Science.gov

Sample records for documents making normative

  1. Making Space for Place-Making Pedagogies: Stretching Normative Mandated Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In an era of normative standardised literacy curriculum continuing to make space for culturally responsive literacy pedagogy is on ongoing challenge for early childhood educators. Collaborative participatory research and ethnographic studies of teachers who accomplish innovative and inclusive early childhood education in culturally diverse high…

  2. The Composition of Normative Groups and Diagnostic Decision Making: Shooting Ourselves in the Foot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Elizabeth D.; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The normative group of a norm-referenced test is intended to provide a basis for interpreting test scores. However, the composition of the normative group may facilitate or impede different types of diagnostic interpretations. This article considers who should be included in a normative sample and how this decision must be made relative…

  3. Issues in Developing a Normative Descriptive Model for Dyadic Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Most research in modelling human information processing and decision making has been devoted to the case of the single human operator. In the present effort, concepts from the fields of organizational behavior, engineering psychology, team theory and mathematical modelling are merged in an attempt to consider first the case of two cooperating decisionmakers (the Dyad) in a multi-task environment. Rooted in the well-known Dynamic Decision Model (DDM), the normative descriptive approach brings basic cognitive and psychophysical characteristics inherent to human behavior into a team theoretic analytic framework. An experimental paradigm, involving teams in dynamic decision making tasks, is designed to produce the data with which to build the theoretical model.

  4. Health, health care, and incompletely theorized agreements: a normative theory of health policy decision making.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2007-02-01

    The years 2003-2004 marked the tenth anniversary of the rapid rise and demise of the Clinton administration's health reform efforts. Health reform may again be a political issue in the 2008 congressional and presidential elections. However, analysts still disagree over why large-scale health reform efforts continue to fail in the American political landscape. This article presents a normative theory for analyzing federal health policy decision making in the United States. This theory states that values and norms, particularly their level of generality, and the social agreement or lack thereof around them have a central role in understanding health policy reform. This theory does not attempt to arrive at a single unified framework for explaining health policy reform, and it recognizes the complementary roles of political science and economic explanations. Nonetheless, it argues that unarticulated values and norms have a critical role to play in health-policy making and reform; this role has been inadequately studied and has lacked a theoretical framework. Within this perspective, this article argues that policy goals, which require individuals to make financial commitments (e.g., tax contributions) in the form of redistributing resources for implementation (e.g., universal health insurance), should be analyzed within a normative framework that evaluates individuals' ethical commitments to making such sacrifices that are beyond their self-interest. The distribution of pub-lic moral norms, their degree of internalization, and the social consensus, or lack thereof, that applies to them must be objects of study in the effort to better understand health policy reform. By emphasizing these factors, this approach offers findings distinct from those provided by existing analyses, and the article concludes with prescriptions for future health reform efforts. PMID:17312325

  5. Enhancing Medical Decision-Making Evaluations: Introduction of Normative Data for the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Niccolai, Lindsay; Marson, Daniel; Triebel, Kristen L

    2016-04-01

    A number of measures have been developed to assess medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in adults. However, their clinical utility is limited by a lack of available normative data. In the current study, we introduce age-independent and age-adjusted normative data for a measure of MDC: the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument. The sample consisted of 308 cognitively normal, community-dwelling adults ranging in age from 19 to 86 years. For age-adjusted norms, individual raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped according to empirically supported age ranges. For age-independent norms, the same method was utilized but without age-corrections being applied or participants being grouped into age ranges. This study has the potential to enhance MDC evaluations by allowing clinicians to compare a patient's performance on the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument with that of adults regardless of age as well as to same age peers. Tables containing normative corrections are supplementary material available online at http://asm.sagepub.com/supplemental. PMID:26282778

  6. Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs - Duration: 21 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

  7. Making the EU "risk window" transparent: the normative foundations of the environmental risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Gamborg, Christian; Madsen, Kathrine Hauge; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger; von Krauss, Martin Krayer; Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandøe, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, there seems to be widespread, morally based scepticism about the use of GMOs in food production. In response to this scepticism, the revised EU directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms stresses the importance of respecting ethical principles recognized in the Member States. However, the directive fails to reflect the critical role of value judgements in scientific risk assessment and any subsequent approval procedure. In this paper we argue that it is important to make all ethically relevant assumptions involved in the approval procedure transparent and thus available for public scrutiny. Mapping the value judgements that are made in an environmental risk assessment and approval procedure, we describe the political liberal nature of the EU legislation. We then look more closely at the prescriptions for environmental risk assessment and approval of GMOs outlined in the directive. An environmental risk assessment views the world through a "risk window" that only makes visible that which has been predefined as a relevant risk. The importance of the value judgements that define the risk window consists in limiting the information the risk assessment can provide. In the penultimate section of the paper, the significance of the risk window is demonstrated through a case study of the approval of glyphosate resistant fodder beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) in Denmark. PMID:15612414

  8. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Making Oral Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the sixth of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops the ability to make oral reports, a workplace literacy skill identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth direct care…

  9. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the third of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops decision making, a workplace literacy skill identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth direct care staff using…

  10. Neural signatures of fairness-related normative decision making in the ultimatum game: a coordinate-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The willingness to incur personal costs to enforce prosocial norms represents a hallmark of human civilization. Although recent neuroscience studies have used the ultimatum game to understand the neuropsychological mechanisms that underlie the enforcement of fairness norms; however, a precise characterization of the neural systems underlying fairness-related norm enforcement remains elusive. In this study, we used a coordinate-based meta-analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the ultimatum game with the goal to provide an additional level of evidence for the refinement of the underlying neural architecture of this human puzzling behavior. Our results demonstrated a convergence of reported activation foci in brain networks associated with psychological components of fairness-related normative decision making, presumably reflecting a reflexive and intuitive system (System 1) and a reflective and deliberate system (System 2). System 1 (anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex [PFC]) may be associated with the reflexive and intuitive responses to norm violations, representing a motivation to punish norm violators. Those intuitive responses conflict with economic self-interest, encoded in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may engage cognitive control from a reflective and deliberate System 2 to resolve the conflict by either suppressing (ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, left dorsolateral PFC, and rostral ACC) the intuitive responses or over-riding self-interest (right dorsolateral PFC). Taken together, we suggest that fairness-related norm enforcement recruits an intuitive system for rapid evaluation of norm violations and a deliberate system for integrating both social norms and self-interest to regulate the intuitive system in favor of more flexible decision making. PMID:25327760

  11. Education for Sustainable Development and Normativity: A Transactional Analysis of Moral Meaning-Making and Companion Meanings in Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Leif

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present and illustrate two different ways of analysing the normativity and discursivity of classroom communication during education for sustainable development (ESD). The two types of analysis can provide important knowledge for discussions of ESD in relation to morals and democracy. Both methods are based…

  12. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  13. Making project documentation a positive tool for management

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, Sandia National Laboratory has been designing and constructing Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. One managerial challenge of a large project is the problem of handling information. The scope of the PBFA-II projet may be gauged by its cost: $19.4 million for the accelerator itself, $9.5 million for buildings and standard utilities, and $9.6 million for specialized utilities and support systems. The first need of the project at its outset, then, was communication, and this remains a chief function of the CPO. If the nature or magnitude of the risk changes in any one area, the entire project team must know. If a design is changed, persons working on interdependent efforts must know. Some of this communication takes place naturally and informally. But project procedures must guarantee that all important communication is received by all necessary people, that the communication creates accountability, and that management receives timely, accurate reports. To put it another way, important communication requires project documentation. Documentation is both a record of the project and a tool for management.

  14. Performance on original and a Chinese version of Trail Making Test Part B: a normative bilingual sample.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Bigler, E D

    2000-01-01

    This study examined an equivalent of Trail Making Test Part B for native Chinese speakers. Digit Symbol Coding and Trail Making Test Parts A and B were administered to American and Chinese students from an American university. The Chinese group also took a modified Trails B test where numbers in Chinese characters replaced English letters. Independent-samples t tests showed no difference between American and Chinese groups on the Digit Symbol Coding and Trails A, but a difference on Trails B (p < .05). The Chinese group's modified Trails B performance showed no difference from the American group's original Trails B performance. These findings suggest equivalence of Digit Symbol Coding and Trails A for American and Chinese groups, but a longer Trails B completion time for the Chinese group. This finding indicates a language bias of Trails B for Chinese-English bilinguals. Thus, the Chinese version of Trails B is preferable for native Chinese speakers. PMID:11296687

  15. 36 CFR 51.100 - When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available? 51.100 Section 51.100 Parks, Forests, and Public... Information § 51.100 When will the Director make proposals and evaluation documents publicly available? In...

  16. Documentation Comes of Age: New Approaches to Making Manuals User Friendly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Examines trends in the design of user guides for microcomputer programs. These include making documentation more accessible by making manuals less technical, injecting common sense, creating booklets that enhance a program's theme, creating tutorial disks, and program self-documentation. (MBR)

  17. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... observing the provisions of these regulations, VA must act in accordance with CEQ Regulations, 40 CFR 1506... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VA environmental decision... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other...

  18. Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable…

  19. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED...) Consider all relevant environmental documents in evaluating applications for Eximbank financing; (b)...

  20. Applying LD Documentation Guidelines at the Postsecondary Level: Decision Making with Sparse or Missing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Madaus, Joseph W.; Gelbar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in fostering transition to postsecondary education for students with disabilities is documentation verifying the nature of the disability and supporting the need for services and reasonable accommodations. Documentation guidelines assist postsecondary disability service providers in making decisions about eligibility and reasonable

  1. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  2. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... human environment. (4) Legislative proposals. Included in any recommendation or report to Congress on a legislative proposal which would affect the environment. The document must be available in time for... emergency circumstances make it necessary to take an action with significant environmental impact...

  3. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... human environment. (4) Legislative proposals. Included in any recommendation or report to Congress on a legislative proposal which would affect the environment. The document must be available in time for... emergency circumstances make it necessary to take an action with significant environmental impact...

  4. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... human environment. (4) Legislative proposals. Included in any recommendation or report to Congress on a legislative proposal which would affect the environment. The document must be available in time for... emergency circumstances make it necessary to take an action with significant environmental impact...

  5. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... human environment. (4) Legislative proposals. Included in any recommendation or report to Congress on a legislative proposal which would affect the environment. The document must be available in time for... emergency circumstances make it necessary to take an action with significant environmental impact...

  6. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Archival Materials Rules Relating to Self-Service Copying § 1254.70 How may I make my own copies of documents? (a) Self-service copiers are available in some of our facilities. Contact the appropriate facility to ask about availability before you visit. (b) In the Washington, DC, area, self-service...

  7. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Archival Materials Rules Relating to Self-Service Copying § 1254.70 How may I make my own copies of documents? (a) Self-service copiers are available in some of our facilities. Contact the appropriate facility to ask about availability before you visit. (b) In the Washington, DC, area, self-service...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Archival Materials Rules Relating to Self-Service Copying § 1254.70 How may I make my own copies of documents? (a) Self-service copiers are available in some of our facilities. Contact the appropriate facility to ask about availability before you visit. (b) In the Washington, DC, area, self-service...

  9. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Archival Materials Rules Relating to Self-Service Copying § 1254.70 How may I make my own copies of documents? (a) Self-service copiers are available in some of our facilities. Contact the appropriate facility to ask about availability before you visit. (b) In the Washington, DC, area, self-service...

  10. 36 CFR 1254.70 - How may I make my own copies of documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Archival Materials Rules Relating to Self-Service Copying § 1254.70 How may I make my own copies of documents? (a) Self-service copiers are available in some of our facilities. Contact the appropriate facility to ask about availability before you visit. (b) In the Washington, DC, area, self-service...

  11. The importance of documenting code, and how you might make yourself do it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik Jon; Astropy Project

    2016-01-01

    Your science code is awesome. It reduces data, performs some statistical analysis, or models a physical process better than anyone has done before. You wisely decide that it is worth sharing with your student/advisor, research collaboration, or the whole world. But when you send it out, no one seems willing to use it. Why? Most of the time, it's your documentation. You wrote the code for yourself, so you know what every function, procedure, or class is supposed to do. Unfortunately, your users (sometimes including you 6 months later) do not. In this talk, I will describe some of the tools, both technical and psychological, to make that documentation happen (particularly for the Python ecosystem).

  12. Age and Gender Trends in Adults' Normative Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Marjorie Roth; Lynn, Tracey; McLean, Patricia; Perri, Lynn

    The construct of moral reasoning may be conceived of as having a dualistic nature, with moral decision-making termed either empirical morality or normative morality. Although it has been tacitly assumed that normative moral values can be inferred from empirical morality methods of investigation, there exists data to suggest that this may not be…

  13. Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an “operant matching law” in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

  14. 42 CFR 110.51 - Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation an injured countermeasure recipient must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for Program benefits. 110.51 Section 110.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  15. 42 CFR 110.52 - Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a survivor must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of eligibility for death benefits. 110.52 Section 110.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES...

  16. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  17. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  18. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  19. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  20. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  1. Making Outreach Visible: A Guide to Documenting Professional Service and Outreach. AAHE Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Amy; Lynton, Ernest A.

