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1

Documentation: Making Assessment Visible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the power and potential of documentation as a effective strategy to make visible the assessment processes in early childhood special education programs. The use of documentation for assessing the progress of two children is described and guidelines are provided for producing documentation panels. (Contains references.) (CR)

Cooney, Margaret H.; Buchanan, Michelle

2001-01-01

2

Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories. PMID:24215467

Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

2014-01-01

3

Trail making test: normative values from 287 normal adult controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trail Making Test (TMT), which explores visual-conceptual and visual-motor tracking, is a frequently used neuropsychological test because of its ease of administration and sensitivity to brain damage. In this paper, norms are provided for the time scores derived from parts A and B, and for the (B-A) difference. The data were collected from 287 adult Italian subjects stratified by

A. R. Giovagnoli; M. Del Pesce; S. Mascheroni; M. Simoncelli; M. Laiacona; E. Capitani

1996-01-01

4

Trail making test: normative values from 287 normal adult controls.  

PubMed

The Trail Making Test (TMT), which explores visual-conceptual and visual-motor tracking, is a frequently used neuropsychological test because of its ease of administration and sensitivity to brain damage. In this paper, norms are provided for the time scores derived from parts A and B, and for the (B-A) difference. The data were collected from 287 adult Italian subjects stratified by gender, schooling and age (from 20 to 79 years). The test scores were affected by age, education and general intelligence (as expressed by Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices). Only for part A did females have longer time scores than males. Test-retest reliability was high for each score. PMID:8915764

Giovagnoli, A R; Del Pesce, M; Mascheroni, S; Simoncelli, M; Laiacona, M; Capitani, E

1996-08-01

5

Normative data on trail making test for neurologically normal, Chinese-speaking adults.  

PubMed

This study presents normative data on the Trail Making Test Part A and the Chinese version of the Trail Making Test Part B (C-Trails B). The ages of the 110 participants ranged from 21 to 75 (M = 48, SD = 14.7) and years of education from 1 to 20 (M = 12, SD = 5). No gender effects were found on the test scores; however, age and education were significantly associated with scores on both Trails A (p < .01) and C-Trails B (p < .01). Results also suggest a high correlation (Pearson r = .69) between C-Trails B and the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. In light of our earlier study, this finding provides further evidence that C-Trails B may be equivalent to the standard Trails B. Findings also demonstrate a need for norms adjusted for both age and education for adults whose primary language is Chinese. PMID:12665458

Lu, Lei; Bigler, Erin D

2002-01-01

6

''Leaky'' Rationality How Research on Behavioral Decision Making Challenges Normative Standards of Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 30 years, decision-making re- search has documented that people often violate various principles of rationality, some of which are so fundamental that theorists of rationality rarely bother to state them. We take these characteristics of decision making as a given but argue that it is problematic to conclude that they typically represent departures from rationality. The very

Daniel J. Keys; Barry Schwartz

7

Making the EU "risk window" transparent: the normative foundations of the environmental risk assessment of GMOs.  

PubMed

In Europe, there seems to be widespread, morally based scepticism about the use of GMOs in food production. In response to this scepticism, the revised EU directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms stresses the importance of respecting ethical principles recognized in the Member States. However, the directive fails to reflect the critical role of value judgements in scientific risk assessment and any subsequent approval procedure. In this paper we argue that it is important to make all ethically relevant assumptions involved in the approval procedure transparent and thus available for public scrutiny. Mapping the value judgements that are made in an environmental risk assessment and approval procedure, we describe the political liberal nature of the EU legislation. We then look more closely at the prescriptions for environmental risk assessment and approval of GMOs outlined in the directive. An environmental risk assessment views the world through a "risk window" that only makes visible that which has been predefined as a relevant risk. The importance of the value judgements that define the risk window consists in limiting the information the risk assessment can provide. In the penultimate section of the paper, the significance of the risk window is demonstrated through a case study of the approval of glyphosate resistant fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) in Denmark. PMID:15612414

Jensen, Karsten Klint; Gamborg, Christian; Madsen, Kathrine Hauge; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger; von Krauss, Martin Krayer; Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandøe, Peter

2003-01-01

8

Neural signatures of fairness-related normative decision making in the ultimatum game: A coordinate-based meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The willingness to incur personal costs to enforce prosocial norms represents a hallmark of human civilization. Although recent neuroscience studies have used the ultimatum game to understand the neuropsychological mechanisms that underlie the enforcement of fairness norms; however, a precise characterization of the neural systems underlying fairness-related norm enforcement remains elusive. In this study, we used a coordinate-based meta-analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the ultimatum game with the goal to provide an additional level of evidence for the refinement of the underlying neural architecture of this human puzzling behavior. Our results demonstrated a convergence of reported activation foci in brain networks associated with psychological components of fairness-related normative decision making, presumably reflecting a reflexive and intuitive system (System 1) and a reflective and deliberate system (System 2). System 1 (anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex [PFC]) may be associated with the reflexive and intuitive responses to norm violations, representing a motivation to punish norm violators. Those intuitive responses conflict with economic self-interest, encoded in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may engage cognitive control from a reflective and deliberate System 2 to resolve the conflict by either suppressing (ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, left dorsolateral PFC, and rostral ACC) the intuitive responses or over-riding self-interest (right dorsolateral PFC). Taken together, we suggest that fairness-related norm enforcement recruits an intuitive system for rapid evaluation of norm violations and a deliberate system for integrating both social norms and self-interest to regulate the intuitive system in favor of more flexible decision making. Hum Brain Mapp 36:591-602, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25327760

Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

2015-02-01

9

Decentralized Decision Making Process for Document Server Networks  

E-print Network

Decentralized Decision Making Process for Document Server Networks Aur´elie Beynier Abdel@info.unicaen.fr Abstract-- A peer-to-peer server network system consists of a large number of autonomous servers logically connected in a peer-to-peer way where each server maintains a collection of documents. When a query

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Education for Sustainable Development and Normativity: A Transactional Analysis of Moral Meaning-Making and Companion Meanings in Classroom Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present article is to present and illustrate two different ways of analysing the normativity and discursivity of classroom communication during education for sustainable development (ESD). The two types of analysis can provide important knowledge for discussions of ESD in relation to morals and democracy. Both methods are based…

Ostman, Leif

2010-01-01

11

NATURALISTIC EPISTEMOLOGIES AND NORMATIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this paper is to investigate what becomes of normativity in naturalistic epistemologies. What particular stand a given naturalistic epistemology takes on normativity will depend both on what it thinks is wrong with traditional epistemology and on what level of normativity is at stake. I propose a tentative typology of possible attitudes towards normativity from within naturalistic

Elisabeth PACHERIE

12

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2010-01-01

13

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2011-01-01

14

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2014-01-01

15

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2012-01-01

16

12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408...actually considered in Agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2013-01-01

17

Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity  

E-print Network

Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity «Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity, 2002 Naturalistic Epistemologies and Normativity ELISABETH PACHERIE CNRS ­ Institut Jean Nicod, Paris The main aim of this paper is to investigate what becomes of normativity in naturalistic epistemologies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Notable Government Documents 2001: What a Difference a Year Makes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of notable government documents published in 2001 and lists agencies and distributors for federal, state and local, and international documents. Discusses changes in U.S. government publications since the September 11 terrorist attacks, including agencies shutting down their Web sites, requests to destroy materials, and…

Jobe, Margaret M.

2002-01-01

19

Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: Norms for Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Animal Naming, Token Test, Wrat-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data for older African Americans are presented for several clinical neuropsychological measures, including Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, Category Fluency, Token Test, WRAT-3 Reading, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Judgment of Line Orientation. Age-adjusted norms were derived from a sample of 309 cognitively normal, community-dwelling individuals, aged 56 through 94, participating in Mayo's

John A. Lucas; Robert J. Ivnik; Glenn E. Smith; Tanis J. Ferman; Floyd B. Willis; Ronald C. Petersen; Neill R. Graff-Radford

2005-01-01

20

Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs - Duration: 21:21.  

NASA Video Gallery

Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

21

ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Documents Accessible. Microsoft Word 2003  

Cancer.gov

June 2012 ADA Section 508: Making Electronic Doc?ments Accessible Microsof? Word 2003 Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 state that the government’s electronic information must be

22

Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

Oaksford, Mike

2014-01-01

23

LegalTransformA Framework for making legal documents accessible to humans  

E-print Network

LegalTransformA Framework for making legal documents accessible to humans Emerson Murphy Hill, The Evergreen State College #12;In this day and age, we are required to understand legal documents. #12;Credit card agreements, local, state, and federal laws, mortgage agreements, child custody contracts, divorce

Murphy-Hill, Emerson

24

Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable…

Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

2015-01-01

25

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2012-10-01

26

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2014-10-01

27

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2011-10-01

28

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2013-10-01

29

50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530...actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the...environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these...

2010-10-01

30

Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

31

Can Participation in Documentation Influence Experiences of Involvement in Care Decision-Making?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Patients have the right to influence the care they receive, but their wish to participate in care decision-making is unclear. Aim: This study investigates whether participation in nursing documentation influences patient participation in care decision-making, mastery, self-esteem, empowerment and depressive feelings among adult in-patients with chronic disease. Materials and Methodology: Adult patients (n=39) with chronic diseases were randomized. The intervention group participated in nursing documentation. Upon departure, patients filled in questionnaires about participation in care decision-making, mastery, self-esteem, empowerment and depressive feelings. Results: The majority of the patients preferred a collaborative or passive role regarding care decision-making. Lack of knowledge was one reason for non-participation. Having been diagnosed more than five years previously meant stronger empowerment. Conclusion: It is a challenge for nurses to find strategies to assess patients’ wishes regarding participation in care decision-making. Nurses must support patients’ knowledge of their disease and empowerment. PMID:23802031

Vestala, Hanna; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman

2013-01-01

32

Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) Phase II: 930 New Normative Photos  

PubMed Central

Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

2014-01-01

33

Documentation  

E-print Network

Documentation - DRAFT 25 May 2011 - title: tiger2/> Documentation doc version: Draft-mail: tiger2@lists.hu-berlin.de homepage: http://korpling.german.hu-berlin.de/tiger2/ inria-00593903,version2-25May2011 #12;Preamble 1 Preamble tiger2/> is an XML format serializing the ISO meta

Boyer, Edmond

34

Formal Specification of Security Requirements using the Theory of Normative Positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a number of the examples presented in [Ting 1990] to illustrate how the formal theory of normative positions may serve as a tool for clarifying, and making precise, the specification of security requirements, particularly in regard to access control. We describe the basic features of the theory of normative positions (which has its roots in the analytical theory

Andrew J. I. Jones; Marek J. Sergot

1992-01-01

35

Imprecision in normative domains  

E-print Network

Being rational and being moral can be difficult. However, some theories of rationality and morality make living up to these ideals too difficult by imposing requirements which are excessively rigid. In this dissertation, ...

Schoenfield, Miriam

2012-01-01

36

Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

37

Navigating the Normative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

Hlebowitsh, Peter

2009-01-01

38

Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews theories of subjective expected utility for decision making under uncertainty. It focuses on normative interpretations and discusses the primitives, axioms and representation-uniqueness theorems for a number of theories. Similarities and differences among the various theories are highlighted. The interplay between realistic decision structures and structural axioms that facilitate mathematical derivations is also emphasized.

Peter C. Fishburn

1981-01-01

39

Normative Systems in Computer Science Ten Guidelines for Normative Multiagent Systems  

E-print Network

Normative Systems in Computer Science Ten Guidelines for Normative Multiagent Systems Guido Boella1 and discuss ten guidelines for the use of normative systems in computer science. We adopt a multiagent sys social-cognitive computer science concepts. 1 Introduction Normative systems are "systems in the behavior

van der Torre, Leon

40

36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...also must follow our microfilm handling instructions in § 1254.42. (g) You may use a hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the research room attendant....

2012-07-01

41

36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...also must follow our microfilm handling instructions in § 1254.42. (g) You may use a hand-held camera with no flash or a cell phone camera to take pictures of documents only if you have the permission of the research room attendant....

2011-07-01

42

Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport  

PubMed Central

How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

McKillop, Heather

2005-01-01

43

Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport.  

PubMed

How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

McKillop, Heather

2005-04-12

44

Normative and non-normative family change: Delineation and application of a cross-transitional conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present thesis is to delineate a conceptual framework that bridges normative and non-normative family transitions. Previous research has tended to look at normative and non-normative family transition as separate phenomena. It is asserted in this thesis that there are common dimensions between the two types of transitions. Two questions are addressed in this manuscript. First, how

Daniel William Poff

1999-01-01

45

A Normative Pragmatic Model of Making Fear Appeals  

E-print Network

How do fear appeals generate persuasive force, or reasonably pressure addressees to act as the speaker advocates? Leading models of fear appeals provide partial answers to this question because they locate persuasive force primarily in internal...

Innocenti, Beth

2011-01-01

46

Normative multitrial recall performance, metacognitive judgments, and retrieval latencies for Lithuanian-English paired associates.  

PubMed

Memory researchers using paired associates have benefited greatly from the Swahili-English norms reported by Nelson and Dunlosky (1994). Given recent increases in the amount and kinds of research using paired associates, however, researchers would now benefit from an expanded set of normative measures for foreign language vocabulary words. We report data for 120 Lithuanian-English word pairs collected from 236 undergraduates. Participants completed three study-test trials and were asked to make metacognitive judgments for each item. We report normative recall performance, recall latencies, and error types for each item across trials, as well as the perceived difficulty of each item on the basis of metacognitive judgments. PMID:20805585

Grimaldi, Phillip J; Pyc, Mary A; Rawson, Katherine A

2010-08-01

47

American College Student Values: A Normative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 4 objectives of this study were (1) to conduct a normative study of values held by US college students, (2) to assess a wide range of value commitments of US college students as measured by an instrument validated by previous research, (3) to study the relationship between values and other relevant variables, and (4) to lay the basis for a…

Teglovic, Jr., Steve

48

The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

Weinstock, Daniel

2014-01-01

49

Normative Consequences of Efficient Capital Market Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the influence exercised by the efficient market hypothesis on standard setting and, consequently, its normative consequences. It shows this influence through the analysis of a particular case: the design and implementation of the International Accounting Standard on financial instruments. In this case it is clear that the efficient market hypothesis was used as the main theoretical

Norio Sawabe

50

Normative Communication Models for Agent Error Messages  

E-print Network

. An agent message is an attempted action upon the information state of the receiver that, if successful, would cause the receiver to move to a new information state. A model of normative com- munication can of a strongly typed agent communication language (ACL) is often driven by a need to have strong peer

Elio, Renée

51

Emotions as Natural and Normative Kinds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier work I have claimed that emotion and some emotions are not 'natural kinds'. Here I clarify what I mean by 'natural kind', suggest a new and more accurate term, and discuss the objection that emotion and emotions are not descriptive categories at all, but fundamentally normative categories. 1. Introduction. It is unlikely that all the psychological states and

Paul E. Griffiths

2004-01-01

52

Explosion and the normativity of logic Florian Steinberger  

E-print Network

Explosion and the normativity of logic Florian Steinberger Logic has traditionally been construed as a normative discipline; it sets forth stan- dards of correct reasoning. Explosion is a valid principle logic should not recognize explosion as a logical law. Call this the `normative argument against

Fitelson, Branden

53

Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

Hohr, Hansjörg

2013-01-01

54

The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

2013-01-01

55

Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices.  

PubMed

Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

Elias, John Z; Tylén, Kristian

2014-01-01

56

Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

2014-01-01

57

A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.  

PubMed

Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

2014-01-01

58

A normative ethical framework in climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article spells out four domains of international distributive justice and the consequent criteria of equity, the purpose\\u000a being to identify a pluralistic normative ethical framework for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Justice and\\u000a equity should play a major role in favouring collective action against climate change, because the more the various dimensions\\u000a of such action are just, the more

Marco Grasso

2007-01-01

59

Supporting Collaborative Work in Socio-Physical Environments: A Normative  

E-print Network

: Collaboration architectures ; Tangible Distributed Interfaces ; Activity Theory ; Normative Multi-Agent Systems objects of various kinds are designed to support multi-threaded activity. Heterogeneous trace properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Document Structure Description 2.0 Anders Mller, BRICS  

E-print Network

Uniqueness 3.7.3 Checking Pointers 4 Meta-Schema (Non-Normative) 5 References 1. Introduction A schema requirements specified in the following section. Such a schema defines a family of XML documents, which

Møller, Anders

61

Meaning and normativity in nurse-patient interaction.  

PubMed

It is a fundamental assumption in nursing theory that it is important for nurses to understand how patients think about themselves and the contexts they are in. According to modern theories of hermeneutics, a nurse and a patient must share the same concepts in order to communicate beliefs with the same content. But nurses and patients seldom understand medical concepts in exactly the same way, so how can this communicative aim be achieved in interaction involving medical concepts? The article uses a theory of concepts from recent cognitive science and philosophy of mind to argue that nurses and patients can share medical concepts despite the diversity of understanding. According to this theory, two persons who understand medical language in different ways will nevertheless possess the same medical concepts if they agree about the normative standards for the applications of the concepts. This entails that nurses and patients normally share medical concepts even though patients' conceptions of disease and illness are formed in idiosyncratic ways by their social and cultural contexts. Several practical implications of this argument are discussed and linked to case studies. One especially important point is that nurses should seek to make patients feel comfortable with deferring to a medical understanding. In many cases, an adequate understanding of patients presupposes that nurses manage to do this. Another implication is that deference-willingness to normative meaning is not equivalent to the actual application of concepts. Deference-willingness should rather be thought of as a pre-communicative attitude that it is possible for patients who are not fully able to communicate to possess. What is important is that nurses and patients have the intention of conforming to the same meaning. PMID:17238997

Nordby, Halvor

2007-01-01

62

Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of deployed combat troops: an empirical investigation of normative performance.  

PubMed

The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of the PAI scales were generally quite similar in the Iraq and community samples, with modest differences emerging on only 3 subscales addressing antisocial behavior, issues with close relationships, and interpersonal vigilance. These results suggest that standard normative interpretation of PAI scales is appropriate even when the instrument is administered in a combat zone. In comparison with prior research, the results may suggest that documented mental health issues among combat veterans, when present, may be particularly likely to emerge postdeployment. PMID:21319909

Morey, Leslie C; Lowmaster, Sara E; Coldren, Rodney L; Kelly, Mark P; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

2011-06-01

63

Logical reconstruction of normative RDF Jos de Bruijn1  

E-print Network

Logical reconstruction of normative RDF Jos de Bruijn1 , Enrico Franconi2 , and Sergio Tessaris2 1 paper we introduce a logical reconstruction of the RDF family of languages and the OWL-DL family of languages. We prove that our logical framework is equivalent to the normative W3C definitions of RDF

Franconi, Enrico

64

Accidental Government Documents Librarian: A Review of Experiences and Training Needs of Interim Documents Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a survey to determine the training needs and normative experiences of temporary government documents librarians are presented. The results indicate that temporary librarians tend to work in academia, have been in librarianship for a shorter time period, and have fewer technical processing skills than permanent documents librarians.…

Yelinek, Kathryn; Hinchcliff, Marilou

2009-01-01

65

1 Decision Making Key Question: "Are you Rational?"  

E-print Network

1 Decision Making Key Question: "Are you Rational?" Deviations from rationality: Value What is Rational: Normative Normative theory = what you should do. (Descriptive theory = what you of Rationality!) 1. I give you $300, and you must select one of these options: a) (72%) 1.0 chance of gaining

O'Reilly, Randall C.

66

Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

2014-01-01

67

Patient satisfaction and normative decision theory.  

PubMed Central

This article explores the application of normative decision theory (NDT) to the challenge of facilitating and measuring patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is the appraisal, by an individual, of the extent to which the care provided has met that individual's expectations and preferences. Classic decision analysis provides a graphic and computational strategy to link patient preferences for outcomes to the treatment choices likely to produce the outcomes. Multiple criteria models enable the complex judgment task of measuring patient satisfaction to be decomposed into elemental factors that reflect patient preferences, thus facilitating evaluation of care in terms of factors relevant to the individual patient. Through the application of NDT models, it is possible to use patient preferences as a guide to the treatment planning and care monitoring process and to construct measures of patient satisfaction that are meaningful to the individual. Nursing informatics, with its foundations in both information management and decision sciences, provides the tools and data necessary to promote care provided in accord with patient preferences and to ensure appraisal of satisfaction that aptly captures the complex, multidimensional nature of patient preferences. PMID:7583649

Brennan, P F

1995-01-01

68

Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

Funk, Ken

1991-01-01

69

A Normative Pragmatic Perspective on Appealing to Emotions in Argumentation  

E-print Network

Is appealing to emotions in argumentation ever legitimate and, if so, what is the best way to analyze and evaluate such appeals? After overviewing a normative pragmatic perspective on appealing to emotions in argumentation, I present answers...

Innocenti, Beth

2006-01-01

70

Normative Beliefs About Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator

Rebecca P. Ang; Kit-Aun Tan; Abu Talib Mansor

2011-01-01

71

Stigmatization of Non-Normative Family Size Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior person perception studies exposednormative expectations about family size such thatvoluntary childfree and single-child women werestigmatized and large-family mothers were glorified. Incontrast, self-reports find no differences in subjectivewell-being among these non-normative and 2 to 3 child,normative women. To explore mostly white,college-educated, employed women's experiences withtheir real-life family size choices, interviews wereconducted with 15 voluntary childfree, 15 one-child, and15 supernormative mothers

Karla A. Mueller; Janice D. Yoder

1999-01-01

72

Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

1996-01-01

73

Preschool children with gender normative and gender non-normative peer preferences: psychosocial and environmental correlates.  

PubMed

We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53 % boys; M age = 51 months; 66 % Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer's characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

Martin, Carol Lynn; DiDonato, Matthew D; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

2012-08-01

74

Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates  

PubMed Central

We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

2013-01-01

75

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

76

Process and Emergence: Normative Function and Representation  

E-print Network

account of the world -- none of our familiar world existed at the time of the Big Bang, and it does now are of ancient provenance. We can find them, for example, in Plato and Aristotle's analogy between perception and norm, framework in reaction to Hume1 , and logical positivism was the last failed attempt at making

Bickhard, Mark H.

77

Professional autonomy and the normative structure of medical practice.  

PubMed

Professional autonomy is often described as a claim of professionals that has to serve primarily their own interests. However, it can also be seen as an element of a professional ideal that can function as a standard for professional, i.e. medical practice. This normative understanding of the medical profession and professional autonomy faces three threats today. 1) Internal erosion of professional autonomy due to a lack of internal quality control by the medical profession; 2) the increasing upward pressure on health care expenses that calls for a health care policy that could imply limitations for the professional autonomy of physicians; 3) a distorted understanding of the profession as being based on a formal type of knowledge and related technology, in which other normative dimensions of medical practice are neglected and which frustrates meaningful communication between physicians and patients. To answer these threats a normative structure analysis of medical practice is presented, that indicates which principles and norms are constitutive for medical practice. It is concluded that professional autonomy, normatively understood, should be maintained to avoid the lure of the technological imperative and to protect patients against third parties' pressure to undertreatment. However, this professional autonomy can only be maintained if members of the profession subject their activities and decisions to a critical evaluation by other members of the profession and by patients and if they continue to critically reflect on the values that regulate today's medicine. PMID:11142442

Hoogland, J; Jochemsen, H

2000-01-01

78

A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

Deaver, Sarah P.

