic Chinese older persons, particularly for non-English-speaking individuals with low education. The aim of this study was to establish a set of age-specific, education-specific, and culture-appropriate norms on measures of cognitive function for a population of cognitively normal community-dwelling Chinese

Cheryl K. Y. Lee; Simon L. Collinson; Lei Feng; Tze-Pin Ng

2012-01-01

106

The style of processing scale: normative and reliability data.  

PubMed

Three student samples (ns=624, 653, and 566) yielded normative data for the Style of Processing scale. Analysis of subsamples found acceptable internal reliability (overall r=.78) and good test-retest reliability (overall r=.81, 6-mo. interval). The scale appears to have satisfactory reliability for assessing verbal-visual cognitive style, but further work is needed to test the scale's validity. PMID:11806573

Ong, Y W; Milech, D

2001-12-01

107

A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.  

PubMed Central

Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

2004-01-01

108

Normative Performance on the CLOX Task in a Multi-Ethnic Bilingual Cohort: A Project FRONTIER Study  

PubMed Central

The CLOX test is a neuropsychological measure intended to aid in the assessment and detection of dementia in elderly populations. Few studies have provided normative data for this measure, with even less research available regarding the impact of socio-demographic factors on test scores. This study presents normative data for the CLOX in a sample of English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites. The total sample included 445 cognitively healthy older adults seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Unlike previous studies, criteria for “normality” (i.e., unimpaired) for CLOX1 and CLOX2 were based not merely on global impairment, but also on domain-specific impairment of executive functioning on the EXIT25 and/or Trail Making Test B (Trails B), or visuospatial/constructional impairment on the Line Orientation and Figure Copy subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), respectively. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CLOX1 scores require adjustment by Age across ethnicities, while Education and Gender are necessary stratification markers for CLOX1 performance only in non-Hispanic Whites. None of the demographic variables were valid predictors of CLOX2 performance, negating the need for such adjustments. In addition to being the first study to provide separate normative data for CLOX performance in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White samples, the current study offers a novel approach to defining “normal” by cognitive domain. We also highlight the need to directly examine the impact of socio-demographic factors before applying normative corrections based on factors that have negligible impact on test scores. PMID:22052628

Menon, Chloe; Hall, James; Hobson, Valerie; Johnson, Leigh; O’Bryant, Sid E.

2014-01-01

109

The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

Grove, T. L.

110

Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

Lowe, N. K., Ed.

111

Young adolescents' intention to use seat belts: the role of attitudinal and normative beliefs.  

PubMed

In this study, the Theory of Reasoned Action was applied for two different purposes: (i) to explain and predict seat-belt usage among young adolescents, and (ii) to investigate the specific cognitions underlying the decision to use seat belts. A detailed analysis of these cognitions may provide clues as to which beliefs one should try to change in order to improve seat-belt usage among young adolescents. The decision to wear seat belts was under attitudinal control in the front seat, while it was under both attitudinal and normative control in the back seat. However, prior use of seat belts was the single most powerful predictor of intention. There was a striking consistency in the difference between high intenders and low intenders with regard to the specific underlying cognitions. The most promising 'messages' for persuasive communication appears to be that use of seat belts has an injury reducing effect and makes one feel safe when driving. PMID:10150445

Thuen, F; Rise, J

1994-06-01

112

Normative misperceptions about alcohol use in the general population of drinkers: A cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to others (‘normative misperception’) has been documented in some college student and heavy-alcohol using samples, and may contribute to excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess how far this phenomenon extends to alcohol users more generally in four English-speaking countries and if associations with socio-demographic and drinking variables exist. Methods A cross-sectional online global survey (Global Drugs Survey-2012) was completed by 9820 people aged 18 + from Australia, Canada, the UK and US who had consumed alcohol in the last year. The survey included the AUDIT questionnaire (which assessed alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol dependence), socio-demographic assessment and a question assessing beliefs about how one's drinking compares with others. Associations were analysed by linear regression models. Results Underestimation of own alcohol use relative to others occurred in 46.9% (95% CI: 45.9%, 47.9%) of respondents. 25.4% of participants at risk of alcohol dependence and 36.6% of harmful alcohol users believed their drinking to be average or less. Underestimation was more likely among those who were: younger (16–24; p < 0.003), male (p < 0.001), from the UK (versus US; p < 0.001), less well educated (p = 0.003), white (p = 0.035), and unemployed (versus employed; p < 0.001). Conclusions Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to other drinkers is common in Australia, Canada, the UK and US, with a substantial minority of harmful drinkers believing their consumption to be at or below average. This normative misperception is greater in those who are younger, male, less well educated, unemployed, white, from the UK and high-risk drinkers. PMID:25482365

Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

2015-01-01

113

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data.  

PubMed

In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normative data were obtained on small samples. The aim of this study was to determine normative values for the BCR in a large sample of men. We studied a large population (105 men; mean age 53 years, range 19-73 years) without central or peripheral neurological diseases. In each subject the sacral reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the base of the dorsum penis and recorded using a surface electrode from the BC muscle. We recorded the latency, calculated at onset, and the maximal amplitude of response, calculated peak to peak. We were able to detect the BCR in all the men. No correlation between BCR latency and age was found (r=0.136; p=0.160). The mean onset latency value was 33.0±4.85 ms (mean±2SD, range 26.8-39.4). The mean amplitude value was 16.53±12.21 ?V (mean±2SD, range 4.2-43.6). Our normative data on the BCR were similar to previously published data. PMID:24598398

Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca; Rossi, Fabiana; De Franco, Paola; Coraci, Daniele; Rossi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

114

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data.  

PubMed

In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normative data were obtained on small samples. The aim of this study was to determine normative values for the BCR in a large sample of men. We studied a large population (105 men; mean age 53 years, range 19-73 years) without central or peripheral neurological diseases. In each subject the sacral reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the base of the dorsum penis and recorded using a surface electrode from the BC muscle. We recorded the latency, calculated at onset, and the maximal amplitude of response, calculated peak to peak. We were able to detect the BCR in all the men. No correlation between BCR latency and age was found (r=0.136; p=0.160). The mean onset latency value was 33.0±4.85 ms (mean±2SD, range 26.8-39.4). The mean amplitude value was 16.53±12.21 ?V (mean±2SD, range 4.2-43.6). Our normative data on the BCR were similar to previously published data. PMID:24300036

Granata, G; Padua, L; Rossi, F; De Franco, P; Coraci, D; Rossi, V

2013-12-01

115

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data  

PubMed Central

Summary In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normative data were obtained on small samples. The aim of this study was to determine normative values for the BCR in a large sample of men. We studied a large population (105 men; mean age 53 years, range 19–73 years) without central or peripheral neurological diseases. In each subject the sacral reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the base of the dorsum penis and recorded using a surface electrode from the BC muscle. We recorded the latency, calculated at onset, and the maximal amplitude of response, calculated peak to peak. We were able to detect the BCR in all the men. No correlation between BCR latency and age was found (r=0.136; p=0.160). The mean onset latency value was 33.0±4.85 ms (mean±2SD, range 26.8–39.4). The mean amplitude value was 16.53±12.21 ?V (mean±2SD, range 4.2–43.6). Our normative data on the BCR were similar to previously published data. PMID:24598398

Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca; Rossi, Fabiana; De Franco, Paola; Coraci, Daniele; Rossi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

116

Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with two clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting One large suburban high school. Participants 1211 high school students aged 14–18. Main outcome measures Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Results Nineteen percent (N=216) of students reported current smoking, and 40% (N=379) of the non-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Factor analysis identified three normative beliefs constructs, labeled “perceived prevalence of smoking,” “perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society,” and “disapproval of smoking by parents/peers.” On average, students felt that 56% of people in the US smoke cigarettes. Twenty-four percent (24%) believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the three constructs was independently associated with current smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08; Adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23; Adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.75; respectively) even after controlling for covariates. Students’ perceptions of smoking among successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.29; Adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.96; respectively). Conclusions Adolescents’ normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least three distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking. PMID:17485617

Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Dalton, Madeline A.

2010-01-01

117

Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

Fimyar, Olena

2008-01-01

118

A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

1993-05-01

119

A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

1993-01-01

120

Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

121

Policy Making Under Discontinuous Change: The Situational Normativism Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy making under conditions of discontinuous change is discussed in terms of situational normativism, a descriptive-normative approach to policy making systems. Under such conditions, norms and values play a key role in the adaptation of the system. The nature of norms and values within situational normativism is discussed, and implications for system adaptation are explored. Aspects of policy, strategy, planning

Melvin F. Shakun

1975-01-01

122

Note to existing members: This formulary has changed since last year. Please review this document to make sure it still contains the drugs you take.  

E-print Network

the 2014 coverage year except when a new, less expensive generic drug becomes available or when new adverse to make sure it still contains the drugs you take. 90320.1013Y0096_MRK_TMP_PDFRMCV14aGRP Blue Cross MedicareRxSM 2014 Formulary List of Covered Drugs This formulary was updated on 08/14/2013. For more recent

Nishiguchi, Michele

123

Predicting Behavior from Normative Influences: What Insights Can the Fishbein Model Offer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fishbein Model is an attitude behavior consistency model which is used in both laboratory and field settings for predicting and understanding attitudinal and normative influences on behavior. This paper examines controversy surrounding the Fishbein Model's normative component in the context of a study of library and information science (LIS)…

Walster, Dian E.

124

Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

1980-01-01

125

The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

Somers, Mark John

2009-01-01

126

Mayo's Older African American Normative Studies: Auditory Verbal Learning Test norms for African American Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is frequently used in clinical practice to assess for memory dysfunction in the elderly. As part of the Mayo Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS), we provide age and education adjusted normative data for the AVLT. The sample consists of 306 self-identified African Americans who are cognitively normal, community-dwelling and ranging in age from

Tanis J. Ferman; John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

127

The Role of Community Service in Identity DevelopmentNormative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses from a nationally representative sample of 13,000 high school seniors were analyzed to identify predictors of normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations among youth. Normative orientation was indexed using indicators of conventional political involvement (e. g., voting), religious attendance, and importance of religion. Unconventional orientation was indexed with unconventional political involvement (e. g., boycotting). Deviance was measured through marijuana use.

James Youniss; Jeffrey A. Mclellan; Yang Su; Miranda Yates

1999-01-01

128

A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

Bucciarelli, Amy

2011-01-01

129

Review of Normative Data For Common Screening Measures Used to Evaluate Cognitive Functioning in Elderly Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

When conducting neuropsychological evaluations of the elderly, it is important to compare patients' test scores to appropriate normative data to maximize diagnostic and descriptive accuracy. Many sets of normative data are now available for screening measures that assess cognitive functioning in the elderly. This article systematically reviewed available norms for 6 widely used screening measures of cognitive functioning in elderly

Robyn M. Busch; Jessica Smerz Chapin

2008-01-01

130

Early Understanding of Normativity and Freedom to Act in Turkish Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigated young 2- and 3-year-old Turkish children's developing understanding of normativity and freedom to act in games. As expected, children, especially 3-year-olds, protested more when there was a norm violation than when there was none. Surprisingly, however, no decrease in normative protest was observed even when the…

Tunçgenç, Bahar; Hohenberger, Annette; Rakoczy, Hannes

2015-01-01

131

A normative sample of temporal and spatial gait parameters in children using the GAITRite ® electronic walkway  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to develop a normative sample of temporal and spatial gait parameters for children (ages 1–10 years) using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Reliability of the GAITRite® for assessing gait in children is similar to its reliability in adults. Normative temporal and spatial gait parameters have not been published using the GAITRite® limiting clinicians and researchers

Stacey C. Dusing; Deborah E. Thorpe

2007-01-01

132

Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

2009-01-01

133

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

134

Neuropsychology in Cameroon: First Normative Data for Cognitive Tests among School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Very few normative data on psychometric tests are available in sub-Saharan African countries, in spite of the obvious needs and potential benefits from psychological and neuropsychological examination in these contexts. The goal of the ongoing overall project is to assess the cognitive functioning of Cameroonian school-aged children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease. For this purpose, normative data on psychometric

N. Ruffieux; A. K. Njamnshi; E. Mayer; R. Sztajzel; S. C. Eta; R. F. Doh; A.-M. Kengne; R. N. Ngamaleu; J. Chanal; V. Verdon; C.-A. Hauert

2009-01-01

135

Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

Ressler, Paula

2005-01-01

136

Underestimating Protection and Overestimating Risk: Examining Descriptive Normative Perceptions and Their Association with Drinking and Sexual Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms–behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms–behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Gilmore, Amanda K.

2015-01-01

137

Recreation of scanned documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanned and OCRed data leads to large file sizes if facsimile images are included. This makes storage of, and providing online access to large data sets costly. Manually analyzing such data is cumbersome because of long download and pro- cessing times. It may thus be advantageous to recreate the scanned documents as documents without scanned images which nevertheless closely resemble

Tim Gielissen; Maarten Marx

138

Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?  

PubMed

Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

2012-02-01

139

Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.  

PubMed

The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes. PMID:24912761

Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

2014-06-10

140

Filming the freak show. Non-normative bodies on screen.  

PubMed

The article focuses on four films that display the exhibition for profit of non- normative bodies in a context that is variously called freak show, sideshow, monster show, odditorium. Freaks (Tod Browning, 1932), The Ape Woman (La donna scimmia, Marco Ferreri, 1964), Elephant Man (David Lynch, 1980) and Black Venus (Venus noire, Abdellatif Kechiche, 2010) are reflexive movies that tell stories of abnormal bodies and of people who buy a ticket to see them. They inquire the fictional nature of "freakness"--a cultural and historical artefact, a social construction, a frame of mind and a set of practices--and draw attention to the continuity between the world of the freak shows and the scientific and medical milieus. The article finally considers the new visibility of the corporeal freak in contemporary voyeuristic television programs. PMID:25702390

Brodesco, Alberto

2014-01-01

141

Laudan's normative naturalism: a useful philosophy of science for psychology.  

PubMed

Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism. PMID:10997236

Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W

2000-01-01

142

Normative data for commercial pineapple juice from concentrate.  

PubMed

Normative data for pineapple juice from concentrate were determined for 19 samples, including 5 that had been aseptically processed and representing 4 of the major pineapple growing regions of the world. Values are reported for sugars, organic acids, including isocitric acid, metals (specifically potassium, sodium calcium, and magnesium), delta 13C, and oligosaccharides. Although geographical variation existed, the observed ranges and variances were small enough to be useful in describing authentic pineapple juice. Two concentrates (one aseptically and one nonaseptically processed) were intentionally adulterated (individually) with 3 commercially available inexpensive sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup, cane invert syrup, and beet medium invert syrup). Oligosaccharide analysis of these samples either by liquid chromatography or by capillary gas chromatography yielded oligosaccharide patterns that were useful for the detection of these sweeteners at 10% levels. Principal-component analysis (PCA) was used to represent graphically both the pure and adulterated samples based on their measured chemical parameters. PMID:8069130

Low, N H; Brause, A; Wilhelmsen, E

1994-01-01

143

Optimal indolence: a normative microscopic approach to work and leisure  

PubMed Central

Dividing limited time between work and leisure when both have their attractions is a common everyday decision. We provide a normative control-theoretic treatment of this decision that bridges economic and psychological accounts. We show how our framework applies to free-operant behavioural experiments in which subjects are required to work (depressing a lever) for sufficient total time (called the price) to receive a reward. When the microscopic benefit-of-leisure increases nonlinearly with duration, the model generates behaviour that qualitatively matches various microfeatures of subjects’ choices, including the distribution of leisure bout durations as a function of the pay-off. We relate our model to traditional accounts by deriving macroscopic, molar, quantities from microscopic choices. PMID:24284898

Niyogi, Ritwik K.; Breton, Yannick-Andre; Solomon, Rebecca B.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

2014-01-01

144

“Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined  

PubMed Central

This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

2009-01-01

145

Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. PMID:23440595

Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

2013-01-01

146

Derivation of normative data for the COPD assessment test (CAT)  

PubMed Central

Background The tradition classification of the severity of COPD, based on spirometry, fails to encompass the heterogeneity of the disease. The COPD assessment test (CAT), a multi-dimensional, patient-filled questionnaire, assesses the overall health status of patients, and is recommended as part of the assessment of individuals with COPD. However, information regarding the range of values for the test in a non-COPD population (normative values) is limited, and consequently, knowledge regarding the optimal cut-off, and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for the test remain largely empirical. Methods CanCOLD is a population-based multi-center cohort study conducted across Canada, the methodology of which is based on the international BOLD initiative. The study includes subjects with COPD, at-risk individuals who smoke, and healthy control subjects. CAT questionnaires were administered at baseline to all subjects. Among non-COPD subjects, normative values for the CAT questionnaire, and psychometric properties of the test were characterized. Predictors of high CAT scores were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 525 non-COPD subjects enrolled, 500 were included in the analysis. Mean FEV1/FVC ratio among the 500 included subjects was 0.77 (SD 0.49); the mean predicted FEV1 was 99.38% (SD 16.88%). The overall mean CAT score was 6 (SD 5.09); scores were higher among females (6.43, SD 5.59), and subjects over 80 years of age (mean 7.58, SD 6.82). Cronbach alpha for the CAT was 0.79, suggesting a high internal consistency for the test. A score of 16 was the 95th percentile for the population, and 27 subjects (5.4%) were found to have a CAT score?>?=16. Current smoking (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.05, 11.02), subject-reported physician-diagnosed asthma (aOR 7.59, 95% CI 2.71, 21.25) and musculoskeletal disease (aOR 4.09, 95% CI 1.72, 9.71) were found to be significantly associated with a score ?16. Conclusions The characterization of CAT scores in the general population will be useful for norm-based comparisons. Longitudinal follow-up of these subjects will help in the optimization of cut-offs for the test. PMID:24957783

2014-01-01

147

Normative development of physical aggression from 8 to 26 months.  