    This guidebook is intended to help faculty and administrators, and departments and schools, document faculty professional service and outreach, offering detailed examples of work from various universities. Following a Foreword by R. Eugene Rice, short introductory chapters make the case for professional service, define professional…

  2. The Issue of Quality in Professional Documentation: How Can Academia Make More of a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilka, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Recommends academic strategies to contribute to an issue of great interest in industry--workplace documentation. Describes strategies including contextualizing quality definitions, advocating use of multiple quality measures, conducting research to identify specific heuristics for defining and measuring quality in particular workplace contexts,…

  3. Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) Phase II: 930 New Normative Photos

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Guérard, Katherine; Bouras, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have only recently started to take advantage of the developments in technology and communication for sharing data and documents. However, the exchange of experimental material has not taken advantage of this progress yet. In order to facilitate access to experimental material, the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS) project was created as a free standardized set of visual stimuli accessible to all researchers, through a normative database. The BOSS is currently the largest existing photo bank providing norms for more than 15 dimensions (e.g. familiarity, visual complexity, manipulability, etc.), making the BOSS an extremely useful research tool and a mean to homogenize scientific data worldwide. The first phase of the BOSS was completed in 2010, and contained 538 normative photos. The second phase of the BOSS project presented in this article, builds on the previous phase by adding 930 new normative photo stimuli. New categories of concepts were introduced, including animals, building infrastructures, body parts, and vehicles and the number of photos in other categories was increased. All new photos of the BOSS were normalized relative to their name, familiarity, visual complexity, object agreement, viewpoint agreement, and manipulability. The availability of these norms is a precious asset that should be considered for characterizing the stimuli as a function of the requirements of research and for controlling for potential confounding effects. PMID:25211489

  4. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-04-12

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  5. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-01-01

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  6. Navigating the Normative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlebowitsh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);…

  7. Navigating the Normative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlebowitsh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of four chapters in "Part I, Section A: Making Curriculum" of "The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Curriculum Policy and the Politics of What Should Be Learned in Schools" (Benjamin Levin. Chapter 1, pp. 7-24);

  8. Toward a Practical and Normative Ethics for Librarianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Just about everything that librarians do as professionals carries ethical implications. Matters of intellectual freedom are most commonly recognized as loci for ethics-based decision making, but the totality of individual and collective conduct is in need of practical, normative ethical structure. What is argued for here is a framework founded on…

  9. Dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex orchestrate normative choice.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria; Hotz, Philine; Eisenegger, Christoph; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-11-01

    Humans are noted for their capacity to over-ride self-interest in favor of normatively valued goals. We examined the neural circuitry that is causally involved in normative, fairness-related decisions by generating a temporarily diminished capacity for costly normative behavior, a 'deviant' case, through non-invasive brain stimulation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and compared normal subjects' functional magnetic resonance imaging signals with those of the deviant subjects. When fairness and economic self-interest were in conflict, normal subjects (who make costly normative decisions at a much higher frequency) displayed significantly higher activity in, and connectivity between, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex (pVMPFC). In contrast, when there was no conflict between fairness and economic self-interest, both types of subjects displayed identical neural patterns and behaved identically. These findings suggest that a parsimonious prefrontal network, the activation of right DLPFC and pVMPFC, and the connectivity between them, facilitates subjects' willingness to incur the cost of normative decisions. PMID:21964488

  10. From moral to legal judgment: the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, Tade M.; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain areas comprising the so-called ‘moral brain’ in both conditions, there was stronger activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus particularly when subjects made legal decisions, suggesting that these were made in respect to more explicit rules and demanded more complex semantic processing. Comparing both groups, our data show that behaviorally lawyers conceived themselves as emotionally less involved during normative decision-making in general. A group × condition interaction in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex suggests a modulation of normative decision-making by attention based on subjects’ normative expertise. PMID:20194515

  11. Normative inner ear volumetric measurements.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Michael T; Kirkilas, Gary; Seymour, Peter; Sem, Kanik; Iaia, Alberto; Sabra, Omar; Isildak, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we attempted to determine normative inner ear volumetric measurements generated from three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images. In addition, we investigated a correlation between the axial length and the volume of the labyrinth and discussed clinical outcomes of this correlation. Amira 5.2.2 software was used to create three-dimensional isosurface images of the human labyrinth using two-dimensional CT images from 35 anatomically normal patients. With the three-dimensional labyrinths, complete dimensional analysis was performed to gain insight into both the volume and the greatest axial length of the inner ear. Paired t test and Pearson correlation were used. Our volume of the inner ear inquiry reported a mean volume of 221.5 with SD of 24.3 μL (0.228 μL for males and 0.218 μL for females). The length showed a mean of 1.713 cm with SD of 0.064 cm (1.753 cm for males and 1.695 cm for females). The length was used to estimate the volume, and the estimates were within 10% of the measured volume 74.3% of the time. Normative volumetric measurements of the inner ear can be obtained by using three-dimensional CT Imaging by Amira 5.2.2 software. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the axial length of the labyrinth and the volume of the labyrinth. The axial length of the labyrinth could be used to estimate the volume of the labyrinth, which may be clinically important to estimate the concentration of the drug distributed in the inner ear. PMID:25490572

  12. 42 CFR 110.61 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of lost employment income benefits. 110.61 Section 110.61 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. 42 CFR 110.60 - Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation a requester who is determined to be eligible must submit for the Secretary to make a determination of medical benefits. 110.60 Section 110.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES...

  14. Decision Making in the Curriculum Development Process and Raising the Quality of Academic Standards: What Does a Review of Australian Curriculum Documents Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, to which factors in the process of decision making involved in curriculum development in Australia, have determined the quality of curriculum documents. Searches on web sites of education organisations and electronic databases of educational literature were conducted to identify source documents…

  15. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    PubMed

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances. PMID:15139256

  16. Normative cost allocation structures of power pools

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Chieu Tranh.

    1992-01-01

    Power pooling is a broad concept whereby a group of electric utilities collaborate to coordinate their activities with regard to the generation and transmission of electricity. With the coming deregulation in the electric power industry, power pool cost allocation structures need to be more adaptive to changes. In this research, a survey of different power pools structures is presented. Next, models of capacity expansion planning are reviewed and extended to give an insight into the decision making process of electric utilities in isolation as well as in a pool. The pool is viewed as a linear production game, duality theory of linear programming is then used to derive normative cost allocation scheme for the short-run energy exchange pool (broker pool) and for the long-run central planning pool (tight pool). Simulation runs using actual data of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland power pool are performed to quantify the benefits of the resulting pool structure proposed in this research versus the current structure. Other benefits of the proposed structure regarding the adaptability of power pools in the changing regulatory environment as well as some policy implications on transmission access are also discussed.

  17. Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi

    2015-03-01

    Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "Staying normative during gambling"; and "I have changed" (reformed gamblers' presentation of themselves as having changed for the better). The findings underscore the complex dialogue behind the identity construction put forward by women with a gambling problem, their yearning to be perceived by society as normative women and to fit in despite their stigmatized behavior, and the tension they feel in society's relationship toward them. The findings also suggest that practitioners who work with women gamblers may want to pay attention to the power relations shaping identity construction in an interview setting, and look more closely at the women's awareness of the stigma they bear and the complex processes that make up their multidimensional identity. PMID:25822607

  18. Changing the relationship among nurses' knowledge, self-reported behavior, and documented behavior in pain management: does education make a difference?

    PubMed

    Dalton, J A; Blau, W; Carlson, J; Mann, J D; Bernard, S; Toomey, T; Pierce, S; Germino, B

    1996-11-01

    An educational program designed to change knowledge in order to change pain management practices and patient outcomes was offered to nurses who provide day-to-day care to patients with cancer in communities in a predominantly rural state. A quasi-experimental time-series design was used to measure the effectiveness of the program in changing nurse knowledge, attitude and behavior, and to evaluate the relationships between the outcomes. Data were collected from nurses (N = 29) and patient charts before (N = 209) and after (N = 163) the program. Nurses' knowledge increased, but the change was not statistically significant; the mean percent of correct answers on the three subtests were different and differences persisted throughout the study. Nurses believed that patients should be "pain free." Documentation of behaviors, for example, practice activities, occurred infrequently and showed little change until 6 months after the program. Increase in documentation of pain-intensity ratings, pain location, number of sites of pain, presence of confusion, anxious or depressed mood, sleep, nausea and vomiting, constipation, and general activity were noted. Documentation of the use of a propoxyphene-containing analgesic decreased; increase in the use of hydromorphone methadone and transdermal fentanyl was noted. Analysis of the relationships between correct responses to nurse knowledge questions and documentation of behavior provided interesting, statistically insignificant results that need to be reexamined in future research. Future programs should emphasize analgesic dosing and calculation of equianalgesic doses. Current practices in chart documentation may provide incomplete information regarding change in practice behaviors; more detailed documentation of pain management practices is needed. Nurses who participated in the program anecdotally reported feelings of increased credibility and effectiveness. Although change in behavior is slow to occur, education does make a difference. PMID:8942126

  19. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies. The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082

  20. Problematic Curriculum Development: Normative Inquiry in Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.

    1988-01-01

    Normative inquiry in curriculum (NIC) is concerned with a substantive, integrative approach to values so that the curriculum possesses integrity, consistency, and congruity. This article explores definitions and characteristics of NIC, analyzes the role of curricular influences and realities, provides suggestions for getting started, and answers…

  1. The Methodology of Normative Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christopher; Zeckhauser, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy analyses frequently clash. Their disagreements stem from many sources, including models, empirical estimates, and values such as who should have standing and how different criteria should be weighted. We provide a simple taxonomy of disagreement, identifying distinct categories within both the positive and values domains of normative policy…

  2. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

  3. The Vroom and Yetton Normative Leadership Model Applied to Public School Case Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John

    This paper seeks to familiarize school administrators with the Vroom and Yetton Normative Leadership model by presenting its essential components and providing original case studies for its application to school settings. The five decision-making methods of the Vroom and Yetton model, including two "autocratic," two "consultative," and one group…

  4. Normativity in Fairy Tales: Scope, Range and Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohr, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    The article studies in three steps how the fairy tale articulates its normative content and what the educational consequence of this kind of communication is. First, the articulation of normativity in fictional literature in general is discussed. Second, the specific mode in which the fairy tale articulates its normativity is studied according to…

  5. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

  6. How Oedipus falsifies Popper: psychoanalysis as a normative science.

    PubMed

    Wax, M L

    1983-05-01

    The scientific status of psychoanalysis has been the subject of continual debate. Influential philosophers of science have challenged the form of its theories and the nature of the evidence offered on their behalf. Some have concluded that the theories are beyond testing--i.e., they can neither be confirmed nor refuted, and psychoanalysis is thus intrinsically unscientific, akin to pseudosciences such as astrology. From that body of criticism, I have chosen for examination and rebuttal the issue of falsifiability. I refute the charge that psychoanalysis is not scientific because its theories are not "falsifiable." On the contrary, I show that psychoanalysis contains theories which make strong and unequivocal statements that are subject to the test of possible falsification. This capacity has been concealed and the falsifiability criticism rendered plausible because of the normative judgments which are latent in discussions of human development and human society. In explicating these judgments, I will move from the philosophy of science to the anthropology and sociology of science (and of the professions). The normative character of psychoanalytic science reinforces the ethical code of the therapeutic profession, a combination which imposes a disciplinary rigidity of the theoretical system. PMID:6856721

  7. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John Z.; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity. PMID:25295020

  8. A normative analysis of nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses the question of normative analysis of the value-based aspects of nursing. In our perspective, values in science may be distinguished into (i) epistemic when related to the goals of truth and objectivity and (ii) non-epistemic when related to social, cultural or political aspects. Furthermore, values can be called constitutive when necessary for a scientific enterprise, or contextual when contingently associated with science. Analysis of the roles of the various forms of values and models of knowledge translation provides the ground to understand the specific role of values in nursing. A conceptual framework has been built to classify some of the classical perspectives on nursing knowledge and to examine the relationships between values and different forms of knowledge in nursing. It follows that adopting a normative perspective in the analysis of nursing knowledge provides key elements to identify its proper dimension. PMID:26059480

  9. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  10. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  11. Accidental Government Documents Librarian: A Review of Experiences and Training Needs of Interim Documents Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelinek, Kathryn; Hinchcliff, Marilou

    2009-01-01

    The results of a survey to determine the training needs and normative experiences of temporary government documents librarians are presented. The results indicate that temporary librarians tend to work in academia, have been in librarianship for a shorter time period, and have fewer technical processing skills than permanent documents librarians.…

  12. Arthrometric Measurement of Ankle-Complex Motion: Normative Values

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Neil A.; Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Gubler-Hanna, Coral

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Valid and reliable measurements of ankle-complex motion have been reported using the Hollis Ankle Arthrometer. No published normative data of ankle-complex motion obtained from ankle arthrometry are available for use as a reference for clinical decision making. Objective: To describe the distribution variables of ankle-complex motion in uninjured ankles and to establish normative reference values for use in research and to assist in clinical decision making. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Both ankles of 50 men and 50 women (age = 21.78 ± 2.0 years [range, 19–25 years]) were tested. Intervention(s): Each ankle underwent anteroposterior (AP) and inversion-eversion (I-E) loading using an ankle arthrometer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Recorded anterior, posterior, and total AP displacement (millimeters) at 125 N and inversion, eversion, and total I-E rotation (degrees) at 4 Nm. Results: Women had greater ankle-complex motion for all variables except for posterior displacement. Total AP displacement of the ankle complex was 18.79 ± 4.1 mm for women and 16.70 ± 4.8 mm for men (U = 3742.5, P < .01). Total I-E rotation of the ankle complex was 42.10° ± 9.0° for women and 34.13° ± 10.1° for men (U = 2807, P < .001). All variables were normally distributed except for anterior displacement, inversion rotation, eversion rotation, and total I-E rotation in the women's ankles and eversion rotation in the men's ankles; these variables were skewed positively. Conclusions: Our study increases the available database on ankle-complex motion, and it forms the basis of norm-referenced clinical comparisons and the basis on which quantitative definitions of ankle pathologic conditions can be developed. PMID:21391797

  13. Japanese normative set of 359 pictures.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takehiko; Miyawaki, Kaori; Ueda, Takashi; Une, Yuko; Takahashi, Masaru

    2005-08-01

    This study provides Japanese normative measures for 359 line drawings, including 260 pictures (44 redrawn) taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980). The pictures have been standardized on voice key naming times, name agreement, age of acquisition, and familiarity. The data were compared with American, Spanish, French, and Icelandic samples reported in previous studies. In general, the correlations between variables in the present study and those in the other studies were relatively high, except for name agreement. Naming times were predicted in multiple regression analyses by name agreement. The full set of the norms and the new pictures may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/. PMID:16405135

  14. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Power, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

  15. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,

  16. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,…

  17. Normative productivity of the global vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Georgii A; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2008-01-01

    Background The biosphere models of terrestrial productivity are essential for projecting climate change and assessing mitigation and adaptation options. Many of them have been developed in connection to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) that backs the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In the end of 1990s, IGBP sponsored release of a data set summarizing the model outputs and setting certain norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity. Since a number of new models and new versions of old models were developed during the past decade, these normative data require updating. Results Here, we provide the series of updates that reflects evolution of biosphere models and demonstrates evolutional stability of the global and regional estimates of terrestrial productivity. Most of them fit well the long-living Miami model. At the same time we call attention to the emerging alternative: the global potential for net primary production of biomass may be as high as 70 PgC y-1, the productivity of larch forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of taiga zone, and the productivity of rain-green forest zone may be comparable to the productivity of tropical rainforest zone. Conclusion The departure from Miami model's worldview mentioned above cannot be simply ignored. It requires thorough examination using modern observational tools and techniques for model-data fusion. Stability of normative knowledge is not its ultimate goal the norms for estimates of terrestrial productivity must be evidence-based. PMID:19108718

  18. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

  19. Normative Feedback Effects on Learning a Timing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of normative feedback on learning a sequential timing task. In addition to feedback about their performance per trial, two groups of participants received bogus normative feedback about a peer group's average block-to-block improvement after each block of 10 trials. Scores indicated either greater (better

  20. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    PubMed

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2014-11-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton. PMID:25381220

  1. HIV prevention, structural change and social values: the need for an explicit normative approach

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2012-01-01

    Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well. PMID:22713355

  2. "Family-friendly" without the double entendre: a spatial analysis of normative game spaces and lesbian fans.