2009-01-01

79

A normative strategy for sustainable resource choice and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative strategy is proposed for resource choice and recycling to meet the criterion of sustainability, defined as near constancy of natural resources. In this strategy resource choice should be fitted to the fate of products and product wastes, with geochemically scarce virtually non-renewable resources being reserved for uses that allow for nearly 100% recycling and negligible loss of irretrievable

L. Reijnders

2000-01-01

80

Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

Jensen, Dwight Wm.

81

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

82

IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems  

E-print Network

IRON: A Machine for the Automated Synthesis of Normative Systems (Demonstration) Javier Morales1. In this paper we present the Intelligent Robust On-line Norm Synthesis Machine (IRON), a system whose goal is the automated synthesis of norms. IRON is capable of synthesising norms that are at the same time effective (to

López-Sánchez, Maite

83

Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

Coulby, David

2012-01-01

84

New product development assessment: towards a normative-contingent audit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A large amount of research deals with the identification of management practices related to new product development (NPD) success. To this purpose, assessment tools capable of helping enterprises to set up improvement processes are of extreme importance. The aim of this paper is to build a product development assessment model based upon a normative-contingent approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First,

Roberto Panizzolo; Stefano Biazzo; Patrizia Garengo

2010-01-01

85

Normativity in Deleuze and Guattari's concept of philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper is an exposition and analysis of Deleuze and Guattari's (hereafter called D&G) vision for philosophy. In sections I and II I discuss two defining features of this vision: respectively, the philosopher as creator and the concept as the philosopher's creation. In the final section I argue that D&G's vision is supported by a normative principle that is

Myron A. Penner

2003-01-01

86

Normative Standards for Wildlife Viewing in Parks and Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing public interest in wildlife watching, there is a need to develop methods to better inform management of quality viewing opportunities. In this study, normative methods using indicators and standards of quality are applied at two diverse parks\\/protected areas: a popular national park in Alaska and a lesser known wildlife refuge in New Hampshire. Three potential indicators of quality

Laura E. Anderson; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Jeffrey C. Hallo

2010-01-01

87

Management and national development in Kenya: toward a normative framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to propose a normative framework focusing on the need to enhance the roles of the four fundamental environmental forces of management – socio-demographic, techno-economic, politico-institutional, and cultural. The objective is to create a business climate of certainty so that Kenya can achieve its goals of national and private sector development and of elevating its global

Nanda R. Shrestha; Wilbur I. Smith; Lydia McKinley-Floyd; Kenneth R. Gray

2008-01-01

88

Attitude-Normative Belief Interactions in Predicting Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Additive and interactive models of attitudes and normative beliefs were compared in a survey of smoking, drinking, and drug use among post-primary students from Dublin, Ireland. It was hypothesized that contingent consistency interactions would be found: (1) when predicting drug use, but not smoking or alcohol use; (2) for younger, but not older…

Grube, Joel W.; Morgan, Mark

89

Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

2010-01-01

90

R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

Katz, Michael S.

2009-01-01

91

Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella  

E-print Network

Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems Guido Boella Dipartimento di Informatica theory mental attitudes such as beliefs, desires, goals and intentions are attributed to autonomous it desires to do so. Boella and Lesmo [1] suggest that analogously we can attribute mental attitudes to nor

van der Torre, Leon

92

Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

2011-01-01

93

Making the Grade: Challenges and Successes in Providing Educational Opportunities for Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Bridging the Gap between Home and School. A Position Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of the 1995-96 implementation of the Stewart B. McKinney Act's Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) Programs in 37 states are presented in this document. In these 37 states, at least 173,082 homeless children and youth were served through programs funded by the McKinney Act, and at least 465 local education agencies received…

National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

94

Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.  

PubMed

The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment. PMID:24344673

Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; R?ži?ka, Evžen; Poreh, Amir

2014-01-01

95

Cognitive Akrasia in Moral Psychology and Normative Motivation  

E-print Network

of normative motivation. 10 CHAPTER 1: WHAT COUNTS AS AKRASIA? The above passage finds the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius struggling with himself to get up in the morning. This sort of experience is not unique to emperors, and his words speak to us... 1 Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, Book V 2 INTRODUCTION Akrasia, a Greek term often translated ‘weakness of will’ or less often ‘incontinence’, means, in a nutshell, acting intentionally against your own better judgment. Akrasia represents a...

Gillette, Brandon S.

2013-12-31

96

A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.  

PubMed Central

Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

2004-01-01

97

Copyright 2012 by Ridier Aude, Chaib Karim, Roussy Caroline. All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means,  

E-print Network

Copyright 2012 by Ridier Aude, Chaib Karim, Roussy Caroline. All rights reserved. Readers may make model of crop rotation choice Ridier, A.1 , Chaib, K.2 and Roussy, C.3 1 Agrocampus Ouest- UMR 1302 price and production risks: a dynamic model of crop rotation choice Ridier, A.1 , Chaib, K.2 and Roussy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Cross-cultural normative assessment: Translation and adaptation issues influencing the normative interpretation of assessment instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes some of the issues affecting measures that are translated and\\/or adapted from an original language and culture to a new one. It addresses steps to ensure (a) that the test continues to measure the same psychological characteristics, (b) that the test content is the same, and (c) that the research procedures needed to document that it effectively

Kurt F. Geisinger

1994-01-01

99

The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

Grove, T. L.

1985-01-01

100

How Software Engineers Use Documentation: The State of the Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software engineering is a human task, and as such we must study what software engineers do and think. Understanding the normative practice of software engineering is the first step toward developing realistic solutions to better facilitate the engineering process. We conducted three studies using several data-gathering approaches to elucidate the patterns by which software engineers (SEs) use and update documentation.

Timothy Lethbridge; Janice Singer; Andrew Forward

2003-01-01

101

Objective Measures of Behavior Manifestations in Adult ADHD and Differentiation from Participants with Bipolar II Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Participants with Disconfirmed ADHD as Well as Normative Participants  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants. Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD. Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms. PMID:23166565

Edebol, Hanna; Helldin, Lars; Norlander, Torsten

2012-01-01

102

Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data  

PubMed Central

Summary In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normative data were obtained on small samples. The aim of this study was to determine normative values for the BCR in a large sample of men. We studied a large population (105 men; mean age 53 years, range 19–73 years) without central or peripheral neurological diseases. In each subject the sacral reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the base of the dorsum penis and recorded using a surface electrode from the BC muscle. We recorded the latency, calculated at onset, and the maximal amplitude of response, calculated peak to peak. We were able to detect the BCR in all the men. No correlation between BCR latency and age was found (r=0.136; p=0.160). The mean onset latency value was 33.0±4.85 ms (mean±2SD, range 26.8–39.4). The mean amplitude value was 16.53±12.21 ?V (mean±2SD, range 4.2–43.6). Our normative data on the BCR were similar to previously published data. PMID:24598398

Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca; Rossi, Fabiana; De Franco, Paola; Coraci, Daniele; Rossi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

103

Orbitmpi Documentation  

SciTech Connect

Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

Lisa L. Lowe

2000-10-05

104

Influence of clear versus ambiguous normative information on food intake.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted in order to examine the conditions under which social norms operate to control people's otherwise prepotent response to maximize eating. The social-normative model of eating assumes that people will follow one of two possible norms for "appropriate" eating behavior: the norm to eat minimally and the norm to avoid eating excessively. In Experiment 1, it was predicted that amounts eaten would be bimodally distributed (with the modes at or just below the two amounts chosen to represent minimal and excessive eating). Instead, most participants ate considerably more than either of the norms presented. Experiment 2 was intended to test the following explanation for these results: exposure to ambiguous norms liberated participants from normative constraints and led them to overeat. Experiment 2 demonstrated that exposure to clear norms in the same situation exerted a braking effect on overeating. We conclude that individuals are more likely to eat in accordance with their own desires when they cannot perceive that others are following a clear pattern of eating behavior and social norms are, therefore, not apparent. PMID:17196300

Leone, Tullia; Pliner, Patricia; Peter Herman, C

2007-07-01

105

A normative sample of temporal and spatial gait parameters in children using the GAITRite ® electronic walkway  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to develop a normative sample of temporal and spatial gait parameters for children (ages 1–10 years) using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Reliability of the GAITRite® for assessing gait in children is similar to its reliability in adults. Normative temporal and spatial gait parameters have not been published using the GAITRite® limiting clinicians and researchers

Stacey C. Dusing; Deborah E. Thorpe

2007-01-01

106

Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

Ressler, Paula

2005-01-01

107

How Recent History Affects Perception: The Normative Approach and Its Heuristic Approximation  

E-print Network

How Recent History Affects Perception: The Normative Approach and Its Heuristic Approximation Ofri: Raviv O, Ahissar M, Loewenstein Y (2012) How Recent History Affects Perception: The Normative Approach. Smith Family, from the Israel Science Foundation (grants No. 868/08 and 616/11), and from the Gatsby

Joskowicz, Leo

108

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

109

Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

2007-01-01

110

Rational Norm Creation Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems, Part 2  

E-print Network

Rational Norm Creation Attributing Mental Attitudes to Normative Systems, Part 2 Guido Boella, bribing the system, et cetera. Consequently, to reason about the creation of norms, we need a model creation? 2. How can we formalize norm creation using the attri- bution of mental attitudes to normative

van der Torre, Leon

111

Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

2009-01-01

112

Normative and Instrumental Perspectives on Public ParticipationCitizen Summits in Washington, D.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative literature in political science and public administration calls for enhanced citizen participation in public decisions. However, this approach overlooks the environment that shapes administrative behavior, an oversight likely to hamper reform efforts targeted at achieving the normative goals of participation. The administrative perspective is important because public managers shape participation forums and determine whether public input has an

Donald P. Moynihan

2003-01-01

113

The Role of Evidence in Health Policy Making: A Normative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of evidence is becoming a centralpart of health policy decisions – not least inlimit setting decisions. Limit-settingdecisions can be defined as the withholding ofpotentially beneficial health care. Thisarticle seeks to explore the value choicesrelated to the use of evidence in limit-settingdecisions at the political level. To betterspecify the important but restricted role ofevidence in such decisions, the value choicesof

Ole Frithjof Norheim

2002-01-01

114

Comparing canadian and american normative scores on the wechsler adult intelligence scale-fourth edition.  

PubMed

Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. PMID:25313225

Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

2014-12-01

115

Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition. PMID:24910957

Sterkowicz-Przybycie?, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

2014-12-01

116

Some normative data on lip-reading skills (L).  

PubMed

The ability to obtain reliable phonetic information from a talker's face during speech perception is an important skill. However, lip-reading abilities vary considerably across individuals. There is currently a lack of normative data on lip-reading abilities in young normal-hearing listeners. This letter describes results obtained from a visual-only sentence recognition experiment using CUNY sentences and provides the mean number of words correct and the standard deviation for different sentence lengths. Additionally, the method for calculating T-scores is provided to facilitate the conversion between raw and standardized scores. This metric can be utilized by clinicians and researchers in lip-reading studies. This statistic provides a useful benchmark for determining whether an individual's lip-reading score falls within the normal range, or whether it is above or below this range. PMID:21786870

Altieri, Nicholas A; Pisoni, David B; Townsend, James T

2011-07-01

117

Optimal indolence: a normative microscopic approach to work and leisure.  

PubMed

Dividing limited time between work and leisure when both have their attractions is a common everyday decision. We provide a normative control-theoretic treatment of this decision that bridges economic and psychological accounts. We show how our framework applies to free-operant behavioural experiments in which subjects are required to work (depressing a lever) for sufficient total time (called the price) to receive a reward. When the microscopic benefit-of-leisure increases nonlinearly with duration, the model generates behaviour that qualitatively matches various microfeatures of subjects' choices, including the distribution of leisure bout durations as a function of the pay-off. We relate our model to traditional accounts by deriving macroscopic, molar, quantities from microscopic choices. PMID:24284898

Niyogi, Ritwik K; Breton, Yannick-Andre; Solomon, Rebecca B; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

2014-02-01

118

Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?  

PubMed

Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

2012-02-01

119

Site Documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper will be student\\/researcher needs, vis-á-vis the documentation of building sites. In addition to explaining why architectural students need certain types of visual documentation, the paper will present a case study.

Barbara Opar

1994-01-01

120

Localizing XML Documents through XSLT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing eorts on XML internationalization and lo- calization have been focusing on the contents of XML documents instead of on the meta presentations such as tags and attributes. Although XML standard allows the use of unicode throughout a document including the meta level presentations, most tags and attributes of XML documents are still defined in English, which makes it dicult

Yijun Yu; Jianguo Lu; Jing-hao Xue; Yi Zhang; Weiwei Sun

2003-01-01

121

Partially Supervised Classification of Text Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the following problem: Given a set of documents of a particular topic or class , and a large set of mixed documents that contains doc- uments from class and other types of documents, identify the documents from class in . The key feature of this problem is that there is no labeled non- document, which makes traditional machine

Bing Liu; Wee Sun Lee; Philip S. Yu; Xiaoli Li

2002-01-01

122

Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

2012-01-01

123

Normative development of physical aggression from 8 to 26 months.  

PubMed

This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and fathers reported frequently about their child's use of PA in personal and telephone interviews. Mean number of reports per child was 7.16 (SD 1.70), with 90% having at least 6 reports. We employed Rasch scaling to construct a single linear PA measure and multilevel growth curve modeling to address the research questions. The results confirm that the development of PA is nonlinear, with a peak in frequency at about 20-22 months, which is followed by a decline toward 26 months. There is both within- and between-child variance in the development of PA. Higher levels of PA were predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling, maternal and paternal mental distress, and difficult child temperament (high activity level and distress due to limitations), whereas the main effect of gender was only trend-significant. Growth of PA across this developmental period was predicted by the presence of a same-age sibling and high activity level. The results both support and transcend previous research within this field. PMID:24708457

Nærde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

2014-06-01

124

Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder.  

PubMed

The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is-due to scientific progress-currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

Stier, Marco

2013-01-01

125

Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder  

PubMed Central

The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

Stier, Marco

2013-01-01

126

Termination Documentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

2014-01-01

127

Documenting Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's work documents their thinking and the details they note as they learn more. Over time, by drawing, dictating, or writing about their observations, children can reveal and deepen their understanding of science concepts. Documenting work to further understanding and sharing information is part of the National Science Education Teaching…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-01-01

128

Normative Data Stratified by Age and Education for Two Measures of Verbal Fluency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normative data stratified by three levels of age (16–59, 60–79, and 80–95 years) and three levels of education (0–8, 9–12, and 13–21 years) are presented for phonemic verbal fluency (FAS) and categorical verbal fluency (Animal Naming). The normative sample, aged 16 to 95 years, consisted of 1,300 cognitively intact individuals who resided in the community. Years of education ranged from

Tom N Tombaugh; Jean Kozak; Laura Rees

1999-01-01

129

Effects of Normative Feedback for Drinkers Who Consume Less than the Norm: Dodging the Boomerang  

PubMed Central

A number of alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown effective in reducing drinking both as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multi-component intervention. Typically, this feedback is targeted to heavier drinkers, in order to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations, two employing computer delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status. PMID:24955672

Prince, Mark A.; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B.; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-01-01

130

Making Longer, Making Shorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem uses linking cubes as a concrete context for exploring simple multiplication and division, doubling, halves and quarters. The problem displays a rod of 4 cubes and asks students how many cubes are necessary to make rods related to it in a variety of ways. It can be used to introduce key concepts and vocabulary. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, and ideas for extension and support.

131

CERN Document Server: Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters for various exhibitions and workshops at CERN, the Swiss-based European Laboratory for Particle Physics, are now available within the Multimedia collection of the CERN Document Server. At this site, over 220 posters can be searched (keyword, title, or date) or browsed by title. The posters cover CERN projects such as the L3 detector and the End-cap Muon system and exhibitions including "Crystals of China" and "Collaborating through the Cold War." They display labeled diagrams of equipment, specifications, and historical facts. Because the online CERN Document Server is set to provide thorough information about documents in its database, users can find the top ten keywords for each poster, get detailed file format information (.pdf, .gif, .ps), extract figures, and receive documents by email. The printable color posters provide an interesting look into the history of CERN research and outreach and make nice office decorations for science geeks such as this editor.

2001-01-01

132

Challenging normative orthodoxies in depression: Huxley's Utopia or Dante's Inferno?  

PubMed

Although there appears to be a widespread consensus that depression is a ubiquitous human experience, definitions of depression, its prevalence, and how mental health services respond to it have changed significantly over time, particularly during recent decades. Epistemological limitations notwithstanding, it is now estimated that approximately 121 million people experience depression. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that the last two decades have seen the widespread acceptance of depression as a chemical imbalance and a massive corresponding increase in the prescription of antidepressants, most notably of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, questions have been raised about the effectiveness and iatrogenic side effects of antidepressants; related questions have also been asked about whose interests are served by the marketing and sales of these drugs. Accordingly, this article attempts to problematize the normative orthodoxy concerning depression and creates a "space" in which an alternative can be articulated and enacted. In so doing, the article finds that the search for a world where the automatic response to depression is a pharmacological intervention not only ignores the use of alternative efficacious treatment options but may also inhibit the persons' chance to explore the meaning of their experience and thus prevent people from individual growth and personal development. Interestingly, in worlds analogous to this pharmacologically induced depression-free state, such as utopias like that in Huxley's Brave New World, no "properly conditioned citizen" is depressed or suicidal. Yet, in the same Brave New World, no one is free to suffer, to be different, or crucially, to be independent. PMID:20303451

Cutcliffe, John R; Lakeman, Richard

2010-04-01

133

Normative Results of Healthy Older Adults on Standard Clinical Vestibular Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment. PMID:24136315

Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri

2014-01-01

134

Making Sense of Oil Stamp Saving Schemes  

E-print Network

to make sense of oils stamps (in a traditional economic framework) is by arguing that ?rather than using them as a savings vehicle ? households consider the stamps as an elegant way to help friends/family towards the payment of their fuel bills without... to each individual: An individual has a ?temptation preference? that captures her immediate desires and a ?normative preference?that captures her view of what choice she should make, that is, her view of what is best for her welfare (like saving...

Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian

2012-01-23

135

CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE CYBERVIEW 3D DOCUMENT GENERATOR -- is a new WWW server add-on that makes it easy to create HTML documents with inline, rotatable, hyperlinked 3D images ("3D imagemaps"). The pages generated by Cyberview can be viewed in standard HTML 2.0-compatible Web browsers. Try it at:

136

Migration method 1 Make use of the default roles and features provided by the OS You can practice this migration method by referring to the technical documentation in the TechNet Library officially provided by Microsoft or by working in collaboration wit  

E-print Network

application server Microsoft offers Web Deploy, which helps migrate ASP.NET and PHP applications developedMigration method 1 ­ Make use of the default roles and features provided by the OS You can practice this migration method by referring to the technical documentation in the TechNet Library officially provided

Chaudhuri, Surajit

137

Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding  

PubMed Central

In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

Klaczynski, Paul A.

2014-01-01

138

Orthodontic concerns of Brazilian children and their parents compared to the normative treatment need.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the interest of both children and parents towards orthodontic treatment and compare it to the normative treatment need as well as to determine the factors related to such an interest. The sample consisted of 407 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 12 years and their parents from Nova Friburgo (Rio de Janeiro), Brazil. The orthodontic concern expressed by children and parents was obtained by means of a questionnaire. The normative need was evaluated using two components of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Data analysis involved multiple logistic regression. Normative treatment need was greater than the children's self-perceived treatment need. The parents expressed more interest towards orthodontic treatment of their children than the children themselves. The orthodontic concern expressed by both groups was greater than the normative need for orthodontic treatment, and such a finding was associated with gender of the children (female) and self-perceived treatment need expressed by them. The lack of a relationship between the normative treatment need and the orthodontic concern of children and parents shows that such assessments should be performed when orthodontic treatment is indicated, particularly in terms of public health, as the demand is greater than the services supplied. PMID:20339240

Dias, Patricia F; Gleiser, Rogerio

2010-03-01

139

Good Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dan Bricklin provides this site, a clearinghouse of information collected to help content providers write for the Intranet and Internet media. Rather than stressing site building that will attract the most users, Good Documents provides tips for writing that will be read on-screen. The Techniques and Samples sections provide no-nonsense tips on how to create screen-readable documents and offer examples. The site is interesting in that it assumes that its users want to create content that will be read rather than viewed.

140

Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

Binder, Claudia R., E-mail: claudia.binder@geo.uzh.c [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for System Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz (Austria); Feola, Giuseppe [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Steinberger, Julia K. [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)

2010-02-15

141

FES Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

142

FLT Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FLT documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast

143

FMISO Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The FMISO documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a

144

21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.  

PubMed

This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card. PMID:18540715

Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Oster-Aaland, Laura

2008-06-01

145

Document creation, linking, and maintenance system  

DOEpatents

A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

Claghorn, Ronald (Pasco, WA)

2011-02-15

146

Perceptions of document relevance  

PubMed Central

This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

2014-01-01

147

DocumentCloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cloud computing is gaining currency, and this new project is just one of the many initiatives that will make people sit up and take notice. The Document Cloud nonprofit began in 2009 with funds from the Knight News Challenge, and the idea behind the group is that journalists, researchers, and archivists can use the DocumentCloud workspace to upload documents, share them with teams of colleagues, and also conduct structured searches and analyses based on extracted entities (also known as the people, places, and organizations mentioned in the text). The group is in the process of releasing some of their work as open-source projects, and visitors can use the "FAQ" area to learn more about these projects. The site also includes a blog, a "Latest Updates" area, and profiles of the founders over at "Who We Are". [KMG

148

Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics  

PubMed Central

Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

Goldenberg, Maya J

2005-01-01

149

A laser-ablation ICP-MS study of Apollo 15 low-titanium olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts  

E-print Network

basalts Darren W. Schnare a,*, James M.D. Day a,b , Marc D. Norman c , Yang Liu a , Lawrence A. Taylor Apollo 15 low-Ti mare basalts have traditionally been subdivided into olivine- and quartz-normative basalt types, based on their different SiO2, FeO, and TiO2 whole-rock compositions. Previous studies have

Perfect, Ed

150

Official Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stationery Office of the UK provides one-stop shopping for selected UK government publications. Stationery Office publications are available by date, title, or government department. There is also a selected list of publications available from other government departments. As it grows, this site should become a major repository of UK government documents. Note the difference between The Stationery Office and Her Majesty's Stationery Office (there is a link at the site).

1997-01-01

151

Video document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.

Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer W.; Yeo, Boon-Lock

1999-08-01

152

Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

2010-01-01

153

78 FR 10181 - Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...availability of the following revised final versions of documents that support making regulatory...Files Specification for Module 1, version 2.1'' (which includes the U.S. regional document type definition, version 3.1), and ``Comprehensive...

2013-02-13

154

Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

2013-01-01

155

The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-04-01

156

A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

2007-01-01

157

Implicit Normativity in Evidence-Based Medicine: A Plea for Integrated Empirical Ethics Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges the traditional assumption that descriptive and prescrip- tive sciences are essentially distinct by presenting a study on the implicit nor- mativity of the production and presentation of biomedical scientific facts within evidence-based medicine. This interdisciplinary study serves as an illustration of the potential worth of the concept of implicit normativity for bioethics in gen- eral and for

A. C. Molewijk; A. M. Stiggelbout; W. Otten; H. M. Dupuis; J. Kievit

2003-01-01

158

MRI-based volumetry of head compartments: Normative values of healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of head compartments (head and brain volume, intracranial volume, gray and white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume) and their ratios were determined on the basis of magnetic resonance images of the head acquired in a reference population of 502 healthy subjects. Age-matched subgroups were selected to reveal gender-related differences and changes with age. Normative data are provided in

F. Kruggel

2006-01-01

159

eutheia Accepted for publication in Nordisk matematisk tidskrift (Normat) on 2013 October 09 Euclid's straight lines  

E-print Network

eutheia Accepted for publication in Nordisk matematisk tidskrift (Normat) on 2013 October 09 Euclid 25 Abstract We raise two questions on Euclid's Elements: How to explain that Propositions 16 and 27 droites d'Euclide Deux questions sur les ´El´ements d'Euclide sont soulev´ees : Comment comprendre que les

Kiselman, Christer

160

Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

2012-01-01

161

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: A Comparison Between Latino and Normative Samples of Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years

Maureen C. Kenny; Sandy K. Wurtele

2012-01-01

162

The Normative Dimension and Legal Meaning of Endangered and Recovery in the U.S. Endangered  

E-print Network

The Normative Dimension and Legal Meaning of Endangered and Recovery in the U.S. Endangered Species significance of the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is widely appreciated. Much of the significance and endangered species. The meanings of these terms are important because they give legal meaning to the concept

Nelson, Michael P.