PubMed

This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and fathers reported frequently about their child's use of PA in personal and telephone interviews. Mean number of reports per child was 7.16 (SD 1.70), with 90% having at least 6 reports. We employed Rasch scaling to construct a single linear PA measure and multilevel growth curve modeling to address the research questions. The results confirm that the development of PA is nonlinear, with a peak in frequency at about 20-22 months, which is followed by a decline toward 26 months. There is both within- and between-child variance in the development of PA. Higher levels of PA were predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling, maternal and paternal mental distress, and difficult child temperament (high activity level and distress due to limitations), whereas the main effect of gender was only trend-significant. Growth of PA across this developmental period was predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling and high activity level. The results both support and transcend previous research within this field. PMID:24708457

Nærde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

2014-06-01

148

Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.  

PubMed

Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation. PMID:23454798

Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

2013-05-01

149

Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder  

PubMed Central

The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

Stier, Marco

2013-01-01

150

Argument-based medical ethics: a formal tool for critically appraising the normative medical ethics literature.  

PubMed

Although there are critical appraisal tools for other genres of the medical literature, there currently is no formal tool for physicians to use in their critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature. We present a formal assessment tool for the critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature that incorporates the intellectual standards of argument-based medical ethics and evidence-based medicine. We draw on the intellectual standards of argument-based ethics, ethical analysis and argument, and the literature on evidence-based medicine. The tool involves 4 questions about normative medical ethics papers: (1) Does the article address a focused ethics question? (2) Are the arguments that support the results of the article valid? (3) What are the results? (4) Will the results help me in clinical practice? Obstetrician-gynecologists can use this tool to appraise the normative literature of ethics in obstetrics and gynecology formally. PMID:15507927

McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

2004-10-01

151

Aspects valuatifs des explications internes : Composantes normatives et motivationnelles. Daniel Gilibert  

E-print Network

explications internes: composantes normatives et motivationnelles, Dans J.L. Beauvois, R.V. Joule, & J'une perspective plus motivationnelle (Miller et Ross, 1975 ; Zuckerman, 1979 ; Hewstone, 1990), il est fréquemment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.  

PubMed

The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice. PMID:18807420

Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

2008-08-01

153

Accountability Forces in Performance Appraisal: Effects of Self-Appraisal Information, Normative Information, and Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of self-appraisal information, normative information, and task performance on performance appraisal ratings. Participants rated a fictitious “subordinate's” performance on a clerical task (which was either very good or moderately poor) subsequent to receiving self-assessment information (high or low) and normative information (present or absent). Self-appraisals affected performance ratings for poor performers but not for good

Ted H. Shore; Armen Tashchian

2002-01-01

154

Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

2012-01-01

155

Challenging normative orthodoxies in depression: Huxley's Utopia or Dante's Inferno?  

PubMed

Although there appears to be a widespread consensus that depression is a ubiquitous human experience, definitions of depression, its prevalence, and how mental health services respond to it have changed significantly over time, particularly during recent decades. Epistemological limitations notwithstanding, it is now estimated that approximately 121 million people experience depression. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that the last two decades have seen the widespread acceptance of depression as a chemical imbalance and a massive corresponding increase in the prescription of antidepressants, most notably of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness and iatrogenic side effects of antidepressants; related questions have also been asked about whose interests are served by the marketing and sales of these drugs. Accordingly, this article attempts to problematize the normative orthodoxy concerning depression and creates a "space" in which an alternative can be articulated and enacted. In so doing, the article finds that the search for a world where the automatic response to depression is a pharmacological intervention not only ignores the use of alternative efficacious treatment options but may also inhibit the persons' chance to explore the meaning of their experience and thus prevent people from individual growth and personal development. Interestingly, in worlds analogous to this pharmacologically induced depression-free state, such as utopias like that in Huxley's Brave New World, no "properly conditioned citizen" is depressed or suicidal. Yet, in the same Brave New World, no one is free to suffer, to be different, or crucially, to be independent. PMID:20303451

Cutcliffe, John R; Lakeman, Richard

2010-04-01

156

Normative Results of Healthy Older Adults on Standard Clinical Vestibular Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment. PMID:24136315

Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri

2014-01-01

157

NACA documents database project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

Smith, Ruth S.

1991-01-01

158

A Discussion of Rational and Psychological Decision-Making Theories and Models: The Search for a Cultural-Ethical Decision-Making Model Decision-Making Theories and Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relation- ship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model. The study of decision-making

Arnaldo Oliveira

159

Making Longer, Making Shorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem uses linking cubes as a concrete context for exploring simple multiplication and division, doubling, halves and quarters. The problem displays a rod of 4 cubes and asks students how many cubes are necessary to make rods related to it in a variety of ways. It can be used to introduce key concepts and vocabulary. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

160

Specialized Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTML is unquestionably the central document language of the Web, but it is by no means the only language of the Web. In fact, several other specialized types of documents are widely used and have considerable importance. In this chapter, we look at how specialized document types affect accessibility. We do not attempt to consider all possible specialized documents, but rather focus on important examples that illustrate the key issues including Adobe’s Portable Document Format (PDF), microformats, and Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The Accessibility for RIA (ARIA) initiative is presented as an example of an effort to improve the accessibility of specialized documents, while the DAISY initiative is used as an example of how the same technologies can be harnessed to improve accessibility.

Munson, Ethan V.; da Pimentel, Maria Graça

161

Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding  

PubMed Central

In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

Klaczynski, Paul A.

2014-01-01

162

He repeatedly says that he is explaining how our brains make us who we are, and  

E-print Network

He repeatedly says that he is explaining how our brains make us who we are, and tries hard to make concerning LeDoux's concept of the self as a major criticism. I am enthusiastic about the broader project a normative notion of rationality is. The answer provided is a standard of reasoning against which a person

Shapiro, Stuart C.

163

Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

2012-01-01

164

Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

Binder, Claudia R., E-mail: claudia.binder@geo.uzh.c [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for System Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz (Austria); Feola, Giuseppe [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Steinberger, Julia K. [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)

2010-02-15

165

Termination Documentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

2014-01-01

166

Constructing language normativity through the animation of stance in spanish-language medical consultations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish-language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second-language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways such that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

Vickers, Caroline H; Deckert, Sharon K; Goble, Ryan

2014-01-01

167

21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.  

PubMed

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2008-06-01

168

Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice  

PubMed Central

Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

2012-01-01

169

Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

Goldenberg, Maya J

2005-01-01

170

Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

Vetter, S. K.; Shervais, J. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.

171

Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

1988-01-01

172

A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

E-print Network

basalts Darren W. Schnare a,*, James M.D. Day a,b , Marc D. Norman c , Yang Liu a , Lawrence A. Taylor Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have

Perfect, Ed

173

PARADIGMS, POLICIES, AND PEOPLE: EXPLORING THE LINKAGES BETWEEN NORMATIVE BELIEFS, PUBLIC POLICIES AND UTILITY CONSUMER PAYMENT PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes a step toward unifying normative and empirical policy analysis by examining the convergence of societal metatheories, public policy models, and empirical data on consumers. It begins with the premise that policies rest on a foundation of normative beliefs or metatheories that, in turn, put boundaries around the possible and give social meaning to the policies and programs

Drew Hyman; Jeffrey Bridger; John Shingler; Mollie Loon

2001-01-01

174

The normative ideas that underpin welfare-to-work measures for young people in Hong Kong and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the similarities of the normative ideas underpinning the welfare-to-work measures for young people in Hong Kong and the UK. These normative ideas include the two respective Governments' views on their ideal model of the relationship between individual and society, and Etzioni's and Confucian ideas on how people's attempts to fulfill

Wai Dam Sam Yu

2008-01-01

175

When directness is the better part of valor: Effects of normative and informational pressure on direct and indirect attitude tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the hypothesis that while indirect tests might be less vulnerable to normative pressure, they would be more vulnerable to informational pressure. 71 ROTC and 60 non-ROTC students took either a direct opinion test of their attitudes toward ROTC or a knowledge test, designed to assess attitudes toward ROTC indirectly. The opinion test proved relatively invulnerable to both normative and

Louise Kidder; Philip Brickman

1971-01-01

176

Addiction and “Generation Me”: Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using adolescents with SDD compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels

Rebecca R. Carter; Shannon M. Johnson; Julie J. Exline; Stephen G. Post; Maria E. Pagano

2012-01-01

177

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

178

Age-Expanded Normative Data for the Ruff 2&7 Selective Attention Test: Evaluating Cognition in Older Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ruff 2&7 Selective Attention Test's (RSAT) current scoring data are relatively limited for older adults because persons over the age of 70 years were not included in the normative sample. Prior evidence suggests that changes in attention skills, such as those evaluated by the RSAT, may distinguish normal cognitive aging from pathologic cognitive decline. Thus normative data for older

Allison Caban-Holt; Erin Abner; Richard J. Kryscio; John J. Crowley; Frederick A. Schmitt

2012-01-01

179

Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients.  

PubMed

Despite increased attention to "culturally competent" practice with diverse populations, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people remain relatively invisible within medicine and other health professions. Health care providers (HCPs) frequently dismiss sexual and gender identity as irrelevant to care. This study uses interviews with 24 physicians and 38 LGBTQ-identified women to explore how routine practices in health care can perpetuate or challenge the marginalization of LGBTQ women. While physicians avoid making assumptions to reduce judgment, a "neutral" stance reinforces the hetero- and gender normative status quo. Cultural competence with LGBTQ patients requires learning with, rather than learning about, LGBTQ people's particular health care concerns as well as paying explicit attention to pervasive power relations and normative contexts. PMID:25196115

Baker, Kelly; Beagan, Brenda

2014-12-01

180

CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR -- is a new WWW server add-on that makes it easy to create HTML documents with inline, rotatable, hyperlinked 3D images ("3D imagemaps"). The pages generated by Cyberview can be viewed in standard HTML 2.0-compatible Web browsers. Try it at:

181

Interoperable Documentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentation provides the context that adds understanding and knowledge to data. The ISO Standards for documenting data (19115, 19115-2), and services (19119) extend the range of standard documentation considerably beyond previously available approaches. They include increased utilization of technologies like UML, XML and linking and content areas like data quality and processing history. These extensions can build an emerging foundation of data interoperability into an infrastructure for interoperable understanding. This process will involve active collaboration between many environmental data providers and archives all over the world that are currently in the process of adopting and understanding how to effectively use the ISO Standards. I will describe ISO capabilities in the context of parallels between metadata tools and data interoperability approaches currently used by scientists and decision-makers. I will demonstrate how directories shared over the web, transport standards, and community conventions build the foundation for documentation access and data understanding. I will also demonstrate crosswalks and connections between ISO, THREDDS, and NetCDF documentation and some ideas and approaches to improving documentation across the entire spectrum of environmental data and products.

Habermann, T.

2011-12-01

182

Adults Who Play Violent Video Games and Their Normative Beliefs About Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence regarding the relationship between playing violent video games and subsequent aggression has been mixed. This study further examined the relationship between normative beliefs about the acceptability of both physical and verbal aggression and playing violent video games. A total of 87 participants (27 males and 60 females), ranging in age from 19 to 49, completed three online surveys regarding

Ashely A. Kjos

2008-01-01

183

The Normative Dimension and Legal Meaning of Endangered and Recovery in the U.S. Endangered  

E-print Network

The Normative Dimension and Legal Meaning of Endangered and Recovery in the U.S. Endangered Species significance of the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is widely appreciated. Much of the significance and endangered species. The meanings of these terms are important because they give legal meaning to the concept

Nelson, Michael P.

184

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised/Normative Update (WRMT-R/NU).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests Revised/Normative Update, an instrument designed to assess reading ability in students in grades K-12, undergraduate college students, and adults. The tests evaluate basic reading skills, reading comprehension, and reading readiness. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…

Sutton, Joe P.

1999-01-01

185

The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

2013-01-01

186

A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying Tibor Bosse and Sven Stam  

E-print Network

A Normative Agent System to Prevent Cyberbullying Tibor Bosse and Sven Stam Vrije Universiteit.stam@gmail.com Abstract -- Automated approaches to prevent the negative effects of cyberbullying mainly focus on affective to minimise the amount of occurrences of cyberbullying in the first place. The approach consists of a system

Bosse, Tibor

187

A Normative Multi-Agent Systems Approach to the Use of Conviviality for Digital Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conviviality is a mechanism to reinforce social cohesion and a tool to reduce mis-coordination between individuals, groups and in- stitutions in web communities, for example in digital cities. We use a two-fold definition of conviviality as a condition for social interactions and an instrument for the internal regulation of social systems. In this paper we discuss the use of normative

Patrice Caire

2007-01-01

188

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: A Comparison Between Latino and Normative Samples of Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years

Maureen C. Kenny; Sandy K. Wurtele

2012-01-01

189

A peer-to-peer normative system to achieve social order  

E-print Network

of other agents if they are norm compliant. Social Control mainly refers to the fact that each agent norms and social control. This paper presents a normative P2P architecture to obtain social order. Social control is obtained by providing a non-intrusive control infrastructure that helps the agents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a

Bart Engelen

191

Do Normative Data from the Full WCST Extend to the Abbreviated WCST?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (S. Heaton and others, 1993) was compared to a 64-card version (WCST-64) using normative data and results from 350 neuropsychological patients. The WCST-64 was found useful only for respondents obtaining five or more categories by the end of the first deck. (SLD)

Axelrod, Bradley N.; Abraham, Elizabeth; Paolo, Anthony M.

1997-01-01

192

Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that

Jean-Pierre Dupuy; Alexei Grinbaum

2005-01-01

193

Collective Trust and Normative Agents Clara Smith1 and Antonino Rotolo2  

E-print Network

Collective Trust and Normative Agents Clara Smith1 and Antonino Rotolo2 1Facultad de Inform ESTRELLA (IST-2004-027655). C. Smith and A. Rotolo Collective Trust ­ NormMAS 2008 #12;Layout C. Smith. C. Smith and A. Rotolo Collective Trust ­ NormMAS 2008 #12;Layout Collective trust: Why? Three

van der Torre, Leon

194

The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

2009-01-01

195

Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

196

A normative?developmental study of executive function: A window on prefrontal function in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative?developmental performance on a battery of executive function tasks was investigated. Executive function was defined as goal?directed behavior, including planning, organized search, and impulse control. Measures were drawn from clinical neuropsychology (visual search, verbal fluency, motor sequencing, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task [WCST]) and from developmental psychology (Tower of Hanoi [TOH] and Matching Familiar Figures Test [MFFT]). A discriminant task,

Marilyn C. Welsh; Bruce F. Pennington; Dena B. Groisser

1991-01-01

197

When One Cause Casts Doubt on Another: A Normative Analysis of Discounting in Causal Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether lay attributors are biased in their discounting of 1 cause given an alternative cause has not been resolved by decades of research, largely due to the lack of a clear standard for the rational amount of discounting. The authors propose a normative model in which the attributor's causal schemas and discounting inferences are represented in terms

Michael W. Morris; Richard P. Larrick

1995-01-01

198

EFFECTS OF AGING ON SELECTED ACOUSTIC VOICE PARAMETERS: PRELIMINARY NORMATIVE DATA AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this article attempted to obtain normative acoustic data of voice for elderly male and female speakers and to explore the educational implications of the effects of aging on those selected acoustic parameters. Voice samples from 21 male and 23 female elderly speakers aged 70 to 80 years were obtained on measures of 15 selected Multi-Dimensional Voice

2001-01-01

199

Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

Carr, Paul R.

2010-01-01

200

The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-04-01

201

Minority Rights as a Normative Framework for Addressing the Situation of Roma in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roma are the largest and most marginalized ethnic group in Europe, suffering from severe poverty, racial hostility, the obliteration of their culture and exclusion from public life. This study argues that the various types of injustice faced by the Roma in terms of agency and socio-economic conditions are interdependent and need to be tackled in a single normative framework. The

Galina Kostadinova

2011-01-01

202

Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

2014-01-01

203

Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…

Middlemiss, Wendy

2004-01-01

204

The normative imperatives of business and marketing strategy: grounding strategy in resource-advantage theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the strategic thrust of the firm, it may be argued, is the principal task of top management. This task is aided by recent theories of business and marketing strategy, including the normative imperatives based on industry factors, resource factors, competences, market orientation, and relationship marketing. Choosing wisely from among the various theories of strategy requires an accurate understanding of

Shelby D. Hunt; Caroline Derozier

2004-01-01

205

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. Normative Data and Psychometric Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a U.S. national population sample of children and adolescents, develop normative scoring bands, and test the association of high-scoring groups with service contacts or use for mental health reasons. Method: An Americanized version of the Strengths and Difficulties…

Bourdon, Karen H.; Goodman, Robert; Rae, Donald S.; Simpson, Gloria; Koretz, Doreen S.