    PubMed

    Muller Myrdahl, Tiffany K

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I demonstrate the importance of employing a feminist geographic framework in order to both read WNBA game spaces and to understand lesbian fan participation within these spaces. I argue that attending to the production of WNBA game spaces makes visible the ways that normative cultural politics become manifest, and brings to the fore the ways that dominant relations are naturalized and rarely questioned. Further, attention to the production of these leisure spaces compels an examination of the relationship between spatialized normativity and claims to, and performances of, lesbian identity. By understanding social space as a productive force, it is possible to conduct a critical reading of the materiality of WNBA game spaces and the implications for the reproduction of naturalized (hetero)normativity. In addition, it illustrates that lesbian fan experiences and interpretations of normative WNBA game spaces must be examined in a framework that takes seriously the factors that inhibit critical engagement with (hetero)normativity, as well as the central role that lesbian fans play in the co-production of these spaces. PMID:19598049

  3. Normative data for 8 neuropsychological tests in older blacks and whites from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Sharrett, Albert Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurological disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education-specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61 to 82 years (mean 71 y) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education-specific mean and -1.5 SD scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics. PMID:24759546

  4. Normative Data for Eight Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Coresh, Josef; Coker, Laura; Wruck, Lisa; Selnes, Ola A.; Deal, Jennifer; Knopman, David; Mosley 6, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of cognitive impairment requires comparison of cognitive performance in individuals to performance in a comparable healthy normative population. Few prior studies have included a large number of black participants and few have excluded participants from the normative sample with subclinical/latent neurologic disease or dementia. This study provides age, race, and education specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61–82 years (mean 71 years) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education specific mean and −1.5 standard deviation scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equations to derive adjusted score cut-points. These robust normative data should enhance comparison across studies of cognitive aging, where these measures are widely used, and improve interpretation of performance on these tests for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment not only within the ARIC cohort, but also among older blacks and whites with similar demographics. PMID:24759546

  5. Feedback from European Social Partners as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document provides European social partners' responses to the Commission's memorandum on lifelong learning. Part 1, Opinion of the European Center of Enterprises, makes comments and proposals related to the memorandum's six key messages, which are new basic skills for all; more investment in human resources; innovation in teaching and…

  6. Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: The example of tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Erin L.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

  7. Assessing perceptual change with an ambiguous figures task: Normative data for 40 standard picture sets.

    PubMed

    Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Sepahvand, Nazanin Mohammadi; Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2016-03-01

    In many research domains, researchers have employed gradually morphing pictures to study perception under ambiguity. Despite their inherent utility, only a limited number of stimulus sets are available, and those sets vary substantially in quality and perceptual complexity. Here we present normative data for 40 morphing picture series. In all sets, line drawings of pictures of common objects are morphed over 15 iterations into a completely different object. Objects are either morphed from an animate to an inanimate object (or vice versa) or morphed within the animate and inanimate object categories. These pictures, together with the normative naming data presented here, will be of value for research on a diverse range of questions, from perceptual processing to decision making. PMID:25701106

  8. Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: the example of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Rimal, Rajiv N; Ferrence, Roberta; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive research on social norms, the sources of norm formation are not well understood. Social exposure to a behavior (defined as the composite of ways through which people see that behavior in their social, physical, and symbolic environments) can serve as a source of normative influence. Using tobacco as a case study, we propose that research should move beyond categories of individuals as sources of norms and focus on a broader range of sources of normative influences. An understanding of social exposure as a source for norms may be important to better understand and intervene in environments to promote public health. We make policy recommendations arising from the explication of social exposure and propose directions for future research. PMID:24910005

  9. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people. PMID:26691788

  10. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  11. Conflicts of interest: conceptual and normative issues.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, M S

    1996-12-01

    Growing university-industry ties, particularly in biomedical areas, naturally raise concerns about conflicts of interest. Such conflicts are essentially problems in business and professional ethics. As of the fall of 1995, all institutions seeking funding from either the Public Health Service or the National Science Foundation have been required to maintain and enforce a written policy on conflicts of interest. The PHS and the NSF also require the disclosure of "significant" financial interests that might affect the research. Although the PHS and NSF requirements may prove helpful, they are not sufficient for monitoring the full range of serious conflicts of interest that can arise in university-industry relations. The PHS and the NSF are basically concerned with potential bias in the design, conduct, and reporting of research. Their disclosure requirements are restricted to financial considerations of $10,000 or more. However, bias in research can result from conflicts of interest when much less is at stake financially. Furthermore, it can arise at both individual and institutional levels. This article attempts to provide a conceptual and normative analysis of conflicts of interest that better enables us to understand the subtleties that can be involved. This article is one of three in this issue of Academic Medicine that deal with issues of conflict of interest in university-industry research relationships. These articles are discussed in an overview that precedes them. PMID:9114888

  12. Toward a normative definition of medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Swick, H M

    2000-06-01

    In recent years, professionalism in medicine has gained increasing attention. Many have called for a return to medical professionalism as a way to respond to the corporate transformation of the U.S. health care system. Yet there is no common understanding of what is meant by the word professionalism. To encourage dialog and to arrive eventually at some consensus, one needs a normative definition. The author proposes such a definition and asserts that the concept of medical professionalism must be grounded both in the nature of a profession and in the nature of physicians' work. Attributes of medical professionalism reflect societal expectations as they relate to physicians' responsibilities, not only to individual patients but to wider communities as well. The author identifies nine behaviors that constitute medical professionalism and that physicians must exhibit if they are to meet their obligations to their patients, their communities, and their profession. (For example, "Physicians subordinate their own interests to the interests of others.") He argues that physicians must fully comprehend what medical professionalism entails. Serious negative consequences will ensue if physicians cease to exemplify the behaviors that constitute medical professionalism and hence abrogate their responsibilities both to their patients and to their chosen calling. PMID:10875505

  13. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  14. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)

  15. Low Cost Equipment for Science and Technology Education. A Resource Document on Low Cost Equipment That You Can Make and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, N. K., Ed.

    This document provides technical information and simple instructions for constructing 84 different pieces of science equipment. Each entry includes: (1) name of item; (2) purpose of the equipment; (3) person who submitted the information; (4) line drawing of prototype; (5) list of low-cost materials needed; (6) construction procedures; (7)…

  16. Young Children Understand the Normative Implications of Future-Directed Speech Acts

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Karoline; Grfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that the capacity for mental time travel and temporal reasoning emerges during the preschool years. Nothing is known so far, however, about young children's grasp of the normative dimension of future-directed thought and speech. The present study is the first to show that children from age 4 understand the normative outreach of such future-directed speech acts: subjects at time 1 witnessed a speaker make future-directed speech acts about/towards an actor A, either in imperative mode (A, do X!) or as a prediction (the actor A will do X). When at time 2 the actor A performed an action that did not match the content of the speech act at time 1, children identified the speaker as the source of a mistake in the prediction case, and the actor as the source of the mistake in the imperative case and leveled criticism accordingly. These findings add to our knowledge about the emergence and development of temporal cognition in revealing an early sensitivity to the normative aspects of future-orientation. PMID:24489815

  17. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in

  18. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  19. Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

  20. GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defn: Guidance Document - A peer-reviewed document stating overarching principles and practices to be followed (also includes handbook documents).

    1. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

      PubMed Central

      Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

      2015-01-01

      ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

    2. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

      PubMed

      Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

      2016-07-01

      College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26896561

    3. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

      PubMed Central

      Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

      2009-01-01

      Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

    4. Development of Evidence-Based Health Policy Documents in Developing Countries: A Case of Iran

      PubMed Central

      Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Seyedin, Hesam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Salehi, Masoud

      2014-01-01

      Background: Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. Methods: In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policymaking. Results: 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Conclusion: Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers and facilitators of a behavior. PMID:24762343

    5. Implicit normativity in evidence-based medicine: a plea for integrated empirical ethics research.

      PubMed

      Molewijk, A C; Stiggelbout, A M; Otten, W; Dupuis, H M; Kievit, J

      2003-03-01

      This paper challenges the traditional assumption that descriptive and prescriptive sciences are essentially distinct by presenting a study on the implicit normativity of the production and presentation of biomedical scientific facts within evidence-based medicine. This interdisciplinary study serves as an illustration of the potential worth of the concept of implicit normativity for bioethics in general and for integrated empirical ethics research in particular. It demonstrates how both the production and presentation of scientific information in an evidence-based decision-support contain implicit presuppositions and values, which prestructure the moral environment of the clinical process of decision-making. As a consequence, the evidence-based decision support did not only support the clinical decision-making process; it also transformed it in a morally significant way. This phenomenon undermines the assumption within much of the literature on patient autonomy that information disclosure is a conditional requirement before patient autonomy even starts; patient autonomy is already influenced during the production and presentation of information. These results imply an increased responsibility of those who produce and present evidence-based facts (i.e. scientists in general and physicians in particular). The insights of this study not only involve a different focus on both theory and practice of patient autonomy and informed consent, but they also call for a broader scope of morality than does traditional empirical research in bioethics. The concept of implicit normativity within integrated empirical ethics research calls for strong cooperation between bioethicists and descriptive scientists, i.e., a cooperation that goes beyond the discipline-specific epistemic values and that takes place during all phases of the research process. PMID:14510310

    6. The Concept Shifting Test: Adult Normative Data

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

      2006-01-01

      The Concept Shifting Test (CST) is a newly developed Trail Making Type test that measures concept shifting and executive functioning. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CST performance was affected by age, gender, educational level, or handedness and to establish the normal range of test performance. The CST was…

    7. Ipsative, Normative and Return on Effort Versions of Expectancy Theory.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kopelman, Richard E.

      This report reviews versions of testing expectancy theory predictions of individual choice behavior. The ipsative, normative and return on effort approaches are addressed as are the issues of conceptual, methodical and empirical problems associated with each approach. In order to test the hypotheses as to which approach would yield stronger…

    8. Normative Integration, Alienation, and Conformity in Adolescent Groups.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Feldman, Ronald A.

      Data from 61 children's groups indicate that early adolescent (modal age 10 years) and late adolescent (modal age 15 years) children's groups are characterized by high levels of normative integration, or norm consensus. In contrast, groups passing through middle adolescence (modal age 11-14 years) are characterized by significantly lower levels of…

    9. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jensen, Dwight Wm.

      In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

    10. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Katz, Michael S.

      2009-01-01

      This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

    11. Rurality and the Normative Order in a Developing Country

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Taheri, Beverly Jackson; Willits, Fern K.

      1975-01-01

      It was hypothesized that rurality would be positively related to a traditional normative order represented by moral reality. In general, as rurality declined, the emphasis on the effect of an improper act declined, and the importance of the actor's motives increased. (Author)

    12. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hennessey, Jessica

      2014-01-01

      In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

    13. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

      2014-01-01

      This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

    14. Normative Misperceptions and Temporal Precedence of Perceived Norms and Drinking*

      PubMed Central

      NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; DILLARD, AMANDA J.; LEWIS, MELlSSA A.; BERGSTROM, ROCHELLE L.; NEIL, TERYL A.

      2008-01-01

      Objective Previous research has shown that students overestimate the drinking of their peers, and that perceived norms are strongly associated with drinking behavior. Explanations for these findings have been based largely on cross-sectional data, precluding the ability to evaluate the stability of normative misperceptions or to disentangle the direction of influence between perceived norms and drinking. The present research was designed to evaluate (1) the stability of normative misperceptions and (2) temporal precedence of perceived norms and drinking. Method Participants were college students (N = 164; 94 women) who completed assessments of perceived norms and reported behavior for drinking frequency and weekly quantity. Most participants (68%) completed the same measures again two months later. Results Results indicated large and stable overestimations of peer drinking for frequency and weekly quantity. Results also showed that for weekly quantity, perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking also predicted later perceived norms. Results for frequency revealed perceived norms predicted later drinking, but drinking did not predict later perceived norms. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of longitudinal designs in evaluating normative influences on drinking. The present findings suggest that normative misperceptions are stable, at least over a relatively short time period. Findings support a mutual influence model of the relationship between perceived norms and drinking quantity but are more strongly associated with conformity explanations for the relationship between perceived norms and drinking frequency. Results are discussed in terms of implications for prevention interventions. PMID:16562412

    15. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bohn, Annette

      2011-01-01

      Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect

    16. Research, Training, and Practice: The Normative Model and Beyond.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Evertson, Carolyn M.

      Four specific purposes were addressed in this study: (1) to identify models of classroom management and instructional management used by effective and less effective teachers; (2) to compare and contrast these models; (3) to compare and contrast a normative model of classroom management used in management training workshops with the models…

    17. The Determinants of Spouses' Normative Preferences for Family Roles

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cronkite, Ruth C.

      1977-01-01

      Both static and dynamic models are developed which hypothesize effects of background characteristics, socioeconomic factors and family life-cycle stages on three dimensions of normative preferences. The most striking result is the failure of the husband's preferences to dominate the wife's. (Author)

    18. Normativity and Context in Young Children's Pretend Play

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wyman, Emily; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

      2009-01-01

      In two studies 3-year-olds' understanding of the context-specificity of normative rules was investigated through games of pretend play. In the first study, children protested against a character who joined a pretend game but treated the target object according to its real function. However, they did not protest when she performed the same action…

    19. An Investigation of the Normative Structure for Community College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Akin, Selenia Renea

      2010-01-01

      This exploratory study was designed to determine if a normative structure exists among a community college student body by extending the work of Caboni, Braxton, Deusterhous, Mundy, McClendon, and Lee (2005). The study also sought to determine if the level of espousal for the norms differed across student characteristics. This study analyzed data…

    20. Pricing: A Normative Strategy in the Delivery of Human Services.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Moore, Stephen T.

      1995-01-01

      Discusses a normative strategy toward pricing human services, which will allow providers to develop pricing strategies within the context of organizational missions, goals, and values. Pricing is an effective tool for distributing resources and improving efficiency, and can be used as a tool for encouraging desired patterns of service utilization.…

    1. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bohn, Annette

      2011-01-01

      Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

    2. Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria

      PubMed Central

      Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi

      2015-01-01

      Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268

    3. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

      2010-01-01

      Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

    4. Normative Beliefs about Sharing Housing with an Older Family Member

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

      2008-01-01

      The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…

    5. Globalisation: Old and New Normative Strategies in Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Coulby, David

      2012-01-01

      The recession has concealed from many commentators in the West the overwhelming economic force of the last decade, the inexorable rise of China. Commensurate with this has been the economic and political decline of Europe and especially of the European Union. The European normative strategy in education was always an unrealised ideal. But, if the…

    6. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jensen, Dwight Wm.

      In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and

    7. Establishment of Normative Data on Cognitive Tests for Comparison with Athletes Sustaining Mild Head Injury

      PubMed Central

      Oliaro, Scott M.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Prentice, William E.