163

Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and nonnormative collective action.  

PubMed

A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative actions such as participating in demonstrations. We argue that the relations between emotions, efficacy, and action differ for more extreme, nonnormative actions and propose (a) that nonnormative actions are often driven by a sense of low efficacy and (b) that contempt, which, unlike anger, entails psychological distancing and a lack of reconciliatory intentions, predicts nonnormative action. These ideas were tested in 3 survey studies examining student protests against tuition fees in Germany (N = 332), Indian Muslims' action support in relation to ingroup disadvantage (N = 156), and British Muslims' responses to British foreign policy (N = 466). Results were generally supportive of predictions and indicated that (a) anger was strongly related to normative action but overall unrelated or less strongly related to nonnormative action, (b) contempt was either unrelated or negatively related to normative action but significantly positively predicted nonnormative action, and (c) efficacy was positively related to normative action and negatively related to nonnormative action. The implications of these findings for understanding and dealing with extreme intergroup phenomena such as terrorism are discussed. PMID:21500925

Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N

2011-07-01

164

Gender stereotypes and normative heterosexuality in matrimonial ads from globalizing India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrimonial ads serve as unobtrusive sites to observe the construction and perpetuation of normative heterosexuality through socio-cultural discourses. The current study focuses on gendered spousal expectations and sex role preferences in 1065 matrimonial ads from two popular newspapers in India. Gender differences in ad type, financial stability, physical attractiveness, fairness, slimness, personality traits, and occupational preferences were examined. Results found

Srividya Ramasubramanian; Parul Jain

2009-01-01

165

The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

2013-01-01

166

Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

2013-01-01

167

Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

2014-01-01

168

Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

2011-01-01

169

Skill level and normative evaluations among summer recreationists at alpine ski areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines acceptability norms regarding use density reported by hikers and mountain bikers with varying skill levels. It was hypothesized that highly skilled recreationists would rate increasing use densities as less acceptable. In addition, it was predicted that as skill increases, normative agreement\\/consensus (crystallization) and importance (norm intensity) would increase. Data were obtained from surveys of hikers (n =

Mark D. Needham; Rick B. Rollins; Jerry J. Vaske

2005-01-01

170

Characteristics of calcaneus quantitative ultrasound normative data in Chinese mainland men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment at the calcaneus, as a safe and reliable method for evaluating skeletal status, is rapidly gaining in popularity. Assessment by QUS provides three parameters of skeletal status: broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and derived data-stiffness index (STI). The objective of the present study was firstly to determine the normative QUS data on healthy

W. Liu; C.-L. Xu; Z.-Q. Zhu; W. Wang; S.-M. Han; S.-Y. Zu; G.-J. Zhu

2006-01-01

171

The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

2013-01-01

172

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. Normative Data and Psychometric Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a U.S. national population sample of children and adolescents, develop normative scoring bands, and test the association of high-scoring groups with service contacts or use for mental health reasons. Method: An Americanized version of the Strengths and Difficulties…

Bourdon, Karen H.; Goodman, Robert; Rae, Donald S.; Simpson, Gloria; Koretz, Doreen S.

2005-01-01

173

Adolescents' Ideas of Normative Life Span Development and Personal Future Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study results that supports relationship between individual goals and normative expectations about life span development, especially when it comes to domains of education, occupation, and family. Reports that respondents showed an awareness of the accumulation of social problems. Adolescents rated their future as better than the future of…

Malmberg, Lar-Erik; Norrgard, Sonja

1999-01-01

174

Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a

Bart Engelen

175

Familial Poverty, Family Allowances, and the Normative Family Structure in Britain, 1917-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1945, the Family Allowances Act was incorporated into law. The family allowances scheme depended on the maintenance of a normative family structure and a wage system that discriminated against women. Eleanor Rathbone, along with social surveyors of the 1930s and social policy makers, recognized the family wage system as a primary cause of poverty among working families. Unfortunately, the

Colleen Margaret Forrest

2001-01-01

176

Normative Assumptions in Educational Policy Research: The Case of Jencks's Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Christopher Jencks's Inequality: A Reassess ment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in America is an example of social policy research which is also policy advocacy or normative political argument. His empirical analysis of the short-term and long-term effects of education is aimed at discrediting the \\

Lawrence B. Joseph

1977-01-01

177

Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

2011-01-01

178

Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

2010-01-01

179

Transitional paternalism: how shared normative powers give rise to the asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal.  

PubMed

In many jurisdictions, adolescents acquire the right to consent to treatment; but in some cases their refusals - e.g. of life-saving treatment - may not be respected. This asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal seems puzzling, even incoherent. The aim here is to offer an original explanation, and a justification, of this asymmetry. Rather than trying to explain the asymmetry in terms of a variable standard of competence - where the adolescent is competent to consent to, but not refuse, certain interventions - the account offered here focuses more closely on the normative power to render actions permissible. Where normative powers are shared they can readily give rise to an asymmetry between consent and refusal. We then turn to why it is justifiable that normative powers be shared in adolescence. Transitional paternalism holds that the acquisition of normative powers by competent adolescents should not be an instant one, achieved in a single step, but that there should be a transitional period where paternalistic protection is rolled back, but not entirely withdrawn until a later date. Transitional paternalism could be implemented without generating the asymmetry between consent and refusal but, it is argued, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism is to be preferred insofar as it offers a greater respect for the adolescent's decisions than the symmetrical alternative. PMID:24547962

Manson, Neil C

2015-02-01

180

Moral Disengagement, Normative Beliefs of Peer Group, and Attitudes Regarding Roles in Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how moral disengagement, empathy, belief in a just world, and peer group normative beliefs regarding the roles of bully and defender of the victim are associated with attitudes regarding the roles of the bully and the defender of the victim. Two hundred ninety-two students from grades 6-9 participated. Results showed that…

Almeida, Ana; Correia, Isabel; Marinho, Sylvie

2010-01-01

181

Normative Stakeholder Theory and Aristotle: The Link Between Ethics and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stakeholder theory is an important part of modern business ethics. Many scholars argue for a normative instead of an instrumental approach to stakeholder theory. Recent examples of such an approach show that problems appear with respect to the ethical foundation as well as the specification of the norms and the relation between corporate and individual responsibilities. This paper argues for

Nachoem M. Wijnberg

2000-01-01

182

The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

2006-01-01

183

Normative values of vibratory perception in 530 children, juveniles and adults aged 3–79 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired vibratory perception is an early and frequent finding in various neuropathies. Quantitative vibratory threshold assessment refines the diagnosis of neuropathies but is based on psychophysical techniques requiring patient cooperation. Large, age and sex matched normative data bases are needed to better identify abnormal vibratory perception. In this study vibratory perception was tested at the second metacarpal bone and above

Max J Hilz; Felicia B Axelrod; Kerstin Hermann; Ursula Haertl; Matthias Duetsch; Bernhard Neundörfer

1998-01-01

184

A Normative Agent-based Model for Predicting Smoking Cessation Trends  

E-print Network

probabilistic and majority voting models of influence diffusion. Within the multi-agent research community for normative agents; however few of these models have been successfully applied to real-world public policy public policy decisions on a community. Here we present a case study showing the usage of our archi

Sukthankar, Gita Reese

185

Timed Gait Test: Normative Data for the Assessment of the AIDS Dementia Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Timed Gait test is a standardized procedure assessing motor dysfunction of lower extremities and gait abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex. Heretofore, interpretations of Timed Gait results have been hampered by the lack of normative data. We provide results on this test derived from 1,549 subjects (HIV?seronegatives (HIV?) and seropositives (HIV+) classified according to ADC stage). Timed Gait was

Kevin R. Robertson; Thomas D. Parsons; John J. Sidtis; Tina Hanlon Inman; Wendy T. Robertson; Colin D. Hall; Richard W. Price

2006-01-01

186

Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

Carr, Paul R.

2010-01-01

187

Normative Assumptions in Educational Policy Research: The Case of Jencks's Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jencks's argument is fundamentally misdirected because he is unaware of the normative implications of both the position he is attacking and the position he is advocating. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104; $15.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

Joseph, Lawrence B.

1977-01-01

188

Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

189

An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

1990-01-01

190

Adolescents' ideas of normative life span development and personal future goals.  

PubMed

We investigated how 57 adolescents (23 girls and 34 boys), aged 12 to 15 years, compared their idea of normative life span development to their personal future goals. A two-stage study (questionnaire and follow-up interview) included two open-ended "life paths", measures for self-evaluation and self-other comparisons. Overlap of content categories in the life paths supported the relationship between individual goals and normative expectations about life span development, especially when it comes to the life domains of education, occupation, family, property and retirement. The respondents showed an awareness of the accumulation of social problems, reporting that crises (e.g. alcoholism) and negative events (e.g. unemployment) are more likely to occur to the average adult than in their personal future. If adolescents rated their future as better than the future of others, they also regarded that future as different from the normative life span. Self-evaluation was indirectly related with self-other comparisons. Similarity between the normative life span and personal future correlated with higher probability of problem occurrence and possibility to avoid the problems. PMID:10066330

Malmberg, L E; Norrgård, S

1999-02-01

191

School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

2012-01-01

192

Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…

Middlemiss, Wendy

2004-01-01

193

Dual processing model of medical decision-making  

PubMed Central

Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the large extent dominated by expected utility theory. The model also provides a platform for reconciling two groups of competing dual processing theories (parallel competitive with default-interventionalist theories). PMID:22943520

2012-01-01

194

Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

195

Solution Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The documents presented here as URLs are a selection from a larger course, offered at Madison Area Technical College, designed to improve the ability of students to complete the various types of math problems commonly encountered in the biotechnology laboratory. The contentof the complete course is described in the flier on the final page of this document. This unit focuses on thepreparation of laboratory solutions â?? simple solutions with only one solute, and more complex solutions containing multiple solutes.

Kraus, Mary Ellen

196

How to Make Cognitive Illusions Disappear: Beyond “Heuristics and Biases”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most so-called “errors” in probabilistic reasoning are in fact not violations of probability theory. Examples of such “errors” include overconfidence bias, conjunction fallacy, and base-rate neglect. Researchers have relied on a very narrow normative view, and have ignored conceptual distinctions—e.g. single case versus relative frequency—fundamental to probability theory. By recognizing and using these distinctions, however, we can make apparently stable

Gerd Gigerenzer

1991-01-01

197

Digital Document Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Henry Gladney has an established background in the field of digital document management, and he also holds a number of patents. Gladney started publishing the Digital Document Quarterly (DDQ) in 2002 as an online publication that covers everything from the information revolution to providing information about digital preservation solutions. Visitors to the site can read the introduction to the DDQ, and then make their way through all of the previous issues. It's easy to see why different information science professionals and librarians would find the archive useful, as the topics covered here include basic topics in digital preservation, preserving office records, information retrieval, and even the epistemology of digital preservation. The site is rounded out by a nice glossary of terms, which covers everything from "abstract" to "value".

2008-01-01

198

A Normative Theory of Forgetting: Lessons from the Fruit Fly  

PubMed Central

Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

2014-01-01

199

Contingent approaches to making likelihood judgments about polychotomous cases: the influence of task factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments tested the influence of three task factors on respondents' tendency to use normative, heuristic, and random approaches to making likelihood judgments about polychotomous cases (i.e., cases in which there is more than one alternative to a focal hypothesis). Participants estimated their likelihood of winning hypothetical raffles in which they and other players held various numbers of tickets. Responding

Paul D. Windschitl; Zlatan Krizan

2005-01-01

200

Documenting Endangered Languages  

NSF Publications Database

... Advisory 05-011Documenting Endangered Languages Documenting endangered languages. Credit and ... archived as part of their new Documenting Endangered Languages (DEL) awards program. Reporters are ...

201

Recognition of Malayalam Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malayalam is an Indian language spoken by 40 million people with its own script. It has a rich literary tradition. A character recognition system for this language will be of immense help in a spectrum of applications ranging from data entry to reading aids. The Malayalam script has a large number of similar characters making the recognition problem challenging. In this chapter, we present our approach for recognition of Malayalam documents, both printed and handwritten. Classification results as well as ongoing activities are presented.

Neeba, N. V.; Namboodiri, Anoop; Jawahar, C. V.; Narayanan, P. J.

202

Omega documentation  

SciTech Connect

OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

1983-08-01

203

New Document Concept and Metadata Classification for Broadcast Archives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is evident that document is the central concept in any archive, and the basic task is to make these documents searchable and retrievable. Textual documents can be full text indexed therefore they can be searched with the help of very efficient search engines like Google, however non-textual documents as still images, moving images, sounds or mixed audiovisual documents require associated textual information, metadata to make search possible.

Szakadát, István; Knapp, Gábor

204

Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

1990-01-01

205

One-handed standing pull strength in different postures: normative data.  

PubMed

Although one-handed pulling is commonly used in many tasks, normative data on the populational strength capacity are scarce. A strength test protocol was administered to collect data on static one-handed pulling strength using four handle heights and three pulling directions: across (handle opposite to the pulling hand), front, and side (handle on the same side of the pulling hand). Eighty-six participants (46 men and 40 women) in five age groups completed the protocol. The results showed that pulling from the side of the body resulted in the greatest strength, followed by front and across pulls. As the handle height increased from 61 cm above the floor, to above the shoulder, the pulling strength decreased. This dataset provides occupational safety and ergonomics professionals gender specific normative data on one-handed pull strength capacity in different age groups. PMID:23287024

Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W; Maynard, Wayne

2013-07-01

206

Making Regolith  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will helps learners answer the question: How does the bombardment of micrometeoroids make regolith on the moon? In this lesson, learners investigate the effects of micrometeoroid bombardment on simulated regolith formation and develop a conclusion by making inferences about properties of regolith based upon observations.

Nasa

2013-05-15

207

Text / Document Visualization  

E-print Network

1 Text / Document Visualization 1 Slides Adopted from: Dr. Shixia Liu, Microsoft Research Text++ Document Visualization Pipeline Preprocessing Feature Extraction Feature Evaluation Visual Design Visual Encoding Original document Text Mining Visualization User Interaction Interaction #12;5 Text/Document

Fang, Shiaofen

208

New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model.  

PubMed

There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

2014-01-01

209

Normative values of agonist-antagonist shoulder strength ratios of adults aged 20 to 78 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine normative values for isometric flexion\\/extension, abduction\\/adduction, and external\\/internal rotation strength ratios about the shoulder and to determine if these ratios are affected by age or gender.Study Design: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy volunteers (60 men, 60 women) aged 20 to 78 years.Setting: Orthopedic research laboratory.Methods: Flexion and extension strengths were measured isometrically using a Cybex II

Richard E. Hughes; Marjorie E. Johnson; Shawn W. O'Driscoll; Kai-Nan An

1999-01-01

210

Black Sexuality in the U.S.: Presentations as Non-normative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does current sex research in which people of African descent in the United States are the subjects present black sexuality\\u000a as non-normative? If so, what is the impact of these presentations? The methodology used in this study included a qualitative\\u000a review of research on sex and sexuality in which black people in the U.S. were research subjects. The study concludes

Kevin McGruder

2009-01-01

211

Normative influences on mens' and womens' physiological and subjective emotional responses  

E-print Network

norms established for both sexes. Social expectations concerning emotional responsiveness were directly manipulated by instructing subjects to enhance or attenuate emotional reactions to standard emotion- inducing stimuli, or, in a control condition... no instructions were given. When instructions rendered the same normative expectations for men and women, no sex differences were obtained in self-reports of emotional experiences. When no explicit instructions were given, self-reports were consistent...

Grossman, Michele Marie

2012-06-07

212

New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model  

PubMed Central

There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

2014-01-01

213

The Fears of Youth in the 1990s: Contemporary Normative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of a normative fear investigation involving a sample of 918 Australian children and adolescents, ranging in age from 718 years. The Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents-II (FSSC-II) was administered to determine self-reported prevalence, intensity, and content of fear. Consistent with past research, girls generally reported significantly higher levels of fearfulness than boys. Age

Eleonora Gullone; Neville J. King

1993-01-01

214

Subjective Well-Being by Partnership Status and Its Dependence on the Normative Climate.  

PubMed

This study first examines the relationship between partnership status and subjective well-being in 45 European countries by analyzing the European Values Study 2008. It was expected and empirically confirmed that married individuals have the highest level of well-being, followed by (in order) cohabiting, dating, single, and finally widowed and divorced individuals. In addition, this study examines to what extent the well-being gaps depend on the normative climate in which an individual lives. It is hypothesized that: (a) being in a non-married relationship (especially cohabitation and divorce) lowers well-being compared to being married in societies that reject non-traditional partnership statuses; and (b) not having a partner is especially detrimental for well-being levels in familialistic societies, which emphasize the importance of a strong, close-knit family. The normative climate appears to hardly affect well-being gaps between partnership statuses. Only the gap between divorced and married women is significantly wider in familialistic societies. It is concluded that the weak dependence of well-being on the normative climate may point at high autonomy in private, relationship-related decisions. PMID:22707813

Verbakel, Ellen

2012-05-01

215

Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.  

PubMed

Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. Practitioner Summary: A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems. PMID:25529468

Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

2015-03-01

216

The Effect of Framing and Normative Messages in Building Support for Climate Policies  

PubMed Central

Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a “foregone-gain”—incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts—rather than as a “loss”—incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts. PMID:25501009

Hurlstone, Mark J.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Newell, Ben R.; Sewell, Brittany

2014-01-01

217

Artificial diet optimized to produce normative adults of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus L. has been continuously reared since 1992 on an artificial diet (F1675) first reported in 1982. The weight of weevils reared on F1675 was more than twice as great as field-collected individuals. Recently, several ingredients included in the original F1675 diet were shown to have little or no effect on insect performance. We examined the effects of varying three ingredients of a simplified diet on the weight of adult D. abbreviatus. We used a geometric design combined with response surface models to evaluate the effects of the amount and proportion of diet ingredients to identify optimal diet recipes for normative weight gain defined in relation to field-collected D. abbreviatus from locations in Florida. Our results showed that it is possible to produce adults of normative weight or, for that matter, any mean weight within a wide range by varying the proportions of cottonseed meal, wheat germ and cellulose, a non-nutritive filler. Although wheat germ contributed to greater weight gain, survival of larvae to adult was lower on diets containing only wheat germ compared with diets containing only cottonseed meal as the principal nutritive components. The analyses of all the variables measured indicate that cottonseed meal is the only major nutritive component, in addition to standard vitamin and salt mixes, required to produce adult D. abbreviatus of normative weight. PMID:20388301

Lapointe, Stephen L; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P; Hall, David G

2010-04-01

218

Demonstration of the need for cardiovascular and pulmonary normative data for cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Despite evidence that cancer and its treatments severely reduce cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), normative data for cancer survivors do not exist. The present study identifies age and gender-specific CRF distributions in a cancer population. The use of cancer-specific normative CRF data may help stratify initial fitness status and assess improvements in response to exercise interventions in cancer survivors. Data from 703 cancer survivors were analyzed for this study. Quintiles were compiled for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) for males and females in 5 age groups (19-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ?70 years of age). VO2peak values for the cancer population were significantly lower than the general US population. The cancer population average in each age group fell within the "very poor" classification of VO2peak values for the general population. FVC values in the cancer population were similar to the general population. Cancer survivors had very low age group-specific VO2peak values compared to the apparently healthy general US population. Previously, CRF values of cancer survivors were compared to normative values for the apparently healthy general population, which yielded imprecise classifications of initial fitness and changes in fitness, resulting in patient discouragement. PMID:24995960

Schneider, C M; Repka, C P; Brown, J M; Lalonde, T L; Dallow, K T; Barlow, C E; Hayward, R

2014-12-01

219

The de Morton Mobility Index: Normative Data for a Clinically Useful Mobility Instrument  

PubMed Central

Determining mobility status is an important component of any health assessment for older adults. In order for a mobility measure to be relevant and meaningful, normative data are required for comparison to a healthy reference population. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument to measure mobility across the spectrum from bed bound to functional levels of independent mobility. In this cross-sectional observational study, normative data were obtained for the DEMMI from a population of 183 healthy, community-dwelling adults age 60+ who resided in Vancouver, Canada and Melbourne, Australia. Older age categories had significantly lower DEMMI mobility mean scores (P < 0.05), as did individuals who walked with a mobility aid or lived in semi-independent living (assisted living or retirement village), whereas DEMMI scores did not differ by sex (P = 0.49) or reported falls history (P = 0.21). Normative data for the DEMMI mobility instrument provides vital reference scores to facilitate its use across the mobility spectrum in clinical, research, and policymaking settings. PMID:22988509

Macri, E. M.; Lewis, J. A.; Khan, K. M.; Ashe, M. C.; de Morton, N. A.

2012-01-01

220

Dissatisfaction with dentofacial appearance and the normative need for orthodontic treatment: determinant factors  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims at assessing the normative need for orthodontic treatment and the factors that determine the subjective impact of malocclusion on 12-year-old Brazilian school children. Methods A total of 451 subjects (215 males and 236 females) were randomly selected from private and public schools of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The collected data included sociodemographic information and occlusal conditions. The esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion was assessed by means of the Orthodontic Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score - OASIS, whereas the malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment were assessed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC). Results Prevalence of normative need for orthodontic treatment was 65.6% (n = 155), and prevalence of orthodontic esthetic subjective impact was 14.9%. The following variables showed significant association with esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion: female (p = 0.042; OR = 0.5; CI = 0.2-0.9), public school student (p = 0.002; OR = 6.8; CI = 1.9-23.8), maxillary overjet ? 4 mm (p = 0.037; OR = 1.7; CI = 1-3) and gingival smile ? 4 mm (p = 0.008; OR = 3.4; CI = 1.3-8.8). Conclusion The normative need for orthodontic treatment overestimated the perceived need. Occlusal and sociocultural factors influenced the dissatisfaction of schoolchildren with their dentofacial appearance. PMID:25162576

de Almeida, Anderson Barbosa; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Marques, Leandro Silva

2014-01-01

221

Reading, Writing, and Documentation and Managing the Development of User Documentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of two articles addressing the issue of user documentation for computer software discusses the need to teach users how to read documentation. The second presents a guide for writing documentation that is based on the instructional systems design model, and makes suggestions for the desktop publishing of user manuals. (CLB)

Lindberg, Wayne; Hoffman, Terrye

1987-01-01

222

Making Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor water activity, learners explore how to change the direction of water flow. Learners make puddles in dirt or use existing puddles and sticks to make water flow. Learners will use yarn to measure who can make the longest "river." Learners will also investigate how they can change the direction water flows by digging paths or building walls and dams. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 35 of the PDF.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-01-01

223

Document Supply Services Quick Guide  

E-print Network

, phrase, ISBN/ISSN in the Search Term field (other options are available in the dropdown menu). Note1 Document Supply Services Quick Guide The DSS Portal makes requesting easy! Search for your item and password. If you are having difficulty please read the login help on the main DSS webpage. 2. Enter a word

224

Making Movies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

2012-01-01

225

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

226

Violin Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is devoted to violin making, care, and maintenance and was created by the violinmaker Hans Johannsson. In addition to the explanation of violin construction, the website also covers the topics of wood, varnish, glue, tools, and design as they relate to violin making. An article on violin sound includes sample sound clips in a variety of formats. This will prove valuable to those interested in the construction or repair of violins.