2005-01-01

206

Normative Trends in Children's Perceptions of Availability and Utilization of Attachment Figures in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies addressed the normative aspects of attachments to mothers and fathers in middle childhood. Using both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons, we tested the hypothesis that children show no changes in perceptions of availability of attachment figures across the later middle childhood years, but do utilize attachment figures less…

Kerns, Kathryn A.; Tomich, Patricia L.; Kim, Patricia

2006-01-01

207

Normative data and factor analysis on the Parental Attitude Research Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data on the Parental Attitude Research Instrument were gathered from 222 mothers. Stanine scores for the 23 scales were derived from the data  The education of the mother was most significantly related to scores on the scales. Age showed a smaller number of relationships, and number of children no significant relationships with the scales. The scales were factor analyzed

M. Zuckerman; Beatrice B. Ribback; I. Monashkin

1958-01-01

208

Normative Stakeholder Theory and Aristotle: The Link Between Ethics and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stakeholder theory is an important part of modern business ethics. Many scholars argue for a normative instead of an instrumental approach to stakeholder theory. Recent examples of such an approach show that problems appear with respect to the ethical foundation as well as the specification of the norms and the relation between corporate and individual responsibilities. This paper argues for

Nachoem M. Wijnberg

2000-01-01

209

The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB): normative values in an Italian population sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a short cognitive and behavioural six-subtest battery for the bedside screening of a global executive dysfunction; although recently devised, it is already extensively used thanks to its ease of administration and claimed sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to derive Italian normative values from a sample of 364 control subjects (215 women

I. Appollonio; M. Leone; V. Isella; F. Piamarta; T. Consoli; M. L. Villa; E. Forapani; A. Russo; P. Nichelli

2005-01-01

210

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

211

E-Learning: A Comparison between Expected and Observed Attitudes of Normative and Dropout Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study in Israel that was conducted to examine the attitudes of dropout adolescents to electronic learning and to compare these to the attitudes of normative 10th graders. Considers demographic differences, including parents' education and computer ownership; motivation; enjoyment; cognition; and accessibility of computers. (LRW)

Romi, Shlomo; Hansenson, Gabriel; Hansenson, Arie

2002-01-01

212

Predict customer innovativeness toward Telematics: Via reduced form model from a normative marketing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation in both technology and service play a crucial role in enhancing consumers' living standard and companies' growth. Outcomes of Innovation often go premature due to failing to cross the chasm of adoption. Literature in this domain takes the positive perspective to describe and explain the phenomena, however, scarcely provides any solution. This study from a normative marketing perspective proposes

Yung-Hsin Chen; Shuo-Chang Tsai; Long-Tai Chen; Han-Ying Wang

2010-01-01

213

Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

2010-01-01

214

Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…

Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

2014-01-01

215

Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

216

Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

2011-01-01

217

Gender stereotypes and normative heterosexuality in matrimonial ads from globalizing India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrimonial ads serve as unobtrusive sites to observe the construction and perpetuation of normative heterosexuality through socio-cultural discourses. The current study focuses on gendered spousal expectations and sex role preferences in 1065 matrimonial ads from two popular newspapers in India. Gender differences in ad type, financial stability, physical attractiveness, fairness, slimness, personality traits, and occupational preferences were examined. Results found

Srividya Ramasubramanian; Parul Jain

2009-01-01

218

The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

Serna, Gabriel

2014-01-01

219

The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent  

E-print Network

The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent structure The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, & Maylor, 2000±275 # 2003 Psychology Press Ltd http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/09658211.html DOI:10

Crawford, John R.

220

Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and nonnormative collective action.  

PubMed

A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative actions such as participating in demonstrations. We argue that the relations between emotions, efficacy, and action differ for more extreme, nonnormative actions and propose (a) that nonnormative actions are often driven by a sense of low efficacy and (b) that contempt, which, unlike anger, entails psychological distancing and a lack of reconciliatory intentions, predicts nonnormative action. These ideas were tested in 3 survey studies examining student protests against tuition fees in Germany (N = 332), Indian Muslims' action support in relation to ingroup disadvantage (N = 156), and British Muslims' responses to British foreign policy (N = 466). Results were generally supportive of predictions and indicated that (a) anger was strongly related to normative action but overall unrelated or less strongly related to nonnormative action, (b) contempt was either unrelated or negatively related to normative action but significantly positively predicted nonnormative action, and (c) efficacy was positively related to normative action and negatively related to nonnormative action. The implications of these findings for understanding and dealing with extreme intergroup phenomena such as terrorism are discussed. PMID:21500925

Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N

2011-07-01

221

eutheia Accepted for publication in Nordisk matematisk tidskrift (Normat) on 2013 October 09 Euclid's straight lines  

E-print Network

eutheia Accepted for publication in Nordisk matematisk tidskrift (Normat) on 2013 October 09 Euclid 25 Abstract We raise two questions on Euclid's Elements: How to explain that Propositions 16 and 27 droites d'Euclide Deux questions sur les ´El´ements d'Euclide sont soulev´ees : Comment comprendre que les

Kiselman, Christer

222

Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

2012-01-01

223

Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

2013-01-01

224

Normative data on the boston diagnostic aphasia examination, parietal lobe battery, and the boston naming Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes normative data for the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, the “Parietal Lobe Battery” (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972), and the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 1978). These tests were administered to 147 neurologically normal adult males, who were right-handed and native English-speaking. For each age and education group, means, standard deviations, and the range are reported. The

Joan C. Borod; Harold Goodglass; Edith Kaplan

1980-01-01

225

Normative Family Stress: Family Boundary Changes across the Life-Span.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative stress in families results whenever components are added to or subtracted from a family system. Due to the process of family boundary maintenance, there is little similarity in family structures across time. Family structures constantly change to facilitate the accomplishment of functions while maintaining family boundaries. (Author)

Boss, Pauline G.

1980-01-01

226

Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

2009-01-01

227

Normative Sex Behavior and the Person with a Disability: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Rehabilitation Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several major habilitative implications of normalization principles with particular reference to the socio-sexual development of persons with disabling and other deviancy-producing conditions; presents preliminary findings on the success of fostering normative socio-sexual behavior in rehabilitation clients; and suggests ways in which…

Flynn, Robert J.; Sha'Ked, Ami

1977-01-01

228

Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

2009-01-01

229

Daily Stressors and Memory Failures in a Naturalistic Setting: Findings From the VA Normative Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies of stress and memory have generally found that people with more stress tend to have poorer cognitive performance. The present investigation examined the relationship between stressors and memory failures in a naturalistic setting via a daily diary study of 333 older adults in the VA Normative Aging Study. Multilevel models indicated that on days when people experienced stressors,

Shevaun D. Neupert; David M. Almeida; Daniel K. Mroczek

2006-01-01

230

Targeting Misperceptions of Descriptive Drinking Norms: Efficacy of a Computer-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated the efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 252 students who were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group following a baseline assessment. Immediately after completing measures of…

Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lewis, Melissa A.

2004-01-01

231

The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…

Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

2009-01-01

232

An Observation of Normative Structure for College Admission and Recruitment Officers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study suggests that an unwritten code of ethics exists in the form of a behavioral normative structure for college and university admission officers. Also considered are the influences that personal and institutional factors have on the espousal of these norms. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

Hodum, Robert L.; James, Glenn W.

2010-01-01

233

A Taxonomy of Normative and Empirically Oriented Theories of Distributive Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study proposes a taxonomy that maps and organizes various normative (“ought”) and empirically oriented (“is”) theories of distributive justice, with the aim of examining possible relations between these two research traditions. The taxonomy distinguishes between theories according to two shared dimensions of content: (a) microjustice versus macrojustice principles and (b) the unidimensional versus multidimensional character of these principles. The

Clara Sabbagh

2001-01-01

234

Normative Misperceptions and Marijuana Use Among Male and Female College Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the frequency of marijuana use and perceptions of gender-specific marijuana use among intercollegiate athletes from two National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 universities. Normative data were gathered in a live setting. Male athletes reported significantly greater marijuana use than female athletes and the overall sample reported higher prevalence of use than national averages for college athletes

Joseph W. LaBrie; Joel R. Grossbard; Justin F. Hummer

2009-01-01

235

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2013-01-01

236

LCS Content Document Application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

Hochstadt, Jake

2011-01-01

237

MSU at Work in Africa: Cultural Documentation  

E-print Network

are strongly committed to documenting, preserving, and making accessible the continent's cultural heritage and educational institutions are critical to meeting the continent's preservation challenges. Working together

238

What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse  

SciTech Connect

Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

Coutant, C.C.

1998-09-23

239

Document Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

1988-01-01

240

The David and Goliath principle: cultural, ideological, and attitudinal underpinnings of the normative protection of low-status groups from criticism.  

PubMed

Two studies documented the "David and Goliath" rule--the tendency for people to perceive criticism of "David" groups (groups with low power and status) as less normatively permissible than criticism of "Goliath" groups (groups with high power and status). The authors confirmed the existence of the David and Goliath rule across Western and Chinese cultures (Study 1). However, the rule was endorsed more strongly in Western than in Chinese cultures, an effect mediated by cultural differences in power distance. Study 2 identified the psychological underpinnings of this rule in an Australian sample. Lower social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with greater endorsement of the rule, an effect mediated through the differential attribution of stereotypes. Specifically, those low in SDO were more likely to attribute traits of warmth and incompetence to David versus Goliath groups, a pattern of stereotypes that was related to the protection of David groups from criticism. PMID:22539216

Jeffries, Carla H; Hornsey, Matthew J; Sutton, Robbie M; Douglas, Karen M; Bain, Paul G

2012-08-01

241

FLT Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FLT documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast

242

FMISO Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FMISO documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a

243

FES Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

244

Performance Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

Foster, Paula

2002-01-01

245

Decision making under uncertain categorization  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475

Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

2014-01-01

246

How to Make Cognitive Illusions Disappear: Beyond “Heuristics and Biases”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most so-called “errors” in probabilistic reasoning are in fact not violations of probability theory. Examples of such “errors” include overconfidence bias, conjunction fallacy, and base-rate neglect. Researchers have relied on a very narrow normative view, and have ignored conceptual distinctions—e.g. single case versus relative frequency—fundamental to probability theory. By recognizing and using these distinctions, however, we can make apparently stable

Gerd Gigerenzer

1991-01-01

247

A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2014-01-01

248

Magnetic imaging of currencies and secure documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and

Tomasz M. Jagielinski; Fred Chamberlain

2002-01-01

249

Official Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stationery Office of the UK provides one-stop shopping for selected UK government publications. Stationery Office publications are available by date, title, or government department. There is also a selected list of publications available from other government departments. As it grows, this site should become a major repository of UK government documents. Note the difference between The Stationery Office and Her Majesty's Stationery Office (there is a link at the site).

250

Contingent approaches to making likelihood judgments about polychotomous cases: the influence of task factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments tested the influence of three task factors on respondents' tendency to use normative, heuristic, and random approaches to making likelihood judgments about polychotomous cases (i.e., cases in which there is more than one alternative to a focal hypothesis). Participants estimated their likelihood of winning hypothetical raffles in which they and other players held various numbers of tickets. Responding

Paul D. Windschitl; Zlatan Krizan

2005-01-01

251

Working Paper Buthion 2011 Page Healthcare management and the decision-making process perspective: could a  

E-print Network

will be discussing the part "stakeholders" play in the decision-making process. Using the Integrative Social Contract perspective: could a normative framework from stakeholder theory help? Valérie Buthion, PhD Associate Theory, we will be discussing "hypernorms" and unsolved dilemmas that exist within the Healthcare

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

It’s Not Just a “Woman Thing:” The Current State of Normative Discontent  

PubMed Central

This study assessed “normative discontent,” the concept that most women experience weight dissatisfaction, as an emerging societal stereotype for women and men (Rodin, Silberstein, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Participants (N = 472) completed measures of stereotypes, eating disorders, and body image. Normative discontent stereotypes were pervasive for women and men. Endorsing stereotypes varied by sex and participants’ own disturbance, with trends towards eating disorder symptomotology being positively correlated with stereotype endorsement. Individuals with higher levels of body image and eating disturbance may normalize their behavior by perceiving that most people share their experiences. Future research needs to test prevention and intervention strategies that incorporate the discrepancies between body image/eating-related stereotypes and reality with focus on preventing normalization of such experiences. PMID:21932970

TANTLEFF-DUNN, STACEY; BARNES, RACHEL D.; LAROSE, JESSICA GOKEE

2013-01-01

253

Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

1990-01-01

254

Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations With Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness  

PubMed Central

This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers’ and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers’ use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness. PMID:20438455

Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

255

Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data  

PubMed Central

Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

2010-01-01

256

Genesis of Apollo 15 olivine normative mare basalts - Trace element correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical and petrographic studies of 21 Apollo 15 rake basalts are reported; one pyroxene-phyric basalt, four olivine-phyric basalts, 15 olivine microgabbros, and one brecciated basalt are distinguished. The olivine-normative basalts (i.e., all samples but the pyroxene-phyric basalt) show correlation trends of La/Sm vs. La and Sm/Eu vs. La that are within the observed dispersion ranges of La/Sm and Sm/Eu ratios for a single lava flow. Trace element fractionation trends in the sample could be due to mobilization (perhaps by filter pressing) of fractionated residual liquid during the crystallization of a lava flow. However, it is also possible that the suite of olivine-normative basalts represents several basalt flows produced by partial melting of cumulate layers having interstitial liquids with variable trace-element compositions.

Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

1978-01-01

257

Supporting inquiry learning by promoting normative understanding of multivariable causality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning.

Keselman, Alla

2003-11-01

258

2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft provides this material solely for informational purposes. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT. Customers should refer to their li  

E-print Network

for informational purposes. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION.learnlicensing.com APPLICATION VIRTUALIZATION Microsoft ® Application Virtualisation (App-V) transforms applications such as clipboard and files. But their settings and preferences are saved on the server, making user settings truly

Narasayya, Vivek

259

Centile curves and normative values for the twenty metre shuttle-run test in English schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to provide normative data for performance on the 20 m shuttle-run test of cardiorespiratory fitness in English schoolchildren. A total of 7366 10–16 year olds completed the 20 m shuttle-run test. We expressed performance as the number of shuttles completed, test score (shuttles and levels) and estimated peak oxygen consumption ([Vdot]O2peak). We calculated descriptive statistics for

Gavin Sandercock; Christine Voss; Daniel Cohen; Matthew Taylor; D. M. Stasinopoulos

2012-01-01

260

A critique of Cultural materialism: the implications of epistemology and strategy on normative action  

E-print Network

Naterialism on normative action. The concept of natural selection figures heavily into the research strategy presented in Cultural Naterialism. As stated therein, however, it is unclear just what Harris intends (cf. , Adams 1981; Cohen 1981; Ehrenreich... 1981; Diener, Nonini, and Robkin 1978). It is perhaps true that natural selection, like the principle of infrastructural determinism (Harris 1982), is primarily a guiding concept rather than a theoretical posit. Since it is vaguely defined, natural...

Ellis, Gordon Lain

1986-01-01

261

Fertility differentials and the redefinition of the normative structure across racial/ethnic lines  

E-print Network

to their earlier-generation counterparts (Frank and Heuveline 2005). Ultimately, these challenges question a rigid and static view of the normative structure and system of practices related to fertility across racial groups in the United States. Furthermore... of Mexican Americans is thought to be the product of pro-natalistic ideologies that originate in Mexico (Rindfuss and Sweet 1977; Frank and Heuveline 2005). Among scholars that support this hypothesis, there is the assumption that Mexican Americans...

Ayala Garcia, Maria Isabel

2009-05-15

262

Neonatal Blood Carnitine Concentrations: Normative Data by Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a number of published reports, there is limited infor- mation about carnitine metabolism in the newborn. To establish normative data, we analyzed whole-blood carnitine concentra- tions in 24,644 newborns at age 1.85 0.95 d and umbilical cord whole blood and plasma carnitine concentrations in 50 full-term newborns. Total carnitine (TC), free carnitine (FC), and acylcar- nitine (AC) were measured

DONALD H. CHACE; ROSER PONS; CLAUDIA A. CHIRIBOGA; DONALD J. MCMAHON; INGRID TEIN; DARRYL C. DE VIVO

2003-01-01

263

Rules, Agents and Norms: Guidelines for Rule-Based Normative Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this survey paper we focus on some requirements for developing normative multi-agent systems (NMAS). In particular, we\\u000a discuss Boella et al.’s guidelines proposed for NMAS. Finally, we deal with two more specific questions concerning the role of norms in rule-based\\u000a NMAS: the concepts of compliance and norm change.

Antonino Rotolo; Leendert van der Torre

264

New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model  

PubMed Central

There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

2014-01-01

265

The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3): reliability and normative comparisons of eating disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is a measure of one’s endorsement of societal appearance ideals. The measure has received extensive evaluation in normative samples, but only minimal evaluation in clinical groups. In this study, 440 patients with eating disorders completed the SATAQ-3. Internal consistencies were excellent for the four SATAQ-3 subscales. Groups did not differ by diagnosis on

Rachel M Calogero; William N Davis; J. Kevin Thompson

2004-01-01

266

Normative influences on mens' and womens' physiological and subjective emotional responses  

E-print Network

norms established for both sexes. Social expectations concerning emotional responsiveness were directly manipulated by instructing subjects to enhance or attenuate emotional reactions to standard emotion- inducing stimuli, or, in a control condition... no instructions were given. When instructions rendered the same normative expectations for men and women, no sex differences were obtained in self-reports of emotional experiences. When no explicit instructions were given, self-reports were consistent...

Grossman, Michele Marie

1992-01-01

267

Normative Self-Interest or Moral Hypocrisy?: The Importance of Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examine the construct of Moral Hypocrisy from the perspective of normative self-interest. Arguing that some degree of\\u000a self-interest is culturally acceptable and indeed expected, we postulate that a pattern of behavior is more indicative of\\u000a moral hypocrisy than a single action. Contrary to previous findings, our results indicate that a significant majority of subjects\\u000a (N = 136) exhibited fair behavior, and

George W. Watson; Farooq Sheikh

2008-01-01

268

Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

269

The effects of normative classroom aggression and teacher support on changes in ethnically diverse elementary students' aggression  

E-print Network

This study examined the joint effects of the quality of teacher-student relationship support (TSRS) and normative levels of classroom aggression on individual aggression in a sample of 687 second-grade children who entered first grade...

Kuhns, Clarissa Ivette

2008-10-10

270

Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms   

E-print Network

The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items...

MacPherson, Sarah, E.; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

2014-03-26

271

Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.  