      1998-01-01

      Objective: To provide normal data for comparison with objective measures of an athlete's cognitive ability after mild head injury (MHI). Subjects: Seventy-two Division I college athletes. Design and Setting: Athletes were assessed on three test dates (two days apart) in a sports medicine research laboratory. Measurements: Normative data were collected on four cognitive tests (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Test, Reitan Trail-Making Tests, and Wechsler Digit Span Tests). Results: A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant learning effects on all tests except the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. A high correlation was noted between the Stroop and the Trail-Making Tests. Conclusions: These normative data can be used as comparisions to provide an objective measure of an athlete's cognitive ability following MHI. By adding this test battery to the athlete's other physical and neurologic tests, the decision to return an athlete to competition after MHI can be made with greater confidence and with less risk of reinjury. PMID:16558482

    8. Documenting Learning

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ashbrook, Peggy

      2010-01-01

      Children's work documents their thinking and the details they note as they learn more. Over time, by drawing, dictating, or writing about their observations, children can reveal and deepen their understanding of science concepts. Documenting work to further understanding and sharing information is part of the National Science Education Teaching…

    9. Termination Documentation

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

      2014-01-01

      In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

    10. Declassified Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Karen M.

      Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

    11. Document control and document management.

      PubMed

      Djemal, K K

      1999-12-01

      Most schemes for the accreditation (e.g. United Kingdom Accreditation Service) and certification (e.g. BS EN ISO 9002) of laboratories include a requirement to establish and maintain procedures for the management and control of documents generated internally. Such documents include policy statements, procedures, specifications, and some notices and memoranda. Organisations benefit from using agreed and approved information and from knowing that staff are using agreed and approved methods in their operating procedures. Document control systems are likely to become compulsory as accreditation schemes, such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA) for clinical microbiology laboratories, align with international standards. The Technical Services Division (TSD) in PHLS Headquarters has been developing a control system for various documents that it issues to the PHLS and control of documentation that forms the TSD quality system. The document control system has recently developed into a document management system that provides a mechanism for managing all documents generated or received by the division. TSD's approach is described here to provide laboratories and other organisations with ideas for how they could set up or develop their own document management system to improve accessibility to information. PMID:10598395

    12. The Policy Impact of PISA: An Exploration of the Normative Effects of International Benchmarking in School System Performance. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 71

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Breakspear, Simon

      2012-01-01

      Little research has been done into how the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) affect national educational reform and policy-making. This paper examines the normative impact of PISA by investigating how, and the extent to which , national policy actors use PISA in policies and practices, to evaluate and improve…

    13. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

      2011-01-01

      The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs

    14. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

      2011-01-01

      The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

    15. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

      2011-01-01

      One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a

    16. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

      2011-01-01

      One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

    17. The Psychoanalytic Mode of Thought and its Application To the Non-Normative Analysis of Sexuality and Gender.

      PubMed

      Kloppenberg, Brian

      2016-02-01

      Freud's psychoanalytic mode of thought, especially as interpreted by William Grossman, functions as an inherently non-normative means of analyzing both the psychic life of the individual and various historical and cultural phenomena. Application of this mode of thought to particular characterizations of gender and sexuality makes possible an essential critique of trait psychology and static formulations of human development, as restricting both clinical practice and theory building. An exploration of the complexities of sexuality and gender in gay men shows how Freud's insistence on variability lends conceptual power at the intersection of classical psychoanalysis, with its problematic history, and the many clinical and theoretical manifestations of contemporary psychoanalysis. The non-normative psychoanalytic mode of thought developed by Freud must be integrated with more recent formulations about gender and sexuality in order to conduct a psychoanalysis. PMID:26819349

    18. NACA documents database project

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Smith, Ruth S.

      1991-01-01

      The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

    19. Beyond competition: the normative implications of consumer-driven health plans.

      PubMed

      Rosenthal, Meredith; Daniels, Norman

      2006-06-01

      The Federal Trade Commission/Department of Justice 2004 report Improving Health Care: A Dose of Competition appeals to efficiency arguments in promoting a wide range of health care market reforms. But the market-based reforms discussed in Improving Health Care are not simply neutral with regard to equity in access to services; they are likely to have substantial and inequitable distributional effects. We use the case of consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs), the pillar of the Bush administration's private-sector health reform efforts, to illustrate the limitations of viewing health policy reform through the lens of Improving Health Care. We conclude that the speculative efficiency gains from CDHPs need to be balanced against well-documented equity concerns within a normative framework. Moreover, other important ethical issues arise with regard to the risks imposed on the population by the introduction of policies that are based on a faith in markets rather than empirical evidence. PMID:16785304

    20. What is Hooking Up? Examining Definitions of Hooking Up in Relation to Behavior and Normative Perceptions

      PubMed Central

      Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dent, David V.; Kaysen, Debra L.

      2012-01-01

      Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple hooking up definitions among college students and how different definitions might be associated with participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up. Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805

    1. Foreign policy matters: a normative view of the G8 and population health.

      PubMed

      Labonte, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

      2007-03-01

      The Group of Eight (G8) countries occupy a dominant position in the international economic and political order. Given what is known about influences on the social determinants of health in an interconnected world, the G8 are a logical starting point for any enquiry into the relations between foreign policy and health. We first make five arguments for adopting an explicitly normative, equity-oriented perspective on the performance of G8 policy in areas related to population health. We then examine G8 performance with respect to the crucial policy triad of development assistance, debt relief and trade, finding that neither rhetoric nor promising institutional innovation has been matched by resources commensurate with demonstrated levels of need. We conclude that it is necessary to pursue advocacy efforts based on the normative perspective we have put forward and that doing so effectively requires further investigation of why some policies are more receptive than others to policies of redistribution both within and outside their borders. PMID:17486209

    2. Event- and Context-Specific Normative Misperceptions and High-Risk Drinking: 21st Birthday Celebrations and Football Tailgating*

      PubMed Central

      NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; OSTER-AALAND, LAURA; BERGSTROM, ROCHELLE L.; LEWIS, MELISSA A.

      2008-01-01

      Objective Negative alcohol-related consequences often occur during specific events and in specific contexts (eg., 21st birthday celebrations and tailgating parties). A lack of available event- and context-specific interventions suggests the need to better understand factors associated with heavy drinking in these contexts, with an eye toward developing specific interventions. The purpose of this research was to lay the foundation for developing personalized normative feedback interventions for 21st birthday celebratory drinking and tailgating drinking by evaluating whether students overestimate norms in these specific contexts, as they do more generally. Method Perceived descriptive norms and alcohol consumption were assessed at event- and context-specific levels in two studies. Study 1 included 119 students turning 21 years old who reported their 21st birthday drinking behavior and estimated the typical number of drinks consumed by students celebrating (their 21st birthday. Study 2 included 140 undergraduates drawn from a stratified random sample who reported their behavior regarding drinking and tailgating and their perceived norms for typical drinking and tailgating behavior. Results Results from Study 1 revealed that students overestimated peer drinking during 21st birthday celebrations, and this overestimation was associated with heavier drinking on one’s own 21st birthday. In Study 2, students underestimated the percentage of tailgaters who drank but overestimated typical consumption. Overestimation was consistently associated with heavier drinking during tailgating. Conclusions Successful correction of general normative misperceptions has been shown to reduce drinking in other research. Documentation of normative misperceptions for specific events and context provided by these results represents an important step in developing event- and context-specific interventions utilizing specific normative feedback. PMID:16562411

    3. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

      PubMed

      Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

      2014-06-01

      We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. PMID:24717645

    4. Chemical dispersion among Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Ryder, Graham; Steele, Alison

      1988-01-01

      Analysis of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts for major and minor elements suggests that the hypothesis that the coarser-grained varieties (olivine microgabbros) consist of two chemical groups is incorrect. Instead, it is found that there is a single group including vesicular, coarse-grained, and fine-grained basalts. For the entire suite, the dispersion of compositions along the olivine trend is too great to be explained by short-range unmixing of an unfractionated flow. It is suggested that the general trend for the suite is olivine separation, probably through crystal settling. The textures, mineralogical characteristics, and chemical variation of the olivine-normative basalts are shown to be consistent with a sequence of thin fractionating flows, all from a common parent.

    5. The normative authority of the World Health Organization.

      PubMed

      Gostin, L O; Sridhar, D; Hougendobler, D

      2015-07-01

      The World Health Organization (WHO) was born after the devastation of World War II, as a normative agency endowed with unprecedented constitutional powers. But even as it has achieved stunning successes, such as the eradication of smallpox, it has failed to live up to the exalted expectations of the postwar health and human rights movement - exemplified most recently by its inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic. Our aim is to offer innovative ideas for restoring the Organization to its leadership position by exercising its normative authority, even as it faces a crowded and often chaotic global health architecture. Before doing so, it will be helpful to summarize the main tensions the Organization faces in today's global health landscape. PMID:26100341

    6. Assessment battery for communication (ABaCo): normative data.

      PubMed

      Angeleri, Romina; Bosco, Francesca M; Gabbatore, Ilaria; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

      2012-09-01

      The Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo) was introduced to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with cerebral lesions. The battery is organized into five evaluation scales focusing on separate components of pragmatic competence. In the present study, we present normative data for individuals 15-75 years of age (N = 300). The sample was stratified by age, sex, and years of education, according to Italian National Institute of Statistics indications in order to be representative of the general national population. Since performance on the ABaCo decreases with age and lower years of education, the norms were stratified for both age and education. The ABaCo is a valuable tool in clinical practice; the normative data provided here will enable clinicians to determine different kinds and specific levels of communicative impairments more precisely. PMID:22180102

    7. Cooling histories of Apollo 15 quartz-normative basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Grove, T. L.; Walker, D.

      1977-01-01

      Controlled cooling rate studies of vitrophyre 15597 are used to calculate the physical properties of a quartz-normative magma as well as cooling histories of Apollo 15 quartz-normative basalts (QNB). Pyroxene phenocrysts of a QNB magma do not settle appreciably during the cooling of the flow unit; this behavior is consistent with the small degree of chemical differentiation that occurred between members of the suite. Two types of cooling histories for QNB are discerned. The vitrophyres experienced initial slow cooling followed by rapid cooling, and the coarse-grained microgabbros underwent slow nearly linear cooling histories. Textural evidence suggests that lunar vitrophyres crystallized near the top of the flow. It is suggested that the pattern of cooling may have been caused by the chilling of liquids that inherited early crystals in the interior of the flow.

    8. Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test: Normative Data and Validity

      PubMed Central

      Birch, Eileen; Williams, Cathy; Drover, James; Fu, Valeria; Cheng, Christina; Northstone, Kate; Courage, Mary; Adams, Russell

      2008-01-01

      Introduction The Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test (RPST) is a widely used 3-book test for the assessment of binocular status. Using a prototype, we previously reported high testability in children as young as 3 years, validity data, and some normative data. Here we report extensive normative and validity data for the final version of the test. In addition, we report normative data for a new, fourth book that adds finer disparities. Methods The RPST was administered to 4355 normal children ages 318 years and 39 adults in multiple settings. In addition, the RPST along with the new 4th book that added 30 arcsec and 20 arcsec disparity levels was administered to 1402 normal children ages 318 years and 33 normal adults. Both the 4-book RPST and the Randot circles were administered to 242 patients with amblyogenic conditions ages 318 years. Results Mean normal stereoacuity improved from 100 arcsec at 3 years of age to 60 arcsec by 5 years and 40 arcsec by 7 years. The lower limit of normal was 400 arcsec at 3 years, 200 arcsec at 4 years, and 60 arcsec at 7 years. Using the new 4-book version, further improvement in mean stereoacuity could be appreciated beyond 7 years of age to 30 arcsec in the 1118-year-old and adult groups. Among the 242 patients, RPST stereoacuity was strongly associated with Randot circle stereoacuity (?2=261.0, p<0.001). Conclusions Normative data for the RPST show a monotonic improvement of stereoacuity from age 3 years through the teen years. Patient data support the validity of the RPST. PMID:17720573

    9. Using empirical research to formulate normative ethical principles in biomedicine.

      PubMed

      Ebbesen, Mette; Pedersen, Birthe D

      2007-03-01

      Bioethical research has tended to focus on theoretical discussion of the principles on which the analysis of ethical issues in biomedicine should be based. But this discussion often seems remote from biomedical practice where researchers and physicians confront ethical problems. On the other hand, published empirical research on the ethical reasoning of health care professionals offer only descriptions of how physicians and nurses actually reason ethically. The question remains whether these descriptions have any normative implications for nurses and physicians? In this article, we illustrate an approach that integrates empirical research into the formulation of normative ethical principles using the moral-philosophical method of Wide Reflective Equilibrium (WRE). The research method discussed in this article was developed in connection with the project 'Bioethics in Theory and Practice'. The purpose of this project is to investigate ethical reasoning in biomedical practice in Denmark empirically. In this article, we take the research method as our point of departure, but we exclusively discuss the theoretical framework of the method, not its empirical results. We argue that the descriptive phenomenological hermeneutical method developed by Lindseth and Norberg (2004) and Pedersen (1999) can be combined with the theory of WRE to arrive at a decision procedure and thus a foundation for the formulation of normative ethical principles. This could provide health care professionals and biomedical researchers with normative principles about how to analyse, reason and act in ethically difficult situations in their practice. We also show how to use existing bioethical principles as inspiration for interpreting the empirical findings of qualitative studies. This may help researchers design their own empirical studies in the field of ethics. PMID:16955345

    10. Document Monitor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1988-01-01

      The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

    11. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

      PubMed Central

      Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

      2004-01-01

      Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach. PMID:15590612

    12. Olfactory event-related potentials and aging: normative data.

      PubMed

      Murphy, C; Morgan, C D; Geisler, M W; Wetter, S; Covington, J W; Madowitz, M D; Nordin, S; Polich, J M

      2000-05-01

      Unlike the clinical usages of evoked potentials (e.g. brain stem auditory evoked potentials for the assessment of auditory function), normative data for the olfactory event-related potential (OERP) have been unavailable. The principal objective was to establish normative data across the human life span for OERPs with a given set of parameters. Participants were 140 persons from seven age groups (16-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years of age), with equal numbers of males and females, screened for nasal health and dementia. The odor stimulus was amyl acetate, presented at nasal temperature in a humidified airstream delivered by an air-dilution olfactometer at a constant flow rate, using a 60-s inter-stimulus interval. OERPs were recorded at Fz, Cz, and Pz electrode sites, amplified and averaged over trials. Amplitudes of the N1/P2 and P3 and latencies of the P2 and P3 were analyzed. Processing speed decreased at a constant rate over decades for the sensory (P2 latency) as well as cognitive (P3 latency) components. Decline in amplitude over decades was also apparent. Normative data will be useful in research on olfactory function and in clinical assessment of olfactory functional status. PMID:10742568

    13. The geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Grove, T. L.

      1985-01-01

      The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas.

    14. Video document

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer W.; Yeo, Boon-Lock

      1999-08-01

      The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.