2006-12-26

227

Making Babies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to introduce learners to genes, genotypes and simple inheritance patterns. In this activity, learners make guesses about their own genotype, create gametes from their genotypes, then make “babies” with a partner. Along the way, learners discover answers to the questions such as: What are genes? How are genes (and traits) passed on? How are gametes different than other cells in our body? Why don’t siblings look alike? This activity is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Human Traits" activity from the same resource but can be used alone.

Irene Salter

2012-04-09

228

Document Management on Display.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

Grimshaw, Anne

1998-01-01

229

Pivoted document length normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic information retrieval systems have to deal with documents of varying lengths in a text collection. Document length normalization is used to fairly retrieve documents of all lengths. In this study, we ohserve that a normalization scheme that retrieves documents of all lengths with similar chances as their likelihood of relevance will outperform another scheme which retrieves documents with chances

Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Manclar Mitra

1996-01-01

230

DEPENDENT PROOF DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS Use the chart below to determine acceptable proof documentation. Submit a copy of the proof  

E-print Network

is acceptable. Adopted Child or Child Placed for Adoption Documentation depends on stage of adoption process DEPENDENT PROOF DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS · Use the chart below to determine acceptable proof documentation. Submit a copy of the proof documents, and make sure official seals are clear and visible

New Mexico, University of

231

Making Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Repeated motion is present everywhere in nature. Learn how to ?make waves? with your own movements using a motion detector to plot your position as a function of time, and try to duplicate wave patterns presented in the activity. Investigate the concept of distance versus time graphs and see how your own movement can be represented on a graph.

2012-07-19

232

Making Measurements!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice converting measurements and finding perimeters. First, play Converting Lengths, where you get to convert units of length. To change it up a little, try Converting Weights. Then in Shape Surveyor, click the level "Hard" and make sure you are doing "Perimeters." Feel free to try "Areas" too! You should know how to do all of it! Find the perimeters ...

Yost, Ms.

2009-11-09

233

Making Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

2011-01-01

234

TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

235

24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands § 55.27 Documentation. ...considered outside the floodplain or wetland, but within the local housing...

2014-04-01

236

15 CFR 748.9 - Support documents for license applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to obtaining the required support document...and Purchaser is required to support one...In obtaining the required support document...only one of the factors upon which BIS...factors in the decision making process....

2010-01-01

237

49 CFR 237.155 - Documents and records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Records, and Audits of Bridge Management Programs § 237.155 Documents and records. Each track...required to implement a bridge management program and keep records...shall make those program documents and records available...

2010-10-01

238

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 ...PROGRAM Pt. 67, App. A Appendix A to Part 67—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A...

2013-07-01

239

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 ...PROGRAM Pt. 67, App. A Appendix A to Part 67—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A...

2012-07-01

240

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 ...PROGRAM Pt. 67, App. A Appendix A to Part 67—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A...

2011-07-01

241

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 ...PROGRAM Pt. 67, App. A Appendix A to Part 67—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A...

2010-07-01

242

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 ...PROGRAM Pt. 67, App. A Appendix A to Part 67—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A...

2014-07-01

243

The Framingham Heart Study Clock Drawing Performance: Normative Data from the Offspring Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context While the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a popular tool used to assess cognitive function, limited normative data on CDT performance exists. The objective of the current study was to provide normative data on an expanded version of previous CDT scoring protocols from a large community-based sample of middle to older adults (aged 43 to 91) from the Framingham Heart Study. Methods The CDT was administered to 1476 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants using a scoring protocol that assigned error scores to drawn features. Total error scores were computed, as well as for subscales pertaining to outline, numeral placement, time-setting, center, and “other.” Results Higher levels of education were significantly associated with fewer errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numerals (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Older age was significantly associated with more errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numeral (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Significant differences were also found between education groups on the Command condition for all but the oldest age group (75+). Conclusion Results provide normative data on CDT performance within a community-based cohort. Errors appear to be more prevalent in older compared with younger individuals, and may be less prevalent in individuals who completed at least some college compared with those who did not. Future studies are needed to determine whether this expanded scoring system allows detection of preclinical symptoms of future risk for dementia. PMID:23316738

Nyborn, Justin A.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Du, Yangchun; Kaplan, Edith; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Rinn, William E.; Denison, Helen S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

2013-01-01

244

Establishing normative data for repeated cognitive assessment: a comparison of different statistical methods.  

PubMed

Serial cognitive assessment is conducted to monitor changes in the cognitive abilities of patients over time. At present, mainly the regression-based change and the ANCOVA approaches are used to establish normative data for serial cognitive assessment. These methods are straightforward, but they have some severe drawbacks. For example, they can only consider the data of two measurement occasions. In this article, we propose three alternative normative methods that are not hampered by these problems-that is, multivariate regression, the standard linear mixed model (LMM), and the linear mixed model combined with multiple imputation (LMM with MI) approaches. The multivariate regression method is primarily useful when a small number of repeated measurements are taken at fixed time points. When the data are more unbalanced, the standard LMM and the LMM with MI methods are more appropriate because they allow for a more adequate modeling of the covariance structure. The standard LMM has the advantage that it is easier to conduct and that it does not require a Monte Carlo component. The LMM with MI, on the other hand, has the advantage that it can flexibly deal with missing responses and missing covariate values at the same time. The different normative methods are illustrated on the basis of the data of a large longitudinal study in which a cognitive test (the Stroop Color Word Test) was administered at four measurement occasions (i.e., at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 years later). The results are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:23344738

Van der Elst, Wim; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle

2013-12-01

245

Improving access and reuse of educational documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can an author verify that his writing says what he means and means what he says? Authoring systems are generally specialized in document content creation and pay little attention to techniques for making communicative intentions more explicit. The new idea defended here is that the authors of technical or educational documents can improve access to, comprehension and reuse of

Saïd Tazi

2005-01-01

246

EVALUATING GENERALIZED TABULAR EXPRESSIONS IN SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents a generalized model of tabular expressions used in software documentation, and describes how this model has been applied to build a tool that evaluates a broad class of expressions. Tabular notation is used in software documentation to improve the readability of complex mathematical relations [12]. By making expressions easier to parse and removing many of the common

RUTH ABRAHAM; B. ENG

1997-01-01

247

Adaptative Filtering of Multilingual Document Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly ubiquitous global information structure makes it possible to examine high-volumetext streams that contain documents written in a variety of languages. Present monolingual adaptivefiltering techniques learn profiles which reflect user preferences and then apply those profilesto reduce the volume of new documents that must be examined by the user to manageable levels.This paper presents three techniques for extending adaptive

Douglas W. Oard

1997-01-01

248

Wind system documentation  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

1993-01-15

249

NORMATIVE SCIENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

250

The Normative Environment for Drug Use: Comparisons among American Indian and White Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the influence of descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived outcome expectancies, and ethnicity on marijuana and inhalant use among 2334 American Indian and white high school students who lived on or near reservations in the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with survey data collected during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years. Results suggest differences between ethnicities in the influence of the normative environment and outcome expectancies on both marijuana and inhalant use. Study limitations are noted, and future research is suggested. PMID:23768429

Dieterich, Sara E.; Swaim, Randall C.; Beauvais, Fred

2013-01-01

251

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

252

The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.

Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L. (University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Poison, MT)

2002-10-01

253

Generic safety documentation model  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

Mahn, J.A.

1994-04-01

254

Making Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Living Graphs, Making Waves is a freely downloaded interactive physics package that helps students visualize and understand the motion and interference of transverse and longitudinal waves. Designed for senior high school and college physics students, the interactive program allows users to manipulate wave properties such as their amplitude, wavelength, phase shift, speed, frequency and damping; standing waves; and mks units. The site even provides online help and tutorials for teachers to help them integrate the software into curricula.

1969-12-31

255

Film Making  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are a list of useful sites, tutorials, and resources that will guide you through the filmmaking process. Click on this link to find out about the three different stages of film production. Preproduction, production, and postproduction VIDEO EDITING TUTORIALS If you are part of the special effects and film editing team, you won\\'t want to miss these. Click here to find out how to use a green screen to make different backgrounds for your ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

256

Making Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article examines the reading comprehension strategy known as making connections. It involves linking what is being read (the text) to what is already known (schema, or background knowledge). The author provides links to four online resources that will help readers use the strategy in K-5 science and literacy classrooms. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which integrates science and literacy instruction.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

257

Making Trains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses Cuisenaire Rods to develop flexibility and fluency with addition facts and to encourage systematic thinking. Several different challenges are posed, all involving making equivalent trains using a given number of rods of different colors. An interactive Flash Cuisenaire applet is provided as an alternative to using real rods. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related activity, Cuisenaire Counting (cataloged separately).

2005-10-01

258

Comparing post-concussive neurocognitive test data to normative data presents risks for under-classifying "above average" athletes.  

PubMed

We compared classification accuracy of post-concussion test data against baseline and normative data, accounting for baseline level of performance. Athletes (N = 250) completed baseline and post-concussion ImPACT assessments, within 7 days of concussion (verified by sports medicine professionals and self-reported symptoms). Athletes were classified as "below average," "average," or "above average" at baseline. Change from baseline was calculated using reliable change indices (RCIs) and regression-based measures (RBz), and comparison to normative data was achieved using z-scores. Normative comparisons identified fewer symptomatic, concussed athletes than RCIs and RBz. Both RCIs and RBz consistently identified "impairment" at 1 and 1.5 SD, regardless of baseline level, whereas normative comparisons identified 46-48% fewer athletes performing "above average" at baseline using a cut-off of 1 SD and 36-38% fewer using a cut-off of 1.5 SD. The use of normative comparisons may differentially classify concussed, symptomatic athletes who are outside the "average" range at baseline. PMID:25178629

Schatz, Philip; Robertshaw, Stacey

2014-11-01

259

Seattle Municipal Archives: Digital Document Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Municipal Archives has been a leader in putting important historical municipal documents online for well over a decade, and this digital document libraries collection is an important part of their work. These document libraries were conceived as a resource for teachers and students of Washington State history, and they contain primary source documents from key events in the Evergreen State's past. Visitors can make their way through document collections that include "The Great Seattle Fire of 1889", "Hoovervilles in Seattle", "Women in the Fire Department", and "Unemployment and the WPA in Seattle". Each collection contains a brief overview, the primary documents, and a bibliography. The documents are quite amazing, and they include letters from local officials, citizen petitions, and photographs.

260

A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control  

PubMed Central

Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

261

Making Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.

Greb, Stephen

262

Making Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of a three-part E-Example from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics of the NCTM algebra standards and this applet is also used in an Illumination unit that highlights different aspects of students' understanding and use of patterns as they analyze relationships and make predictions. This example presents a task for students to complete using the interactive applet. Students can create pattern units of squares, predict how patterns with different numbers of squares will appear when repeated in a grid and then check their predictions. Instructions for using the applet are included and background information for the teacher is provided.

2011-01-01

263

Making of America Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Making of America (MOA) project at the University of Michigan is one of the oldest collaborative efforts designed to make a wide range of historical journals available online. Started in the fall of 1995, the project has successfully offered access to thousands of pages of journals and books that document American social history from the antebellum period through Reconstruction. With generous assistance from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the MOA digital archive has digitized numerous journals from this period, and made them widely accessible. Visitors will appreciate looking through such pieces as the "Anatomy of Selfishness" from the February 1887 of Catholic World, or the entire contents of the Southern Literary Messenger from November 1845.

264

A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) with examples of petrologic problem solving  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.

Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, G.

1979-01-01

265

King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.  

PubMed

The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median?=?22.0 years, range?=?16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0?s (SD?=?6.1?s, range?=?24.0-65.7?s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC?=?0.92, Pearson?=?0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

2014-08-20

266

Functional movement ScreenTM--normative values in healthy distance runners.  

PubMed

Recreational runners have an estimated overuse injury incidence rate of up to 79% and 90% for marathoners. A pre-participation screening tool that can identify risk for injury may help reduce overuse injury in runners. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS(TM)) is a reliable clinical tool used with athletes to help predict injury. To date, the FMS(TM) has not been used with endurance athletes. The purpose of this article is to establish normative FMS(TM) values for distance runners. 45 healthy runners performed the FMS(TM). Descriptive statistics were calculated; independent t-tests were performed to examine the effect of gender, experience and injury on scores. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate whether significant differences in scores exist for any component of the FMS(TM). The mean FMS(TM) score was 13.13±1.8. No significant differences in FMS(TM) scores were found between novice and experienced runners (p=0.71) or runners with a history of injury and those without (p=0.20). While male and female runners did not differ significantly in their total FMS(TM) score (p=0.65), significant differences were found in the deep squat (p<0.05), trunk stability push-up (p<0.001) and active straight leg raise components (p=0.002). This study provides normative values for FMS(TM) scores when testing uninjured distance runners. PMID:25144432

Agresta, C; Slobodinsky, M; Tucker, C

2014-12-01

267

Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking.  

PubMed

Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive attitudinal, normative, and control effects on quit intention, which is not a truly explanatory account of psychological processes that explain formation of quit intentions among smokers. The purpose of the research reported here was to test one such explanatory process, namely that perceived control moderates attitudinal and normative effects, such that the more smokers feel that they can successfully quit, the stronger attitude and subjective norm affect quit intention. To test the perceived control as moderator hypothesis, the authors submitted data from 3,428 adult smokers to hierarchical regression analyses and demonstrated that in this sample perceived control interacted with attitude (b = .16) and perceived norm (b = .11), f 2 =.04. Furthermore, the authors found that experience with previous quit attempts mattered, such that compared with smokers with relatively short-lived previous quit attempts and smokers who had never tried to quit, the Perceived Control × Attitude interaction in particular was greatest among smokers who had experienced relatively longer periods of remaining quit. Two clear implications of these findings are that behavioral theory should reconsider a moderator role for perceived control, and that smoking cessation interventions should always include a control-building component. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243830

Yzer, Marco; van den Putte, Bas

2014-12-01

268

[A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].  

PubMed

Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr. PMID:1342729

Dorschel, A

1992-01-01

269

A normative framework for the study of second-order sensitivity in vision.  

PubMed

While the contrast sensitivity approach has been successful in evaluating the processing of first-order stimuli, there is a need to develop comparable ways of assessing second-order vision. Our purpose here is to establish normative data on second-order contrast-, orientation-, and motion-modulation sensitivity in humans. We propose a unified framework, applying the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method, which was recently developed for the rapid measurement of contrast sensitivity across the full spatial-frequency range (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), to measure both first- and second-order sensitivity functions. We first show that the qCSF methodology can be successfully adapted to different kinds of first- and second-order measurements. We provide a normative dataset for both first- and second-order sensitivity, and we show that the sensitivity to all these stimuli is equal in the two eyes. Our results confirm some strong differences between first- and second-order processing, in accordance with the classical filter-rectify-filter model. They suggest a common contrast detection mechanism but different second-order mechanisms. PMID:25096156

Reynaud, Alexandre; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F

2014-01-01

270

Normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in an Italian population sample.  

PubMed

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening battery, also including subtests to assess frontal functions such as set-shifting, abstraction and cognitive flexibility. MoCA seems to be useful to identify non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subcortical dementia; it has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing MCI from mild Alzheimer's Disease. Previous studies revealed that certain items of MoCA may be culturally biased and highlighted the need for population-based norms for the MoCA. The aim of present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Four hundred and fifteen Italian healthy subjects (252 women and 163 men) of different ages (age range 21-95 years) and educational level (from primary to university) underwent MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on MoCA. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for MoCA raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off score, estimated using a non-parametric technique, is 15.5 and equivalent scores were computed. Correlation analysis showed a significant but weak correlation between MoCA adjusted scores with MMSE adjusted scores (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the MoCA in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25380622

Santangelo, Gabriella; Siciliano, Mattia; Pedone, Roberto; Vitale, Carmine; Falco, Fabrizia; Bisogno, Rossella; Siano, Pietro; Barone, Paolo; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi

2014-11-01

271

Bootstrapping Semantic Annotations for Content-Rich HTML Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enormousamountof semanticdatais still beingencoded in HTML documents. Identifying and annotating the se- mantic concepts implicit in such documents makes them di- rectly amenable for Semantic Web processing. In this paper we describe a highly automated technique for annotating HTML documents, especially template-based content-rich documents, containing many different semantic concepts per document. Starting with a (small) seed of hand-labeled instances of

Saikat Mukherjee; I. V. Ramakrishnan; Amarjeet Singh

2005-01-01

272

An Associative Documentation Diplomarbeit  

E-print Network

DOCUMENTATION within an software engineering process. The characteristics of technical documentation and its with the software development. The principle to match software entity names with documentation segments defines for coordination of the software development and the technical documentation development. An analysis of different

Nierstrasz, Oscar

273

NORMATIVE VALUES OF ECCENTRIC HIP ABDUCTION STRENGTH IN NOVICE RUNNERS: AN EQUATION ADJUSTING FOR AGE AND GENDER  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. Methods: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand–held dynamometer. The demographic variables associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. Results: A significant difference in maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was found between males and females: 1.62 ± 0.38 Nm/kg (SD) for males versus 1.41 ± 0.33 Nm/kg (SD) for females (p < 0.001). Age was associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength: per one year increase in age a ?0.0045 ± 0.0013 Nm/kg (SD) decrease in strength was found, p < 0.001. Normative values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * ?0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0.354) Nm/kg. Conclusion: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners, and these variables should be taken into account when evaluating eccentric hip abduction strength in this group of athletes. Level of Evidence: 2A PMID:24567857

Pedersen, M.B.; Kastrup, K.; Lønbro, S.; Jacobsen, J.S.; Thorborg, K.; Nielsen, R.O.; Rasmussen, S.

2014-01-01

274

Software Documentation with Animated Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how a formal model of interaction can be employed to generate documentation on how to use an application, in the form of an Animated Agent. The formal model we employ is XDM (Context-Sensitive Dialog Modeling), an extension of Coloured Petri Nets that enables representing user-adapted interfaces, simulating their behaviour in different contexts and making semaiutomatic pre-empirical evaluations of

Fiorella de Rosis; Berardina De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo

1999-01-01

275

Addiction and “Generation Me:” Narcissistic and Prosocial Behaviors of Adolescents with Substance Dependency Disorder in Comparison to Normative Adolescents  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to explore narcissistic and prosocial behaviors as reported by adolescents with and without substance dependency disorder (SDD). This study employs a quasi-experimental design using SDD adolescents compared with two normative samples of adolescents. In comparison to normative adolescents, adolescents with SDD were strongly distinguished by overt narcissistic behaviors and less monetary giving. Levels of narcissistic and prosocial behaviors among adolescents with SDD suggest a connection between self-centeredness and addiction. Results also suggest volunteerism as a potential option to counter narcissism in substance dependent adolescents. PMID:22544995

CARTER, REBECCA R.; JOHNSON, SHANNON M.; EXLINE, JULIE J.; POST, STEPHEN G.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

2012-01-01

276

Computer software documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

Comella, P. A.

1973-01-01

277

Degraded document image enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

2007-01-01

278

Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.  

PubMed

This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732

Blackwood, Evelyn

2007-01-01

279

Normative neurocognitive data for national football league players: an initial compendium.  

PubMed

The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research. PMID:25638042

Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

2015-03-01

280

Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers  

PubMed Central

Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

Taylor, Catherine A.; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

2011-01-01

281

Effects of kinetics on the crystallization of quartz normative basalt 15597 - An experimental study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equilibrium experiments on a residual liquid composition from the dynamic crystallization study on quartz normative basalt (QNB) 15597 are used to evaluate the effects of kinetics on the crystallization of pyroxene-porphyritic basalts. The results indicate that the liquids coexisting with pyroxene phenocryst rims before the precipitation of groundmass plagioclase + pyroxene have left the equilibrium liquid line of descent and metastably penetrated the plagioclase primary phase volume. The precipitation of groundmass plagioclase + pyroxene brings the basalt system closer to equilibrium with respect to the residual liquid and crystals. At rapid cooling rates pyroxene phenocryst growth produces substantial compositional gradients in the residual silicate liquid at the pyroxene/liquid interface. The compositional gradients enhance the nucleation and growth of groundmass phases at the phenocryst interface, because effects related to constitutional supercooling for these phases (e.g., plagioclase, pyroxene, etc.) favor nucleation at the interface.

Grove, T. L.; Raudsepp, M.

1978-01-01

282

To be or not be a woman: anorexia nervosa, normative gender roles, and feminism.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the characteristics of anorexia nervosa described in the DSM-III-R, relates them to normative gender roles and adolescent development, and critiques those roles on feminist grounds. Two apparently contradictory explanations for the irrational pursuit of thinness are considered: a) the anorexic thus attempts to conform to a socially defined feminine ideal; b) the anorexic thus attempts to avoid the appearance and consequences of mature womanhood. I propose that both explanations are applicable, together emplifying the ambiguity that Simone de Beauvoir considers characteristic of female experience. Because both explanations suggest a gender identity disorder, I question the fact that the DSM-III-R fails to indicate this linkage. I argue further that therapeutic considerations require efforts to alter the socialization factors that are implicative in anorexia nervosa. PMID:1588246

Mahowald, M B

1992-04-01

283

Social Organization through Teacher-Talk: Subteaching, Socialization and the Normative Use of Language in a Multilingual Primary Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the ways in which peers take up a teacher-like discourse to enforce normative uses of language in a classroom, effectively socializing one another to the institutional use of English which in turn signals class membership. Such an uptake of teacher-like discourses and practices can be characterized as subteaching…

Mokkonen, Alicia Copp

2012-01-01

284

Interpretation of the RBANS in Inpatient Psychiatry: Clinical Normative Data and Prevalence of Low Scores for Patients with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS; Randolph, 1998) is a screening battery designed to measure attention and processing speed, expressive language, visual-spatial and constructional abilities, and immediate and delayed memory. Clinical normative data for a large sample of inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders is available (Wilk, Gold, Humber, Dickerson, Fenton, & Buchanan, 2004). The

Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks; Glenn M. T. Haley

2009-01-01

285

The Relationship between Normative-Humanistic Attitudes and Discipline Beliefs in a Turkish Pre-School Teachers' Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pre-school teachers' discipline beliefs and normative-humanistic orientations. The sample consisted of 156 female pre-school teachers from public (89%) and private (12%) pre-schools in the western Anatolian region of Turkey. A Polarity Scale consisting of 45 items related to…

Gursimsek, Isik; Goregenli, Melek

2004-01-01

286

MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

2011-01-01

287

What is the Normative Role of Logic? Abstract: The paper tries to spell out a connection between deductive logic and  

E-print Network

What is the Normative Role of Logic? Abstract: The paper tries to spell out a connection between deductive logic and rationality, against Harman's arguments that there is no such connection, and also against the thought that any such connection would preclude rational change in logic. One might not need

Fitelson, Branden

288

Beyond the Golden Section and Normative Aesthetics: Why Do Individuals Differ so Much in Their Aesthetic Preferences for Rectangles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the experimental aesthetics of rectangles originates in the studies of Fechner (1876), which investigated Zeising's suggestion that Golden Section ratios determine the aesthetic appeal of great works of art. Although Fechner's studies are often cited to support the centrality of the Golden Section, a century of subsequent experimental work suggests it has little normative role in rectangle preferences.