PubMed

Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. Practitioner Summary: A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems. PMID:25529468

Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

2015-03-01

272

Subjective Well-Being by Partnership Status and Its Dependence on the Normative Climate.  

PubMed

This study first examines the relationship between partnership status and subjective well-being in 45 European countries by analyzing the European Values Study 2008. It was expected and empirically confirmed that married individuals have the highest level of well-being, followed by (in order) cohabiting, dating, single, and finally widowed and divorced individuals. In addition, this study examines to what extent the well-being gaps depend on the normative climate in which an individual lives. It is hypothesized that: (a) being in a non-married relationship (especially cohabitation and divorce) lowers well-being compared to being married in societies that reject non-traditional partnership statuses; and (b) not having a partner is especially detrimental for well-being levels in familialistic societies, which emphasize the importance of a strong, close-knit family. The normative climate appears to hardly affect well-being gaps between partnership statuses. Only the gap between divorced and married women is significantly wider in familialistic societies. It is concluded that the weak dependence of well-being on the normative climate may point at high autonomy in private, relationship-related decisions. PMID:22707813

Verbakel, Ellen

2012-05-01

273

The Effect of Framing and Normative Messages in Building Support for Climate Policies  

PubMed Central

Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a “foregone-gain”—incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts—rather than as a “loss”—incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts. PMID:25501009

Hurlstone, Mark J.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Newell, Ben R.; Sewell, Brittany

2014-01-01

274

The comparison of normative reference data from different gait analysis services.  

PubMed

Comparison of normative data between gait analysis services offers the potential to harmonise data collection protocols. This paper presents a method for such a comparison based on an assumption that the root mean square difference from the inter-service mean is a reflection of systematic differences in protocols and that the average standard deviation includes a component attributable to within-centre measurement variability. Substantial normative datasets from two highly respected clinical services were compared. The RMS difference for the difference from the inter-centre mean was less than 1.7° for all kinematic variables apart from hip rotation (2.9°) and foot progression (2.1°), less than 0.1 Nm/kg for all joint moments and than 0.21 W/kg for all joint powers. The two centres showed very similar normative standard deviations. The data demonstrates a high degree of consistency between data from two highly regarded gait analysis services and establishes a baseline against which other services can assess their performance. An electronic appendix includes data to facilitate this comparison. PMID:24831115

Pinzone, Ornella; Schwartz, Michael H; Thomason, Pam; Baker, Richard

2014-06-01

275

Associations between adolescent seatbelt non-use, normative perceptions and screen media exposure: results from a national US survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFailure to use seatbelts in motor vehicles is a major source of youth injuries, and previous research has noted the widespread non-use of seatbelts in popular media.ObjectivesTo explore whether increased exposure to entertainment screen media was associated with inflated normative perceptions regarding seatbelt non-use, and to determine any associations between normative perceptions and seatbelt non-use.MethodsA nationally representative telephone survey of

Sally M Dunlop; Daniel Romer

2010-01-01

276

Extremely secure identification documents  

SciTech Connect

The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bell, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1997-09-01

277

Making Electricity with Hydrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, which originally appeared in Home Power magazine, outlines how to make electricity using hydrogen. The material outlines using a "cookbook approach" to building a fuel cell. A step by step process for building a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is outlined. The article also includes some helpful photos and diagrams to help you understand the particulars of how a fuel cell may be built in this way. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

278

Making Pickles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making pickles developed from a laboratory lesson during a unit on solutions, suspensions, acids, and bases. The pickle lab has been used as a summation and application of these topics. Directions for setting up the lab experience and actually making the pickles are included. (MA)

Klein, Sarah

1977-01-01

279

Making Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor water activity, learners explore how to change the direction of water flow. Learners make puddles in dirt or use existing puddles and sticks to make water flow. Learners will use yarn to measure who can make the longest "river." Learners will also investigate how they can change the direction water flows by digging paths or building walls and dams. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 35 of the PDF.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2005-01-01

280

Making Movies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

2012-01-01

281

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

282

Anogenital Distance and Penile Length in Infants with Hypospadias or Cryptorchidism: Comparison with Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Background: Anogenital distance (AGD) in animals is a sensitive biomarker of fetal endocrine disruption and the associated testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). However, AGD in human infants with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, which are potential manifestations of TDS during childhood, is not clearly described. Objective: Our aim was to compare AGD in boys with cryptorchidism or hypospadias against normative data. Methods: Boys with isolated cryptorchidism (n = 71, age 13.4 ± 5.8 months) or hypospadias (n = 81, age 11.4 ± 6.2 months) were recruited from a tertiary center for measurement of AGD and penile length; they were compared with 487 healthy full-term boys from a birth cohort by deriving age-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). Results: Boys with cryptorchidism were older (p = 0.048) compared with boys with hypospadias. Boys with hypospadias had shorter mean AGD and penile length SDS than healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean AGD and penile length SDS values in boys with cryptorchidism were longer than mean values in boys with hypospadias (both p < 0.01) and shorter than mean values in healthy boys (both p < 0.0001). Mean penile length SDS decreased as the severity of hypospadias increased (ptrend = 0.078). Conclusions: In the study population, AGD and penile length were reduced in boys with hypospadias or cryptorchidism relative to normative data derived from a longitudinal birth cohort. The findings support the use of AGD as a quantitative biomarker to examine the prenatal effects of exposure to endocrine disruptors on the development of the male reproductive tract. Citation: Thankamony A, Lek N, Carroll D, Williams M, Dunger DB, Acerini CL, Ong KK, Hughes IA. 2014. Anogenital distance and penile length in infants with hypospadias or cryptorchidism: comparison with normative data. Environ Health Perspect 122:207–211;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307178 PMID:24316680

Thankamony, Ajay; Lek, Ngee; Carroll, Dan; Williams, Martyn; Dunger, David B.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

2013-01-01

283

Normative data and validation of a regression based summary score for assessing meaningful neuropsychological change  

PubMed Central

Reliable detection and quantification of longitudinal cognitive change are of considerable importance in many neurological disorders, particularly to monitor central nervous system effects of disease progression and treatment. In the current study, we developed normative data for repeated neuropsychological (NP) assessments (6 testings) using a modified Standard Regression-Based (SRB) approach in a sample that includes both HIV-uninfected (HIV?, N=172) and neuromedically stable HIV-infected (HIV+, N=124) individuals. Prior analyzes indicated no differences in NP change between the infected and uninfected participants. The norms for change included correction for factors found to significantly affect follow-up performance, using hierarchical regression. The most robust and consistent predictors of follow-up performance were the prior performance on the same test (which contributed in all models) and a measure of prior overall NP competence (predictor in 97% of all models). Demographic variables were predictors in 10%-46% of all models and in small amounts; while test retest interval contributed in only 6% of all models. Based on the regression equations, standardized change scores (z-scores) were computed for each test measure at each interval; these z scores were then averaged to create a total battery change score. An independent sample of HIV? participants who had completed 8 of the 15 tests was used to validate an abridged summary change score. The normative data are available in an electronic format by email request to the first author. Correction for practice effects based on normative data improved the consistency of NP impairment classification in a clinically stable longitudinal cohort after baseline. PMID:21391011

Cysique, Lucette A.; Franklin, Donald; Abramson, Ian; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J. Allen; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

2011-01-01

284

The Framingham Heart Study Clock Drawing Performance: Normative Data from the Offspring Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context While the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a popular tool used to assess cognitive function, limited normative data on CDT performance exists. The objective of the current study was to provide normative data on an expanded version of previous CDT scoring protocols from a large community-based sample of middle to older adults (aged 43 to 91) from the Framingham Heart Study. Methods The CDT was administered to 1476 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants using a scoring protocol that assigned error scores to drawn features. Total error scores were computed, as well as for subscales pertaining to outline, numeral placement, time-setting, center, and “other.” Results Higher levels of education were significantly associated with fewer errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numerals (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Older age was significantly associated with more errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numeral (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Significant differences were also found between education groups on the Command condition for all but the oldest age group (75+). Conclusion Results provide normative data on CDT performance within a community-based cohort. Errors appear to be more prevalent in older compared with younger individuals, and may be less prevalent in individuals who completed at least some college compared with those who did not. Future studies are needed to determine whether this expanded scoring system allows detection of preclinical symptoms of future risk for dementia. PMID:23316738

Nyborn, Justin A.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Du, Yangchun; Kaplan, Edith; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Rinn, William E.; Denison, Helen S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

2013-01-01

285

NORMATIVE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

286

The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.

Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L. (University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Poison, MT)

2002-10-01

287

The normative environment for drug use: comparisons among American Indian and white adolescents.  

PubMed

The current study examined the influence of descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived outcome expectancies, and ethnicity on marijuana and inhalant use among 2334 American Indian (AI) and White high school students who lived on or near reservations in the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with survey data collected during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Results suggest differences between ethnicities in the influence of the normative environment and outcome expectancies on both marijuana and inhalant use. Study limitations are noted, and future research is suggested. PMID:23768429

Dieterich, Sara E; Swaim, Randall C; Beauvais, Fred

2013-01-01

288

Short latency evoked somatosensory potentials after stimulation of the median nerve in children: normative data.  

PubMed

Purpose of the present study was to investigate the early cortical somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve stimulation and to determine normative data as a function of age. Two hundred forty subjects aged 1 day to 18 years were studied to determine standards of normality during maturation to establish the growth curve. The N9, N13, and N20 components were present in all patients. These components decreased in latency until 4 to 5 years of age because of central nervous system maturation after which latencies increased until adulthood, on the basis of brain and body growth. PMID:19424081

Doria-Lamba, Laura; Montaldi, Luciano; Grosso, Paolo; Veneselli, Edvige; Giribaldi, Gaia

2009-06-01

289

From Identity to Queer Politics: Shifts in the Social Logic of Normative Heterosexuality in Contemporary America  

E-print Network

of the heterosexual and the homosexual asantithetical human types and enforce the normative status of heterosexuality by polluting the homosexual. I will argue that in the last decade or so, the n~rm of heterosexuality has been sustained less by social repression than... gender, racial, or class politics, and it has not politicized social norms that regulate gay selves apart from the norm of heterosexuality, for 3 SocialThought&Research example, norms of sexual monogamy or public sex. In short, gay identity politics has...

Seidman, Steven

2001-04-01

290

The Normative Environment for Drug Use: Comparisons among American Indian and White Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the influence of descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived outcome expectancies, and ethnicity on marijuana and inhalant use among 2334 American Indian and white high school students who lived on or near reservations in the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with survey data collected during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Results suggest differences between ethnicities in the influence of the normative environment and outcome expectancies on both marijuana and inhalant use. Study limitations are noted, and future research is suggested. PMID:23768429

Dieterich, Sara E.; Swaim, Randall C.; Beauvais, Fred

2013-01-01

291

Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043

Turiano, Nicholas A; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K

2012-12-01

292

Omega documentation  

SciTech Connect

OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

1983-08-01

293

Document Supply Services Quick Guide  

E-print Network

, phrase, ISBN/ISSN in the Search Term field (other options are available in the dropdown menu). Note1 Document Supply Services Quick Guide The DSS Portal makes requesting easy! Search for your item and password. If you are having difficulty please read the login help on the main DSS webpage. 2. Enter a word

294

Language and Program for Documenting Software Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

1986-01-01

295

Making Babies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to introduce learners to genes, genotypes and simple inheritance patterns. In this activity, learners make guesses about their own genotype, create gametes from their genotypes, then make “babies” with a partner. Along the way, learners discover answers to the questions such as: What are genes? How are genes (and traits) passed on? How are gametes different than other cells in our body? Why don’t siblings look alike? This activity is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Human Traits" activity from the same resource but can be used alone.

Irene Salter

2012-04-09

296

Making Faces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online activity lets learners test their ability to 'read' facial expressions. Learners watch videos that show different facial expressions, then choose which emotion they think is being expressed. When the learner chooses the correct emotion, they are presented with a list of the facial muscles that are used to produce that expression. This activity can be used by individuals, pairs and groups. It involves observation and can lead to developing documentation through photography, video and portrait drawing. The biology connections can lead to exploration of the musculature system.

Science Museum of Minnesota

2009-01-01

297

What we've learned, and what we haven't PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making  

E-print Network

Summary What we've learned, and what we haven't PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making of disorders (drug abuse as learning gone awry, latent inhibition and schizophrenia) · extinction (latent cause animals behave? how should animals behave if they were optimal? How? Why? the BIG picture normative models

Niv, Yael

298

Making Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Repeated motion is present everywhere in nature. Learn how to ?make waves? with your own movements using a motion detector to plot your position as a function of time, and try to duplicate wave patterns presented in the activity. Investigate the concept of distance versus time graphs and see how your own movement can be represented on a graph.

2012-07-19

299

Making Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab, students work in groups to grow crystals in different conditions, and then make conclusions about how and why crystals form. This site contains a detailed procedure and materials list, as well as follow-up questions. A teacher's guide contains extension ideas and information for conducting this lab.

Michael Davidson

300

Making Scheduling \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends towards consolidation and higher-density comput- ing configurations make the problem of heat management one of the critical challenges in emerging data centers. Conventional approaches to addressing this problem have focused at the facilities level to develop new cooling tech- nologies or optimize the deliveryof cooling. In contrastto these approaches, our paper explores an alternate dimen- sion to address this

Justin D. Moore; Jeffrey S. Chase; Parthasarathy Ranganathan; Ratnesh K. Sharma

2005-01-01

301

Making Lemonade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current economic climate, alumni associations are taking hard looks at their budgets and making cuts where necessary. However, the recession is an opportunity for alumni associations to create and build alumni loyalty through networking and career services--when they are needed most. Many alumni association budgets are set through the end…

Peterson, Erin

2009-01-01

302

[A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].  

PubMed

Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr. PMID:1342729

Dorschel, A

1992-01-01

303

Normative Perceptions and Past-year Consequences as Predictors of Subjective Evaluations and Weekly Drinking Behavior  

PubMed Central

Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study with primary aims to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N=96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported – weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. PMID:23899424

Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.

2013-01-01

304

Reliability and normative data for the comprehensive assessment of prospective memory (CAPM).  

PubMed

The Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate frequency of prospective memory (PM) failures in people with brain injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAPM, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and to establish normative data by comparing CAPM scores between groups on the basis of sex, age, and education. Data were collected on 95 people aged 15-60 years living in the community, with no history of brain injury, using the CAPM. The results showed that the test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the CAPM were within acceptable ranges, indicating that the CAPM provides a stable and homogenous measure of an individual's self-report of PM failures. Normative data are presented in two age groups based on the significant difference found between the age groups 15-30 years and 31-60 years. These established norms can be used to describe perceived or observed behaviours indicative of PM failure in patients with brain injury by comparing CAPM ratings from significant others with the norms. The CAPM questionnaire provides researchers or clinicians with a stable and reliable assessment option that specifically focuses on PM for individuals with brain injury. PMID:17852758

Chau, Lien T; Lee, Jessica B; Fleming, Jennifer; Roche, Nadine; Shum, David

2007-12-01

305

A normative study of the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT2) in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool; SCAT2) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of "normal" or "impaired" score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption. PMID:25244434

Snyder, Aliyah R; Bauer, Russell M

2014-01-01

306

Normative Data for the 12 Item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) measures disability due to health conditions including diseases, illnesses, injuries, mental or emotional problems, and problems with alcohol or drugs. Method The 12 Item WHODAS 2.0 was used in the second Australian Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. We report the overall factor structure and the distribution of scores and normative data (means and SDs) for people with any physical disorder, any mental disorder and for people with neither. Findings A single second order factor justifies the use of the scale as a measure of global disability. People with mental disorders had high scores (mean 6.3, SD 7.1), people with physical disorders had lower scores (mean 4.3, SD 6.1). People with no disorder covered by the survey had low scores (mean 1.4, SD 3.6). Interpretation The provision of normative data from a population sample of adults will facilitate use of the WHODAS 2.0 12 item scale in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:20020047

Andrews, Gavin; Kemp, Alice; Sunderland, Matthew; Von Korff, Michael; Ustun, Tevik Bedirhan

2009-01-01

307

Normative Scores for the NIH Toolbox Dynamic Visual Acuity Test from 3 to 85?Years  

PubMed Central

As part of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative, a computerized test of dynamic visual acuity (cDVA) was developed and validated as an easy-to-administer, cost- and time-efficient test of vestibular and visual function. To establish normative reference values, 3,992 individuals, aged 3–85?years, without vestibular pathology underwent cDVA testing at multiple clinical research testing facilities across the United States. Test scores were stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. cDVA was worse in males (p?normative cDVA data as a criterion reference to compare both the long (validated) and short versions of the test. Both versions can distinguish between those with and without vestibular pathology (p?=?0.0002 long; p?=?0.0025 short). The intraclass correlation coefficient between long- and short-cDVA tests was 0.86. PMID:25400618

Li, Carol; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Rine, Rose Marie; Slotkin, Jerry; Schubert, Michael C.

2014-01-01

308

The Exxon Valdez oil spill revisited and the dangers of normative science.  

PubMed

In the July 2006 issue of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, a paper by Harwell and Gentile was published assessing the present ecological significance of the impacts from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). First, this paper compares the major conclusions of Harwell and Gentile and a paper reviewing the current impacts of EVOS by Peterson et al as published by Science in 2003. Stark differences exist between the conclusions of the 2 papers regarding continuing impacts. Part of the difference appears to be the infusion of different social values or policy goals into each. Normative science is the use or interpretation of data in support of specific values or policies. Examples of values or policies intertwined with science are constructs such as ecosystem health, ecosystem integrity, ecological significance, and recovery. Examination of the environmental risk assessment and toxicology literature reveals that the symptoms of normative science are common and the implications widespread. Separation of science from policy or at a minimum a transparent acknowledgment of the science-policy interaction is clearly necessary in order to obtain a clear picture of the ecological system under investigation. PMID:17695114

Landis, Wayne G

2007-07-01

309

The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.  