    15. Normative ethics does not need a foundation: it needs more science.

      PubMed

      Quintelier, Katinka; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Braeckman, Johan

      2011-03-01

      The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to provide input to the normative domain of ethics. Whereas defenders of a scientific normative ethics appeal to naturalism, its critics either see the naturalistic fallacy committed or argue that the relevance of science to normative ethics remains undemonstrated. In this paper, we argue that current scientific normative ethicists commit no fallacy, that criticisms of scientific ethics contradict each other, and that scientific insights are relevant to normative inquiries by informing ethics about the options open to the ethical debate. Moreover, when conceiving normative ethics as being a nonfoundational ethics, science can be used to evaluate every possible norm. This stands in contrast to foundational ethics in which some norms remain beyond scientific inquiry. Finally, we state that a difference in conception of normative ethics underlies the disagreement between proponents and opponents of a scientific ethics. Our argument is based on and preceded by a reconsideration of the notions naturalistic fallacy and foundational ethics. This argument differs from previous work in scientific ethics: whereas before the philosophical project of naturalizing the normative has been stressed, here we focus on concrete consequences of biological findings for normative decisions or on the day-to-day normative relevance of these scientific insights. PMID:20407803

    16. Assessing Adolescent Decision-Making Competence

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fischhoff, Baruch

      2008-01-01

      Behavioral decision research offers a general approach to studying cognitive aspects of decision making, as well as a platform for studying their interplay with social and affective processes. Applied to any decision, behavioral decision research involves three interrelated tasks: (a) "normative" analysis, identifying the expected impacts of…

    17. Normative misperceptions about alcohol use in the general population of drinkers: A cross-sectional survey

      PubMed Central

      Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

      2015-01-01

      Introduction Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to others (normative misperception) has been documented in some college student and heavy-alcohol using samples, and may contribute to excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess how far this phenomenon extends to alcohol users more generally in four English-speaking countries and if associations with socio-demographic and drinking variables exist. Methods A cross-sectional online global survey (Global Drugs Survey-2012) was completed by 9820 people aged 18+ from Australia, Canada, the UK and US who had consumed alcohol in the last year. The survey included the AUDIT questionnaire (which assessed alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol dependence), socio-demographic assessment and a question assessing beliefs about how one's drinking compares with others. Associations were analysed by linear regression models. Results Underestimation of own alcohol use relative to others occurred in 46.9% (95% CI: 45.9%, 47.9%) of respondents. 25.4% of participants at risk of alcohol dependence and 36.6% of harmful alcohol users believed their drinking to be average or less. Underestimation was more likely among those who were: younger (1624; p<0.003), male (p<0.001), from the UK (versus US; p<0.001), less well educated (p=0.003), white (p=0.035), and unemployed (versus employed; p<0.001). Conclusions Underestimating one's own alcohol consumption relative to other drinkers is common in Australia, Canada, the UK and US, with a substantial minority of harmful drinkers believing their consumption to be at or below average. This normative misperception is greater in those who are younger, male, less well educated, unemployed, white, from the UK and high-risk drinkers. PMID:25482365

    18. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Dalton, Madeline A.

      2010-01-01

      Objective To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with two clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting One large suburban high school. Participants 1211 high school students aged 14–18. Main outcome measures Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Results Nineteen percent (N=216) of students reported current smoking, and 40% (N=379) of the non-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Factor analysis identified three normative beliefs constructs, labeled “perceived prevalence of smoking,” “perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society,” and “disapproval of smoking by parents/peers.” On average, students felt that 56% of people in the US smoke cigarettes. Twenty-four percent (24%) believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the three constructs was independently associated with current smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08; Adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23; Adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.75; respectively) even after controlling for covariates. Students’ perceptions of smoking among successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.29; Adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.96; respectively). Conclusions Adolescents’ normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least three distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking. PMID:17485617

    19. [The normative concept of guilt in criminal law between freedom of will and neurobiological determinism].

      PubMed

      Czerner, Frank

      2006-01-01

      To make criminal conduct liable to punishment, criminal responsibility, defined as individual blameworthiness in terms of social ethics, is required as point of reference--both to create and limit the state's right to punish the offender. Neurobiological findings and more recent investigations in brain research have given rise to serious doubts regarding this "conditio sine qua non" of the state's power monopoly. As a result of preceding unconscious decisions, so the argument goes, Man is not free in his will, and the normative principle of culpability would need to be relinquished in favour of a "law of measures" detached from guilt. A detailed analysis of the underlying experimental setups, in particular the investigations by Benjamin Libet involving the measurement of the readiness potential, has shown, however, that the results of the test methods do not justify the demand for a profound change up to the point of a total revision of criminal law, and that they cannot invalidate the concept of freedom of will apostrophised on principle. The empirical data obtained fail to demonstrate if and why decisions of the will should not be free, the more so as the nomothetic method used ignores completely the idiographic understanding and interpretation of the always context-related and socio-structurally (pre)-moulded personality of the offender. Performed in a laboratory setting as individual actions with a comparatively simple structure and unrelated to a concrete situation, they can by no means be translated to the (more) complex situation under which an offence is committed including the decision-making processes determined by psychodynamic, motivational and intentional aspects as well as highly specific reciprocal interactions within the offender-victim constellation. Even if these experiments had shown the determined nature of human decisions, they would not necessarily have to bring about a conceptual change of paradigms of the normative concept of guilt, because as a result of self-attribution, the intra- and inter-subjective experience of the freedom of will renders the mere "illusion of freedom" sufficient to assign to an individual the appropriate sense of responsibility, which is also accepted by him. The alternative of a law of measures independent of guilt and culpability must be rejected because it is incapable of instituting sufficient protection, both in qualitative and quantitative terms, against prognostically diffuse and utilitarian hypertrophied prophylactic efforts on the part of the state up to the point of a revolutionised anthropological design, as shown quite clearly by the repressive and restrictive tendencies apparent in criminal policy since 11 September 2001. Consequently, the classic principle of guilt as one of the humanitarian foundations of punishment imposed by the state needs to be protected and upheld in the face of rash and inadequately considered law amendment endeavours. With its principles having slowly grown over the ages under democratic consent, criminal law is capable of immunising itself against uncritically generalised restructuring attempts based on inductive false conclusions and the confusion of coincidence, correlation and causality, let alone against the neurobiological "occupation tendencies" of normative premises. Regardless of their undeniable fascination, future brain research activities and the respective findings in the neurobiology of thinking, decision-making and acting as an indispensable empirical and epistemological starting point must always be reviewed in terms of their factual and normative implementation powers in favour of or against the human freedom of will. PMID:17217181

    20. LCS Content Document Application

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hochstadt, Jake

      2011-01-01

      My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

    1. A dynamic melting model for the origin of Apollo 15 olivine-normative and quartz-normative mare basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

      1993-01-01

      Early studies of mare basalts from the Apollo 15 site established that two distinct groups are represented: the olivine-normative basalts (ONB) and the quartz-normative basalts (QNB). The ONB and QNB suites are distinguished petrographically by their phenocryst assemblages (the ONB's are olivine-phyric, the QNB's are generally pyroxene-phyric) and chemically by their major element compositions: the QNB's are higher in SiO2 and MgO/FeO, and lower in FeO and TiO2 than ONB's with similar MgO contents. Experimental data show that the QNB suite is derived from a more magnesian, olivine-normative parent magma, a conclusion which is supported by the recent discovery of high-SiO2 olivine-normative basalt clasts in breccia 15498. The high-SiO2 ONB's fall on olivine control lines with primitive QNB's, and least-squares mixing calculations are consistent with the high-SiO2 ONB's being parental to the more evolved QNB suite. These high-SiO2 ONB's are included as part of the 'QNB suite'. Our major element modeling results also are consistent with the conclusions of earlier studies which showed that the ONB and QNB suites cannot be related to one another by low pressure crystal fractionation. The combination of high Mg#, high SiO2, and low TiO2 in the QNB suite precludes a relationship to the ONB suite by simple removal of liquidus minerals (olivine and pigeonite). Despite these significant differences in petrography and major element composition, both groups have nearly identical trace element concentrations and chondrite-normalized abundance patterns. The major question to be addressed by any petrogenetic model for Apollo 15 mare basalts is how to form mare basalt suites with distinctly different major element characteristics but nearly identical trace element compositions. The similarity in trace element concentrations imply compositionally similar source regions and similar percent melting, but these conclusions are not easily reconciled with the observed differences in major element compositions, which require sources with distinct mineralogies or large differences in percent melt.

    2. Normative biometrics for fetal ocular growth using volumetric MRI reconstruction

      PubMed Central

      Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Estroff, Judy A.; Warfield, Simon K.

      2015-01-01

      Objective To determine normative ranges for fetal ocular biometrics between 19 and 38 weeks gestational age (GA) using volumetric MRI reconstruction. Method 3D images of 114 healthy fetuses between 19 and 38 weeks GA were created using super-resolution volume reconstructions from MRI slice acquisitions. These 3D images were semi-automatically segmented to measure fetal orbit volume, binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), and ocular diameter (OD). Results All biometry correlated with GA (Volume, CC = 0.9680; BOD, CC = 0.9552; OD, CC = 0.9445; and IOD, CC = 0.8429), and growth curves were plotted against linear and quadratic growth models. Regression analysis showed quadratic models to best fit BOD, IOD and OD, and a linear model to best fit volume. Conclusion Orbital volume had the greatest correlation with GA, though BOD and OD also showed strong correlation. The normative data found in this study may be helpful for the detection of congenital fetal anomalies with more consistent measurements than are currently available. PMID:25601041

    3. Normative data on phases of the Valsalva maneuver

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Denq, J. C.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

      1998-01-01

      The phases of the Valsalva maneuver have well-known pathophysiology, and are used in the evaluation of adrenergic function. Because scant normative data is available, we have evaluated normative data for the Valsalva maneuver in control subjects. The patient, supine, performed the Valsalva maneuver maintaining an expiratory pressure of 40 mm Hg for 15 seconds. We reviewed 188 Valsalva maneuver recordings of normal control subjects, and recordings were excluded if two reproducible recordings were not obtained, or if expiratory pressure was <30 mm Hg or < 10 seconds. One hundred and three recordings were acceptable for analysis; 47 female and 56 male subjects, age in years (mean +/- SD) was 52.2+/-17.3 and 44.8+/-17.3, respectively. The association of expiratory pressure with age (P < 0.001) and gender ( P < 0.001) was complex, expressed as a parabola in both men and women, but resulted in phases I and III that were not significantly different. An increase in age resulted in a progressively more negative phase II_E (P < 0.05) and attenuation of phase II_L (P < 0.01). An increase in supine blood pressure resulted in a significantly more negative phase II_E (P < 0.001) and a lower phase IV. Phase IV is unaffected by age and gender.

    4. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

      PubMed Central

      Schurz, Gerhard

      2014-01-01

      In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

    5. A Normative Model of Serum Inhibin B in Young Males

      PubMed Central

      Miles, Amy; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

      2016-01-01

      Inhibin B has been identified as a potential marker of Sertoli cell function in males. The aim of this study is to produce a normative model of serum inhibin B in males from birth to seventeen years. We used a well-defined search strategy to identify studies containing data that can contribute to a larger approximation of the healthy population. We combined data from four published studies (n = 709) and derived an internally validated model with high goodness-of-fit and normally distributed residuals. Our results show that inhibin B increases following birth to a post-natal peak of 270 pg/mL (IQR 210–335 pg/mL) and then decreases during childhood followed by a rise at around 8 years, peaking at a mean 305 pg/mL (IQR 240–445 pg/mL) at around age 17. Following this peak there is a slow decline to the standard mature adult normal range of 170 pg/mL (IQR 125–215 pg/mL). This normative model suggests that 35% of the variation in Inhibin B levels in young males is due to age alone, provides an age-specific reference range for inhibin B in the young healthy male population, and will be a powerful tool in evaluating the potential of inhibin B as a marker of Sertoli cell function in pre-pubertal boys. PMID:27077369

    6. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

      PubMed

      Yamagishi, Kimihiko

      2003-01-01

      Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed. PMID:12693194

    7. Perceptions of document relevance

      PubMed Central

      Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

      2014-01-01

      This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

    8. Normative values of hip strength in adult male association football players assessed by handheld dynamometry.

      PubMed

      Hanna, Chris M; Fulcher, Mark L; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A

      2010-05-01

      Chronic groin pain is a common problem in association football players. Normative values for the strength of hip muscles, measured in an accurate and accessible manner, are needed to gauge strength and inform return to play decisions in this group. The purpose of this study was to define normative values of hip muscle strength using handheld dynamometry. A series of reliable clinical tests that are commonly used when making return to sport decisions in athletes with chronic adductor related groin pain have been selected. One hundred and twenty adult male association football players, free from injury, were recruited. Isometric strength of the hip flexors and adductor muscles was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Mean age was 24.9 years (SD 5.9). Eighty participants (67%) had experienced groin pain in the past. Mean strength for dominant leg hip flexion was 47.3 kg (95% confidence interval 45.6-49.0), non-dominant leg hip flexion was 42.5 kg (41.1-43.9), adduction at 0 degrees hip flexion was 35.6 kg (34.1-37.1), adduction at 45 degrees was 32.0 kg (30.9-33.1), and adduction at 90 degrees was 25.5 kg (24.4-26.5). This study establishes reference ranges and predictive equations for maximal isometric contraction strength of the hip muscles in non-injured adult male association football players. This information will assist assessment and management of an athlete's return to play following injury. PMID:19574097

    9. Omega documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

      1983-08-01

      OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

    10. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ressler, Paula

      2005-01-01

      Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

    11. Cinco De Mayo, Normative Whiteness, and the Marginalization of Mexican-Descent Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hurd, Clayton A.

      2008-01-01

      This case study is concerned with how institutional practices of normative whiteness can impede the school involvement of Mexican-descent students. It examines how damaging forms of white normativity can operate in school settings where one might least expect to find them: in commemorations of Mexican cultural holidays. The author shows how such…

    12. What Community College Students Value: Delineating a Normative Structure for Community College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Akin, Renea; Park, Toby J.

      2016-01-01

      This manuscript delineates a normative structure for community college students, outlines how this structure varies by student characteristics, and compares this structure to that of a previously established normative structure identified at a 4-year institution. A total of 512 student survey responses on the College Student Behaviors Inventory…

    13. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Walrod, Michael R.

      A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

    14. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bucciarelli, Amy

      2011-01-01

      The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the

    15. The Combined Influence of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment on Employee Withdrawal

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Somers, Mark John

      2009-01-01

      In a sample of 288 hospital nurses, commitment profiles were compared to turnover intentions, job search behavior, work withdrawal (absenteeism and lateness) and job stress. Five empirically-derived commitment profiles emerged: highly committed, affective-normative dominant, continuance-normative dominant, continuance dominant, and uncommitted.…

    16. On the Relationship of the Descriptive, Normative and Pedagogical in Argumentativeness Research.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jones, Don Paul

      Although research on argumentativeness appears to confirm the centuries-old "commonsense knowledge" that successful arguers enjoy arguing and are adept at remaining "cool and rational" during an argument, the empirical research itself is based on normative assumptions that underlie this Cartesian "commonsense knowledge." Normative judgments have

    17. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hills, Peter Matthew

      2015-01-01

      Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political…

    18. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kristjansson, Kristjan

      2003-01-01

      Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's…

    19. Normative Feedback and Adolescent Readiness to Change: A Small Randomized Trial

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Douglas C.; Davis, Jordan P.; Ureche, Daniel J.; Tabb, Karen M.