I. C. McManus; Richard Cook; Amy Hunt

2010-01-01

289

Normative images of the family for Africa: the UN Convention and the African Charter on the rights of the child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article intends to contribute to the understanding of normative images of the family which are contained in international and regional human rights instruments. All the African states with the exception only of Somalia are parties to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989, and three quarters of all African states are parties to the African

Ulrike Wanitzek

2007-01-01

290

Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted meta-analyses to assess (a) relations among affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization and (b) relations between the three forms of commitment and variables identified as their antecedents, correlates, and consequences in Meyer and Allen's (1991) Three-Component Model. They found that the three forms of commitment are related yet distinguishable from one another as well as

John P. Meyer; David J. Stanley; Lynne Herscovitch; Laryssa Topolnytsky

2002-01-01

291

Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with higher levels of anger and stronger beliefs that

Denis G. Sukhodolsky; Vladislav V. Ruchkin

2004-01-01

292

Evaluations of and Reasoning about Normative and Deviant Ingroup and Outgroup Members: Development of the Black Sheep Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social…

Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B.; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

2014-01-01

293

Rey's 15-Item Visual Memory Test for the Detection of Malingering: Normative Observations on Patients with Neurological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gather normative observations on a visual memory test developed by A. Rey (1964), it was administered to 100 temporal-lobe epilepsy patients with memory deficits and 56 outpatients with neurological disorders. Results suggest a cutoff score of 7 on the memory test may alert the clinician to possible factitious memory complaints. (SLD)

Lee, Gregory P.; And Others

1992-01-01

294

Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among African Americans with early rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of ethnic-specific normative data.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis among African Americans with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to assess the effect of using race/ethnicity-specific normative data. METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine was assessed in African Americans with early RA. To examine the impact of using different normative data on disease classification, we calculated two sets of T scores, the first using sex-matched reference data from Caucasians and the second using data from African Americans. Osteoporosis was defined as a BMD at either site > or =2.5 SD below the young adult mean. Osteopenia was defined as a BMD > or =1 SD and <2.5 SD below this mean. RESULTS: Using Caucasian referent data, 33% (n=48) of patients had osteopenia or worse (n=48, 32.9%) and 5% (n=8) were osteoporotic. With the use of African-American normative data, 55% (n=94) were osteopenic or worse, and 16% (n=27) were osteoporotic. CONCLUSION: African Americans with RA are at risk of osteopenia and/or osteoporosis. Different diagnostic classifications may occur in this population based solely on the normative data used for assessing fracture risk. These results underscore the need for a standardized approach in defining osteopenia and osteoporosis in African Americans. PMID:16173331

Mikuls, Ted R.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Bridges, S. Louis; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Lim, Sam S.; Smith, Edwin A.; Jonas, Beth L.; Moreland, Larry W.

2005-01-01

295

Lecture 2. What is the Normative Role of Logic? What is the connection between (deductive) logic and  

E-print Network

Lecture 2. What is the Normative Role of Logic? What is the connection between (deductive) logic and rationality? One extreme: Frege. A law of logic is a law of rational thought. Seems problematic, if rational change of logic is possible. It seems to say that in a debate over logic, the party who advocates

Fitelson, Branden

296

Percentile Normative Tables for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (1973-74 School Year Data Base).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes test performance for 771,031 students tested on Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Form 2 during school year 1973-74, with separate normative tables provided by sub-test, aptitude composite, grade, sex and geographic region. New data are provided for ninth grade and post-high school students. Information…

Wilfong, Harry D.; And Others

297

Assessing executive function with the D-KEFS sorting test: normative data for a sample of the Italian adult population.  

PubMed

One of the major problems in clinical neuropsychology is to apply ecological, easily administrable and sensitive tests that can help in the diagnosis of executive functions. In the present paper we present normative values for the D-KEFS sorting test (ST), exploring the ability of reasoning, categorization abilities, problem solving, flexibility of thinking and abstraction. We collected normative data in a group of 181 normal Italian subjects aged between 20 and 69 years old, matched for educational level. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effects of age, sex and education. Age and education had a significant effect on ST performance. Our study provided normative data for the D-KEFS ST for the adult Italian population, corrections of raw scores for relevant demographic factors, and percentile grids for both baseline data and on re-testing after 9 months of follow-up. These normative Italian values support the use of the D-KEFS ST as a valid instrument for initial neuropsychological evaluation and longitudinal analysis of executive functions in clinical practice and for research purposes. PMID:24998015

Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Galli, Paola; Guarneri, Chiara; Corso, Barbara; Montomoli, Cristina; Niccolai, Claudia; Goretti, Benedetta; Amato, Maria Pia; Riboni, Elisa; Tomasina, Chiara Dalla; Falautano, Monica; Capra, Ruggero

2014-12-01

298

The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

2007-01-01

299

Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

2010-01-01

300

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in children: normative data and biometric correlations  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to report normative values of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular parameters in children using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to perform correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting 113 healthy children aged 6 to 17 years with no ocular abnormality except refractive error. After a comprehensive eye examination and axial length measurement, RNFL and macular thickness measurements were performed using the Cirrus OCT machine. Main outcome measures were macular volume, macular thickness and RNFL thickness values as well as their correlations with age, refractive error and axial length. Right eyes of all subjects were selected for analysis. Results One hundred and eight children were included in the study, 65 females and 43 males. Mean age was 10.7+/?3.1 years, average spherical equivalent refraction (SE) was ?0.02+/?1.77(?4.25 to +5.00) diopters and average axial length was 23.5+/?1.0 (21.5 to 25.8)mm. Mean RNFL thickness was 95.6+/?8.7 ?m, average macular thickness was 279.6+/?12.5 ?m, central macular thickness was 249.1+/?20.2 ?m, and mean macular volume was 10.1+/?0.5 mm3. Central macular thickness values were significantly higher in males (p?normative RNFL and macular parameters in healthy children below 18 years of age were established; measurements varied by age and gender. PMID:24755354

2014-01-01

301

A Study to Draw a Normative Database of Laryngopharynx pH Profile in Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To draw a normative database of laryngopharynx pH profile in Chinese subjects. Methods Normal volunteers were recruited from “www.Ganji.com” and People’s hospital between May 2008 and December 2009. The Restech pH Probes were calibrated in pH 7 and pH 4 buffer solutions according to the manufacturer's instructions. Each volunteer was asked to wear the device for a 24-hour period and was encouraged to participate in normal daily activities. Results The healthy volunteers consisted of 20 males and 9 females with a median age of 23 years (interquartile range, 21 to 32 years). The 95th percentiles for % total times at pH < 4, pH < 4.5, pH < 5.0 and pH < 5.5 for the oropharynx pH catheter were 0.06%, 1.01%, 7.23% and 27.34%, respectively. The 95th percentile for number of reflux events within the 24-hour period at pH < 4, pH < 4.5, pH < 5.0 and pH < 5.5 were 2.0, 18.0, 107.5 and 284.5, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study to systematically assess the degree of reflux detected by the new pH probe in healthy asymptomatic Chinese volunteers and to report normative values in Chinese people. Using an oropharyngeal pH catheter to monitor laryngopharyngeal reflux indicated that in healthy Chinese, reflux should be considered normal if the percent time at pH less than 4.5 is no more than 1%. PMID:24948130

Feng, Guijian; Wang, Junyao; Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Yulan

2014-01-01

302

A Normative Study of the Disability Assessment for Dementia in Community-Dwelling Elderly Koreans  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated demographic influences on Korean version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD-K) performance and developed normative data for DAD-K. Methods The DAD-K was administered to 2362 normal controls (NCs), 296 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 293 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). MANOVA and ROC curve analysis were used to compare DAD-K performance and the diagnostic accuracy of DAD-K, respectively. The demographic influence on DAD-K scores was analyzed by multiple linear regression and ANOVA. Normative DAD-K data were calculated using natural logarithmic transformation. Results All DAD-K scores were significantly different among groups (p<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), executive function and DAD-K total scores began to decline significantly in the very mild stage of AD, whereas the basic activities of daily living (BADL) scores began to decline in the mild stage of AD. The area under the ROC curve differentiating MCI or AD from NC was 0.737 and that differentiating AD from MCI or NC was 0.911. IADL and planning and organization scores were influenced by age and education and performance and DAD-K total scores were influenced by education. Conclusion The demographic influences on DAD-K scores are not conspicuous and are mainly limited to the IADL and planning and organization scores. Unitary or minimally stratified norms for a specific population were developed for DAD-K application. Our results suggest that the DAD-K is useful for differentiating NC or MCI from AD but not as powerful for differentiating NC from MCI. PMID:25395976

Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Chi, Yeon Kyung; Choi, Hyo Jung; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Joon Hyuk; Youn, Jong Chul; Kim, Jeong Lan; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Dong Young

2014-01-01

303

The normative value of inflammatory cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish stable, well-accepted nasal perfusion and a normative value of classifying cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults. Methods A total of 500 healthy adults were divided into two groups of 250 people per group (group A, 16-30 years old and group B, 31-60 years old; male-to-female ratio, 1:1). All volunteers were non-smokers; they were irrigated with saline, and multiple inflammatory cells in the perfusate were analyzed. Results Irrigation was successfully performed in 479 cases, a success rate of 95.80%. The types of inflammatory cells showed a skewed distribution. The median number and interquartile range (IQR) of eosinophils were 0 and 0.2, respectively. These values were 0.4 and 2.2, respectively, for neutrophils and 0 and 0, respectively, for both lymphocytes and macrophages. There was no significant difference between males and females (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the different age groups (P=0.000), but there was no significant difference in the numbers of eosinophils and macrophages (P>0.05). The 95% unilateral upper limited values (UULVs) of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusates were 2.99 and 14.94, respectively, for group A and 1.41 and 17.08 for group B. As a result, the total 95% UULVs of eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal perfusate were 2.00 and 16.80. Conclusions We established stable, well-accepted nasal perfusions and normal values for classifying the cells in the nasal perfusate of Chinese adults; the normative values of the inflammatory cells in nasal perfusate are 2.00 for the 95% UULV of eosinophils and 16.80 for neutrophils. Age might be one of the factors affecting the cells in rhinitis. PMID:25093086

Zhang, Yong; Xie, Yanqing; Wang, Zhiyi; Li, Derong; Ma, Li; Pang, Xinju; Yu, Weidong; Zhong, Nanshan

2014-01-01

304

Retinal Thickness Normative Data in Wild-Type Mice Using Customized Miniature SD-OCT  

PubMed Central

Objective To report normative data for retinal thickness in wild-type C57BL/6 mouse utilizing a miniature SD-OCT system. Methods Thirty adult mice (range: 3–5 months) were anesthetized and secured into the Bioptigen Spectral Domain Ophthalmic Imaging System. Right eye SD-OCT images were standardized by centralizing the optic nerve head (ONH) prior to image acquisition. Global and quadrant total retinal thickness (TRT) values were measured from retinal nerve fiber layer to retinal pigment epithelial layer. Posterior segment analyses also included the outer retinal layer (ORL) and inner retinal layer (IRL). Further sublayer analyses of four layers from the ORL and three layers comprising the IRL were also performed. Results The overall mean±SD global TRT in a C57BL/6 mouse model was 204.41±5.19 µm. Quadrant mean TRT values were 204.85±5.81 µm inferiorly, 204.97±6.71 µm nasally, 205.08±5.44 µm temporally, and 202.74±4.85 µm superiorly. Mean±SD thickness for ORL, and IRL were 126.37±10.01 µm, and 107.03±10.98 µm respectively. The mean±SD estimates for the four layers of the ORL were 18.23±2.73 µm, 26.04±4.21 µm, 63.8±6.23 µm, and 19.22±4.34 µm. Mean±SD values for the three IRL sublayers were 27.82±4.04 µm, 59.62±6.66 µm and 19.12±3.71 µm. Conclusion This study established normative values for the total retinal thickness and sublayer thickness for the wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, it provides a standard of retinal morphology, in a commonly used animal model, for evaluating therapeutic interventions and retinal disease pathophysiology. PMID:23826252

Ferguson, Lee R.; Dominguez II, James M.; Balaiya, Sankarathi; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kakarla V.

2013-01-01

305

Magnetic imaging of currencies and secure documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and transit documents. A solution to forensics is magnetic imaging where invisible magnetic patterns or recorded information can be displayed as an image for comparison with an optical scan. The use of small, highly sensitive detectors enables high resolution scanning of magnetic documents, creating magnetic images with fine detail. Depending on the design of a document, if the magnetic image is identical to the optical image, the document may be a counterfeit. In this paper, we will address the issues related to magnetic scanning of security documents. We will present and discuss magnetic images of documents printed with magnetic inks. We will also show how magnetic imaging can provide valuable information in understanding the alteration of magnetic data in documents such as tickets, licenses with pictures, and holograms.

Jagielinski, Tomasz M.; Chamberlain, Fred

2002-04-01

306

Web document engineering  

SciTech Connect

This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

White, B.

1996-05-01

307

Intranet Document Management Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

1998-01-01

308

Documentation and knowledge acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

1990-01-01

309

JSC document index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

1988-01-01

310

Latent Dirichlet Allocation Based Multi-Document Summarization  

E-print Network

in the documents. Let Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personalLatent Dirichlet Allocation Based Multi-Document Summarization Rachit Arora Department of Computer Chennai - 600 036, India. ravi@cse.iitm.ernet.in ABSTRACT Extraction based Multi-Document Summarization

Ravindran, Balaraman

311

Interactive Document Processing and Digital Libraries George Nagy  

E-print Network

Interactive Document Processing and Digital Libraries George Nagy Electrical, Computer and Systems on specific aspects of document processing? 2. How can researchers make use of the metadata avail- able in the state of the art? 6. How can interactive tools for document processing or annotation be tested

Nagy, George

312

Documenting Software Automatically  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated Software Documentation Utility is package of software designed to provide automated drafts of manual documentation directly from compatible C source code in UNIX environment. Programs designed to simplify and streamline crucial yet often neglected chore of documentation of programs. Written in C and Unix Shell.

Pieniazek, L. A.

1990-01-01

313

Software Maintenance Documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at presenting a model for assisting in the development of Information System for software maintenance documentation.It seeks to emphasize the optimization of the functions related to the documentation, by employing automatic processes.In this study the system of documentation is based on a Data Dictionary structure, adequately designed for the organized storage of the information needed for the

Miheko L. Ouchi; S. Paolo

1985-01-01

314

Documents in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Government Documents center provides a Documents in the News page. Taken from official sources, this page has full text documents on such subjects as Yitzhak Rabin's assassination, Bosnia, the Oklahoma City Bombing, the Ebola Virus, the United Nations Conference on Women, the G7 Summit, term limits, and the Unabomber, among many others.

York, Grace Ann.

1999-01-01

315

NaF Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The NaF documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files. PDF Generic Documentation for NaF PDF file Word Generic Documentation for NaFWord file Contact Paula M. Jacobs, Ph.D., 301-435-9181, jacobsp@mail.nih.gov, for information. Print

316

HTML Documentation site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New HTML Documentation site, including a detailed series of notes on writing HTML documents: an overview of HTML, including basic document design rules; description of all HTML markup elements, with examples; a description of server-side script issues, such as ISINDEX, FORMS and Image maps (ISMAP), with examples; pointers to changes expected for HTML; extensive bibliography, and reference list to other HTML guides.

317

Automated Management Of Documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

Boy, Guy

1995-01-01

318

The Document Management Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Document Management Alliance, a standards effort for document management systems that manages and tracks changes to electronic documents created and used by collaborative teams, provides secure access, and facilitates online information retrieval via the Internet and World Wide Web. Future directions are also discussed. (LRW)

Fay, Chuck

1998-01-01

319

Documentation: Effective AND Literate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to show how documentation can be literate, in a stylistic sense, and still be effective. Literate prose is a powerful tool that, when properly used in computer documentation, can take advantage of the full power of the English language. This does not mean that all computer documentation must or can read like a Nobel

Paul S. Burdett Jr.

1985-01-01

320

Collaborative Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering has been traditionally studied as a centralized process. There are scenarios when cen- tralized clustering does not serve the required purpose; e.g. documents spanning multiple digital libraries need not be clustered in one location, but rather clustered at each location, then enriched by receiving more informa- tion from other locations. A distributed collaborative approach for document clustering is

Khaled M. Hammouda; Mohamed S. Kamel

2006-01-01

321

Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

322

What Makes a Good Summary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest challenges for intelligence analysts who participate in prevention or response to a terrorism act is to quickly find relevant information from massive amounts of data. Along with research on information retrieval and filtering, text summarization is an effective technique to help intelligence analysts shorten their time to find critical information and make timely decisions. Multi-document summarization is particularly useful as it serves to quickly describe a collection of information. The obvious shortcoming lies in what it cannot capture especially in more diverse collections. Thus, the question lies in the adequacy and/or usefulness of such summarizations to the target analyst. In this chapter, we report our experimental study on the sensitivity of users to the quality and content of multi-document summarization. We used the DUC 2002 collection for multi-document summarization as our testbed. Two groups of document sets were considered: (I) the sets consisting of closely correlated documents with highly overlapped content; and (II) the sets consisting of diverse documents covering a wide scope of topics. Intuitively, this suggests that creating a quality summary would be more difficult for the latter case. However, human evaluators were discovered to be fairly insensitive to this difference. This occurred when they were asked to rank the performance of various automated summarizers. In this chapter, we examine and analyze our experiments in order to better understand this phenomenon and how we might address it to improve summarization quality. In particular, we present a new metric based on document graphs that can distinguish between the two types of document sets.

Zhao, Qunhua; Santos, Eugene; Nguyen, Hien; Mohamed, Ahmed

323

Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project  

SciTech Connect

As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

1998-09-01

324

Whirling Watcher: Make a Stroboscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make a stroboscope--a spinning disk with slits around the edge that you look through. Brief but frequent glimpses of images seen through the slits lead to a surprising result, which teaches learners about vision and the human nervous system. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

Exploratorium, The

2007-01-01

325

Nursing documentation usage analysis.  

PubMed

This project investigated the use of electronic patient documentation in the work context of VA nurses, guided by cognitive work analysis methodology. Prominent themes in nursing workflow and documentation usage identifed in previous research were summarized and presented in detail to a focus group of practicing nurses. The group validated a need for integrated access to order, prescription and document information. A wire frame solution was developed and presented in a second group meeting for evaluation and feedback. PMID:18998895

Robertson, Cindy; Robertson, Cynthia L; Efthimiadis, Efthimis N; Hammond, Kenric W

2008-01-01

326

Virtual Document Technology: A Means of Simplifying Document Creation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although document management (DM) systems have improved the efficiency of document handling, they do not address the document process itself. Virtual document technology, when incorporated into DM systems, simplifies the document production process and reduces time and costs. Discusses the assembly a virtual document, creation of a complete…

Polaine, Ian

1997-01-01

327

Social and personal normative influences on healthcare professionals to use information technology: Towards a more robust social ergonomics  

PubMed Central

Social structures and processes are increasingly acknowledged and studied within the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) discipline. At the same time, social phenomena are rarely the focus of HFE work, leaving a knowledge gap. The present study directly addresses social and personal normative forces that influence technology use and performance. Social and personal normative influence to use electronic health records (EHR) were investigated using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 attending physicians at two US hospitals. Analyses used a comprehensive framework based on leading social scientific theories and revealed numerous sources of influence, including hospital administration, colleagues, patients, clinical and professional groups, government, and one’s self. Influence was achieved through different means and invoked different psychological processes. Findings motivate a new view of professionals’ technology use as a highly social process occurring in a social context, with implications for research, policy, design, and in general the development of a robust social ergonomics. PMID:23066349

Holden, Richard J

2011-01-01

328

A Validated Age-Related Normative Model for Male Total Testosterone Shows Increasing Variance but No Decline after Age 40 Years  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2–31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5–97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6–25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

Kelsey, Thomas W.; Li, Lucy Q.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

2014-01-01

329

The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts  

SciTech Connect

The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-04-01

330

The Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data from a large nationally representative sample of Australians.  

PubMed

Data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used to calculate weighted norms for the written version of the Symbol Digits Modalities Test (SDMT) by gender, 5-year age groups and four levels of educational attainment. The sample comprised 14,456 Australians (47% male; age range 15-100), of whom 25% reported a tertiary qualification, 30% reported a technical qualification (diploma or trade certificate), 16% reported completing Year 12 (final year of high school), and 29% reported their highest level of educational attainment to be Year 11 or below. Participants were excluded if they reported physical or neurological conditions that limited performance. Age, gender, and education were all significantly associated with SDMT performance, as was poor health, and cultural background. The reported norms are of greater scope and precision than previously available and have utility in a range of clinical and research settings. Indeed, normative data for the SDMT that are representative of a national population have not previously been published. PMID:25352087

Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter; Watson, Nicole; Wooden, Mark

2014-12-01

331

Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais  

PubMed Central

Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

2015-01-01

332

Vestibular-proprioceptive functions in 4 year olds: normative and regression analyses.  

PubMed

Normative data were obtained for 156 pre-school children's performances on measures of muscle tone, muscle co-contraction, standing balance, prone extension posture, flexion supine posture, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, and postrotary nystagmus. Regression analysis indicated that these combined variables accounted for only 13.5 percent of the variance of postrotary nystagmus of 145 four year olds. However, if the data are examined only for children exhibiting nystagmus that is lower than 1 standard deviation below the mean, then these variables account for 50 percent of the variance of nystagmus. Prone extension posture, standing balance-eyes closed, and muscle tone account for 37 percent of the variance within this low-nystagmus population. These results are considered in light of the authors' previous studies demonstrating that, in learning-disabled children, vestibular-proprioceptive measures can be used clinically to predict which children will respond to sensory integration therapy with changes in postrotary nystagmus. These changes, according to sensory integration theory, reflect positive responses to therapy. PMID:6846472

Short, M A; Watson, P J; Ottenbacher, K; Rogers, C

1983-02-01

333

Normative data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Deficits in episodic memory, related to medial temporal lobe dysfunction, are a core component of schizophrenia. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is one of the most widely used neuropsychological memory tasks in clinical practice but normative data are limited. Over the last 15 years, the RAVLT has been used to assess verbal episodic memory performance as part of the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (WAFSS). This study aims to provide RAVLT norms, derived from the WAFSS, for individuals meeting DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, for use in clinical settings. Performance on three immediate and one delayed recall trials, and additional measures of encoding and forgetting, is presented for 492 patients and 260 healthy community controls. Results indicated that age and sex (both groups) and IQ (schizophrenia group only) significantly influenced performance. Norms are presented, as means and standard deviations, stratified accordingly. Additional between-groups analysis clearly shows a significant memory deficit in schizophrenia even when patients are matched on IQ, age, and sex with healthy controls. PMID:21310743

Badcock, Johanna C; Dragovic, Milan; Dawson, Lisa; Jones, Rochelle

2011-04-01

334

Through the lens of hetero-normative assumptions: re-thinking attitudes towards gay parenting.  