PubMed

Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness. PMID:23799900

Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S

2014-12-01

310

Normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in an Italian population sample.  

PubMed

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening battery, also including subtests to assess frontal functions such as set-shifting, abstraction and cognitive flexibility. MoCA seems to be useful to identify non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subcortical dementia; it has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing MCI from mild Alzheimer's Disease. Previous studies revealed that certain items of MoCA may be culturally biased and highlighted the need for population-based norms for the MoCA. The aim of present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Four hundred and fifteen Italian healthy subjects (252 women and 163 men) of different ages (age range 21-95 years) and educational level (from primary to university) underwent MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on MoCA. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for MoCA raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off score, estimated using a non-parametric technique, is 15.5 and equivalent scores were computed. Correlation analysis showed a significant but weak correlation between MoCA adjusted scores with MMSE adjusted scores (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the MoCA in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25380622

Santangelo, Gabriella; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Vitale, Carmine; Falco, Fabrizia; Bisogno, Rossella; Siano, Pietro; Barone, Paolo; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi

2015-04-01

311

Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking.  

PubMed

Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive attitudinal, normative, and control effects on quit intention, which is not a truly explanatory account of psychological processes that explain formation of quit intentions among smokers. The purpose of the research reported here was to test one such explanatory process, namely that perceived control moderates attitudinal and normative effects, such that the more smokers feel that they can successfully quit, the stronger attitude and subjective norm affect quit intention. To test the perceived control as moderator hypothesis, the authors submitted data from 3,428 adult smokers to hierarchical regression analyses and demonstrated that in this sample perceived control interacted with attitude (b = .16) and perceived norm (b = .11), f 2 =.04. Furthermore, the authors found that experience with previous quit attempts mattered, such that compared with smokers with relatively short-lived previous quit attempts and smokers who had never tried to quit, the Perceived Control × Attitude interaction in particular was greatest among smokers who had experienced relatively longer periods of remaining quit. Two clear implications of these findings are that behavioral theory should reconsider a moderator role for perceived control, and that smoking cessation interventions should always include a control-building component. PMID:25243830

Yzer, Marco; van den Putte, Bas

2014-12-01

312

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at six months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2014-01-01

313

The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at 6 months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J; Goldsmith, H Hill

2013-11-01

314

A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control  

PubMed Central

Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

315

24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands § 55.27 Documentation. ...considered outside the floodplain or wetland, but within the local housing...

2014-04-01

316

TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

317

Makes Cents!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Money is important to understand because we use it on a daily basis. Let\\'s try and make cents of it with these fun games! Help your character by Counting Change! Click on Easy and choose your character to begin. When you have made change click on your charcter to check yourself! How much do you have? Count and add the coins to see how much change you have. Let s Compare by counting the change and seeing who has the most ...

Ms. May

2008-04-02

318

Making Mosaics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this archaeology meets art activity, learners make a mosaic and consider the ways in which art communicates. Educators can tie this activity to the study of the Petra site (an ancient city in the Middle East) or any ancient culture/site. Learners discuss the history and use of mosaics and then plan and construct their own mosaics out of cut paper. This can be a whole class activity as well, combining students' mosaics into a large display.

2012-08-01

319

Making Glyphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners discover a powerful way to display data—using a glyph. Learners create glyphs by drawing their own faces on paper plates. Making a glyph involves the logical skill of classification--a learner must decide which groups he or she belongs to in order to complete the picture. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Edie Skipper

2008-01-01

320

Making Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article examines the reading comprehension strategy known as making connections. It involves linking what is being read (the text) to what is already known (schema, or background knowledge). The author provides links to four online resources that will help readers use the strategy in K-5 science and literacy classrooms. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which integrates science and literacy instruction.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

321

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Mrs. Allan

2008-09-21

322

Making Regolith  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate how micrometeoroid bombardment causes regolith formation, as seen on the moon, and develop a conclusion by making inferences, based upon their observations, about the properties of lunar regolith. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'What Would You Find on the Moon's Surface?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

323

Making Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Living Graphs, Making Waves is a freely downloaded interactive physics package that helps students visualize and understand the motion and interference of transverse and longitudinal waves. Designed for senior high school and college physics students, the interactive program allows users to manipulate wave properties such as their amplitude, wavelength, phase shift, speed, frequency and damping; standing waves; and mks units. The site even provides online help and tutorials for teachers to help them integrate the software into curricula.

1969-12-31

324

Probabilistic Approaches to the Document Retrieval Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

My paper today deals with probabilistic approaches to the document retrieval problem: why probability must play a central role, and how probability should be interpreted and used in the design of advanced document retrieval systems. However, before I get into some of the technical details, I would like to make a few personal remarks about Information Science, Information Technology and

M. E. Maron

1982-01-01

325

Making Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of a three-part E-Example from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics of the NCTM algebra standards and this applet is also used in an Illumination unit that highlights different aspects of students' understanding and use of patterns as they analyze relationships and make predictions. This example presents a task for students to complete using the interactive applet. Students can create pattern units of squares, predict how patterns with different numbers of squares will appear when repeated in a grid and then check their predictions. Instructions for using the applet are included and background information for the teacher is provided.

2011-01-01

326

Make Slime  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make slime from white school glue and Borax detergent. The long chain molecules of the white glue become cross-linked by the Borax into a big network. The result is an even larger polymer of thickened slime. Learners can experiment with the ratios of ingredients and see what effect that has on the resulting slime. Safety note: Borax is an irritant and should be kept out reach of children and pets. While safe in diluted solutions, borax can be harmful if ingested.

Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

327

Making Sticks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity for children to practice skip-counting and counting on. It lays a foundation for the concept of multiples and proportional thinking. Using linking cubes of two different colors, one color grouped in 2s and the other color grouped in 3s, children look for ways they can make a line of one color equal to a line of the other color. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

328

Making Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.

Stephen Greb

329

Text documents as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

2012-03-01

330

Generic safety documentation model  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

Mahn, J.A.

1994-04-01

331

Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers.  

PubMed

Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

2011-02-01

332

Normative neurocognitive data for National Football League players: an initial compendium.  

PubMed

The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research. PMID:25638042

Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

2015-03-01

333

Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces Test in the Italian population.  

PubMed

The Ekman 60-Faces (EK-60F) Test is a well-known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty-two healthy Italian participants aged between 20 and 79 years with at least 5 years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK-60F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise). Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure [1]. The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 15 bvFTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition. We provided EK-60F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes. PMID:24442557

Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Arpone, Marta; Realmuto, Sabrina; Cappa, Stefano F

2014-07-01

334

Social Organization through Teacher-Talk: Subteaching, Socialization and the Normative Use of Language in a Multilingual Primary Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the ways in which peers take up a teacher-like discourse to enforce normative uses of language in a classroom, effectively socializing one another to the institutional use of English which in turn signals class membership. Such an uptake of teacher-like discourses and practices can be characterized as subteaching…

Mokkonen, Alicia Copp

2012-01-01

335

Normative Foundations of Technology Transfer and Transnational Benefit Principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a “nonbinding” declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g.,

Thomas Alured Faunce; HITOSHI NASU

2009-01-01

336

Lecture 2. What is the Normative Role of Logic? What is the connection between (deductive) logic and  

E-print Network

Lecture 2. What is the Normative Role of Logic? What is the connection between (deductive) logic and rationality? One extreme: Frege. A law of logic is a law of rational thought. Seems problematic, if rational change of logic is possible. It seems to say that in a debate over logic, the party who advocates

Fitelson, Branden

337

Assessing executive function with the D-KEFS sorting test: normative data for a sample of the Italian adult population.  

PubMed

One of the major problems in clinical neuropsychology is to apply ecological, easily administrable and sensitive tests that can help in the diagnosis of executive functions. In the present paper we present normative values for the D-KEFS sorting test (ST), exploring the ability of reasoning, categorization abilities, problem solving, flexibility of thinking and abstraction. We collected normative data in a group of 181 normal Italian subjects aged between 20 and 69 years old, matched for educational level. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effects of age, sex and education. Age and education had a significant effect on ST performance. Our study provided normative data for the D-KEFS ST for the adult Italian population, corrections of raw scores for relevant demographic factors, and percentile grids for both baseline data and on re-testing after 9 months of follow-up. These normative Italian values support the use of the D-KEFS ST as a valid instrument for initial neuropsychological evaluation and longitudinal analysis of executive functions in clinical practice and for research purposes. PMID:24998015

Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Galli, Paola; Guarneri, Chiara; Corso, Barbara; Montomoli, Cristina; Niccolai, Claudia; Goretti, Benedetta; Amato, Maria Pia; Riboni, Elisa; Tomasina, Chiara Dalla; Falautano, Monica; Capra, Ruggero

2014-12-01

338

Evaluations of and Reasoning about Normative and Deviant Ingroup and Outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social…

Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

2014-01-01

339

Iowa Study of Alcohol and Drug Attitudes and Behaviors among Youth. 1990-91. Normative and Trend Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Substance Education Program of the Iowa Department of Education began a series of tri-annual studies of youth substance behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge in 1975, with later data collections in 1978, 1981, 1984, 1987, and 1990. This report presents the normative data from the 1990 survey which was administered to approximately 7,000 students…

Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

340

1981-82 Iowa Study of Alcohol and Drug Attitudes and Behaviors among Youth. Report 1: Normative and Trend Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of tri-annual studies of youths' substance use and abuse behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge, begun in 1975, this report provides normative and trend data for the 1981-82 study. The research issues which were the foci of this study are: present status and important trends of youths' substance use, attitudes, and knowledge;…

Wright, David

341

What is “Normative” for Fish Pathogens? A Perspective on the Controversy over Interactions between Wild and Cultured Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its report, Return to the River, the Independent Scientific Group (now called the Independent Scientific Advisory Board—the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council) advanced the notion of a “normative river ecosystem” as a new conceptual foundation for salmonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of

Charles C. Coutant

1998-01-01

342

Beyond the Golden Section and Normative Aesthetics: Why Do Individuals Differ so Much in Their Aesthetic Preferences for Rectangles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the experimental aesthetics of rectangles originates in the studies of Fechner (1876), which investigated Zeising's suggestion that Golden Section ratios determine the aesthetic appeal of great works of art. Although Fechner's studies are often cited to support the centrality of the Golden Section, a century of subsequent experimental work suggests it has little normative role in rectangle preferences.

I. C. McManus; Richard Cook; Amy Hunt

2010-01-01

343

Human Sciences and the Human Person: Understanding The Trade-Off Between Normative Generality And Technical Problem Solving1  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1925) to analyze the relationship of the social sciences with ethics and the philosophy of the human person. This framework is consistent with the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition and its main points are hardly new. However, by applying it systematically to the modern social sciences we establish the positive and normative character of such sciences, their relationships with ethics, and derive two

Guillermo Montes

344

Comparison of a single case to a control or normative sample in neuropsychology: Development of a Bayesian approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequentist methods are available for comparison of a patient's test score (or score difference) to a control or normative sample; these methods also provide a point estimate of the percentage of the population that would obtain a more extreme score (or score difference) and, for some problems, an accompanying interval estimate (i.e., confidence limits) on this percentage. In the present

John R. Crawford; Paul H. Garthwaite

2007-01-01

345

A Normative Study of Development in Context: Growth toward Independence in Social Function Skills of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used checklist and interview methods to assess the normative development of children's social function skills. Participants included a large, cross-sectional sample of parents of normal children ranging in age from 6 months to 7.5 years. Parents completed the checklist portion of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disabilities Inventory, a…

Haltiwanger, Jane; Coster, Wendy

346

Normative Data for the Boston Naming Test in Native Dutch-Speaking Belgian Children and the Relation with Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a normative study of the 60-item version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of 371 native Dutch-speaking Flemish children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Analysis of test results revealed that BNT performance was significantly affected by age and gender. The gathered norms were shown to be…

Storms, Gert; Saerens, Jos; De Deyn, Peter P.

2004-01-01

347

Brain, body, and cognition: neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear.  

PubMed

The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction. PMID:24561099

Schaefer, Hillary S; Larson, Christine L; Davidson, Richard J; Coan, James A

2014-04-01

348

The normative value of inflammatory cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish stable, well-accepted nasal perfusion and a normative value of classifying cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults. Methods A total of 500 healthy adults were divided into two groups of 250 people per group (group A, 16-30 years old and group B, 31-60 years old; male-to-female ratio, 1:1). All volunteers were non-smokers; they were irrigated with saline, and multiple inflammatory cells in the perfusate were analyzed. Results Irrigation was successfully performed in 479 cases, a success rate of 95.80%. The types of inflammatory cells showed a skewed distribution. The median number and interquartile range (IQR) of eosinophils were 0 and 0.2, respectively. These values were 0.4 and 2.2, respectively, for neutrophils and 0 and 0, respectively, for both lymphocytes and macrophages. There was no significant difference between males and females (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the different age groups (P=0.000), but there was no significant difference in the numbers of eosinophils and macrophages (P>0.05). The 95% unilateral upper limited values (UULVs) of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusates were 2.99 and 14.94, respectively, for group A and 1.41 and 17.08 for group B. As a result, the total 95% UULVs of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusate were 2.00 and 16.80. Conclusions We established stable, well-accepted nasal perfusions and normal values for classifying the cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults; the normative values of the inflammatory cells in nasal perfusate are 2.00 for the 95% UULV of eosinophils and 16.80 for neutrophils. Age might be one of the factors affecting the cells in rhinitis. PMID:25093086

Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yanqing; Wang, Zhiyi; Li, Derong; Ma, Li; Pang, Xinju; Yu, Weidong; Zhong, Nanshan

2014-01-01

349

Normative processes and adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

Currently, smoking prevalence is still high among adolescents. This is of major concern for public health organizations. Factors that influence adolescent smoking behaviour need to be identified and addressed. Research in this area has identified attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control as some of the contributing factors, but subjective norms have often been the weakest predictor of smoking behaviour. This could be due to inadequate measurement. The current paper suggests that examining different types of norms and their relationship with smoking behaviour could help increase the contribution of norms. The paper set out to identify other normative concepts, such as the subjective estimate of smoking prevalence, and descriptive and desired societal norms that are not captured by subjective norms but that could be related to adolescents' smoking behaviour. Data were collected from 15-year-old students from Norway (n = 1670 in 89 grade 10 school classes). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the various concepts of norms relate to each other and their relationship with adolescent smoking behaviour. The findings of the study showed that an individual's opinion of societal norms, and the expectations of significant others as well as their behaviour all seem significantly related to adolescent smoking behaviour, either as an individual or as a school class predictor. Hence, rather than playing down the role of norms, the addition of a subjective estimate of smoking prevalence, and descriptive and desired societal norms could extend the normative concept as well as increase its predictive power. Future intervention could address different types of norms as well as the effect of shared context to help prevent adolescents from smoking. PMID:16165262

Wiium, Nora; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

2006-04-01

350

Retinal Thickness Normative Data in Wild-Type Mice Using Customized Miniature SD-OCT  

PubMed Central

Objective To report normative data for retinal thickness in wild-type C57BL/6 mouse utilizing a miniature SD-OCT system. Methods Thirty adult mice (range: 3–5 months) were anesthetized and secured into the Bioptigen Spectral Domain Ophthalmic Imaging System. Right eye SD-OCT images were standardized by centralizing the optic nerve head (ONH) prior to image acquisition. Global and quadrant total retinal thickness (TRT) values were measured from retinal nerve fiber layer to retinal pigment epithelial layer. Posterior segment analyses also included the outer retinal layer (ORL) and inner retinal layer (IRL). Further sublayer analyses of four layers from the ORL and three layers comprising the IRL were also performed. Results The overall mean±SD global TRT in a C57BL/6 mouse model was 204.41±5.19 µm. Quadrant mean TRT values were 204.85±5.81 µm inferiorly, 204.97±6.71 µm nasally, 205.08±5.44 µm temporally, and 202.74±4.85 µm superiorly. Mean±SD thickness for ORL, and IRL were 126.37±10.01 µm, and 107.03±10.98 µm respectively. The mean±SD estimates for the four layers of the ORL were 18.23±2.73 µm, 26.04±4.21 µm, 63.8±6.23 µm, and 19.22±4.34 µm. Mean±SD values for the three IRL sublayers were 27.82±4.04 µm, 59.62±6.66 µm and 19.12±3.71 µm. Conclusion This study established normative values for the total retinal thickness and sublayer thickness for the wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, it provides a standard of retinal morphology, in a commonly used animal model, for evaluating therapeutic interventions and retinal disease pathophysiology. PMID:23826252

Ferguson, Lee R.; Dominguez II, James M.; Balaiya, Sankarathi; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kakarla V.

2013-01-01

351

Brain, body, and cognition: Neural, physiological and self-report correlates of phobic and normative fear  

PubMed Central

The phobic fear response appears to resemble an intense form of normal threat responding that can be induced in a nonthreatening situation. However, normative and phobic fear are rarely contrasted directly, thus the degree to which these two types of fear elicit similar neural and bodily responses is not well understood. To examine biological correlates of normal and phobic fear, 21 snake phobic and 21 nonphobic controls saw videos of slithering snakes, attacking snakes and fish in an event-related fMRI design. Simultaneous eletrodermal, pupillary, and self-reported affective responses were collected. Nonphobic fear activated a network of threat-responsive brain regions and involved pupillary dilation, electrodermal response and self-reported affect selective to the attacking snakes. Phobic fear recruited a large array of brain regions including those active in normal fear plus additional structures and also engendered increased pupil dilation, electrodermal and self-reported responses that were greater to any snake versus fish. Importantly, phobics showed greater between- and within-subject concordance among neural, electrodermal, pupillary, and subjective report measures. These results suggest phobic responses recruit overlapping but more strongly activated and more extensive networks of brain activity as compared to normative fear, and are characterized by greater concordance among neural activation, peripheral physiology and self-report. It is yet unclear whether concordance is unique to psychopathology, or rather simply an indicator of the intense fear seen in the phobic response, but these results underscore the importance of synchrony between brain, body, and cognition during the phobic reaction. PMID:24561099

Schaefer, Hillary S.; Larson, Christine L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Coan, James A.