      2015-01-01

      For adolescents with substance use problems, it is unknown whether the provision of normative feedback is a necessary active ingredient in motivational interviewing (MI). This study investigated the impact of normative feedback on adolescents' readiness to change and perceptions of MI quality. Adolescents referred for substance use disorder (SUD)…

    20. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bucciarelli, Amy

      2011-01-01

      The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

    1. Early Understanding of Normativity and Freedom to Act in Turkish Toddlers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tunçgenç, Bahar; Hohenberger, Annette; Rakoczy, Hannes

      2015-01-01

      Two studies investigated young 2- and 3-year-old Turkish children's developing understanding of normativity and freedom to act in games. As expected, children, especially 3-year-olds, protested more when there was a norm violation than when there was none. Surprisingly, however, no decrease in normative protest was observed even when the…

    2. Beyond Evidence-Based Belief Formation: How Normative Ideas Have Constrained Conceptual Change Research

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ohlsson, Stellan

      2013-01-01

      The cognitive sciences, including psychology and education, have their roots in antiquity. In the historically early disciplines like logic and philosophy, the purpose of inquiry was normative. Logic sought to formalize valid inferences, and the various branches of philosophy sought to identify true and certain knowledge. Normative principles are…

    3. The Development of Justice Conceptions and the Unavoidability of the Normative.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kristjansson, Kristjan

      2003-01-01

      Defines ways normative concerns enter into the design and interpretation of empirical research on children's development of justice conceptions. Emphasizes William Damon's stage theory of development. Suggests an alternative research program based on adjustments between the normative and the empirical. Argues this program must focus on children's

    4. Toward an Empirical Delineation of a Normative Structure for College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Caboni, Timothy C.; Braxton, John M.; Deusterhaus, Molly Black; Mundy, Meaghan E.; McClendon, Shederick A.; Lee, Stephanie D.

      2005-01-01

      If one understands the normative structure of a given peer group, one can begin to understand the type of influence that group has on the behavior of its members. Despite the centrality of norms to understanding student peer groups, little or no research has focused on the empirical delineation of normative structures of college students. Thus,…

    5. A Normative Approach to the Legitimacy of Muslim Schools in Multicultural Britain

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hills, Peter Matthew

      2015-01-01

      Debate has grown about the legitimacy of Muslim faith schools within the British education system. At the same time, scepticism has developed towards multiculturalism as a normative approach for dealing with diversity. This article argues that it is worth retaining the normative impetus of multiculturalism by returning to its roots in political

    6. Laudan's normative naturalism: a useful philosophy of science for psychology.

      PubMed

      Capaldi, E J; Proctor, R W

      2000-01-01

      Logical positivism, widely regarded as the received epistemology of psychology in the first half of the 20th century, was supplanted in the 1960s by various postpositivistic, relativistic philosophies of science, most notably that of Kuhn. Recently, Laudan, a major figure in the philosophy of science, developed a novel approach called normative naturalism that provides an alternative to positivism and relativism. His central thesis is that the two are not always on opposite ends of a continuum but rather have many assumptions in common. This article brings Laudan's important views to the attention of psychologists and describes some of the unique implications of these views for the conduct of research and theory in psychology. These implications, which follow from a number of closely reasoned pragmatic arguments, include more realistic and appropriate evaluation of theory and methodology than has been suggested by logical positivism or relativism. PMID:10997236

    7. Normative beliefs about factors that affect health and longevity.

      PubMed

      Love, M B; Thurman, Q

      1991-01-01

      Since the release of the Surgeon General's report, Healthy People, the general public has been barraged with health information and advice by the popular media. Accordingly, this article introduces a method for examining the public's beliefs about the importance of behavioral risk factors associated with health and longevity. The factorial survey approach--a technique appropriate for studying normative beliefs--seems uniquely suited to measuring the degree of public consensus regarding complex social phenomena. Data collected using this experimental vignette methodology suggest that there is much public agreement about the sources of good health. Information described in hypothetical vignettes about smoking, body weight and alcohol consumption are judged most important in promoting health and longevity even when controlling for other behavioral factors such as exercise activity, diet, amount of rest, stress, personality type, and coping strategies. The implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:2055776

    8. Modified Taylor Complex Figure: normative data from 290 adults.

      PubMed

      Casarotti, Alessandra; Papagno, Costanza; Zarino, Barbara

      2014-09-01

      Data for copying and delayed recall (after a 15-min delay) of the Modified Taylor Complex Figure (MTCF), an alternative form of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF), were collected from 290 healthy participants. Normative data are provided. Age and education were significantly correlated with MTCF scores and must be corrected for to interpret results accurately. More specifically, increasing age adversely affected performance, whereas a higher education resulted in a better performance. Twenty-five participants were tested with both complex figures (MTCF and ROCF) in two separate sessions to assess correlation, which proved to be high. The collected data allow using the MTCF as a valid alternative material for testing visual long-term memory avoiding implicit learning that can occur when the same version of the ROCF is used for repeated testing sessions. PMID:23647550

    9. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

      PubMed

      Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

      2012-02-01

      Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

    10. Hippocampal volumetry: Normative data in the Indian population

      PubMed Central

      Mohandas, Aravind Narayan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Prathyusha, Parthipulli Vasuki; Gupta, Arun K.

      2014-01-01

      Background: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative analysis of the hippocampus using volumetry is commonly being used in the diagnosis of MTS and is being used as a marker in prognostication of seizure control. Although normative data for hippocampal volume (HV) is available for the western population, no such data is available for the Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to establish normative data for HV for the Indian population, which can aid in the accurate diagnosis of MTS. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 200 healthy volunteers were acquired using a 3 Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Manual segmentation and volumetry was done using Siemens Syngo software. The data was analyzed using two tailed t-test to detect associations between HV and age, gender, and education. The data so obtained was also correlated with the data available from the rest of the world. Results: A mean HV of 2.411 cm3 (standard deviation -0.299) was found in the study, which was significantly smaller when compared to the data from the western population. The right hippocampus was larger than the left, with a mean volume of 2.424 cm3 and 2.398 cm3, respectively. HV was detected to be significantly higher in males. No association was found between HV and age and education. Conclusion: The values obtained in this study may be adopted as a standard in the evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. PMID:25221393

    11. Evaluation of potential kidney donors with the personality assessment inventory: normative data for a unique population.

      PubMed

      Hurst, Duane F; Locke, Dona E C; Osborne, David

      2010-09-01

      Many transplant centers require personality assessment and/or psychiatric clearance prior to allowing an individual to donate a kidney. This is a unique cohort for personality assessment, and there is no normative information available for this population on standardized self-report measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). We evaluated a prospective sample of 434 kidney donor candidates with development of normative T-scores relevant to this specific comparison group. Compared to the original normative group from the PAI manual, potential kidney donors are 5-7 T-score points above the mean on PIM, RXR, DOM, and WRM and 4-6 points below the mean on the majority of the remaining scales. Raw score/T score conversion tables are provided. The normative data provided here is meant to supplement the original normative information and aid psychologists in evaluation of this unique medical population. PMID:20508975

    12. Underestimating Protection and Overestimating Risk: Examining Descriptive Normative Perceptions and Their Association with Drinking and Sexual Behaviors

      PubMed Central

      Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Gilmore, Amanda K.

      2015-01-01

      Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms–behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms–behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

    13. Underestimating protection and overestimating risk: examining descriptive normative perceptions and their association with drinking and sexual behaviors.

      PubMed

      Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Cronce, Jessica M; Blayney, Jessica A; Gilmore, Amanda K

      2014-01-01

      Individuals who engage in risky sexual behavior face the possibility of experiencing negative consequences. One tenet of social learning theory is that individuals engage in behaviors partly based on observations or perceptions of others' engagement in those behaviors. The present study aimed to document these norms-behavior relationships for both risky and protective sexual behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual behavior. Gender was also examined as a possible moderator of the norms-behavior relationship. Undergraduate students (n = 759; 58.0% female) completed a Web-based survey, including various measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Results indicated that students underestimate sexual health-protective behaviors (e.g., condom use and birth control use) and overestimate the risky behaviors (e.g., frequency of drinking prior to sex, typical number of drinks prior to sex, and frequency of casual sex) of their same-sex peers. All norms were positively associated with behavior, with the exception of condom use. Furthermore, no gender differences were found when examining the relationship between normative perceptions and behavior. The present study adds to the existing literature on normative misperceptions as it indicates that college students overestimate risky sexual behavior while underestimating sexual health-protective behaviors. Implications for interventions using the social norm approach and future directions are discussed. PMID:23067203

    14. Automating clinical dietetics documentation.

      PubMed

      Grace-Farfaglia, P; Rosow, P

      1995-06-01

      A review of commonly used charting formats discussed in the dietetics literature revealed that the subjective, objective assessment and planning (SOAP) approach is most frequently used by dietitians. Formats reported in the nursing literature were charting by exception (CBE); problem, intervention, evaluation (PIE); and focus/data, action, response (Focus/DAR). The strengths and weaknesses of the charting styles as they apply to the needs of clinical dietetic specialists were reviewed. We then decided to test in house the Focus/DAR format by assessing chart entries for adherence to style, brevity, and physician response. Dietitians pilot tested all the methods, but found them time consuming to use. The consensus was that SOAP could be adapted to the documentation needs of the individual situation and required little additional staff training. Often because of time limitations, a narrative summary was most appropriate. Chart entry length was reduced as much as 200% when staff were given brief clinical communication as a goal, and a further reduction when line limits were imposed. The physician response was positive, with recommendations followed in 50% of charts, compared with 34% in a previous audit. A nutrition documentation system was developed by the researchers by reviewing medical chart structure, documentation standards, methods of risk identification, and terminology for clinical documentation style. The resulting system affected the decision making of physicians, who could now scan notes more quickly and implement nutrition recommendations in a more timely fashion. PMID:7759746

    15. Extremely secure identification documents

      SciTech Connect

      Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

      1997-09-01

      The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

    16. Document creation, linking, and maintenance system

      DOEpatents

      Claghorn, Ronald

      2011-02-15

      A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

    17. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

      PubMed Central

      Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

      2009-01-01

      This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

    18. Getting on the same page: The effect of normative feedback interventions on structured interview ratings.

      PubMed

      Hartwell, Christopher J; Campion, Michael A

      2016-06-01

      This study explores normative feedback as a way to reduce rating errors and increase the reliability and validity of structured interview ratings. Based in control theory and social comparison theory, we propose a model of normative feedback interventions (NFIs) in the context of structured interviews and test our model using data from over 20,000 interviews conducted by more than 100 interviewers over a period of more than 4 years. Results indicate that lenient and severe interviewers reduced discrepancies between their ratings and the overall normative mean rating after receipt of normative feedback, though changes were greater for lenient interviewers. When various waves of feedback were presented in later NFIs, the combined normative mean rating over multiple time periods was more predictive of subsequent rating changes than the normative mean rating from the most recent time period. Mean within-interviewer rating variance, along with interrater agreement and interrater reliability, increased after the initial NFI, but results from later NFIs were more complex and revealed that feedback interventions may lose effectiveness over time. A second study using simulated data indicated that leniency and severity errors did not impact rating validity, but did affect which applicants were hired. We conclude that giving normative feedback to interviewers will aid in minimizing interviewer rating differences and enhance the reliability of structured interview ratings. We suggest that interviewer feedback might be considered as a potential new component of interview structure, though future research is needed before a definitive conclusion can be drawn. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26867105

    19. Perceived normative pressure and majority adolescents' implicit and explicit attitudes towards immigrants.

      PubMed

      Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Liebkind, Karmela; Finell, Eerika

      2010-06-01

      The aim of the present study was to examine if perceived normative pressure (i.e., perception of the normative expectations of family and friends regarding one's intergroup attitudes) had a direct impact on majority youth's (N = 93) explicit attitudes and moderated the relationship between their implicit (measured with the ST-IAT) and explicit attitudes towards Russian immigrants in Finland. The results indicated that normative pressure is positively associated with the explicit attitudes of adolescents, and that the implicit attitudes of the adolescents towards immigrants surface on the explicit level only when they do not perceive a normative pressure to hold positive intergroup attitudes. More specifically, when there is no normative pressure, the explicit attitudes of youth are, at best, neutral, and reflect their implicit attitudes. In contrast, when normative pressure is perceived to be high, the level of explicit attitudes is generally more positive, and the expression of explicit attitudes is not determined by implicit attitudes. The effects of age, sex, quality of past intergroup contact experiences, and intergroup anxiety were controlled for in the analysis. The findings highlight the importance of taking normative pressure into consideration when studying socially sensitive ethnic attitudes among adolescents. PMID:22043931

    20. The Deontic Transaction Model in Multi-Agent Normative Systems

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Huang, Yonghua; Esterline, Albert

      1998-01-01

      In the area of multi-agent systems, much research is devoted to the coordination of the agents. There exist several issues, two of which are summarized. The first is that, although agents are said to be autonomous, they always react in a predictable way to each message, and they cannot decide to violate the conventions that are hard-wired into the protocol. In fact, there might be circumstances in which the agent violates a convention in order to realize a private goal that it considers to be more important. Another issue is that, if the protocols that agents use to react to the environment are fixed, they have no way to respond to changes. However, an important characteristic of agents is that they eon react to a changing environment. Although transaction models ([BOH92], [GR93]) evolved from the database domain, they establish a general execution paradigm that ideally covers all the subsystems invoked in a sequence of transactions. So transaction models apply to multi-agent systems. Recently, some research has been devoted to overcoming the limitations of the traditional transaction models which are suitable for conventional systems and focus on system integrity, e,g., [SJ97]. Here we solve above issues by turning to a deontic concept: obligation. In multi-agent systems, agents interact with each other according to norms, We use deontic logic ([And58], [Aqv84], [B C96], [JS94], [MW93]) to model norms. Here the norms prescribe how the agents ought to behave, but-- and this is essential-- they do not exclude the possibility of "bad" behavior (i.e., the actual behavior may deviate from the ideal), and so they also prescribe what should be done in circumstances of norm violation. Thus, we propose a new approach --- a deontic transaction model for multi-agent normative systems. Our approach improves the protocol of "abort/commit" of traditional transaction models to a protocol of "abort/exception/commit". In multi-agent normative systems, we can see the violation of a norm as an exception and how the other agents react to the violation as exception handling. This paper concentrates on our formal model.