PubMed

In this study we explored the attitudes and beliefs of nine heterosexual adults towards gay male and female couples parenting children. We conceptualised participants' perceptions as one primary lens through which gay parenting is viewed. Based on the narratives provided, this lens comprised hetero-normative, homophobic or heterosexist assumptions and coloured the way in which participants perceived aspects of the concept of gay couples parenting children. At times, participants attempted to adjust their primary lens and adopt different views that initially suggested ambivalence and sometimes contradictory positions. Despite the range of attitudes and assumptions about same-sex parenting, consensus over the potential negative developmental impact on children raised by same-sex parents remained evident. Evidence suggests that same-sex parenting is already a reality in Westernised nations and has little or no bearing on the sexual orientation of children. However, concern that children be brought up with every opportunity to 'become' heterosexual, whether they are the product of same-sex or opposite-sex parents, remains evident. PMID:20960356

Pennington, Jarred; Knight, Tess

2011-01-01

335

Measuring Abnormal Brains: Building Normative Rules in Neuroimaging Using One-Class Support Vector Machines  

PubMed Central

Pattern recognition methods have demonstrated to be suitable analyses tools to handle the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. However, most studies combining neuroimaging with pattern recognition methods focus on two-class classification problems, usually aiming to discriminate patients under a specific condition (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease) from healthy controls. In this perspective paper we highlight the potential of the one-class support vector machines (OC-SVM) as an unsupervised or exploratory approach that can be used to create normative rules in a multivariate sense. In contrast with the standard SVM that finds an optimal boundary separating two classes (discriminating boundary), the OC-SVM finds the boundary enclosing a specific class (characteristic boundary). If the OC-SVM is trained with patterns of healthy control subjects, the distance to the boundary can be interpreted as an abnormality score. This score might allow quantification of symptom severity or provide insights about subgroups of patients. We provide an intuitive description of basic concepts in one-class classification, the foundations of OC-SVM, current applications, and discuss how this tool can bring new insights to neuroimaging studies. PMID:23248579

Sato, João Ricardo; Rondina, Jane Maryam; Mourão-Miranda, Janaina

2012-01-01

336

Development of normative data for the brazilian adaptation of the university of pennsylvania smell identification test.  

PubMed

It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. PMID:25547105

Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Santos, Clayson Alan Dos; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

2015-02-01

337

Mothers' Vagal Regulation During the Still-Face Paradigm: Normative Reactivity and Impact of Depression Symptoms  

PubMed Central

This study examined mothers' physiological reactivity in response to infant distress during the Still-Face Paradigm. We aimed to explore normative regulatory profiles and associated physiological and behavioral processes in order to further our understanding of what constitutes regulation in this dyadic context. We examined physiological patterns—vagal tone, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-- while mothers maintained a neutral expression over the course of the still face episode, as well as differential reactivity patterns in mothers with depression symptoms compared to non-depressed mothers. Behavioral and physiological data were collected from mothers of 5-month-old infants during the emotion suppression phase of the Still-Face Paradigm. We used Hierarchical Linear Modeling to examine changes in mothers' RSA during infant distress and explored maternal depression as a predictor of physiological profiles. Mothers were generally able to maintain a neutral expression and simultaneously demonstrated a mean-level increase in RSA during the still face episode compared to baseline, indicating an active regulatory response overall. A more detailed time-course examination of RSA trajectories revealed that an initial RSA increase was typically followed by a decrease in response to peak infant distress, suggesting a physiological mobilization response. However, this was not true of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, who showed no change in RSA during infant distress. These distinct patterns of infant distress-related physiological activation may help to explain differences in maternal sensitivity and adaptive parenting. PMID:23454427

Oppenheimer, Julia E.; Measelle, Jeffrey R.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

2013-01-01

338

Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

1993-01-01

339

Voluntary agreements in industry: A comparative description of the process and a normative analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors analyze voluntary agreements used as policy instruments to increase energy efficiency in industrial production processes. The analysis is based on case studies of voluntary agreements in Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden. The viewpoint in the approach will be the policy process starting with the political choice of the use of voluntary agreements as a political instrument ending with the effects at company level. The agreements are negotiated between representatives from the industry and the authorities. The targets are the main issues during the negotiations. Methods for monitoring and sanctions have only been minor issues in the negotiations. The choice of voluntary agreements follows a tradition in industrial policy of using voluntary approaches or softer measures in general. The design of the voluntary agreements differs substantially in scope and design. Concerning the normative assessment, the authors use seven criteria based on suggestions put forward by the European Commission and the International Energy Agency among others. Looking at the agreement through these glasses, they do not look very good. The Dutch and the Danish agreements come out as the winners. But other glasses could be used. Voluntary agreements could also be considered as an early instrument in a new policy area in situations where a more coercive regulation with taxes or prohibitions is impossible.

Hansen, K.; Larsen, A.

1999-07-01

340

Normative data for vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population.  

PubMed

To establish normative data of vestibular evoked myogenic potential in different age groups among a heterogeneous Indian population. Prospective study design using a sample of convenience. Eighty five normal controls ranging between the ages 7 and 71 years were asked to provide a written signed consent for the study. Demographic characteristics of the patients were summarized using descriptive statistical methods using SPSS-17 analysing software. The outcome variable (VEMP recording) was expressed in percentiles as function of age. In all patients the stimulus which gave the best response was 95 dB (97.7 %) and 100 dB (95 %). The mean of wave latencies (p1 & n1) for 95-VEMP were, 11.2 ± 3.2 and 17.3 ± 4.7 ms on the right and 11.0 ± 2.8 and 17.0 ± 4.2 ms on the left respectively. The amplitude was 45.1 ± 54 mV on right and 46.9 ± 61.6 mV on the left. The mean of latency difference was 0.87 ms. The VEMP is a relatively simple test. The VEMP response rate was maximum in the younger age group; the optimum intensity was 95 dB. The asymmetry ratio interpretation should be done according to the age specific values. PMID:24822153

Khan, Feroze K; Balraj, Achamma; Lepcha, Anjali

2014-06-01

341

Software for Better Documentation of Other Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

Pinedo, John

2003-01-01

342

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

343

The BigCAT: A Normative and Comparative Investigation of the Communication Attitude of Nonstuttering and Stuttering Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to provide normative and comparative data for the BigCAT, the adult form of the Communication Attitude Test, a sub-test of the Behavior Assessment Battery. The BigCAT, a 35-item self-report test of speech-associated attitude was administered to 96 adults who stutter (PWS) and 216 adults who do not (PWNS). The…

Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

2011-01-01

344

Information, knowledge and wisdom: groundwork for the normative evaluation of digital information and its relation to the good life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a general philosophical groundwork for the theoretical and applied normative evaluation of information\\u000a generally and digital information specifically in relation to the good life. The overall aim of the paper is to address the\\u000a question of how Information Ethics and computer ethics more generally can be expanded to include more centrally the issue\\u000a of how and to

Edward H. Spence

2011-01-01

345

Estimates of conditional normative firm supply functions for cotton heavy irrigated soils in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

E-print Network

and supervision throughout my gradluate pxogzam and the 1xriting of this thesis. Nr. C. A. Nooze and Dr. Alfred Chalk have also given invaluable aM through comments based Ixpon the reading of pxevious drafts. The Department of Agricultural Economics andi... 35 36 36 38 39 IV. RESULTS. Unlimited Capital Situation. Conditional Normative Firm Supply Functions for Cot, t, on. Interpretation of Optimal Farm Plans for Various Prcduct Price Relationships Cotton Priced at $1$. OO. Chapter Cotton...

Hatch, Roy Edward

1963-01-01

346

In search for rules that secure gains from cooperation: the heuristic value of social dilemmas for normative institutional economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We ask how normative statements are possible within an economic theory framework that recognises the importance of institutional\\u000a arrangements. Instead of applying established outcome-oriented criteria of social welfare, we examine whether the rules of\\u000a economic interaction allow the acquisition of gains from cooperation. We suggest to reconstruct any interaction as an existing\\u000a or repealed social dilemma. This approach helps to

Martin Petrick; Ingo Pies

2007-01-01

347

NASA Software Documentation Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

1991-01-01

348

PARTICIPANT (STUDENT) DOCUMENTATION Introduction  

E-print Network

8 PARTICIPANT (STUDENT) DOCUMENTATION Introduction The Experiment Management System provides is done through the software's web-based interface, so you can access the system at any time, from any computer, with a standard web browser. It should be noted that this documentation covers all the features

Van Stryland, Eric

349

Enriching software architecture documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eective documentation of Architectural Knowledge (AK) is one of the key factors in leveraging the paradigm shift toward sharing and reusing AK. However, current documentation approaches have severe shortcomings in capturing the knowl- edge of large and complex systems and subsequently facilitating its usage. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem through the enrichment of traditional architectural

Anton Jansen; Jan Salvador Van Der Ven

2009-01-01

350

Applications for electronic documents  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the application of electronic media to documents, specifically safety analysis reports (SARs), prepared for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) programs being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Efforts are under way to upgrade our document system using electronic format.

Beitel, G.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-12-31

351

Electronic Information Security Documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective security management depends upon good risk management, which is itself based upon a reliable risk assessment, involving data collection of all the facets influencing system risk. Such data collection is often an extremely onerous task, particularly if a substantial proportion of the required information is not adequately documented. Hence comprehensive, updated information security documentation is a keystone of good

Peggy P. K. Fung; Lam-for Kwok; Dennis Longley

2003-01-01

352

IDC System Specification Document.  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

Clifford, David J.

2014-12-01

353

Environmental Policy Document Ref  

E-print Network

Document Environmental Policy Document Ref EMS.POL.001 Last Revision March 2013 Revision No 5 Page 1 of 1 Environmental Policy Through teaching and research the University of the West of England should be managed so as to minimise environmental harm. This policy commits the University of the West

Aickelin, Uwe

354

Tobacco Industry Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced by US Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Donna E. Shalala on November 18, the day of the Great American Smokeout, this important new site will allow the public, for the first time, to conduct searches of key tobacco industry documents "made public by state lawsuits, congressional subpoenas, and the November 1998 master settlement agreement." The site is composed of four major sections. The most relevant of these for general users is the Minnesota Select Set, a full-text, searchable database with about 350,000 pages of viewable documents selected by Minnesota lawyers as key to the state's trial. Second is the searchable citation index, or the 4B Index. The 4B Index represents approximately 4 million documents, totalling 27 million pages, that are stored at the Minnesota Depository. Users may submit requests online or by fax for hard copies. Some of the cited documents may also be found via the collection of annotated links to sites that hold tobacco industry documents, most of which are maintained by the various tobacco companies and are supposed to mirror the documents in the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository, according to the Master Settlement Agreement. Background and search tips are provided to help users navigate these sites. The fourth major section is a collection of approximately 7,000 selected British American Tobacco Company documents from Guildford, England, which are stored in Minnesota as part of the Minnesota Select Set and may be viewed online.

355

Quality of Education and Memory Test Performance in Older Men: The New York University Paragraph Recall Test Normative Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders. One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one’s literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Method Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Results Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. Discussion The current study provides evidence and support for normative data stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education. PMID:23906000

Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C.; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

2014-01-01

356

Between same-sex marriages and the Large Hadron Collider: making sense of the precautionary principle.  

PubMed

The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190

Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan

2010-09-01

357

Netherlands Institute for War Documentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Promoting and facilitating the study of the global impact of World War II, the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIWD) actively encourages consultation of its archives and services -- some of which are accessible online, while others must be consulted in person. With extensive textual and photographic documentation of the war, especially aspects relating to the German occupation of the Netherlands, the NIWD is a fantastic resource for anyone attempting to conduct research on the traumatic impact of world war. Particularly strong in documenting the war as it impacted the Netherlands and its immediate geographic neighbors, the Institute supports research on the mistreatment and deportation of the Jews through meticulously maintained records, the majority of which are in Dutch or German. Aside from presenting lists of its holdings and areas of expertise, the NIWD site also makes available online bibliographies produced by its area scholars and archivists. Lastly, the site also serves as a source of information on associated organizations and their efforts, including forthcoming publications, conferences, and research awards.

358

Documents to the People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University has a number of worthy digital collections, and this particular archive will be of special interest to students of library and information science. The collection contains issues of the journal "DttP: Documents to the People" from 1972 to 2002. Drawn from the print holdings of the Stanford University Libraries, the journal documents both the organizational history of the Government Documents Round Table of the American Library Association and the emergence of the government documents specialization within the field of librarianship. Various items document the transition from a print- to a digital-publishing environment, and still others focus on barriers to citizen access to public information in the United States. Visitors can perform a simple search across these volumes, or also browse the collection by year.

359

Legacy Tobacco Documents Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California, San Francisco Library and the American Legacy Foundation recently released the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL), a collection of more than 20 million previously private documents from tobacco industry files. Ranging from approximately the 1950s to recent years, LTDL offers searching, viewing, and downloading of documents, covering projects central to the tobacco industry like marketing, research and development, cigarette analysis and design, as well as industry efforts to establish business in developing countries. Within the next 18 months, more documents will be added to the already extensive collection. Currently, viewers may perform simple or advanced searches; view documents in Adobe Reader format (.pdf) or tagged image file format (.tif); or for a quick look, utilize the page-by-page option to view .gif images within the browser.

360

Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.  

PubMed

Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

2012-09-01

361

Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy  

PubMed Central

Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18–65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

2012-01-01

362

Environmental Scan: A Strategic Planning Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information, perceptions, and predictions from a variety of sources are brought together in this document to help guide planning and decision making at Monroe Community College (MCC). The first section examines national events and trends with implications for the future of MCC, including employment projections; educational norms; data on community…

Osborn, Frances

363

Electronic recordkeeping – more than electronic document management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technology rapidly developed over the past decade and provided the means to easily capture, store and distribute documents in vast quantities and at an ever-increasing speed. To be able to make good use of this information instead of becoming swamped by it, scientific controls need to be applied. Records management provides these controls. This article explains how

Urs Raas

1999-01-01

364

Documentation: No Substitute for Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

Strickland, John

2005-01-01

365

Development of decision making: sequential versus integrative rules.  

PubMed

Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such decision-making rules. In the Gambling Machine Task, participants choose between options that differ in three dimensions: frequency of loss, amount of loss, and certain gain. The task was administered to 231 children and adolescents (age range=8-17 years). Latent group analysis of their performance allowed precise classification of the underlying decision rules. The majority of participants used sequential decision rules, and the number of evaluated dimensions in these rules increased with age. Integrative rule use decreased with age. We discuss these results in light of traditional developmental theories and fuzzy trace theory. PMID:21911222

Jansen, Brenda R J; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Huizenga, Hilde M

2012-01-01

366

Linear models in decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature indicates that linear models are frequently used in situations in which decisions are made on the basis of multiple codable inputs. These models are sometimes used (a) normatively to aid the decision maker, (b) as a contrast with the decision maker in the clinical vs statistical controversy, (c) to represent the decision maker \\

Robyn M. Dawes; Bernard Corrigan

1974-01-01

367

Program documentation standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A style manual is presented to serve as a reference and guide for system and program documentation. It is intended to set standards for documentation, prescribing the procedures to be followed, format to be used, and information to be produced. The standards for program documentation specify the extent to which the programmer should support his efforts in writing. The first three sections of the manual (system, program, and operation descriptions) contain information of particular interest to management, operators, and program users, respectively. Each section was designed as a self-sufficient description from the management, operator, or user point of view.

Parker, D. A.; Frum, C. A.

1972-01-01

368

When public health and genetic privacy collide: positive and normative theories explaining how ACA's expansion of corporate wellness programs conflicts with GINA's privacy rules.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) contains many provisions intended to increase access to and lower the cost of health care by adopting public health measures. One of these promotes the use of at-work wellness programs by both providing employers with grants to develop these programs and also increasing their ability to tie the price employees pay for health insurance for participating in these programs and meeting specific health goals. Yet despite ACA's specific alteration of three different statues which had in the past shielded employees from having to contribute to the cost of their health insurance based on their achieving employer-designated health markers, it chose to leave alone recently enacted rules implementing the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (GINA), which prohibits employers from asking employees about their family health history in any context, including assessing their risk for setting wellness targets. This article reviews how both the changes made by ACA and the restrictions recently put place by GINA will affect the way employers are likely to structure Wellness Programs. It also considers how these changes reflect the competing social goals of both ACA, which seeks to expand access to the population by lowering costs, and GINA, which seeks to protect individuals from discrimination. It does so by analyzing both positive theories about how these new laws will function and normative theories explaining the likelihood of future friction between the interests of the population of the United States as a whole who are in need of increased and affordable access to health care, and of the individuals living in this country who risk discrimination, as science and medicine continue to make advances in linking genetic make-up to risk of future illness. PMID:21871043

Bard, Jennifer S

2011-01-01

369

Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for critical investigations of these disorders and further delineation of potential treatments, particularly sex-specific approaches to gene and drug discoveries that involve hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:23247186

Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

2013-01-01

370

Gender relations, prostate cancer and diet: re-inscribing hetero-normative food practices.  

PubMed

Although diet might be a valuable adjunct to prostate cancer care, men typically have poorer diets than women and are less likely to change the way they eat after a cancer diagnosis. Gender theory suggests that dominant ideals of masculinity shape men's health and food practices; however, the role of female partners in men's diets is poorly understood. Through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews, this article explores accounts of 14 Canadian couples' food practices guided by a gender relations framework to expose how tacit performances of masculinity and femininity interact to shape the diets of men with prostate cancer. Findings show that many men became more interested and involved in their diets after a prostate cancer diagnosis, practices that might be theorized as a counter hegemonic project or 'feminization', adding to other prostate cancer induced emasculations (i.e., treatment induced incontinence and impotence). At the same time, however, couples mutually limited men's engagement with diet while concurrently reinforcing women's traditional femininities in nurturing the men in their lives through food provision. Also embedded here were women's attempts to mitigate subordinate productions of masculinity by catering to their partner's tastes as well as monitoring their diets. Most couples mutually maintained traditional gender food 'roles' by positioning women as proficient leaders in domestic food provision and men as unskilled 'try-hard' and sometimes uninterested assistants. Findings also revealed complex gender power dynamics that predominated as complicit in sustaining hegemonic masculinity through women's deference to men's preferences and careful negotiation of instrumental support for men's diet changes. Overall men and women jointly worked to re-inscribe hetero-normative family food practices that shaped men's diets and nutritional health. PMID:21497972

Mróz, Lawrence William; Chapman, Gwen E; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

2011-05-01

371

Grip Strength across the Life Course: Normative Data from Twelve British Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol. Methods We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing). Results Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males’ peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position. Conclusion This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty. PMID:25474696

Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Benzeval, Michaela; Deary, Ian J.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Der, Geoff; Gale, Catharine R.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Robinson, Sian M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Tilling, Kate; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

2014-01-01

372

Controlling Underage Drinking: Fear of Law Enforcement or Internalized Normative Values?  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research on alcohol control policies has generally taken a deterrence perspective. Whether internalized normative values, consistent with the changes intended by alcohol policies, were a potential base for securing public compliance with them has received little research attention. To fill this gap, this study examined whether underage young adults’ support for underage drinking laws was associated with their alcohol use. Methods National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) data collected in 1995–2005 were used. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Covariates included: sex, race, education level, household income, positive alcohol expectancies, the perceived likelihood of law enforcement, and the availability and affordability of alcohol. Results Controlling for other covariates, support for underage drinking laws was significantly associated with some drinking outcomes. Underage young adults who were not supportive of the minimum legal drinking age law were more likely to engage in frequent binge drinking (OR=3.08) and drinking driving (OR=4.17), and to have initiated drinking at age 16 or younger (OR=2.37). Those who indicated a lower degree of support for the zero-tolerance drunk driving law had higher odds of drinking driving (OR=4.36), as well as higher odds of having ever had alcohol (OR=5.46), current drinking (OR=5.36), and having initiated drinking at the age of 16 or younger (OR=3.09). The perceived likelihood of law enforcement was protective only from frequent binge drinking (OR=0.09). Conclusion A clear articulation of potential harms associated with underage drinking to help legitimize underage drinking laws, along with their rigorous enforcement, may help reduce underage drinking. PMID:25243198

Cook, Won Kim

2014-01-01

373

System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

1989-01-01

374

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

Not Available

1993-09-01

375

Making Meaningful: Intention in Children's Art Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's art work has often been the subject of study by researchers seeking to gain insight into the role of art making in children's learning and development. However, rarely are children's own explanations of their art making used to inform these studies. Children's perceptions of their own art making are important for research and practice…

Malin, Heather

2013-01-01

376

Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture  

DOEpatents

Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

Sanfilippo, Antonio (Richland, WA); Calapristi, Augustin J. (West Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L. (Richland, WA); Hetzler, Elizabeth G. (Kennewick, WA); Turner, Alan E. (Kennewick, WA)

2009-12-22

377

Structure Extraction in Printed Documents Using Neural Approaches  

E-print Network

a static topology that possesses the charac- teristics of a dynamic neural network. Thanks to its, etc.), often accompanied by a DTD (Document Type Definition), making the recognition more stereotyped

Boyer, Edmond

378

Informed Consent: New Recommendations Aim to Simplify Documents, Improve Quality  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has unveiled new recommendations for informed consent documents that aim to make the forms more understandable and more useful to people who are considering participation in a cancer clinical trial.

379

40 CFR 8.4 - Preparation of environmental documents, generally.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...atmospheric, terrestrial (including aquatic), glacial, or marine environments; (5) May detrimentally affect the distribution...finding the EPA may make, with the concurrence of the National Science Foundation, that the environmental documentation...

2014-07-01

380

Document Concurrence System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list had concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

2003-01-01

381

Document Concurrence System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

2003-01-01

382

Document Concurrence System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

2004-01-01

383

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2014-04-01

384

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2013-04-01

385

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2012-04-01

386

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2013-04-01

387

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2014-04-01

388

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2010-04-01

389

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2010-04-01

390

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2011-04-01

391

26 CFR 301.7513-1 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...United States § 301.7513-1 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...record, or other matter, and make reproductions from such films and...

2012-04-01

392

27 CFR 70.301 - Reproduction of returns and other documents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...Miscellaneous Provisions § 70.301 Reproduction of returns and other documents. ...administered by the Bureau, and make reproductions from such films and...

2011-04-01

393

75 FR 20606 - Guidance for Industry on Tobacco Health Document Submission; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Submission.'' The guidance document is intended to assist persons making certain document submissions to FDA under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on this...

2010-04-20

394

The Use of Documentation in a Participatory System of Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pedagogical documentation is a practice currently used in Italian early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to make visible children's learning processes in ECEC, to promote parents' participation and to support professionals' reflexive competences. These functions of pedagogical documentation have been enhanced within a…

Picchio, Mariacristina; Di Giandomenico, Isabella; Musatti, Tullia

2014-01-01

395

Computerized clinical documentation system in the pediatric intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine whether a computerized clinical documentation system (CDS): 1) decreased time spent charting and increased time spent in patient care; 2) decreased medication errors; 3) improved clinical decision making; 4) improved quality of documentation; and\\/or 5) improved shift to shift nursing continuity. METHODS: Before and after implementation of CDS, a time study involving nursing care, medication delivery, and

James A Menke; Cynthia W Broner; Deborah Y Campbell; Michelle Y McKissick; Joy A Edwards-Beckett

2001-01-01

396

A Text Categorization Method Based on Local Document Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a fast and effective text categorization method named TCBLDF is proposed. TCBLDF barely needs dimensionality reduction except a stop words removal and a document frequency based feature selection. It tries to capture the relationship between a term and a category label, thus eliminates the need to know the semantic contribution of a term makes to a document

Feng Xia; Tian Jicun; Liu Zhihui

2009-01-01

397

A normative value pilot study: levels of uranium in urine samples from UK civilians.  