2014-01-01

352

Making Aliens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next few decades, the decisions we make will determine the future of our biosphere and our species. In this context, space exploration will literally answer a question that has preoccupied us ever since we became self-aware: What is going to happen to us? Reaching and inhabiting other planets is often considered an extension of human exploration and occupation of Earth but the analogy is useful only as a metaphor. Whatever the extremes of Earth, we can live almost everywhere on it because we started and evolved here. Given the vagaries of chance in every event of planetmaking, we will never find an Earth twin. To live under strange skies will require courage, ingenuity and stamina ­ but above all, it will require a hard look at our assumptions, including what it means to be human.

Andreadis, A.

353

Automated document analysis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

2002-08-01

354

Computer software documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

Comella, P. A.

1973-01-01

355

Degraded document image enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

2007-01-01

356

Magnetic imaging of currencies and secure documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and transit documents. A solution to forensics is magnetic imaging where invisible magnetic patterns or recorded information can be displayed as an image for comparison with an optical scan. The use of small, highly sensitive detectors enables high resolution scanning of magnetic documents, creating magnetic images with fine detail. Depending on the design of a document, if the magnetic image is identical to the optical image, the document may be a counterfeit. In this paper, we will address the issues related to magnetic scanning of security documents. We will present and discuss magnetic images of documents printed with magnetic inks. We will also show how magnetic imaging can provide valuable information in understanding the alteration of magnetic data in documents such as tickets, licenses with pictures, and holograms.

Jagielinski, Tomasz M.; Chamberlain, Fred

2002-04-01

357

Normative EMG Values during REM Sleep for the Diagnosis of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Correct diagnosis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is important because it can be the first manifestation of a neurodegenerative disease, it may lead to serious injury, and it is a well-treatable disorder. We evaluated the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the Sleep Innsbruck Barcelona (SINBAR) montage (mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum brevis) and other muscles to obtain normative values for the correct diagnosis of RBD for clinical practice. Setting: Two university hospital sleep disorder centers. Participants: Thirty RBD patients (15 idiopathic [iRBD], 15 with Parkinson disease [PD]) and 30 matched controls recruited from patients with effectively treated sleep related breathing disorders. Interventions: Not applicable. Methods and Results: Participants underwent video-polysomnography, including registration of 11 body muscles. Tonic, phasic, and “any” (any type of EMG activity, irrespective of whether it consisted of tonic, phasic or a combination of both) EMG activity was blindly quantified for each muscle. When choosing a specificity of 100%, the 3-sec miniepoch cutoff for a diagnosis of RBD was 18% for “any” EMG activity in the mentalis muscle (area under the curve [AUC] 0.990). Discriminative power was higher in upper limb (100% specificity, AUC 0.987–9.997) than in lower limb muscles (100% specificity, AUC 0.813–0.852). The combination of “any” EMG activity in the mentalis muscle with both phasic flexor digitorum superficialis muscles yielded a cutoff of 32% (AUC 0.998) for patients with iRBD and with PD-RBD. Conclusion: For the diagnosis of iRBD and RBD associated with PD, we recommend a polysomnographic montage quantifying “any” (any type of EMG activity, irrespective of whether it consisted of tonic, phasic or a combination of both) EMG activity in the mentalis muscle and phasic EMG activity in the right and left flexor digitorum superficialis muscles in the upper limbs with a cutoff of 32%, when using 3-sec miniepochs. Citation: Frauscher B; Iranzo A; Gaig C; Gschliesser V; Guaita M; Raffelseder V; Ehrmann L; Sola N; Salamero M; Tolosa E; Poewe W; Santamaria J; Högl B. Normative EMG values during REM sleep for the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(6):835-847. PMID:22654203

Frauscher, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Gaig, Carles; Gschliesser, Viola; Guaita, Marc; Raffelseder, Verena; Ehrmann, Laura; Sola, Nuria; Salamero, Manel; Tolosa, Eduardo; Poewe, Werner; Santamaria, Joan; Högl, Birgit

2012-01-01

358

Wideband reflectance in newborns: Normative regions and relationship to hearing screening results  

PubMed Central

Structured Abstract Objectives To develop normative data for wideband middle-ear reflectance in a newborn hearing-screening population, and to compare test performance with 1-kHz tympanometry for prediction of OAE screening outcome. Design Wideband middle-ear reflectance (using both tone and chirp stimuli over 0.2 to 6 kHz), 1-kHz tympanometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPs) were measured in 324 infants at two test sites. Ears were categorized into DP-pass and DP-refer groups. Results Normative reflectance values were defined over various frequency regions for both tone and chirp stimuli in ambient pressure conditions, and for reflectance area indices (RAIs) integrated over various frequency ranges. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that reflectance provides the best discriminability of DP status in frequency ranges involving 2 kHz, and greater discriminability of DP status than 1-kHz tympanometry. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) established that (a) there were significant differences in reflectance as a function of DP status and frequency, but not sex or ear; (b) tone and chirp stimulus reflectance values are essentially indistinguishable, and (c) newborns from two geographic sites had similar reflectance patterns above 1-kHz. Birth type and weight did not contribute to differences in reflectance. Conclusions Referrals in OAE-based infant hearing screening were strongly associated with increased wideband reflectance, suggesting middle-ear dysfunction at birth. Reflectance improved significantly over the first 4 days after birth with normalization of middle-ear function. Reflectance scores can be achieved within seconds using the same equipment used for OAE screening. Newborns with high reflectance scores at Stage I screening should be rescreened within a few hours to a few days, as most middle-ear problems are transient and resolve spontaneously. If reflectance and OAE are not passed upon Stage II screening, referral to an otologist for ear examination is suggested along with diagnostic testing. Newborns with normal reflectance and a refer result for the OAE screen should be referred immediately to an audiologist for diagnostic testing with threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR) due to higher risk for permanent hearing loss. PMID:20520553

Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Lapsley Miller, Judi A.; Jeng, Patricia S.; Bohning, Susie

2013-01-01

359

Counterfactual reasoning in surrogate decision making -- another look.  

PubMed

Incompetent patients need to have someone else make decisions on their behalf. According to the Substituted Judgment Standard the surrogate decision maker ought to make the decision that the patient would have made, had he or she been competent. Objections have been raised against this traditional construal of the standard on the grounds that it involves flawed counterfactual reasoning, and amendments have been suggested within the framework of possible worlds semantics. The paper shows that while this approach may circumvent the alleged problem, the way it has so far been elaborated reflects insufficient understanding of the moral underpinnings of the idea of substituted judgment. Proper recognition of these moral underpinnings has potentially far-reaching implications for our normative assumptions about accuracy and objectivity in surrogate decision making. PMID:19874290

Johansson, Mats; Broström, Linus

2011-06-01

360

Making the Macintosh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does Apple do it? Visitors who ask themselves that question will certainly want to check out the online exhibit "Making the Macintosh: Technology and Culture in Silicon Valley" that draws heavily on the holdings of Stanford University Library's Department of Special Collections. The layout of the website is simple and well organized with "Archives" that include "Primary Documents", "Images" and "Interviews". The Interviews include designers of the Macintosh and the Lisa mouse, the designer of the Macintosh icons, and a member of an influential Macintosh users group, BMUG. The "Mouse" link under "Images" has several drawings of a mouse most consumers never saw, since initially computers were marketed to government, industry, and universities. The later images show a colorful ad for the Hawley X036X mouse, which has three buttons, from the Mouse House. The Mouse link also contains dozens of interviews, memos and reports of various key players in the development and the promotion of the mouse.

361

The normative environment for substance use among American Indian students and white students attending schools on or near reservations.  

PubMed

American Indian and White students who attended the same schools located on or near reservations were surveyed to determine the comparative normative environment for substance use. Descriptive norms increased and student injunctive norms decreased across grade in school. Female students reported higher levels of descriptive norms compared to male students. For marijuana use, a substantial decrease in student injunctive norms occurred between grades 8 and 10. Adult injunctive norms were perceived by female students to be higher than those perceived by male students, particularly among American Indian females. Somewhat surprisingly, 8th grade White female students reported high descriptive norms for inhalant use compared to 8th grade American Indian students. Overall, however, higher descriptive norms and lower injunctive norms among American Indian youth suggested that their risk for substance use is higher compared to White students because of the normative environment created by peers, family, and other adults. PMID:23889032

Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R; Beauvais, Fred

2013-01-01

362

Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.  

PubMed

The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams. PMID:21895352

Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

2012-03-01

363

Normative foundations of technology transfer and transnational benefit principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.  

PubMed

The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international human rights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application. PMID:19395367

Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

2009-06-01

364

Social and personal normative influences on healthcare professionals to use information technology: Towards a more robust social ergonomics  

PubMed Central

Social structures and processes are increasingly acknowledged and studied within the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) discipline. At the same time, social phenomena are rarely the focus of HFE work, leaving a knowledge gap. The present study directly addresses social and personal normative forces that influence technology use and performance. Social and personal normative influence to use electronic health records (EHR) were investigated using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 attending physicians at two US hospitals. Analyses used a comprehensive framework based on leading social scientific theories and revealed numerous sources of influence, including hospital administration, colleagues, patients, clinical and professional groups, government, and one’s self. Influence was achieved through different means and invoked different psychological processes. Findings motivate a new view of professionals’ technology use as a highly social process occurring in a social context, with implications for research, policy, design, and in general the development of a robust social ergonomics. PMID:23066349

Holden, Richard J

2011-01-01

365

How media campaigns influence children's physical activity: expanding the normative mechanisms of the theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors' model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention and physical activity behavior. Instead, campaign exposure seems more strongly related to perceived behavioral control and attitudes toward physical activity. By contrast, perceived behavioral control and descriptive norms are strongly related to behavioral intention. The findings suggest that integrating normative mechanisms with the theory of planned behavior can improve efforts to predict and explain a health behavior. PMID:22650763

Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Hove, Thomas

2012-01-01

366

Visual Memory in Post-Anterior Right Temporal Lobectomy Patients and Adult Normative Data for the Brown Location Test (BLT)  

PubMed Central

Several large and meta-analytic studies have failed to support a consistent relationship between visual or “nonverbal” memory deficits and right mesial temporal lobe changes. However, the Brown Location Test (BLT) is a recently developed dot location learning and memory test that uses a nonsymmetrical array and provides control over many of the confounding variables (e.g., verbal influence and drawing requirements) inherent in other measures of visual memory. In the present investigation, we evaluated the clinical utility of the BLT in patients who had undergone left or right anterior mesial temporal lobectomies. We also provide adult normative data of 298 healthy adults in order to provide standardized scores. Results revealed significantly worse performance on the BLT in the right as compared to left lobectomy group and the healthy adult normative sample. The present findings support a role for the right anterior-mesial temporal lobe in dot location learning and memory. PMID:20056493

Brown, Franklin C.; Tuttle, Erin; Westerveld, Michael; Ferraro, F. Richard; Chmielowiec, Teresa; Vandemore, Michelle; Gibson-Beverly, Gina; Bemus, Lisa; Roth, Robert M.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Spencer, Dennis D.; Spencer, Susan S

2010-01-01

367

Age-expanded normative data for the Ruff 2&7 Selective Attention Test: Evaluating cognition in older male  

PubMed Central

The Ruff 2&7 Selective Attention Test’s (RSAT) current scoring data are relatively limited for older adults because persons over the age of 70 years were not included in the normative sample. Prior evidence suggests that changes in attention skills, such as those evaluated by the RSAT, may distinguish normal cognitive aging from pathologic cognitive decline. Thus, normative data for older individuals on this measure increases its utility in diagnosing Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia, and enhance its potential use in clinical and research settings. Data from 415 male volunteers (mean age = 69.5 ± 5.7 years) in the PREADViSE clinical trial were used in the current investigation. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) shows statistically significant effects of age, race, and education on RSAT Speed measures. Results indicate that age-expanded norms will provide a more accurate reflection of the typical performance of older individuals on the RSAT. PMID:22651854

Caban-Holt, Allison; Abner, Erin; Kryscio, Richard J.; Crowley, John J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.

2013-01-01

368

Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception. PMID:23409767

Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

2014-03-01

369

A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

2014-01-01

370

The Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data from a large nationally representative sample of Australians.  

PubMed

Data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used to calculate weighted norms for the written version of the Symbol Digits Modalities Test (SDMT) by gender, 5-year age groups and four levels of educational attainment. The sample comprised 14,456 Australians (47% male; age range 15-100), of whom 25% reported a tertiary qualification, 30% reported a technical qualification (diploma or trade certificate), 16% reported completing Year 12 (final year of high school), and 29% reported their highest level of educational attainment to be Year 11 or below. Participants were excluded if they reported physical or neurological conditions that limited performance. Age, gender, and education were all significantly associated with SDMT performance, as was poor health, and cultural background. The reported norms are of greater scope and precision than previously available and have utility in a range of clinical and research settings. Indeed, normative data for the SDMT that are representative of a national population have not previously been published. PMID:25352087

Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter; Watson, Nicole; Wooden, Mark

2014-12-01

371

Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

1993-01-01

372

Normative influences on intentions to smoke among Greek adolescents: the moderating role of smoking status  

PubMed Central

Background Social norms influence adolescent smoking intentions, but this effect may differentiate depending on current smoking experiences. The presented study assessed the moderation effects of smoking status on the relationship between social norms and smoking intentions among Greek adolescents. Methods A cross-section survey-based design was used. Overall, 251 Greek secondary school students (M age?=?16.1 years, 61.2% females) completed structured and anonymous questionnaires including demographic characteristics (age, gender), subjective and descriptive social norms towards smoking, self-reported tobacco use, and intentions to smoke in the next 12 months. Results Linear regression analysis showed that social norms overall predicted 36.4% (Adjusted R2) of the variance in intentions. Perceived prevalence of smoking in same age peers and adults, having more close friends who smoke and perceived social approval of smoking predicted intentions to smoke in one year. Moderated regression analysis showed that the effects of social norms on smoking intentions were significantly moderated by smoking status. Conclusions Social norms predict smoking intentions, but this effect is stronger among ever (than never) smoker adolescents. Adolescents with smoking experiences may selectively attend to pro-smoking social cues and this perpetuates into their motivation to keep up the habit. School-based interventions should target normative beliefs and related cognitive processes, especially among adolescents who have already initiated tobacco use. PMID:24670201

2014-01-01

373

Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.  

PubMed

It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. PMID:25547105

Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

2015-02-01

374

Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

1993-05-01

375

Normative developmental challenges and dieting and eating disturbances in middle school girls.  

PubMed

Three predictions based on Levine and Smolak's (1992) developmental model of dieting and eating disturbances were tested: (1) Changes in pubertal status and/or dating status increase the probability of nonpathological dieting in middle school girls; (2) concurrent change in pubertal status, dating status, and academic stress increases the probability of subclinical eating disturbances in girls with a slender body ideal; and (3) the co-occurrence of modeling cues and direct messages from peers and/or family about the importance of weight, shape, and dieting increases the probability of these effects. Three hundred eighty-two girls were asked about menarcheal status, dating status, and academic stress, as well as attitudes about shape, eating behavior, and perceptions of peer and family pressures for slenderness. Results confirmed several of the predictions, suggesting that the interaction among cumulative developmental changes in early adolescence, adherence to a slender body ideal, and sociocultural pressures for thinness may be useful in distinguishing middle schoolers at risk for subclinical eating disturbances from both girls who do not diet and girls whose dieting is or will be "normative." PMID:8124323

Levine, M P; Smolak, L; Moodey, A F; Shuman, M D; Hessen, L D

1994-01-01

376

The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts  

SciTech Connect

The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-04-01

377

Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three indicators of motor coordination (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, and Balance), the WM Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV and the N-back paradigm provided two indicators of WM, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II provided three indicators of academic achievement (Word Reading, Spelling, and Numerical Operations). Structural equation modeling, controlling for verbal comprehension, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and socioeconomic status, suggested that the association between motor coordination and academic achievement may be best understood in terms of a mechanism whereby motor coordination (specifically, Aiming and Catching skills) has an indirect impact on academic outcomes via WM. These findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of motor coordination and learning difficulties as well as in increasing the understanding of the possible neural mechanisms underpinning the relationship between these areas. PMID:22777140

Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Oosterlaan, Jaap

2012-11-01

378

Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

2013-01-01

379

Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.  

PubMed

Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment. PMID:24558985

Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

2015-01-01

380

Critical neuroscience—or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system. PMID:24904376

Schleim, Stephan

2014-01-01

381

The subjective postural vertical in standing: Reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools. PMID:25522832

Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

2015-04-01

382

Do DSM-5 Eating Disorder Criteria Overpathologize Normative Eating Patterns among Individuals with Obesity?  

PubMed Central

Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (? = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (? = 0.63, 83% agreement). Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV. PMID:25057413

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Murray, Helen B.; Gorman, Mark J.