    1. Constructing Language Normativity through the Animation of Stance in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

      PubMed Central

      Vickers, Caroline H.; Deckert, Sharon K.; Goble, Ryan

      2013-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

    2. Dual character concepts and the normative dimension of conceptual representation.

      PubMed

      Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E

      2013-05-01

      Five experiments provide evidence for a class of 'dual character concepts.' Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts have two different criteria for category membership. The results show that when an object possesses the appropriate concrete features, but does not fulfill the appropriate abstract value, it is judged to be a category member in one sense but not in another. Finally, Experiment 5 uses the theory developed here to construct artificial dual character concepts and examines whether participants react to these artificial concepts in the same way as naturally occurring dual character concepts. The present studies serve to define the nature of dual character concepts and distinguish them from other types of concepts (e.g., natural kind concepts), which share some, but not all of the properties of dual character concepts. More broadly, these phenomena suggest a normative dimension in everyday conceptual representation. PMID:23454798

    3. Developmental normative data for the Corsi Block-tapping task.

      PubMed

      Farrell Pagulayan, Kathleen; Busch, Robyn M; Medina, Krista L; Bartok, John A; Krikorian, Robert

      2006-08-01

      The Corsi Block-Tapping task has been utilized as a measure of spatial memory in both clinical and research contexts for several decades. Despite its wide application, the task has been employed with extraordinary variability in administration and scoring and in the composition of stimulus item sets. We have generated a set of test items containing quasi-randomly derived block-tapping sequences. In another study, we investigated item difficulty as a function of path configuration and showed a decline in performance with increasing span capacity load. In the current cross-sectional study, we evaluated developmental differences in span capacity by measuring performances of school children from grade 1 (M age = 7 years) to grade 8 (M age = 14) and a young adult sample (M age = 21 years). Mean span capacity increased incrementally and linearly with age, and no gender difference was observed. The increase in performance with advancing age supports the notion that spatial immediate memory capacity increases with maturation throughout childhood. Comparisons indicated that the span capacity of eighth graders (M = 6.9) was not statistically different from that of the young adults (M = 7.1), suggesting an upper developmental plateau for spatial span in early adolescence. This study provides a normative database for this widely utilized measure of spatial memory. PMID:16822742

    4. Preschoolers understand the normativity of cooperatively structured competition.

      PubMed

      Schmidt, Marco F H; Hardecker, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

      2016-03-01

      Human institutional practices often involve competition within a cooperative structure of mutually accepted rules. In a competitive game, for instance, we not only expect adherence to the rules of the game but also expect an opponent who tries to win and, thus, follows a rational game-playing strategy. We had 3- and 5-year-olds (N=48) play for a prize against an opponent (a puppet) who played either rationally (trying to win) or irrationally (helping the children to win) while either following or breaking the rules of the game. Both age groups performed costly protest against an opponent who followed the rules but played irrationally by helping the children to win. When facing a rule-breaking opponent, 3-year-olds protested only the rule breaches of an irrational opponent but not irrational play. Five-year-olds also protested the rule breaches of a rational opponent, but in contrast to the 3-year-olds, they protested irrational behavior even in the context of rule breaches. Moreover, many children, in particular 3-year-olds, refrained from protesting. These findings suggest that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, fully understand the dual-level normative structure of cooperatively regulated competition. PMID:26615466

    5. Normative preconditions for the assessment of mental disorder

      PubMed Central

      Stier, Marco

      2013-01-01

      The debate about the relevance of values for the concept of a mental disorder has quite a long history. In the light of newer insights into neuroscience and molecular biology it is necessary to re-evaluate this issue. Since the medical model in previous decades was more of a confession rather than evidence based, one could assume that it is—due to scientific progress—currently becoming the one and only bedrock of psychiatry. This article argues that this would be a misapprehension of the normative constitution of the assessment of human behavior. The claim made here is twofold: First, whether something is a mental disease can only be determined on the mental level. This is so because we can only call behavior deviant by comparing it to non-deviant behavior, i.e., by using norms regarding behavior. Second, from this it follows that psychiatric disorders cannot be completely reduced to the physical level even if mental processes and states as such might be completely reducible to brain functions. PMID:24058357

    6. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations

      PubMed Central

      Bach, Dominik R.

      2015-01-01

      Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder. PMID:26650585

    7. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

      PubMed Central

      Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

      2016-01-01

      Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

    8. Audits highlight need for documentation.

      PubMed

      2014-09-01

      The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' "Probe and Educate" initiative to determine hospitals'compliance with the two-midnight rule makes it clear that case managers must review physician documentation as well as medical necessity. The Medicare Administrative Contractors are focusing on short stays when physician documentation doesn't support the expectation of a two-midnight stay. They're looking at flawed admission orders, and when the orders to admit are issued by a practitioner who does not have admitting privileges at the hospital. Another area of focus is physician statements without documentation of the reason for the need for inpatient treatment. PMID:25134273

    9. Use of Normative Peer Data as a Standard for Evaluating Classroom Treatment Effects

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Walker, Hill M.; Hops, Hyman

      1976-01-01

      A study involving 24 primary-grade children with behavior problems was conducted to illustrate the use of normative behavioral observation data as a standard for evaluating the practicality of treatment effects produced in other settings. (Author/SB)

    10. Normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator of narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying.

      PubMed

      Ang, Rebecca P; Tan, Kit-Aun; Talib Mansor, Abu

      2011-09-01

      The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying. PMID:21156699

    11. New optical security features in plastic documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      van den Berg, Jan; Augustinus, Arnoud

      2000-04-01

      Protecting identification documents against fraud attacks means constant innovation. Enschede/Sdu has developed a plastic security document with three new optical security features, which can easily be verified with the naked eye. The properties of plastics, especially the thermo plastic behavior, makes it possible to incorporate some elements into the document which are not possible with paper.

    12. SANSMIC design document.

      SciTech Connect

      Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

      2015-07-01

      The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

    13. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

      This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

    14. Normative Data of Grip and Pinch Strengths in Healthy Adults of Iranian Population

      PubMed Central

      MOHAMMADIAN, Mostafa; CHOOBINEH, Alireza; HAGHDOOST, Aliakbar; HASHEMINEJAD, Naser

      2014-01-01

      Abstract Background Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with their normative data is a valid method to detect intensity of the numerous damages of hand. This research was carried out with the aim of establishing normative data of grip strength and three types of pinch strengths (Tip, Key and Palmar) in healthy Iranian adults. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the study population was formed of 1008 people (526 men and 482 women) from healthy Fars race adults of over 20 years old in five cities of Iran. American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) recommendations were followed to establish normative data of grip and pinch strengths. Normative data of grip and pinch strengths were developed based on sex, 12 different age groups and dominant and non-dominant hands. Jamar dynamometer and Seahan pinch gauge were used to measure grip and pinch strengths, respectively. Results Normative data of grip and pinch strengths were provided. Grip and pinch strengths of men were significantly stronger than women. The maximum grip strength of men was obtained in the group of 20-24 years and among women it was in the age group 35-39 years. Regardless of gender, grip and pinch strengths were declined with aging. Conclusion Normative data of grip and pinch strengths were developed for Iranian population. PMID:25927041

    15. Normative Perceptions of Non-medical Stimulant Use: Associations with Actual Use and Hazardous Drinking

      PubMed Central

      Kilmer, Jason R.; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

      2014-01-01

      Approximately 10% of US college students are engaged in non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and that use is linked to concerning health, educational, and societal consequences. Few studies have assessed normative perceptions surrounding NMUPS. Accordingly, we examined self-reported use and normative perceptions for NMUPS and demographic factors that may be associated with them. We also investigated whether higher normative perceptions for NMUPS were related to the most commonly used and abused substance among college students (alcohol). METHOD 1106 undergraduates participated in an online survey of normative perceptions of NMUPS and students’ own drinking and stimulant use habits. RESULTS Students overestimated NMUPS by other students and those normative estimates were associated with higher NMUPS. Living in a fraternity or sorority was related to higher NMUPS and perceived norms. Finally, higher normative perceptions of NMUPS were associated with higher hazardous drinking. CONCLUSION The large discrepancy between actual use (generally low) and students’ perceptions (generally high), and the relationship of these perceptions to both one’s own use of NMUPS and alcohol suggests that interventions aimed at correcting norms may be useful. PMID:25462654

    16. Semantic similarity: normative ratings for 185 Spanish noun triplets.

      PubMed

      Moldovan, Cornelia D; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

      2015-09-01

      The present study introduces the first Spanish database with normative ratings of semantic similarity for 185 word triplets. Each word triplet is constituted by a target word (e.g., guisante [pea]) and two semantically related and nonassociatively related words: a word highly related in meaning to the target (e.g., judía [bean]), and a word less related in meaning to the target (e.g., patata [potato]). The degree of meaning similarity was assessed by 332 participants by using a semantic similarity rating task on a 9-point scale. Pairs having a value of semantic similarity ranging from 5 to 9 were classified as being more semantically related, whereas those with values ranging from 2 to 4.99 were considered as being less semantically related. The relative distance between the two pairs for the same target ranged from 0.48 to 5.07 points. Mean comparisons revealed that participants rated the more similar words as being significantly more similar in meaning to the target word than were the less similar words. In addition to the semantic similarity norms, values of concreteness and familiarity of each word in a triplet are provided. The present database can be a very useful tool for scientists interested in designing experiments to examine the role of semantics in language processing. Since the variable of semantic similarity includes a wide range of values, it can be used as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable. The full database is available in the supplementary materials. PMID:24984982

    17. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account.

      PubMed

      Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

      2015-06-01

      Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable "feeling of knowing" or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core property of the learning process. PMID:26076466

    18. The Sense of Confidence during Probabilistic Learning: A Normative Account

      PubMed Central

      Meyniel, Florent; Schlunegger, Daniel; Dehaene, Stanislas

      2015-01-01

      Learning in a stochastic environment consists of estimating a model from a limited amount of noisy data, and is therefore inherently uncertain. However, many classical models reduce the learning process to the updating of parameter estimates and neglect the fact that learning is also frequently accompanied by a variable “feeling of knowing” or confidence. The characteristics and the origin of these subjective confidence estimates thus remain largely unknown. Here we investigate whether, during learning, humans not only infer a model of their environment, but also derive an accurate sense of confidence from their inferences. In our experiment, humans estimated the transition probabilities between two visual or auditory stimuli in a changing environment, and reported their mean estimate and their confidence in this report. To formalize the link between both kinds of estimate and assess their accuracy in comparison to a normative reference, we derive the optimal inference strategy for our task. Our results indicate that subjects accurately track the likelihood that their inferences are correct. Learning and estimating confidence in what has been learned appear to be two intimately related abilities, suggesting that they arise from a single inference process. We show that human performance matches several properties of the optimal probabilistic inference. In particular, subjective confidence is impacted by environmental uncertainty, both at the first level (uncertainty in stimulus occurrence given the inferred stochastic characteristics) and at the second level (uncertainty due to unexpected changes in these stochastic characteristics). Confidence also increases appropriately with the number of observations within stable periods. Our results support the idea that humans possess a quantitative sense of confidence in their inferences about abstract non-sensory parameters of the environment. This ability cannot be reduced to simple heuristics, it seems instead a core property of the learning process. PMID:26076466

    19. An STS Case Study about Students' Decision Making on the Waste Issue.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kortland, Koos

      1996-01-01

      Assesses students' existing and developing decision-making ability against the background of a normative model of the decision making process. Results indicate that after a unit on household packaging waste the students' arguments about a decision making situation improved in terms of validity and clarity of the criteria used. Contains 16…

    20. Task-dependent recruitment of intrinsic brain networks reflects normative variance in cognition

      PubMed Central

      Gess, Jennifer L; Fausett, Jennifer S; Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Kilts, Clinton D; James, George Andrew

      2014-01-01

      Background Functional neuroimaging has great potential to inform clinical decisions, whether by identifying neural biomarkers of illness progression and severity, predicting therapeutic response, or selecting suitable patients for surgical interventions. Yet a persisting barrier to functional neuroimaging's clinical translation is our incomplete understanding of how normative variance in cognition, personality, and behavior shape the brain's structural and functional organization. We propose that modeling individual differences in these brain–behavior relationships is crucial for improving the accuracy of neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Methods We addressed this goal by initiating the Cognitive Connectome Project, which bridges neuropsychology and neuroimaging by pairing nine cognitive domains typically assessed by clinically validated neuropsychological measures with those tapped by canonical neuroimaging tasks (motor, visuospatial perception, attention, language, memory, affective processing, decision making, working memory, and executive function). To date, we have recruited a diverse sample of 53 participants (mean [SD], age = 32 [9.7] years, 31 females). Results As a proof of concept, we first demonstrate that our neuroimaging task battery can replicate previous findings that task performance recruits intrinsic brain networks identified during wakeful rest. We then expand upon these previous findings by showing that the extent to which these networks are recruited by task reflects individual differences in cognitive ability. Specifically, performance on the Judgment of Line Orientation task (a clinically validated measure of visuospatial perception) administered outside of the MRI scanner predicts the magnitude of task-induced activity of the dorsal visual network when performing a direct replication of this task within the MRI scanner. Other networks (such as default mode and right frontoparietal) showed task-induced changes in activity that were unrelated to task performance, suggesting these networks to not be involved in visuospatial perception. Conclusion These findings establish a methodological framework by which clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging may mutually inform one another, thus enhancing the translation of functional neuroimaging into clinical decision making. PMID:25328842

    1. A normative inference approach for optimal sample sizes in decisions from experience

      PubMed Central

      Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger; Hertwig, Ralph

      2015-01-01

      “Decisions from experience” (DFE) refers to a body of work that emerged in research on behavioral decision making over the last decade. One of the major experimental paradigms employed to study experience-based choice is the “sampling paradigm,” which serves as a model of decision making under limited knowledge about the statistical structure of the world. In this paradigm respondents are presented with two payoff distributions, which, in contrast to standard approaches in behavioral economics, are specified not in terms of explicit outcome-probability information, but by the opportunity to sample outcomes from each distribution without economic consequences. Participants are encouraged to explore the distributions until they feel confident enough to decide from which they would prefer to draw from in a final trial involving real monetary payoffs. One commonly employed measure to characterize the behavior of participants in the sampling paradigm is the sample size, that is, the number of outcome draws which participants choose to obtain from each distribution prior to terminating sampling. A natural question that arises in this context concerns the “optimal” sample size, which could be used as a normative benchmark to evaluate human sampling behavior in DFE. In this theoretical study, we relate the DFE sampling paradigm to the classical statistical decision theoretic literature and, under a probabilistic inference assumption, evaluate optimal sample sizes for DFE. In our treatment we go beyond analytically established results by showing how the classical statistical decision theoretic framework can be used to derive optimal sample sizes under arbitrary, but numerically evaluable, constraints. Finally, we critically evaluate the value of deriving optimal sample sizes under this framework as testable predictions for the experimental study of sampling behavior in DFE. PMID:26441720

    2. A normative inference approach for optimal sample sizes in decisions from experience.

      PubMed

      Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger; Hertwig, Ralph

      2015-01-01

      "Decisions from experience" (DFE) refers to a body of work that emerged in research on behavioral decision making over the last decade. One of the major experimental paradigms employed to study experience-based choice is the "sampling paradigm," which serves as a model of decision making under limited knowledge about the statistical structure of the world. In this paradigm respondents are presented with two payoff distributions, which, in contrast to standard approaches in behavioral economics, are specified not in terms of explicit outcome-probability information, but by the opportunity to sample outcomes from each distribution without economic consequences. Participants are encouraged to explore the distributions until they feel confident enough to decide from which they would prefer to draw from in a final trial involving real monetary payoffs. One commonly employed measure to characterize the behavior of participants in the sampling paradigm is the sample size, that is, the number of outcome draws which participants choose to obtain from each distribution prior to terminating sampling. A natural question that arises in this context concerns the "optimal" sample size, which could be used as a normative benchmark to evaluate human sampling behavior in DFE. In this theoretical study, we relate the DFE sampling paradigm to the classical statistical decision theoretic literature and, under a probabilistic inference assumption, evaluate optimal sample sizes for DFE. In our treatment we go beyond analytically established results by showing how the classical statistical decision theoretic framework can be used to derive optimal sample sizes under arbitrary, but numerically evaluable, constraints. Finally, we critically evaluate the value of deriving optimal sample sizes under this framework as testable predictions for the experimental study of sampling behavior in DFE. PMID:26441720

    3. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

      2012-01-01

      Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

    4. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

      2012-01-01

      Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such

    5. Document Management on Display.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Grimshaw, Anne

      1998-01-01

      Describes some of the products displayed at the United Kingdom's largest document management, imaging and workflow exhibition (Document 97, Birmingham, England, October 7-9, 1997). Includes recognition technologies; document delivery; scanning; document warehousing; document management and retrieval software; workflow systems; Internet software;…

    6. Wind system documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

      1993-01-15

      Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

    7. COSMIC program documentation experience

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kalar, M. C.