PubMed

A normative study of the levels of urinary uranium in the general UK population is needed for comparison with levels in UK military and ex-military personnel who served where munitions containing depleted uranium (DU) were used. As preparation, this pilot study trialled the process of collecting 24-h samples from adult male civilians, and compared the measurements from 24-h samples with those from spot samples taken over the subsequent 24h. The purpose was to assess the relative utility of the two types of samples. Twenty-five convalescent hospital in-patients were recruited as participants. Uranium concentrations in the 24-h samples ranged from 1 to 10.6 ng l(-1); in the spots, from not detectable to 38.1 ng l(-1). Normalised to creatinine, concentrations in the 24h samples ranged from approximately 100 to 800 ng mol(-1) creatinine; in the spot samples, from not detectable to approximately 4000 ng mol(-1) creatinine. The ranges appear similar to those reported for residents of the US. The distribution of spot sample results indicated that 95% of a participant's creatinine-adjusted concentrations from spot samples would be within the range 40-250% of his mean. Adjusting for creatinine almost entirely eliminated a slight indication of diurnal variation in urinary uranium concentration in spot samples. All the 24-h samples and 131 out of the 133 spot samples showed ratios of isotopes (238)U to (235)U consistent with natural uranium (i.e. neither enriched nor depleted). Slightly elevated ratios in two spot samples were not supported by other samples from the same participants, indicating that slightly elevated ratios may be recorded on very low concentration (<1 ng l(-1)) samples. In the main, quantification of this isotope ratio from spot samples was only slightly more variable than from 24-h samples. Complete 24-h urine samples gave better precision than spot samples in estimating uranium concentrations at these low levels, but presented more logistic difficulties in the collection of the samples. Clarification of the relative merits of alternative sampling strategies enables the design of a wider study to be optimised. PMID:17418117

Jones, A D; Miller, B G; Walker, S; Anderson, J; Colvin, A P; Hutchison, P A; Soutar, C A

2007-06-01

398

Document integrity through mediated interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-to-end integrity for documents is provided by wrapping the tools that manipulate those documents and mediating their operation to cryptographically integrity mark those documents as they are being saved, to check those cryptographic integrity marks as those documents are loaded, and to record an application-level history of the changes to the document. Corrupted documents (those failing to match their crytographic

M. Tallis; R. Balzer

2001-01-01

399

Korean normative database for time domain optical coherence tomography to detect localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects (preliminary study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To establish a Korean normative database of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data was collected from 103 healthy volunteers. Total ophthalmologic examinations, including fast RNFL thickness analysis\\u000a by time domain optical coherence tomography (STRATUS OCT) were performed. The RNFL thickness of 64 glaucoma patients with\\u000a localized RNFL defects and 48 independent healthy subjects were collected. The RNFL thickness of

Shin Hee Kang; Ki Ho Park; Joon Mo Kim; Jong Mo Seo; Dong Myung Kim

2010-01-01

400

Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection  

PubMed Central

Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count of shared words showed (P<.001). Within both datasets, responses contained substantial relevant content, with more words in common with responses to the same clip than to other clips (P<.001). There was evidence that responses from female and older crowdsourced participants had more shared words (P=.004 and .01 respectively), whereas younger participants had higher numbers of shared words in the lab-sourced population (P=.01). Conclusions Crowdsourcing is an effective approach to quickly and economically collect a large reliable dataset of normative natural language responses. PMID:23689038

Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

2013-01-01

401

Computer integrated documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

Boy, Guy

1991-01-01

402

Documents in Military History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited by Dave Stewart, assistant professor of history at Hillsdale College (Hillsdale, Michigan), Documents in Military History is an online collection of primary sources for military history. The collection emphasizes pre-twentieth-century European military history but also includes some documents that address American and non-Western histories. Currently, the collection contains 325 items in six major historical sections: Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern, French Revolution, Nineteenth Century, and Naval Warfare. Each major section is further divided into more specific subsections. The organized layout of the site promotes chronological browsing. The site also provides a keyword search facility (inoperable at the time of review).

403

Outcrop Documentation Lab Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stratigraphy students are tasked with documenting an outcrop (sketches, photographs, and rock descriptions) and providing a three panel display of the results. Students work on the lab in class and receive direct mentoring in rock and outcrop description, then for homework they craft digital professional quality reports to present the data to others. These reports are graded, then returned to everyone simultaneously so they can be placed side by side. Students directly observe how others interpreted the same deposits, which underscores the concepts of sound data documentation, and separating data from interpretations.

Evans, Thomas

404

Customer Communication Document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

2009-01-01

405

Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124

Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

2014-01-01

406

Software Architecture Documentation in Practice: Documenting Architectural Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: iiiPreface to the Special Report vPreface to Software ArchitectureDocumentation in Practice vii1 Documenting Software Architectures 11.1 Rules for Sound Documentation 21.2 Views 61.3 Uses of Architecture Documentation 82 The Layered View 112.1

F. Bachmann; J. Carriere; P. Clements; D. Garlan; J. Ivers; R. Nord; R. Little

2000-01-01

407

Software documentation, Page 1, Printed 7/11/01 Documentation  

E-print Network

Software documentation, Page 1, Printed 7/11/01 Software Documentation Ian Sommerville Lancaster University, UK #12;Software documentation, Page 2, Printed 7/11/01 Introduction All large software of the software itself. The documents associated with a software project and the system being developed have

Sommerville, Ian

408

Software maintenance documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When technical writers speak of software documentation, they usually speak of user manuals. Certainly there is reason for them to. User manuals produced by software people (and I am proud to count myself as a software person!) have often been so bad that a whole industry has sprung up to publish books containing information needed to supplement traditional developer-written user

R. Glass

1989-01-01

409

Nineteenth Century Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the History department at Furman University in South Carolina, this site features full texts of primary documents in nineteenth-century American history "with special emphasis on those sources that shed light on sectional conflict and transformations in regional identity." The site has thus far posted documents ranging from newspaper editorials and abolitionist tracts to political speeches and legislative resolutions. These materials will aid researchers examining issues of Slavery and Sectionalism, the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott Case, the election of 1860, the secession of the Southern states, and the immediate aftermath of the Civil War in the South. The site also features a statistical almanac of the 1850s, which includes but is not limited to data on slave mortality and survival; the ratio of slaveholders to families in 1860 (by state); presidential elections, 1844-1860; and Growth in Railroad Mileage, 1850-1860. Some documents may have some minor errors, but fully proofed documents are clearly marked.

Benson, Lloyd.

410

Social science information & documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter gives an overview of information and documentation resources and activities in the social sciences. It describes some of the characteristics of social science information and reports on some findings from research into the needs and behaviour of social scientists in information matters, in order to identify some of the inadequacies of traditional services. A selection of representative information

Hans-Christoph Hobohm

411

Fragmentation of XML Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world-wide web (WWW) is often considered to be the world's largest database and the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is then considered to provide its datamodel. Adopting this view we have to deal with a distributed database. This raises the question, how to obtain a suitable distribution design for XML documents. In this paper horizontal and vertical fragmentation techniques are

Hui Ma; Klaus-dieter Schewe

2003-01-01

412

TUchem Documentation Introduction  

E-print Network

TUchem Documentation Introduction TUchem is an automated chemical inventory database system design's, and inventory listings for emergencies such as fires. TUchem has many unique advantages as a system, such as inventory import, report generation, location management, and a user-friendly look-and-feel. The motivation

Wolfgang, Paul

413

Consultation document on the  

E-print Network

Consultation document on the development of a Higher Education Strategy for Northern Ireland #12: Introduction Page 4 Section 2: Higher education in Northern Ireland: Achievements and challenges Page 7 Section 3: A vision for higher education: 2010-2020 Page 13 Section 4: A learning society Page 15 Section 5

Müller, Jens-Dominik

414

Document Map Introduction  

E-print Network

Psychotherapist; Directorof Health & Recovery, St Mungo's; Directorof Homeless HealthcareCIC SPY Design Service for people who are homeless or vulnerably housed 62 Appendix 64 #12;Document Map Introduction amongst rough sleepers and young homeless people. There is growing evidence of the extent and range

Quartly, Graham

415

Documents on Disarmament.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

416

ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document  

E-print Network

ENERGY REVIEW Consultation Document JANUARY 2006 Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term #12;Our Energy Challenge Securing clean, affordable energy for the long term #12;OUR ENERGY CHALLENGE ­ SECURING CLEAN, AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR THE LONG TERM ii Why is the government

417

Presidential Documents Federal Register  

E-print Network

Presidential Documents 3821 Federal Register Vol. 76, No. 14 Friday, January 21, 2011 Title 3, 1993. As stated in that Executive Order and to the extent permitted by law, each agency must, among, such as user fees or marketable permits, or providing information upon which choices can be made by the public

418

Ocean Literacy Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted documents include 1) 2 pdf files that align key ocean concepts to National & California Science Standards, 2) the report from the first workshop on Public Ocean Literacy, and 3) an annotated bibliography of ocean related books for the K-12 audience.

419

Historical Documents and Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section features a collection of some of the documents and reports that have shaped the atomic age. Categories include: The Nuclear Age Begins, The Manhattan Project, The Trinity Test, The Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Developing the Hydrogen Bomb, The Oppenheimer Affair, Cuban Missile Crisis, Arms Control, Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation, and Missile Defense.

Christopher Griffith

420

CAPITAL ASSET DOCUMENT TRAINING  

E-print Network

KUALI CAPITAL ASSET MANAGEMENT DOCUMENT TRAINING Business and Financial Services, Property Management Presented by: Rachel Drenth #12;Sign On to the Training Site · CSU CAP (Campus Administration://padroni.is.colostate.edu:7778/portal/page/portal/CAPQA (THEN CHOOSE QUAL 2) · Non-production Applications: Training Kuali

421

Guidance Document Unattended Processes  

E-print Network

Guidance Document Unattended Processes The overnight or unattended operation of laboratory of a comprehensive incident investigation. If you are a lab worker, do not leave processes unattended unless you have lubricated. #12; Consider the storage of apparatus and chemicals in close proximity to the unattended process

422

Slovakia Document Store  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Slovakia Document Store: clickable map of Slovakia containing over 100 pictures of Slovak country, map of the capital and other large cities, history, political system, political parties. Also includes Information for people traveling to Slovakia, like currency, exchange rates, location of ATM (bankomats), small English-Slovak dictionary for tourists, e-mail and other Internet services, much more.

423

Paynes Prairie Requesting Documents  

E-print Network

Highlights Paynes Prairie Reminders Requesting Documents Attendance Weekday Activities Birthdays, Manners, and Grammar TheELIWeekly Paynes Prairie Gainesville's Nature Theme Park This Saturday, we will be going to Paynes Prairie. Paynes Prairie is a 21,000 acre preserve about 15 minutes south

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

424

Cuban Missile Crisis Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These documents chronicle the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis. On October 15, 1962, the Soviet Union was discovered attempting to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. These missiles would have been capable of quickly reaching the United States. President Kennedy responded with a naval blockade. After several days of increasing tensions, the Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles.

Griffith, Christopher

425

Mathematics: Making a Living, Making a Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document highlights what is needed to ensure excellence in mathematics education as teachers and schools prepare students for the world beyond the classroom. One goal of this publication is to inform parent groups, school boards, business leaders, and local policy makers of the changes taking place in mathematics education. The purpose of a…

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

426

iDocument: How Smartphones and Tablets Are Changing Documentation in Preschool and Primary Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased prevalence of smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, and other digital technologies, knowledge about and familiarity with the educational uses for these devices is important for early childhood teachers documenting children's learning. Teachers can use smartphones every day to take photos, record video and audio, and make

Parnell, Will; Bartlett, Jackie

2012-01-01

427

Normative Performance on the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) in a Multi-Ethnic Bilingual Cohort: A Project FRONTIER Study  

PubMed Central

The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) is a commonly used measure of olfactory functioning in elderly populations. Few studies have provided normative data for this measure, and minimal data are available regarding the impact of sociodemographic factors on test scores. This study presents normative data for the BSIT in a sample of English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites. A Rasch analysis was also conducted to identify the items that best discriminated between varying levels of olfactory functioning, as measured by the BSIT. The total sample included 302 older adults seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that BSIT scores require adjustment by age and gender, but years of education, ethnicity, and language did not significantly influence BSIT performance. Four items best discriminated between varying levels of smell identification, accounting for 59.44% of total information provided by the measure. However, items did not represent a continuum of difficulty on the BSIT. The results of this study indicate that the BSIT appears to be well-suited for assessing odor identification deficits in older adults of diverse backgrounds, but that fine-tuning of this instrument may be recommended in light of its items’ difficulty and discrimination parameters. Clinical and empirical implications are discussed. PMID:23634698

Menon, Chloe; Westervelt, Holly James; Jahn, Danielle R.; Dressel, Jeffrey A.; O’Bryant, Sid E.

2013-01-01

428

A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.  

PubMed

Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. PMID:25366676

Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

2015-02-01

429

What Men Want: The Role of Reflective Opposite-Sex Normative Preferences in Alcohol Use Among College Women  

PubMed Central

Misperceptions of peer drinking norms have been found to be strongly associated with individual drinking behavior, especially for proximal reference groups such as same-sex friends. Less studied are the effects of perceived preferences from the opposite sex on alcohol use; that is, the behaviors an individual believe the opposite sex prefers from them. Research suggests that these perceived “reflective” normative preferences may be particularly salient among college women, who may drink in pursuit of intimate relationships and positive attention from male peers. Heterosexual undergraduate students from two universities participated in this project. Females answered questions regarding the amount of alcohol they believe a typical male would like his female friends, dates, or romantic partners to drink. Males answered the same questions, stating their actual preferences. Results showed that females overestimate the amount of alcohol males want their female friends, dating partners, and sexual partners to drink, and that this misperception was associated with their drinking behavior, even after controlling for perceived same-sex norms. These results suggest that reflective normative feedback may offer a powerful new tool for female-targeted interventions. PMID:19290701

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Cail, Jessica; Hummer, Justin F.; Lac, Andrew; Neighbors, Clayton

2015-01-01

430

The Brief Repeatable Battery: psychometrics and normative values with age, education and gender corrections in a Serbian population.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is present in up to 65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The Brief Repeatable Battery of neuropsychological tests (BRB) is one of the most used neuropsychological tools for cognitive assessment in MS. However, relative lack of normative data limits its application in research and clinical practice. In order to obtain normative data for a Serbian population, we administered the BRB version A to 140 healthy subjects and assessed the influence of demographic factors such as gender, age, and education on the tests' scores. We also calculated corrections for these factors. Higher education was associated with better performance on all the tests. Age influenced all the tests, except the word list generation, higher age being associated with worse performance on all other tests. Women performed worse on the paced auditory serial addition test 2, no other gender differences were observed. Our data obtained for the Serbian population could further improve use of the BRB in clinical practice and for the research purposes, establishing cognitive evaluation as a part of standard neurological examination of MS patients. PMID:22552866

Obradovic, D; Petrovic, M; Antanasijevic, I; Marinkovic, J; Stojanovic, T; Obradovic, S

2012-12-01

431

Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms  

PubMed Central

The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items are now outdated and parallel forms of the test do not exist to allow cognitive estimation abilities to be assessed on more than one occasion. In the present study, we devised two new 9-item parallel forms of the CET. These versions were administered to 184 healthy male and female participants aged 18–79 years with 9–22 years of education. Increasing age and years of education were found to be associated with successful CET performance as well as gender, intellect, naming, arithmetic and semantic memory abilities. To validate that the parallel forms of the CET were sensitive to frontal lobe damage, both versions were administered to 24 patients with frontal lobe lesions and 48 age-, gender- and education-matched controls. The frontal patients’ error scores were significantly higher than the healthy controls on both versions of the task. This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects. PMID:24671170

MacPherson, Sarah E.; Wagner, Gabriela Peretti; Murphy, Patrick; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

2014-01-01

432

Making the Social Visible within Inclusive Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing need to address children's social development in the midst of academic initiatives for early childhood curricula. A study was conducted to make visible and support children's social interactions within inclusive preschool classrooms through documentation from the Reggio Emilia approach. Findings demonstrated that children's…

Katz, Laurie; Galbraith, Jeanne

2006-01-01

433

Making the Social Visible Within Inclusive Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need to address children's social development in the midst of academic initiatives for early childhood curricula. A study was conducted to make visible and support children's social interactions within inclusive preschool classrooms through documentation from the Reggio Emilia approach. Findings demonstrated that children's interactions occurred among different configurations within inclusive preschool classrooms, involving: 1) children who

Laurie Katz; Jeanne Galbraith

2006-01-01

434

Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

Lusby, Linda A.

435

Swarm Intelligence in Text Document Clustering  

SciTech Connect

Social animals or insects in nature often exhibit a form of emergent collective behavior. The research field that attempts to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices inspired by the collective behavior of social insect colonies is called Swarm Intelligence. Compared to the traditional algorithms, the swarm algorithms are usually flexible, robust, decentralized and self-organized. These characters make the swarm algorithms suitable for solving complex problems, such as document collection clustering. The major challenge of today's information society is being overwhelmed with information on any topic they are searching for. Fast and high-quality document clustering algorithms play an important role in helping users to effectively navigate, summarize, and organize the overwhelmed information. In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. These clustering algorithms use stochastic and heuristic principles discovered from observing bird flocks, fish schools and ant food forage.

Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2008-01-01

436

DocLine: A method for software product lines documentation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DocLine method designed for developing documentation for software product lines is presented. The method makes it possible\\u000a to reuse document fragments with adaptation to a particular usage context. The method provides the Documentation Reuse Language\\u000a (DRL) that has a graphical part (for designing the structure of documentation packages) and a text part (for implementing\\u000a the documentation). It also describes

D. V. Koznov; Konstantin Romanovsky

2008-01-01

437

SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective, efficient communication is an essential element of the software development process. The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides an effective communication medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication between all the members of a software design team and provides for the production of informative documentation on the design effort. Even when an entire development task is performed by a single individual, it is important to explicitly express and document communication between the various aspects of the design effort including concept development, program specification, program development, and program maintenance. SDDL ensures that accurate documentation will be available throughout the entire software life cycle. SDDL offers an extremely valuable capability for the design and documentation of complex programming efforts ranging from scientific and engineering applications to data management and business sytems. Throughout the development of a software design, the SDDL generated Software Design Document always represents the definitive word on the current status of the ongoing, dynamic design development process. The document is easily updated and readily accessible in a familiar, informative form to all members of the development team. This makes the Software Design Document an effective instrument for reconciling misunderstandings and disagreements in the development of design specifications, engineering support concepts, and the software design itself. Using the SDDL generated document to analyze the design makes it possible to eliminate many errors that might not be detected until coding and testing is attempted. As a project management aid, the Software Design Document is useful for monitoring progress and for recording task responsibilities. SDDL is a combination of language, processor, and methodology. The SDDL syntax consists of keywords to invoke design structures and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

Kleine, H.

1994-01-01

438

Software design and documentation language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Language supports design and documentation of complex software. Included are: design and documentation language for expressing design concepts; processor that produces intelligble documentation based on design specifications; and methodology for using language and processor to create well-structured top-down programs and documentation. Processor is written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5 programming language for use on UNIVAC, IBM, and CDC machines.

Kleine, H.

1980-01-01

439

Collaborative document production using quilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quilt is a computer-based tool for collaborative document production. It provides annotation, messaging, computer conferencing, and notification facilities to support communication and information sharing among the collaborators on a document. Views of a document tailored to individual collaborators or to other of the document's users are provided by Quilt based on the user's position in a permission hierarchy that reflects

Mary Diane Palmer Leland; Robert S. Fish; Robert E. Kraut

1988-01-01

440

Trends in automating document generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some advocate their elimination, documents are the preferred and most effective way to communicate information in every engineering discipline. Documents (whether they be hard copy or electronic) are the evidence that engineering tasks have been performed. There are many commercial documentation packages that can help you define a document's format and structure. Which one you choose will determine what

L. Stein

1995-01-01

441

Sense and Significance: A Mixed Methods Examination of Meaning Making After the Loss of One’s Child  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify specific themes of meaning making (sense making and benefit finding) among bereaved parents, as well as to examine associations of these themes to the severity of grief symptomatology. A sample of 156 bereaved parents responded in writing to open-ended questions about sense making and benefit finding. We assessed normative grief symptoms with the Core Bereavement Items (Burnett, Middleton, Raphael, & Martinek, 1997) and maladaptive grief symptoms with the Inventory of Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al., 1995). Qualitative analyses revealed 45% of the sample could not make sense of their loss, and 21% could not identify benefits related to their loss experience. These parents had more severe normative and maladaptive grief symptoms. Overall, parents discussed 32 distinct approaches to finding meaning in their child’s death, 14 of which involved sense making, and 18 involved themes of benefit finding. The most common sense-making themes involved spirituality and religious beliefs, and the most common benefit-finding themes entailed an increase in the desire to help and compassion for others’ suffering. These results further reinforce the importance of meaning making for many bereaved parents and suggest the utility of developing and evaluating meaning-centered grief interventions with this population. PMID:20527057

Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Currier, Joseph M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Keesee, Nancy J.

2013-01-01

442

Microsoft Word - Document3  

Cancer.gov

President's Cancer Panel Meeting Agenda Quality of Cancer Care/Quality of Life Hilleboe Auditorium Roswell Park Cancer Institute Buffalo, New York October 6, 1998 QUALITY OF CANCER CARE/QUALITY OF LIFE Decision Making Based on Quality of Care

443

Enhanced information retrieval from narrative German-language clinical text documents using automated document classification.  

PubMed

The amount of narrative clinical text documents stored in Electronic Patient Records (EPR) of Hospital Information Systems is increasing. Physicians spend a lot of time finding relevant patient-related information for medical decision making in these clinical text documents. Thus, efficient and topical retrieval of relevant patient-related information is an important task in an EPR system. This paper describes the prototype of a medical information retrieval system (MIRS) for clinical text documents. The open-source information retrieval framework Apache Lucene has been used to implement the prototype of the MIRS. Additionally, a multi-label classification system based on the open-source data mining framework WEKA generates metadata from the clinical text document set. The metadata is used for influencing the rank order of documents retrieved by physicians. Combining information retrieval and automated document classification offers an enhanced approach to let physicians and in the near future patients define their information needs for information stored in an EPR. The system has been designed as a J2EE Web-application. First findings are based on a sample of 18,000 unstructured, clinical text documents written in German. PMID:18487776

Spat, Stephan; Cadonna, Bruno; Rakovac, Ivo; Gütl, Christian; Leitner, Hubert; Stark, Günther; Beck, Peter

2008-01-01

444

Exploiting Geospatial Markers to Explore and Resocialize Localized Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corpus resocialization can be achieved through digital revitalizing, i.e., making a corpus available for new users with new\\u000a uses. We propose a semi-automatic identification of spatial and temporal markers that make up metadata for localized documents.\\u000a Metadata is then exploited by concrete applications in environments for tourism and teaching.

Christophe Marquesuzaà; Patrick Etcheverry; Julien Lesbegueries

2005-01-01

445

Exploiting Geospatial Markers to Explore and Resocialize Localized Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus resocialization can be achieved through digital revitalizing, i.e., making a corpus available for new users with new uses. We propose a semi-automatic identification of spatial and temporal markers that make up metadata for localized documents. Metadata is then exploited by concrete applications in environments for tourism and teaching.

Marquesuzaà Christophe; Etcheverry Patrick; Lesbegueries Julien

2005-01-01

446

Cadmium technical support document  

SciTech Connect

This Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion described in 40 CFR Part 154. Potential hazards will be examined further to determine the nature and extent of the risk, and considering the benefits of the subject active ingredient, whether such risks cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.

Not Available

1986-09-01

447

Content Documents Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

2011-01-01

448

Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

Bittleston, Richard

1995-01-01

449

Aging and decision making   

E-print Network

The study sought to clarify the effects of aging in regard to decision making abilities. Decision making is dependent upon the Frontal Cortex structures; the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. These structures are thought...