2014-01-01

383

Reducing Heavy Drinking Among First Year Intercollegiate Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Normative Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy of a web-based personalized normative feedback program targeting heavy drinking in first-year intercollegiate athletes. The program was offered through the Athletic Department first-year seminar at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university. Athletes were randomly assigned to either a web-based feedback group or a comparison condition. Results indicated high-risk athletes receiving the intervention

Diana M. Doumas; Tonya Haustveit; Kenneth M. Coll

2010-01-01

384

Establishing a Standardized Clinical Assessment Tool of Pathologic and Prosthetic Hand Function: Normative Data, Reliability, and Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light CM, Chappell PH, Kyberd PJ. Establishing a standardized clinical assessment tool of pathologic and prosthetic hand function: normative data, reliability, and validity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:776- 83. Objective: To develop a new assessment procedure, the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), that allows contextual results of hand function to be obtained readily in a clinical environment. Design: Reliability (test-retest,

Colin M. Light; Paul H. Chappell; Peter J. Kyberd

2002-01-01

385

Establishing a standardized clinical assessment tool of pathologic and prosthetic hand function: Normative data, reliability, and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light CM, Chappell PH, Kyberd PJ. Establishing a standardized clinical assessment tool of pathologic and prosthetic hand function: normative data, reliability, and validity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:776-83. Objective: To develop a new assessment procedure, the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP), that allows contextual results of hand function to be obtained readily in a clinical environment. Design: Reliability (test-retest, interrater)

Colin M. Light; Paul H. Chappell; Peter J. Kyberd

2002-01-01

386

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

387

Associations between repression, general maladjustment, body weight, and body shape in older males: The normative aging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined relationships between repression, general maladjustment, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).\\u000a The participants were 1,081 healthy older men from the Normative Aging Study. Repression and General Maladjustment Scales\\u000a of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory were composite measures of personality. Repression was associated with\\u000a lower BMI and WHR, and maladjustment with higher BMI and WHR. However, associations

Raymond S. Niaura; Laura R. Stroud; John Todaro; Kenneth D. Ward; Avron Spiro; Carolyn Aldwin; Lewis Landsberg; Scott T. Weiss

2003-01-01

388

The Modified Five-Point Test: normative data for a sample of Italian healthy adults aged 16–60  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Five-Point Test is one of the various measures of figural fluency functions that have been developed as nonverbal analogues\\u000a to word fluency tasks, and used in neuropsychological assessment to evaluate the ability to initiate and sustain mental productivity,\\u000a and to self-monitor and regulate responding in the visual–spatial domain. The aim of the current study was to collect normative\\u000a data

Raffaella Cattelani; Flora Dal Sasso; Delfina Corsini; Lucio Posteraro

2011-01-01

389

Structure and Diagnostic Benefits of a Normative Subtest Taxonomy Developed from the WISC-III Standardization Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and composition of profile types most representative of the 2,200 children (6 years 0 months to 16 years 11 months) comprising the normative sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition (WISC-III) are identified. Profiles from the 10 mandatory WISC-III subtests are sorted according to similar shape and level using multistage cluster analysis with independent replications. The

Timothy R. Konold; Joseph J. Glutting; Paul A. McDermott; Joseph C. Kush; Marley M. Watkins

1999-01-01

390

Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) among South Africans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative

Dinesh Singh; John A Joska; Karl Goodkin; Enrique Lopez; Landon Myer; Robert H Paul; Sally John; Henry Sunpath

2010-01-01

391

The BigCAT: A Normative and Comparative Investigation of the Communication Attitude of Nonstuttering and Stuttering Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to provide normative and comparative data for the BigCAT, the adult form of the Communication Attitude Test, a sub-test of the Behavior Assessment Battery. The BigCAT, a 35-item self-report test of speech-associated attitude was administered to 96 adults who stutter (PWS) and 216 adults who do not (PWNS). The…

Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

2011-01-01

392

Quality of Education and Memory Test Performance in Older Men: The New York University Paragraph Recall Test Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders. One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one’s literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Method Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Results Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. Discussion The current study provides evidence and support for normative data stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education. PMID:23906000

Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C.; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

2014-01-01

393

Whirling Watcher: Make a Stroboscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a stroboscope--a spinning disk with slits around the edge that you look through. Brief but frequent glimpses of images seen through the slits lead to a surprising result, which teaches learners about vision and the human nervous system. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

The Exploratorium

2007-01-01

394

JSC document index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

1988-01-01

395

Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project  

SciTech Connect

As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

1998-09-01

396

How do People Evaluate Electronic Word-Of-Mouth? Informational and Normative Based Determinants of Perceived Credibility of Online Consumer Recommendations in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically examined the informational and normative based determinants of perceived credibility of online consumer recommendations in China. Past literature demonstrated that informational influence is important in affecting reader’s evaluation of incoming information and the effectiveness of a communication. This study extends from the previous Word-of-Mouth studies by including the normative factors. Since online consumer discussion is characterized by

Man Yee CHEUNG; Chuan LUO; Choon Ling SIA; Huaping CHEN

2007-01-01

397

Documents in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Government Documents center provides a Documents in the News page. Taken from official sources, this page has full text documents on such subjects as Yitzhak Rabin's assassination, Bosnia, the Oklahoma City Bombing, the Ebola Virus, the United Nations Conference on Women, the G7 Summit, term limits, and the Unabomber, among many others.

York, Grace Ann.

1999-01-01

398

Automated Management Of Documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

Boy, Guy

1995-01-01

399

Documenting Employee Conduct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

Dalton, Jason

2009-01-01

400

NaF Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaFWord file Contact Paula M. Jacobs, Ph.D., 301-435-9181, jacobsp@mail.nih.gov, for information. Print

401

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

402

Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

403

Starlink Document Styles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

Lawden, M. D.

404

Normative life events and PTSD in children: how easy stress can affect children's brain.  

PubMed

Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children) semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth. PMID:23456584

Kousha, Maryam; Mehdizadeh Tehrani, Shervin

2013-01-01

405

Waterpipe dependence in university students and effect of normative beliefs: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence. Setting A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities. Participants Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria. Primary and secondary outcome measures sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated. Results Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); p<0.001) and ever smoking cigarettes (aOR=1.80(1.44 to 2.26); p<0.001); friends’ and societal influence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (?=?1.09(?1.79 to ?0.28); p<0.001), a behaviour that is considered more deleterious for health. Parents’ and friends’ disagreement with smoking had a protective effect on cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR<1; p<0.01), while thinking that idols and successful people smoke increased the risk of both cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR>1; p<0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, WP smoking and dependence are influenced by parents’ and friends’ opinions, and idols’ smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence. PMID:24531452

Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

2014-01-01

406

Evaluation of orthodontic treatment need by patient-based methods compared with normative method  

PubMed Central

Background: A comprehensive system of assessing orthodontic need requires the integration of normative clinical measures with patient-based indicators. This study sought to discover weather an oral health-related quality of life measure or Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN) could be used as a predictor of orthodontic treatment need. Factors affecting the judgment of patient and dentist about this need are discussed. Materials and Methods: Oral examination on 597 Iranian students between 13 years and 18 years was done to reach the grade of Dental Health Component (DHC). The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and AC-IOTN were recorded. The diagnostic values of subjective tests were assessed. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to investigate the role of variables in the persons’ perceptions. Results: Half of the 570 eligible students did not need orthodontic treatment either on professional or self-assessment; 60% of patients with definite need had a distinct impact on their quality of life. The specificity of AC to detect the healthy persons was excellent (0.99) but its sensitivity was low (0.08). COHIP score gave a better sensitivity but its specificity was 50%. Caries experience, quality of life, father's education, and brushing habits were the factors relating to the same judgment of persons and dentists (P > 0.02). Conclusion: Regarding the discrepancies between two assessment methods, present instruments did not meet the predictor's competencies. The patient-based methods could not substitute the professional assessment, but by identification, the persons with higher impacts would benefit the prioritization process. PMID:24348622

Asgari, Imaneh; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Eslamipour, Faezeh

2013-01-01

407

Towards a more open debate about values in decision-making on agricultural biotechnology.  

PubMed

Regulatory decision-making over the use of products of new technology aims to be based on science-based risk assessment. In some jurisdictions, decision-making about the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants is blocked supposedly because of scientific uncertainty about risks to the environment. However, disagreement about the acceptability of risks is primarily a dispute over normative values, which is not resolvable through natural sciences. Natural sciences may improve the quality and relevance of the scientific information used to support environmental risk assessments and make scientific uncertainties explicit, but offer little to resolve differences about values. Decisions about cultivating GM plants will thus not necessarily be eased by performing more research to reduce scientific uncertainty in environmental risk assessments, but by clarifying the debate over values. We suggest several approaches to reveal values in decision-making: (1) clarifying policy objectives; (2) determining what constitutes environmental harm; (3) making explicit the factual and normative premises on which risk assessments are based; (4) better demarcating environmental risk assessment studies from ecological research; (5) weighing the potential for environmental benefits (i.e., opportunities) as well as the potential for environmental harms (i.e., risks); and (6) expanding participation in the risk governance of GM plants. Recognising and openly debating differences about values will not remove controversy about the cultivation of GM plants. However, by revealing what is truly in dispute, debates about values will clarify decision-making criteria. PMID:24030046

Devos, Yann; Sanvido, Olivier; Tait, Joyce; Raybould, Alan

2014-12-01

408

Tobacco documents research methodology.  

PubMed

Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

2011-05-01

409

Tobacco documents research methodology  

PubMed Central

Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

2011-01-01

410

Toward Parallel Document Clustering  

SciTech Connect

A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

2011-09-01

411

Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy  

PubMed Central

Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18–65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

2012-01-01

412

The Ethics of Life and Death: Advance Directives and End-of-Life Decision Making in Persons with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the ethics of end-of-life decision making for persons who competently execute advance directives and then suffer from dementia. This exploration is informed by a review of the relevant empirical and case law literature and current debate among legal scholars in this area. The analysis emphasizes the importance of (re)examining how moral normative ethical approaches (i.e., deontological, consequentialist,

Emalee Joyce Weidemann

2012-01-01

413

Making a Solar Air Heater Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan teaches students about renewable energy and passive solar heating by creating a solar air heater to heat the classroom. The document includes links to useful YouTube videos which will support the hands-on classroom activity. Making and utilizing the heater should take about two 45 minute class periods. A step by step procedure with illustrations is provided for the lab portion of the lesson. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Orzali, Joe

414

ANOPP programming and documentation standards document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standards defining the requirements for preparing software for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) were given. It is the intent of these standards to provide definition, design, coding, and documentation criteria for the achievement of a unity among ANOPP products. These standards apply to all of ANOPP's standard software system. The standards encompass philosophy as well as techniques and conventions.

1976-01-01

415

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Promoting and facilitating the study of the global impact of World War II, the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIWD) actively encourages consultation of its archives and services -- some of which are accessible online, while others must be consulted in person. With extensive textual and photographic documentation of the war, especially aspects relating to the German occupation of the Netherlands, the NIWD is a fantastic resource for anyone attempting to conduct research on the traumatic impact of world war. Particularly strong in documenting the war as it impacted the Netherlands and its immediate geographic neighbors, the Institute supports research on the mistreatment and deportation of the Jews through meticulously maintained records, the majority of which are in Dutch or German. Aside from presenting lists of its holdings and areas of expertise, the NIWD site also makes available online bibliographies produced by its area scholars and archivists. Lastly, the site also serves as a source of information on associated organizations and their efforts, including forthcoming publications, conferences, and research awards.

416

Zinc supplementation sustained normative neurodevelopment in a randomized, controlled trial of Peruvian infants aged 6-18 months.  

PubMed

A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L; Caulfield, Laura E

2014-08-01

417

Computer Cluster Policy This document contains  

E-print Network

Computer Cluster Policy This document contains: Intent of policy Computer cluster criteria Purchasing a cluster Tagging a cluster Making repairs to existing clusters Expanding and/or upgrading an existing cluster Cluster FAQs Contact Information Intent of policy: The purpose of this policy

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

418

Assessing Effectiveness of Personality Style in Documentation  

E-print Network

of the active voice, lead to actual improvements in effectiveness of documentation. In this paper, we briefly that indicated that users of computers preferred a computer with a personality that was similar to theirs. We would make a difference in the user's performance. Our data suggest did not indicate that personality

Novick, David G.

419

Making Meaningful: Intention in Children's Art Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice…

Malin, Heather

2013-01-01

420

Picturing space for lesbian nonsexualities: rethinking sex-normative commitments through The Kids Are All Right (2010).  

PubMed

This article examines representations of lesbian nonsexuality in the film The Kids Are All Right and in responses to the film by feminist and queer scholars. In some moments, the film offers a limited endorsement of lesbian nonsexuality, placing pressure on the category lesbian to include nonsexuality and asexuality. However, in their responses to the film, many feminist and queer scholars rejected nonsexuality as an aspect of lesbian experience, placing pressure on the category lesbian to exclude nonsexual and asexual women. Asexual activism challenges scholars to question their sex-normative commitments and to keep the category lesbian open and flexible. PMID:23316844

Gupta, Kristina

2013-01-01

421

Tobacco Industry Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced by US Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Donna E. Shalala on November 18, the day of the Great American Smokeout, this important new site will allow the public, for the first time, to conduct searches of key tobacco industry documents "made public by state lawsuits, congressional subpoenas, and the November 1998 master settlement agreement." The site is composed of four major sections. The most relevant of these for general users is the Minnesota Select Set, a full-text, searchable database with about 350,000 pages of viewable documents selected by Minnesota lawyers as key to the state's trial. Second is the searchable citation index, or the 4B Index. The 4B Index represents approximately 4 million documents, totalling 27 million pages, that are stored at the Minnesota Depository. Users may submit requests online or by fax for hard copies. Some of the cited documents may also be found via the collection of annotated links to sites that hold tobacco industry documents, most of which are maintained by the various tobacco companies and are supposed to mirror the documents in the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository, according to the Master Settlement Agreement. Background and search tips are provided to help users navigate these sites. The fourth major section is a collection of approximately 7,000 selected British American Tobacco Company documents from Guildford, England, which are stored in Minnesota as part of the Minnesota Select Set and may be viewed online.

422

IDC System Specification Document.  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

Clifford, David J.

2014-12-01

423

Electronic Document Supply Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

Cawkell, A. E.

1991-01-01

424

NASA Software Documentation Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

1991-01-01

425

Electronic Document Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Houston Public Library provides Electronic Document Delivery through Uncover, Magazine Index, and Business Index at the Central Library and the regional branches, as well as to remote users. Patrons use their credit cards to pay any charges. Documents can be printed out from the terminals or sent to the user's fax machine. Though the service is popular, use has

Gene Rollins

1996-01-01

426

Tobacco document research reporting  

PubMed Central

Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

Carter, S

2005-01-01

427

Environmental Policy Document Ref  

E-print Network

Document Environmental Policy Document Ref EMS.POL.001 Last Revision March 2013 Revision No 5 Page 1 of 1 Environmental Policy Through teaching and research the University of the West of England should be managed so as to minimise environmental harm. This policy commits the University of the West

Aickelin, Uwe

428

Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

2014-01-01

429

Legacy Tobacco Documents Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California, San Francisco Library and the American Legacy Foundation recently released the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL), a collection of more than 20 million previously private documents from tobacco industry files. Ranging from approximately the 1950s to recent years, LTDL offers searching, viewing, and downloading of documents, covering projects central to the tobacco industry like marketing, research and development, cigarette analysis and design, as well as industry efforts to establish business in developing countries. Within the next 18 months, more documents will be added to the already extensive collection. Currently, viewers may perform simple or advanced searches; view documents in Adobe Reader format (.pdf) or tagged image file format (.tif); or for a quick look, utilize the page-by-page option to view .gif images within the browser.

430

Documents to the People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University has a number of worthy digital collections, and this particular archive will be of special interest to students of library and information science. The collection contains issues of the journal "DttP: Documents to the People" from 1972 to 2002. Drawn from the print holdings of the Stanford University Libraries, the journal documents both the organizational history of the Government Documents Round Table of the American Library Association and the emergence of the government documents specialization within the field of librarianship. Various items document the transition from a print- to a digital-publishing environment, and still others focus on barriers to citizen access to public information in the United States. Visitors can perform a simple search across these volumes, or also browse the collection by year.

431

Nurses’ perceptions of normative and nonnormative clinical codes for critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of the treatment of patients who are in severe medical distress. A code refers to the designation that stands for the range of treatments that the patient will be given. Code blue involves the full range of medical treatment to prevent death. No code involves denial of life?extending treatments. Previous research has documented that social factors

Louis H. Levy; Laurie J. Taylor

1995-01-01

432

The American Muslim Dilemma: Christian Normativity, Racialization, And Anti-Muslim Backlash  

E-print Network

........................................ 26 The Myth of the Dormant Muslim Terrorist .................................. 31 The Myth of the Black Rapist ..................................................... 31 A Predisposition to Terrorism... students in order to document their experiences as individuals and the collective experiences of the community they are apart of. I will also use archival research dealing with the nature of domestic terrorism in the U.S. and the current socio- political...

Kamran, Omar

2012-10-19

433

Documentation: No Substitute for Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

Strickland, John

2005-01-01

434

A robust segmentation of scanned documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image quality of reprinted documents that were scanned at a high resolution may not satisfy human viewers who anticipate at least the same image quality as the original document. Moiré artifacts without proper descreening, text blurred by the poor scanner modulation transfer function (MTF), and color distortion resulting from misclassification between color and gray may make the reprint quality worse. To remedy these shortcomings from reprinting, the documents should be classified into various attributes such as image or text, edge or non-edge, continuous-tone or halftone, color or gray, and so on. The improvement of the reprint quality could be achieved by applying proper enhancement with these attributes. In this paper, we introduce a robust and effective approach to classify scanned documents into the attributes of each pixel. The proposed document segmentation algorithm utilizes simple features such as variance-to-mean (VMR), gradient, etc in various combinations of sizes and positions of a processing kernel. We also exploit each direction of gradients in the multiple positions of the same kernel to detect as small as 4-point text. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs well over various types of the scanned documents including the documents that were printed in a resolution of low lines per inch (LPI).

Park, Hyung Jun; Yi, Ji Young

2015-01-01

435

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2010-04-01

436

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2011-04-01

437

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2012-04-01

438

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2011-04-01

439

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2013-04-01

440

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2013-04-01

441

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2012-04-01

442

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2014-04-01

443

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2014-04-01

444

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2010-04-01

445

A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.  

PubMed

Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. PMID:25366676

Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

2015-02-01

446

Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms  

PubMed Central

The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items are now outdated and parallel forms of the test do not exist to allow cognitive estimation abilities to be assessed on more than one occasion. In the present study, we devised two new 9-item parallel forms of the CET. These versions were administered to 184 healthy male and female participants aged 18–79 years with 9–22 years of education. Increasing age and years of education were found to be associated with successful CET performance as well as gender, intellect, naming, arithmetic and semantic memory abilities. To validate that the parallel forms of the CET were sensitive to frontal lobe damage, both versions were administered to 24 patients with frontal lobe lesions and 48 age-, gender- and education-matched controls. The frontal patients’ error scores were significantly higher than the healthy controls on both versions of the task. This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects. PMID:24671170

MacPherson, Sarah E.; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

2014-01-01

447

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN. EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes current scientific information regarding the health and environmental effects of epichlorohydrin. The observed effects, as presented herein, constitute the health basis from which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will make a decision whether to li...

448

Electronic marking and identification techniques to discourage document copying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern computer networks make it possible to distribute documents quickly and economically by electronic means rather than by conventional paper means. However, the widespread adoption of electronic distribution of copyrighted material is currently impeded by the ease of illicit copying and dissemination. The authors propose techniques that discourage illicit distribution by embedding each document with a unique codeword. The encoding

J. Brassil; S. Low; N. Maxemchuk; L. O'Gorman

1994-01-01

449

Restrictive clustering and metaclustering for self-organizing document collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of automatically structuring heterogenous document collections by using clustering methods. In contrast to traditional clustering, we study restrictive methods and ensemble-based meta methods that may decide to leave out some documents rather than assigning them to inappropriate clusters with low confidence. These techniques result in higher cluster purity, better overall accuracy, and make unsupervised self-organization

Stefan Siersdorfer; Sergej Sizov

2004-01-01

450

Software Document Inventory Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

Merwarth, P. D.

1984-01-01

451

Geochemistry Technical Basis Document  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

2004-03-18

452

Taiwan Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed and maintained by Y.C. Chi, this site hosts a large collection of full text documents relating to Taiwan's international relations, history, and legal status. These include treaties dating from 1662 to 1978, documents from World War II, Joint Communiques with Japan and the US, Taiwan-related US legislative activity, and UN documents, among others. The site also features two essays by the site author: an executive summary of international agreements affecting Taiwan's status and a discussion on sovereignty. A number of short pieces on non-legal considerations about the status of Taiwan are planned for the near future. While scholars and others involved on either side of the debate on Taiwan's status may not agree with the site author's views, the original full text documents speak for themselves.

Chi, Y.C.

453

The Manhattan Project Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the establishment of a secret program?which came to be known as the Manhattan Project?to develop an atomic bomb, a powerful explosive nuclear weapon. Principal documents include: ?The Quebec Agreement,? The Roosevelt-Churchill "Tube Alloys" Deal, Interim Committee's Report, ?Report of the Committee on Political and Social Problems (The Franck Report), and ?Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (The Smyth Report).?

Christopher Griffith

454

Sense and Significance: A Mixed Methods Examination of Meaning Making After the Loss of One’s Child  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify specific themes of meaning making (sense making and benefit finding) among bereaved parents, as well as to examine associations of these themes to the severity of grief symptomatology. A sample of 156 bereaved parents responded in writing to open-ended questions about sense making and benefit finding. We assessed normative grief symptoms with the Core Bereavement Items (Burnett, Middleton, Raphael, & Martinek, 1997) and maladaptive grief symptoms with the Inventory of Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al., 1995). Qualitative analyses revealed 45% of the sample could not make sense of their loss, and 21% could not identify benefits related to their loss experience. These parents had more severe normative and maladaptive grief symptoms. Overall, parents discussed 32 distinct approaches to finding meaning in their child’s death, 14 of which involved sense making, and 18 involved themes of benefit finding. The most common sense-making themes involved spirituality and religious beliefs, and the most common benefit-finding themes entailed an increase in the desire to help and compassion for others’ suffering. These results further reinforce the importance of meaning making for many bereaved parents and suggest the utility of developing and evaluating meaning-centered grief interventions with this population. PMID:20527057

Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Currier, Joseph M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Keesee, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

455

Making Connections: Intentional Teaching for Integrative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume the authors document examples of programmes/courses/activities that are designed intentionally to build students' capacity to be integrative thinkers and learners. In doing so they try to analyse and name the learning that is taking place, and so make it visible to the reader. The work is intended as a resource for all those…

Higgs, Bettie, Ed.; Kilcommins, Shane, Ed.; Ryan, Tony, Ed.

2010-01-01

456

Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

Hourcle, Joseph

2014-06-01

457

Swiss Diplomatic Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Swiss Diplomatic Documents, a site maintained by the Swiss Federal Archives, provides public access to documents on Swiss foreign policy and international relations. This site contains two valuable information resources: the DoDiS database and a comprehensive bibliography. The DoDiS (Diplomatische Dokumente der Schweiz, or Documents Diplomatiques Suisses) database currently includes entries on over 2,000 foreign policy documents, 6,000 persons, 7,000 organizations, and 1,650 geographical terms. The database also contains international agreements, federal laws, and decisions of the Federal Council and of the Federal Assembly. DoDiS is searchable and provides detailed bibliographic data for each entry. Recently about one-fourth of the documents have also been made available in a full-text format (.pdf). The other significant resource at this site is a bibliography on Swiss international relations and foreign policy from 1945 to the present. The extensive bibliography is organized by subject and includes references in German, French, and English.

458

"That Teacher Takes Everything Badly": Discursively Reframing Non-Normative Behaviors in Therapy Sessions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While some scholars have emphasized the culturally contingent nature of disabilities, far less research has attended to the situated and discursive contexts within which those with disabilities and their communities make relevant their own understandings and representations of disability. Drawing from a larger ethnographic study, in this article…

Lester, Jessica Nina; Paulus, Trena M.

2014-01-01

459

An Architecture of a Normative System Counts-as Conditionals, Obligations and Permissions  

E-print Network

, to properties instead of houses and fields. This more natural and economical way to model the relation between- ing chess is constituted by action in accordance with these Permission to make digital or hard copies. The institutions of marriage, money, and promising are like the institutions of baseball and chess

van der Torre, Leon

460

Draft Chapter for Handbook on Logic of Normative Title: The Formalization of Practical Reasoning  

E-print Network

to do. We do it all the time. Any day in our life will provide us with hundreds of examples of thinking for reconciling these preferences. Example 2. Deciding what move to make in a chess game. 2 #12;In chess positions. In tournament chess, deliberation time is limited. These somewhat artificial constraints combine

Thomason, Richmond H.

461

iDocument: How Smartphones and Tablets Are Changing Documentation in Preschool and Primary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make

Parnell, Will; Bartlett, Jackie

2012-01-01

462

Computer integrated documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

Boy, Guy

1991-01-01

463

Hazard baseline documentation  

SciTech Connect

This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

Not Available

1994-08-01

464

"That's not what we do": evidence that normative change is a mechanism of action in group interventions.  

PubMed

Group interventions for mental health have proved very effective, but there is little consensus on their mechanism of action. In the present study, we posit that normative change is a plausible mechanism and provide a test of this in an eating disorder prevention group program. Participants were 112 women aged 15-25 years with body, shape or weight concerns who completed five questionnaires across the four session group-based intervention. Results indicated that participants experienced a significant reduction in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and dieting intentions across the course of the program. These decrements were preceded by changes in group norms. Changes in both descriptive norms and injunctive norms in the first half of the program predicted improvement in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and dieting intentions in the second half. Implications for theoretical models of attitude change are discussed, as well as implications for group interventions more generally. PMID:25544661

Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Fox, Nicole E; McMahon, Hayley

2015-02-01

465

Normative data on nasalance scores for Swedish as measured on the Nasometer: influence of dialect, gender, and age.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer(trade mark) II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were calculated and compared. There were no significant differences due to dialect or gender for children in the study. For age there was a significant difference on nasal sentences between the youngest group of children and the other two groups, age 4-5 vs age 6-7 (t = -2.844, p = .006) and for age 4-5 vs age 9-11 (t = -2.888, p = .005). The results from this study have both clinical significance for Swedish SLPs working with resonance disorders, and theoretical significance for linguists studying features of dialects and languages. PMID:19148813

Brunnegård, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

2009-01-01

466

Sociometric status of child inpatients in clinical and normative peer groups: is peer status in a clinical setting a useful measure of adjustment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether peer sociometric status, a powerful indicator of social maladjustment and psychological risk in normative peer groups, is a meaningful indicator of adjustment when assessed in clinical settings. In Study 1, 92 child psychiatric inpatients participated in unit-based sociometric assessments. Depression, anxiety, hopelessness, self-esteem, and behavioral disturbance were also assessed. Overall, inpatient peer status was related to

Audrey L. Zakriski; Mitchell J. Prinstein

2001-01-01

467

"i h8 u": The Influence of Normative Beliefs and Hostile Response Selection in Predicting Adolescents' Mobile Phone Aggression--A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobile phone aggression (MPA) is a relatively new phenomenon. Using newly developed measures, a pilot study was conducted with 348 adolescents ages 13-17 years to determine the incidence of MPA and victimization in this group of adolescents and to test a proposed model in which hostile response selection mediated the relationship between normative

Nicol, Annemarie; Fleming, Michele J.

2010-01-01

468

Are Academics in Kazakhstan Capable of Self-Regulation? A Study of Faculty's Normative Structure in the Midst of Higher Education Decentralization Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the state and structure of professional norms in the context of undergraduate teaching in a university in Kazakhstan. The purpose is to understand the belief system held by academics with regards to their professional duties in the context of teaching. Evidence of such normative structure would suggest that the Kazakhstani…

Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.; Caboni, Timothy C.

2012-01-01

469

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

2009-01-01

470

The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

2006-01-01

471

California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

2011-01-01

472

Documents in Military History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

473

Customer Communication Document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

2009-01-01

474

Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

1993-01-01

475

RCT of Web-based Personalized Normative Feedback for College Drinking Prevention: Are Typical Student Norms Good Enough?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are generally effective at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing risky alcohol consumption among college students. However, research has yet to establish what level of reference group specificity is most efficacious in delivering PNF. This study compared the efficacy of a web-based PNF intervention employing eight increasingly-specific reference groups against a Web-BASICS intervention and a repeated-assessment control in reducing risky drinking and associated consequences. Method Participants were 1663 heavy drinking Caucasian and Asian undergraduates at two universities. The referent for web-based PNF was either the typical same-campus student, or a same-campus student at one (either gender, race, or Greek-affiliation), or a combination of two (e.g., gender and race), or all three levels of specificity (i.e., gender, race, and Greek-affiliation). Hypotheses were tested using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models fit by generalized estimating equations. Results The PNF intervention participants showed modest reductions in all four outcomes (average total drinks, peak drinking, drinking days, and drinking consequences) compared to control participants. No significant differences in drinking outcomes were found between the PNF group as a whole and the Web-BASICS group. Among the eight PNF conditions, participants receiving typical student PNF demonstrated greater reductions in all four outcomes compared to those receiving PNF for more specific reference groups. Perceived drinking norms and discrepancies between individual behavior and actual norms mediated the efficacy of the intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest a web-based PNF intervention using the typical student referent offers a parsimonious approach to reducing problematic alcohol use outcomes among college students. PMID:23937346

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Zheng, Cheng; R. Kenney, Shannon; Napper, Lucy E.; Walter, Theresa; Kilmer, Jason R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Grossbard, Joel; Ghaidarov, Tehniat M.; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

2014-01-01

476

Swarm Intelligence in Text Document Clustering  

SciTech Connect

Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior. The research field that attempts to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices inspired by the collective behavior of social insect colonies is called Swarm Intelligence. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the swarm algorithms are usually flexible, robust, decentralized and self-organized. These characters make the swarm algorithms suitable for solving complex problems, such as document collection clustering. The major challenge of today's information society is being overwhelmed with information on any topic they are searching for. Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in helping users to effectively navigate, summarize, and organize the overwhelmed information. In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. These clustering algorithms use stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks, fish schools and ant food forage.

Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2008-01-01

477

SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

Kleine, H.

1994-01-01

478

EROD Candidate Assessment Portfolio EVALUATION REPORT FOR OBSERVATIONS and DOCUMENTS  

E-print Network

EROD Candidate Assessment Portfolio EVALUATION REPORT FOR OBSERVATIONS and DOCUMENTS Directions: We/advisors, and candidates. Use the 12 teaching performance expectations spaces for brief specific descriptions of candidate to the candidate and make a copy for your records. The candidate will make copies for the (1) Placement Office

479

Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

Liu, Changzheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-08-01

480

Ocean Literacy Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted documents include 1) 2 pdf files that align key ocean concepts to National & California Science Standards, 2) the report from the first workshop on Public Ocean Literacy, and 3) an annotated bibliography of ocean related books for the K-12 audience.

481

ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document  

E-print Network

ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document JANUARY 2006 Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term #12;Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long term #12;OUR ENERGY CHALLENGE ­ SECURING CLEAN, AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR THE LONG TERM ii Why is the government

482

Documents on Disarmament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

483

CAPITAL ASSET DOCUMENT TRAINING  

E-print Network

current location, status, and user. Authorized by the APO to manage capital asset equipment within · Assigning and managing tasks associated with the equipment · Familiar with the operation and functionKUALI CAPITAL ASSET MANAGEMENT DOCUMENT TRAINING Business and Financial Services, Property

484

SLADOC: SLATEC documentation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

SLADOC is an interactive program which provides on-line documentation for SLATEC routines. SLATEC is a public domain library of over 1000 mathematical routines initiated by a technical exchange committee of the New Mexico Laboratories of Sandia, Los Alamos, and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The routines in SLATEC solve problems in linear algebra, solve differential equations and least square problems,

B. Helland; N. Imani

1987-01-01

485

Slovakia Document Store  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Slovakia Document Store: clickable map of Slovakia containing over 100 pictures of Slovak country, map of the capital and other large cities, history, political system, political parties. Also includes Information for people traveling to Slovakia, like currency, exchange rates, location of ATM (bankomats), small English-Slovak dictionary for tourists, e-mail and other Internet services, much more.

486

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

487

Using Primary Source Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

Mintz, Steven

2003-01-01

488

Historical Documents and Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section features a collection of some of the documents and reports that have shaped the atomic age. Categories include: The Nuclear Age Begins, The Manhattan Project, The Trinity Test, The Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Developing the Hydrogen Bomb, The Oppenheimer Affair, Cuban Missile Crisis, Arms Control, Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation, and Missile Defense.

Christopher Griffith

489

Cuban Missile Crisis Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 15, 1962, the Soviet Union was discovered attempting to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. These missiles would have been capable of quickly reaching the United States. President Kennedy responded with a naval blockade. After several days of increasing tensions, the Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles.

Christopher Griffith

490

Document Map Introduction  

E-print Network

Psychotherapist; Directorof Health & Recovery, St Mungo's; Directorof Homeless HealthcareCIC SPY Design Service for people who are homeless or vulnerably housed 62 Appendix 64 #12;Document Map Introduction amongst rough sleepers and young homeless people. There is growing evidence of the extent and range

Quartly, Graham

491

Document filtering with inference networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although statistical retrieval models are now acceptedwidely, there has been little research on how to adapt themto the demands of high speed document filtering. The problemsof document retrieval and document filtering are similarat an abstract level, but the architectures required, theoptimizations that are possible, and the quality of the informationavailable, are all different.This paper describes a new statistical document filteringsystem

James P. Callan

1996-01-01

492

Collaborative document production using quilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quilt is a computer-based tool for collaborative document production. It provides annotation, messaging, computer conferencing, and notification facilities to support communication and information sharing among the collaborators on a document. Views of a document tailored to individual collaborators or to other of the document's users are provided by Quilt based on the user's position in a permission hierarchy that reflects

Mary Diane Palmer Leland; Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut

1988-01-01

493

What Makes the Fizz?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity to answer the question, "What makes soda pop fizz?". Lists necessary materials and describes the procedure for making soda pop. Discusses the fermentation process and how it occurs. (NB)

Shimkanin, John

1995-01-01

494

Aging and decision making   

E-print Network

The study sought to clarify the effects of aging in regard to decision making abilities. Decision making is dependent upon the Frontal Cortex structures; the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. These structures are thought...

Miller, Sophie

2010-06-30

495

Make a Topographic Map!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides instructions for students to make their own model mountain and then make a topographic map of the model. Materials and procedure are explained so younger students can follow the direction with minimum supervision.

496

Making Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes are considered for making materials for medical purposes (filling bone cavities). Methods are surveyed for making materials for osteoplastic treatment such as bioactive glasses, glass ceramics, biological or synthetic hydroxyapatite, and composites based on them.

Liana A. Ivanchenko; Nataliya D. Pinchuk

2003-01-01

497

Technical approach document  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1989-12-01

498

I: Making Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

2014-01-01

499

What Makes Me Sneeze?  

MedlinePLUS

... System How the Body Works Main Page What Makes Me Sneeze? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What Makes Me Sneeze? Print A A A Text Size ... diaphragm (the large muscle beneath your lungs that makes you breathe), the muscles that control your vocal ...

500

Make a Speaker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how an electromagnet works by making a simple one. Using this knowledge, students will design a diagram to make a working speaker using household materials. Then students will follow instructions on one method of making a speaker, and test their own designs to compare results.