Miller, Sophie

2010-06-30

450

Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization  

PubMed Central

We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

2013-01-01

451

Make a List  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... to make a list before you come as Mr. Bahnfleth’s doctor advises. Alan Pocinki, M.D.: Yeah, ... you take full advantage of the encounter. Announcer: Mr. Bahnfleth uses his list to make sure that ...

452

What Makes the Fizz?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity to answer the question, "What makes soda pop fizz?". Lists necessary materials and describes the procedure for making soda pop. Discusses the fermentation process and how it occurs. (NB)

Shimkanin, John

1995-01-01

453

United Nations Documentation: Research Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UN has recently created a guide to help researchers new to UN documentation which. It provides an overview of the various types of documents and publications issued by the UN and offers guidance on finding and working with them. Topics covered include Document Symbols, Basic Research Tools, Indexes, Full-Text Documents in Electronic and Paper Formats, Parliamentary Documents, Resolutions/Decisions, Speeches, and Press Releases. Many categories include information on electronic access to indexes and full texts. Although designed for new users, anyone working with UN documents will benefit from this clear and concise guide.

454

Qualifying My Faith in the Common School Ideal: A Normative Framework for Democratic Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz makes the case that charter schooling can enable multiple publics to develop and create educational visions. Charter schooling policies can enable these publics to pursue these visions and agendas on behalf of both public and common educational goals as well as goals associated with particular identities and…

Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

2010-01-01

455

Unpacking Autonomy and Control in Education: Some Conceptual and Normative Groundwork for a Comparative analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To make meaningful comparisons of the consequences of new modes of regulation in education for local autonomy in different national settings we need to a) be clear about what is meant by local autonomy and state control, b) be clear about why the balance between local autonomy and state control matters and c) produce good quality empirical data…

Cribb, Alan; Gewirtz, Sharon

2007-01-01

456

[Techniques of iconographic documentation].  

PubMed

The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes. PMID:8928672

Motta, G; Valentino, G; Di Lorenzo, G

1996-04-01

457

Decision making and neuropsychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal decision making is a central feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent investigations of the neural substrates underlying decision making have involved qualitative assessment of the cognition of decision making in clinical lesion studies (in patients with frontal lobe dementia) and neuropsychiatric disorders such as mania, substance abuse and personality disorders. A neural network involving the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum and

Shibley Rahman; Barbara J. Sahakian; Rudolf N. Cardinal; Robert D. Rogers; Trevor W. Robbins

2001-01-01

458

Make a Speaker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how an electromagnet works by making a simple one. Using this knowledge, students will design a diagram to make a working speaker using household materials. Then students will follow instructions on one method of making a speaker, and test their own designs to compare results.

459

I: Making Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writing about the teaching artist practice should mean writing about art making. As both teacher and artist, the authors are required to be cognizant of their own art-making processes, both how it works and why it is important to them, in order to make this process visible to their students. They also need the same skills to write about how and…

Rosenfeld, Malke; Johnson, Marquetta; Plemons, Anna; Makol, Suzanne; Zanskas, Meghan; Dzula, Mark; Mahoney, Meg Robson

2014-01-01

460

SSC Safety Review Document  

SciTech Connect

The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

Toohig, T.E. [ed.

1988-11-01

461

Content-based document image retrieval in complex document collections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of content-based image retrieval in the context of complex document images. Complex documents typically start out on paper and are then electronically scanned. These documents have rich internal structure and might only be available in image form. Additionally, they may have been produced by a combination of printing technologies (or by handwriting); and include diagrams, graphics, tables and other non-textual elements. Large collections of such complex documents are commonly found in legal and security investigations. The indexing and analysis of large document collections is currently limited to textual features based OCR data and ignore the structural context of the document as well as important non-textual elements such as signatures, logos, stamps, tables, diagrams, and images. Handwritten comments are also normally ignored due to the inherent complexity of offline handwriting recognition. We address important research issues concerning content-based document image retrieval and describe a prototype for integrated retrieval and aggregation of diverse information contained in scanned paper documents we are developing. Such complex document information processing combines several forms of image processing together with textual/linguistic processing to enable effective analysis of complex document collections, a necessity for a wide range of applications. Our prototype automatically generates rich metadata about a complex document and then applies query tools to integrate the metadata with text search. To ensure a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of our prototype, we are developing a test collection containing millions of document images.

Agam, G.; Argamon, S.; Frieder, O.; Grossman, D.; Lewis, D.

2007-01-01

462

Document Cards: A Top Trumps Visualization for Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding suitable, less space consuming views for a document's main content is crucial to provide convenient access to large document collections on display devices of different size. We present a novel compact visualization which represents the document's key semantic as a mixture of images and important key terms, similar to cards in a top trumps game. The key terms are

Hendrik Strobelt; Daniela Oelke; Christian Rohrdantz; Andreas Stoffel; Daniel A. Keim; Oliver Deussen

2009-01-01

463

PCA, Continuous, & Epidural Narcotic Infusion Documentation (07.2013) Documentation  

E-print Network

PCA, Continuous, & Epidural Narcotic Infusion Documentation (07.2013) Documentation Required Continuous Narcotic Infusions PCA Only PCA + Basal (Continuous) Infusion Epidural and Epidural PCA Continuous Verification AND Documentation of Dose / Rate of Infusion of · Every 4 hours (may be done as part of change

Oliver, Douglas L.

464

Automated document content characterization for a multimedia document retrieval system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new approach to automate document image layout extraction for an object- oriented database feature population using rapid low level feature analysis, preclassification and predictive coding. The layout information comprised of region location and classification data is transformed into 'feature object(s)'. The information is then fed into an intelligent document image retrieval system (IDIR) to be utilized in document retrieval schemes. The IDIR system consists of user interface, object-oriented database and a variety of document image analysis algorithms. In this paper the object-oriented storage model and the database system are presented in formal and functional domains. Moreover, the graphical user interface and a visual document image browser are described. The document analysis techniques used at document characterization are also presented. In this context the documents consist of text, picture and other media data. Documents are stored in the database as document, page and region objects. Our test systems has been implemented and tested using a document database of 10,000 documents.

Koivusaari, Maija; Sauvola, Jaakko J.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

1997-10-01

465

LISTS OF ACCEPTABLE DOCUMENTS All documents must be unexpired  

E-print Network

LISTS OF ACCEPTABLE DOCUMENTS All documents must be unexpired LIST A LIST B LIST C 1. U __________________________________ 4. Employment Authorization Document that contains a photograph (Form I-766 __________________________________ 2. ID card issued by federal, state or local government agencies or entities, provided it contains

Shahriar, Selim

466

"That's not what we do": Evidence that normative change is a mechanism of action in group interventions.  

PubMed

Group interventions for mental health have proved very effective, but there is little consensus on their mechanism of action. In the present study, we posit that normative change is a plausible mechanism and provide a test of this in an eating disorder prevention group program. Participants were 112 women aged 15-25 years with body, shape or weight concerns who completed five questionnaires across the four session group-based intervention. Results indicated that participants experienced a significant reduction in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and dieting intentions across the course of the program. These decrements were preceded by changes in group norms. Changes in both descriptive norms and injunctive norms in the first half of the program predicted improvement in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction and dieting intentions in the second half. Implications for theoretical models of attitude change are discussed, as well as implications for group interventions more generally. PMID:25544661

Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Fox, Nicole E; McMahon, Hayley

2015-02-01

467

Peer-related loneliness across early to late adolescence: normative trends, intra-individual trajectories, and links with depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Study aims were to: (a) describe normative levels and person-oriented developmental trends in loneliness across adolescence, and (2) examine the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms during this same epoch. Participants included 478 youth (239 males and females; 80% Caucasian, 16% African American, and 4% other). Measures of loneliness and multiple indicators of depressive symptoms were gathered yearly across grades 6 through 12 (ages 12-18). Findings implied that most adolescents experience loneliness more strongly during early rather than later adolescence, but not all adolescents traverse the same loneliness trajectories. Youth followed one of five distinct trajectories, characterized as: (a) stable non-lonely, (b) stable low lonely, (c) stable high (chronic) lonely, (d) moderate decliners, and (e) steep decliners. Adolescents following stable high and moderate loneliness trajectories displayed the most depressive symptoms and, although informant differences were found, these youth also manifest the largest gains in depressive symptoms over time. PMID:23787076

Ladd, Gary W; Ettekal, Idean

2013-12-01

468

The Token and Reporter's Tests--Using Two Scoring Conventions: A Normative Study with 286 Grade and Junior High Students and Use with 123 Language-Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance of 286 normal children (grades K-9) on the De Renzi and Faglioni form of the Token Test and the De Renzi and Ferrari Reporter's Test were analyzed. Two different scoring conventions were compared: number correct versus weighted scores. Normative data are presented by grade level and age. Specific administration and scoring procedures…

Jordan, Linda S.; Hall, Penelope K.

1985-01-01

469

California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

2011-01-01

470

Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Boston Naming Test, the MAE Token Test, and the Judgment of Line Orientation Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many extant normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments feature adjustments for subject variables, there are reasons to believe that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, several theoretical considerations suggest that years of formal education may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this

Brett A. Steinberg; Linas A. Bieliauskas; Glenn E. Smith; Christopher Langellotti; Robert J. Ivnik

2005-01-01

471

The validity, reliability and normative scores of the parent, teacher and self report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has become one of the most widely used measurement tools in child and adolescent mental health work across the globe. The SDQ was originally developed and validated within the UK and whilst its reliability and validity have been replicated in several countries important cross cultural issues have been raised. We describe normative data,

Yasong Du; Jianhua Kou; David Coghill

2008-01-01

472

Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected…

Ott, Lauren M.

2010-01-01

473

Experimental Tests of Normative Group Influence and Representation Effects in Computer-Mediated Communication: When Interacting Via Computers Differs from Interacting With Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two experiments to address the questions of if and how normative social influence operates in anonymous computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction. Finds that the perception of interaction partner (human vs. computer) moderated the group conformity effect such that the undergraduate student subjects expressed greater…

Lee, Eun-Ju; Nass, Clifford

2002-01-01

474

Normative Data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the Elderly Quebec-French Population.  

PubMed

Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984 ; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988 ). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50-88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants' age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions). PMID:24815338

Dion, Mélissa; Potvin, Olivier; Belleville, Sylvie; Ferland, Guylaine; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis; Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Simard, Martine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lecomte, Sarah; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

2015-01-01

475

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation of the Safety of Animal Clones: A Failure to Recognize the Normativity of Risk Assessment Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced recently that food products derived from some animal clones and their offspring are safe for human consumption. In response to criticism that it had failed to engage with ethical, social, and economic concerns raised by livestock cloning, the FDA argued that addressing normative issues prior to…

Meghani, Zahra; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

2009-01-01

476

Are Academics in Kazakhstan Capable of Self-Regulation? A Study of Faculty's Normative Structure in the Midst of Higher Education Decentralization Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the state and structure of professional norms in the context of undergraduate teaching in a university in Kazakhstan. The purpose is to understand the belief system held by academics with regards to their professional duties in the context of teaching. Evidence of such normative structure would suggest that the Kazakhstani…

Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.; Caboni, Timothy C.

2012-01-01

477

Age-related normative values of trabecular bone score (TBS) for Japanese women: the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) study.  

PubMed

Trabecular bone score (TBS), a surrogate measure of bone microarchitecture, represents fracture risk independently of bone density. We present normative TBS values from a representative population study of Japanese women. This database would enhance our understanding of trabecular bone microarchitecture and improve osteoporosis management. PMID:25149857

Iki, M; Tamaki, J; Sato, Y; Winzenrieth, R; Kagamimori, S; Kagawa, Y; Yoneshima, H

2014-08-23

478

Normative Data of the EORTC QLQ-C30 For the German Population: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of the present study was to generate up-to-date normative data for health-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the “European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30)” in a random sample of the population in Northern Germany. Methods We conducted a population-based survey of a random sample of 10,000 persons aged 16 years or older. The postal questionnaire included questions regarding lifetime prevalence of common diseases and quality of life. EORTC QLQ-C30 scales were scored according to standard procedures. The results were stratified for age and sex. Results The questionnaire was completed by 4,684 (47%) of 9,928 eligible persons. Mean age of the participants was 51.7 years (standard deviation: 18.5) and 57% were females. Missing values for the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales and items were sparse (minimum: 0.2%, maximum: 1.5%). Self-reported health related QoL varied by age and sex. Generally, men reported better functioning and fewer symptoms than women. In both sexes function declined and symptoms increased with increasing age. Symptoms most frequently reported were fatigue, pain and insomnia. Compared to the German reference data published in 2001 our participants scored more than 10 points higher on the latter three scales/items. The most frequently reported diseases were hypertension (36%), hyperlipidemia (26%) and arthritis (30%). Lifetime prevalence of depression was 16% in women and 11% in men. Conclusion Our study participants are representative for the German general population with regard to age, sex and education. Of special interest is the high proportion of participants reporting depression which is also mirrored by high fatigue, pain and insomnia scores. The normative data provided should be used as comparison health-related QoL data when evaluating the QoL in German cancer patients. PMID:24058523

Waldmann, Annika; Schubert, Daniel; Katalinic, Alexander

2013-01-01

479

A systematic review of patient reported nasal obstruction scores: Defining normative and symptomatic ranges in surgical patients  

PubMed Central

Importance A gold standard objective measure of nasal airway obstruction (NAO) does not currently exist, so patient-reported measures are commonly used, particularly the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) and the visual analog scale (VAS). However, questions remain regarding how best to utilize these instruments. Objectives The goal of this study is to systematically review studies on NOSE and VAS scores in NAO patients and compile and standardize the data to (1) define symptomatic and normative values for (a) pre and post-surgical NAO patients, (b) asymptomatic individuals, and (c) the general population, (2) determine if post-surgery scores are comparable to asymptomatic scores, and (3) determine if there is a clinically useful pre-operative and post-operative score change. Evidence Review A systematic review of the literature was performed through PubMed for studies assessing NOSE and VAS scores in patients with chronic NAO. Strict inclusion criteria were applied to focus on anatomic obstruction only. For statistical analysis, the patients were divided into asymptomatic, pre- and post-surgery NAO, and the general population. Findings The average NOSE and VAS scores for a patient with NAO were 65 ± 22 and 6.9 ± 2.3 respectively. The average post-surgery NOSE score was 23 ± 20 and VAS score was 2.1 ± 2.2. The average asymptomatic individual NOSE score was 15 ± 17, and VAS score was 2.1 ± 1.6. The average NOSE and VAS scores for the general population were 42 ± 27 and 4.6 ± 2.6 respectively. The average pre- to post-surgical change was > 40 for NOSE and > 4 for VAS. Conclusions and Relevance We have shown that normative and abnormal value ranges for NOSE and VAS can be established for clinical use. Given the consistency of both scales, we conclude that these measures should be used as a clinically meaningful measure of successful surgical outcomes. PMID:24604253

Rhee, John S.; Sullivan, Corbin D.; Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Garcia, Guilherme J.M.

2014-01-01

480

The normative dimension and legal meaning of endangered and recovery in the U.S. Endangered Species Act.  

PubMed

The ethical, legal, and social significance of the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is widely appreciated. Much of the significance of the act arises from the legal definitions that the act provides for the terms threatened species and endangered species. The meanings of these terms are important because they give legal meaning to the concept of a recovered species. Unfortunately, the meanings of these terms are often misapprehended and rarely subjected to formal analysis. We analyzed the legal meaning of recovered species and illustrate key points with details from "recovery" efforts for the gray wolf (Canis lupus). We focused on interpreting the phrase "significant portion of its range," which is part of the legal definition of endangered species. We argue that recovery and endangerment entail a fundamentally normative dimension (i.e., specifying conditions of endangerment) and a fundamentally scientific dimension (i.e., determining whether a species meets the conditions of endangerment). Specifying conditions for endangerment is largely normative because it judges risks of extinction to be either acceptable or unacceptable. Like many other laws that specify what is unacceptable, the ESA largely specifies the conditions that constitute unacceptable extinction risk. The ESA specifies unacceptable risks of extinction by defining endangered species in terms of the portion of a species' range over which a species is "in danger of extinction." Our analysis indicated that (1) legal recovery entails much more than the scientific notion of population viability, (2) most efforts to recover endangered species are grossly inadequate, and (3) many unlisted species meet the legal definition of an endangered or threatened species. PMID:17002756

Vucetich, John A; Nelson, Michael P; Phillips, Michael K

2006-10-01

481

Melt rock components in KREEPy breccia 15205: Petrography and mineral chemistry of KREEP basalts and quartz-normative mare basalts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many current models for the origin of lunar highland rocks feature as an essential component the assimilation of KREEPy material by primitive magmas parental to the Mg-rich suite and alkali suite plutonic rocks. Similar models have also been proposed for the origin of various mare basalt suites. However, any model which considers assimilation of KREEP an important petrologic process must sooner-or-later deal with the question: what is KREEP? Because pristine KREEP basalts are rare, and most known samples are small (e.g., 15382/15386), the geochemical variability of KREEP basalts is poorly known. Other KREEP compositions which are commonly used in these models include the hypothetical 'high-K KREEP' component of Warren and Wasson, which is derived from Apollo 14 soil data, and the 'superKREEP' quartz-monzodiorite 15405. Lunar breccia 15205 is a polymict regolith breccia that consists of approximately 20% KREEP basalt clasts and 20% quartz-normative basalt clasts in a KREEP-rich matrix. Bulk rock mixing calculations show that this sample comprises about 84% KREEP. The clasts range up to 1 cm in size, but most are considerably smaller. The primary aim is to characterize pristine KREEP basalts petrographically, to establish the range in chemical compositions of KREEP basalts, and to test models that were proposed for their origin. In addition, we may be able to extend the compositional range recognized in the quartz-normative basalt suite and cast some light on its origin as well. Preliminary whole rock geochemical data on the KREEP basalts are presented in a companion paper by M.M. Lindstrom and co-workers. Concentration is on petrography and mineral chemistry of these clasts, and the implications these data have for the origin of the different melt rock suites.

Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

1993-01-01

482

The Early Years: Documenting Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children's work documents their thinking and the details they note as they learn more. Over time, by drawing, dictating, or writing about their observations, children can reveal and deepen their understanding of science concepts. Documenting work to furth

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-11-01

483

Regulatory guidance document  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

NONE

1994-05-01

484

Art Makes Sense: Making Sense through Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The news is sometimes frightening, but reacting to a disaster in a positive way empowers students to make a difference. On January 12, 2010, a catastrophic earthquake occurred in Haiti. An estimated three million people were affected and an estimated 230,000 people died. In response to this tragic event, the author's eighth-grade class viewed and…

Billington, Lisa; Pavone, Mindy

2010-01-01

485

Hospice Decision Making: Diagnosis Makes a Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. Methods: This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36…

Waldrop, Deborah P.; Meeker, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

486

Making Sense: More Than Making Meaning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The content teachers deliver in the classroom can make sense, but students won't remember it unless it has meaning for them. While a bit more time-consuming to develop, strategies that create meaning for students are worth the effort.

Wormeli, Rick

2010-08-01

487

Documents de Travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne  

E-print Network

préférences normatives qui mettent à mal le recours à la TCR dans une perspective normative revealed preferences and normative preferences and limit the use of the TRC in a normative perspective usage familier désignant un intérêt fort et répété pour certaines activités, notamment de loisirs (jeux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

A Standard for Software Documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is no universally recognized standard for software documentation, there is a standard for documenting engineering and scientific software. Developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Nuclear Society (ANS) in 1995, it is called the ANSI\\/ANS 10.3-1995 Standard for Documentation of Computer Software. The standard provides a flexible, robust framework for documentation needs. One of

Vir V. Phoha

1997-01-01

489

Understanding Clinician Information Demands and Synthesis of Clinical Documents in Electronic Health Record Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large quantities of redundant clinical data are usually transferred from one clinical document to another, making the review of such documents cognitively burdensome and potentially error-prone. Inadequate designs of electronic health record (EHR) clinical document user interfaces probably contribute to the difficulties clinicians experience while…

Farri, Oladimeji Feyisetan

2012-01-01

490

The Influence of the Purpose of a Business Document on Its Syntax and Rhetorical Schemes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how the purpose of three types of business and technical documents (instructions, annual reports, and sales promotional letters) affects the syntactical and rhetorical choices authors make in writing these documents. Outlines partial syntactical and rhetorical "fingerprints" of these documents to offer students norms they can go by in…

Myers, Marshall

1999-01-01

491

Software design and documentation language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A communications medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications is studied. The medium also provides the following: (1) a processor which can convert design specifications into an intelligible, informative machine reproducible document; (2) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative; and (3) methodology for effective use of the language and processor.

Kleine, H.

1977-01-01

492

Guidelines for embedded software documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded program documentation, i.e. documentation included in computer programs within program comments, typically does not follow any formal standards or conventions with regards to its contents and structure.Software development organizations do not enforce any standards covering the information content or format of the embedded documentation. At best they may encourage the use of some proprietary rules. It is very common

Nenad Marovac

1994-01-01

493

Patterns for consistent software documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documentation is an important part of the captured knowledge of a software project, providing a flexible and effective way of recording informal contents. However, maintaining documentation's consistency requires a considerable effort. Existing solutions encompass different tools and approaches that support the process of creating, evolving and using documents and other artifacts derived from the software development process. Based on existing

Filipe Figueiredo Correia; Ademar Aguiar; Hugo Sereno Ferreira; Nuno Flores

2010-01-01

494

Document image analysis with OCRopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document image analysis is the field of converting paper documents into an editable electronic representation by performing optical character recognition (OCR). In recent years, there has been a tremendous amount of progress in the development of open source OCR systems. OCRopus is one of the leading open source document analysis system with a modular and pluggable architecture. This paper presents

Faisal Shafait

2009-01-01

495

Table detection in heterogeneous documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting tables in document images is important since not only do tables contain important information, but also most of the layout analysis methods fail in the presence of tables in the document image. Existing approaches for table detection mainly focus on detecting tables in single columns of text and do not work reliably on documents with varying layouts. This paper

Faisal Shafait; Ray Smith

2010-01-01

496

Retrieving poorly degraded OCR documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant portion of currently available documents exist in the form of images, for instance, as scanned documents. Electronic documents produced by scanning and OCR software contain recognition errors. This paper uses an automatic approach to examine the selection and the effectiveness of searching techniques for possible erroneous terms for query expansion. The proposed method consists of two basic steps.

Y. Fataicha; Mohamed Cheriet; J. Y. Nie; Ching Y. Suen

2006-01-01

497

Locally adaptive document skew detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new approach to the detection of local orientation and skew in document images. It is based on the observation that there are many documents where a single global estimate of the page skew is not sufficient. These documents require local adaptation to deal robustly with todays complex configurations of components on the page. The approach attempts

Jaakko Sauvola; David S. Doermann; Matti Pietikainen

1997-01-01

498

Documenting Organizational Process Flow Modeling  

E-print Network

1 Documenting Organizational Processes or Process Flow Modeling Analysis Phase ­ Three Steps be redesigned and develop new DFDs for the revised processes. This documentation would be for Section 3 B and C Requirements Determination Project Documentation Requirements Structuring Alternative Generation And Selection

Schweik, Charles M.

499

Visual CAPTCHAs for Document Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual CAPCTCHAs, like gimpy images, are commonly used to screen human users from automated computer scripts. We propose using them for direct, visual authentication of digital documents. The basic assumption is that if it is hard or impossible for the computer to recognize a document, then it cannot manipulate it. If such a document is still recognizable by a human,

Igor Fischer; Thorsten Herfet

2006-01-01

500

Fossil energy program. Summary document  

SciTech Connect

This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

None

1980-05-01