      1970-01-01

      A brief history of COSMIC as it relates to the handling of program documentation is summarized; the items that are essential for computer program documentation are also discussed. COSMIC documentation and program standards handbook is appended.

    8. Generic safety documentation model

      SciTech Connect

      Mahn, J.A.

      1994-04-01

      This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

    9. Automated document analysis system

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

      2002-08-01

      A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

    10. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

      PubMed

      Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

      2014-09-01

      Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. PMID:23632008

    11. Development of normative data of electro photonic imaging technique for healthy population in India: A normative study

      PubMed Central

      Kushwah, Kuldeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Thaiyar M; Nagendra, Hongasandra R; Ilavarasu, Judu V

      2016-01-01

      Background: Electro photonic imaging (EPI) technique is growing as a novel technique of health assessment and is being utilized in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness studies. The existing EPI norms are based mostly on European (EU) population. In order to enhance the practice and research through EPI in India, there is a need for developing norms for the healthy Indian population. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the normative data of EPI for the healthy Indian population, to aid in the accuracy of EPI measurements and interpretations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1297 volunteers were assessed once, who represented different parts of India during December 2013 to December 2014. Among them, 880 volunteers were reported to be healthy (age mean ± standard deviation [SD], 33.55 ± 10.92), with 584 males (age mean ± SD, 33.54 ± 10.86) and 296 females (age mean ± SD, 33.56 ± 11.00). In this study activation coefficient (stress level), integral area (IA) (general health), and integral entropy (disorderliness in energy) parameters were analyzed. Results: As the data were not normally distributed, quartile based statistics was used for setting the norms. The 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated and they were further verified using a bootstrap procedure. Uniquely, the results showed a clear difference in IA parameters under both with filter (physiological) and without filter (psycho-physiological) conditions between the Indian and the EU population. Though other parameters were found almost similar to the EU population, inter quartile ranges were narrower in the Indian population as compared to the EU values. Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analyzes: That is, male versus female genders and age ranges 18–40 versus 40-60. Conclusion: As compared to EU population, Indian population had different range of Integral Area values and narrower range for values of other variables. EPI Studies in India should also adjust for factors such as age and gender. PMID:26865771

    12. Extensible layout in functional documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

      2006-02-01

      Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

    13. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

      SciTech Connect

      Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

      2010-02-15

      This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

    14. Reading, Writing, and Documentation and Managing the Development of User Documentation.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lindberg, Wayne; Hoffman, Terrye

      1987-01-01

      The first of two articles addressing the issue of user documentation for computer software discusses the need to teach users how to read documentation. The second presents a guide for writing documentation that is based on the instructional systems design model, and makes suggestions for the desktop publishing of user manuals. (CLB)

    15. Computer software documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Comella, P. A.

      1973-01-01

      A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

    16. Judi Dench's age-inappropriateness and the role of M: challenging normative temporality.

      PubMed

      Krainitzki, Eva

      2014-04-01

      This article approaches Judi Dench's role as M in the long-running James Bond series from a gender and ageing studies' perspective and explores this character's subversion of normative concepts of gender and temporality. Based on the assumption that cultural narratives shape our understanding of ageing, it examines how M disrupts prescribed age- and gender roles, presenting an alternative within films which otherwise perpetuate normative notions of a sexualised, youthful femininity. It focusses on Dench's return as M in Casino Royale (2006), as an instance of anachronism (Russo, 1999), subverting viewers' expectation of linear timelines and examines M's challenge of normative age-appropriateness in Skyfall (2012). Despite M's portrayal as a more vulnerable female character in the latter, this article presents her character as an alternative to traditional portrayals of older women on screen. PMID:24655671

    17. Brief Motivational Interviewing and Normative Feedback for Adolescents: Change Language and Alcohol Use Outcomes.

      PubMed

      Davis, Jordan P; Houck, Jon M; Rowell, Lauren N; Benson, Jennifer G; Smith, Douglas C

      2016-06-01

      Few studies have investigated the impact of adolescent change language on substance use treatment outcomes and even fewer have examined how adolescents respond to normative feedback. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence normative feedback has on adolescent change language and subsequent alcohol and cannabis use 3months later. We examined how percent change talk (PCT) was associated with subsequent alcohol and drug use outcomes. Adolescents (N=48) were randomly assigned to receive brief motivational interviewing (MI) or MI plus normative feedback (NF). Audio recordings were coded with high interrater reliability. Adolescents with high PCT who received MI+NF had significantly fewer days of alcohol and binge drinking at follow up. There were no differences between groups on cannabis use or treatment engagement. Findings indicate that NF may be useful for adolescents with higher amount of change talk during sessions and may be detrimental for individuals with higher sustain talk. PMID:26710670

    18. Development of a normative framework for disaster relief: learning from colonial famine histories in India.

      PubMed

      Akerkar, Supriya

      2015-10-01

      Contemporary academic debates on the history of the colonial Famine Codes in India--also considered to be the first coded and institutionalised normative frameworks for natural disaster response on the continent--generally are based on one of two perspectives. The first focuses on their economic rationale, whereas the second underlines that they constitute an anti-famine contract between the colonial masters and the people of India. This paper demonstrates that both of these viewpoints are limited in scope and that they simplify the nature of governance instituted through famine response practices in Colonial India. It links this reality to current disaster response policies and practices in India and shows that the discussion on the development of normative frameworks underlying disaster response is far from over. The paper goes on to evaluate the development of normative frameworks for disaster response and recovery, which remain embroiled in the politics of governmentality that underlies their development. PMID:26395110

    19. Tensions in agnotology: Normativity in the studies of commercially driven ignorance.

      PubMed

      Pinto, Manuela Fernandez

      2015-04-01

      As scientific research moves increasingly to the private sector, the social organization of science undergoes important transformations. Focusing on the production of ignorance, agnotology has been a fruitful approach to understanding the social and epistemic consequences of the recent commercialization of scientific research. Despite their important contributions, scholars working on agnotology seem to hold implicit normative commitments that are in tension with their descriptive accounts of ignorance-constructive practices. The main aim of this article is to uncover these commitments and to expose the emerging tensions. Thus, this article begins an exploration into normative aspects of the studies of ignorance. In particular, it shows that agnotology still needs the support of a well-articulated normative approach capable of identifying and evaluating the epistemic and social concerns raised by the private funding and performance of science. PMID:26477209

    20. Constructing language normativity through the animation of stance in Spanish-language medical consultations.

      PubMed

      Vickers, Caroline H; Deckert, Sharon K; Goble, Ryan

      2014-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of language normativity as medical providers interact with patients and animate stance within Spanish-language medical consultations. The context of the study is a clinic in which providers use Spanish to communicate with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients. This clinic is in the United States, an English-speaking macro-societal context. Findings indicate that providers who are second-language users of Spanish animate stance and interact with patients in ways such that English is constructed as normative and Spanish as marked. Implications include the need to consider how the construction of language normativity within medical consultations affects health outcomes. PMID:24156518

    1. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

      1986-01-01

      Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

    2. Text documents as social networks

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

      2012-03-01

      The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

    3. Petrology and geochemistry of olivine-normative and quartz-normative basalts from regolith breccia 15498 - New diversity in Apollo 15 mare basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

      1988-01-01

      Analysis of mare basalt clasts from Apollo 15 shows a greater diversity than previously recognized and provides new constraints on the petrogenesis of these basalts. The quartz-normative basalts (QNB) from 15498 are divided into four groups based on chemical variations: primitive, intermediate/1, intermediate/2, and evolved. The olivine-normative basalts (ONB) are divided into three groups: low-SiO2, high-SiO2, and olivine-pyroxene cumulates. Least-squares mixing calculations show that the high SiO2 ONBs may be parental to the QNB suite. Variations within the low-SiO2 ONBs are explained by olivine factionation. It is suggested that the presence of these basalt types may result from the position of breccia 15498 near the edge of the mare plain where normal ONBs are scarce, and from its presumed origin as ejecta from Dune Crater.

    4. Global variation in grip strength: a systematic review and meta-analysis of normative data

      PubMed Central

      Dodds, Richard M.; Syddall, Holly E.; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

      2016-01-01

      Background: weak grip strength is a key component of sarcopenia and is associated with subsequent disability and mortality. We have recently established life course normative data for grip strength in Great Britain, but it is unclear whether the cut points we derived for weak grip strength are suitable for use in other settings. Our objective was to investigate differences in grip strength by world region using our data as a reference standard. Methods: we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for reporting age- and gender-stratified normative data for grip strength. We extracted each item of normative data and converted it on to a Z-score scale relative to our British centiles. We performed meta-regression to pool the Z-scores and compare them by world region. Findings: our search returned 806 abstracts. Sixty papers met inclusion criteria and reported on 63 different samples. Seven UN regions were represented, although most samples (n = 44) were based in developed regions. We extracted 726 normative data items relating to 96,537 grip strength observations. Normative data from developed regions were broadly similar to our British centiles, with a pooled Z-score 0.12 SDs (95% CI: 0.07, 0.17) above the corresponding British centiles. By comparison, normative data from developing regions were clearly lower, with a pooled Z-score of −0.85 SDs (95% CI: −0.94, −0.76). Interpretation: our findings support the use of our British grip strength centiles and their associated cut points in consensus definitions for sarcopenia and frailty across developed regions, but highlight the need for different cut points in developing regions. PMID:26790455

    5. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

      PubMed Central

      Goldenberg, Maya J

      2005-01-01

      Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used for moral evaluation and resolution, however the options should not include obscuring normative content by seemingly neutral technical measure. PMID:16277663

    6. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

    7. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

      2012-01-01

      The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and…

    8. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

      2012-01-01

      The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain injury and

    9. 12 CFR 1410.7 - Documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Documentation. 1410.7 Section 1410.7 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.7 Documentation. Each insured bank shall... financing institution that are able to make such loans because they are receiving, or have received,...

    10. 12 CFR 1410.7 - Documentation.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation. 1410.7 Section 1410.7 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.7 Documentation. Each insured bank shall... financing institution that are able to make such loans because they are receiving, or have received,...

    11. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

      PubMed Central

      Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

      2015-01-01

      Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

    12. Personalized Normative Feedback to Reduce Drinking among College Students: A Social Norms Intervention Examining Gender-Based versus Standard Feedback

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.

      2010-01-01

      Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…

    13. Web document engineering

      SciTech Connect

      White, B.

      1996-05-01

      This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

    14. Intranet Document Management Systems.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

      1998-01-01

      Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

    15. Federal Documents in Microform.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chambers, Joan

      1978-01-01

      Describes all of the commercial and governmental micropublishers and the U.S. government documents now available in microform. A list is included of selected sources of Federal documents in microform. (CMV)

    16. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

      1990-01-01

      Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

    17. JSC document index

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1988-01-01

      The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

    18. Data Sharing and Science: Legal, Normative, and Social Issues

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Wilbanks, J.; Parsons, M.

      2008-12-01

      The volume of scientific data, and the interconnectedness of the systems under study, makes integration of data a necessity. For example, life scientists must integrate data from across biology and chemistry to comprehend disease and discover cures, and climate change scientists must integrate data from wildly diverse disciplines to understand our current state and predict the impact of new policies. The technical challenge of such integration is significant, although emerging technologies appear to be helping. But the forest of terms and conditions around data make integration difficult to legally perform in many cases. One approach might be to develop and recommend a single license: any data with this license can be integrated with any other data under this license. But this approach, which implicitly builds on intellectual property rights and the ideas of licensing as understood in software and culture, is difficult to scale for scientific uses. There are too many databases under too many terms already, and it is unlikely that any one license or suite of licenses will have the correct mix of terms to gain critical mass and allow massive- scale machine integration of data. This talk will instead lay out principles for open access data and a protocol for implementing those principles, as well as describe various international efforts to make data and databases legally and technically interoperable.

    19. Documenting Employee Conduct

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dalton, Jason

      2009-01-01

      One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

    20. Automated Management Of Documents

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Boy, Guy

      1995-01-01

      Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

    1. Program analysis for documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lolmaugh, G. H.

      1970-01-01

      A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

    2. Documents and Civic Duties

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Potter, Lee Ann

      2005-01-01

      All of the documents featured in this article come from the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration. Primary source documents illustrate what is meant by responsible citizenship. The people who create documents as well as those who are featured in them can serve as models of civic behavior--both appropriate and…

    3. Making assumptions, making space: an anthropological critique of cultural competency and its relevance to queer patients.

      PubMed

      Baker, Kelly; Beagan, Brenda

      2014-12-01

      Despite increased attention to "culturally competent" practice with diverse populations, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people remain relatively invisible within medicine and other health professions. Health care providers (HCPs) frequently dismiss sexual and gender identity as irrelevant to care. This study uses interviews with 24 physicians and 38 LGBTQ-identified women to explore how routine practices in health care can perpetuate or challenge the marginalization of LGBTQ women. While physicians avoid making assumptions to reduce judgment, a "neutral" stance reinforces the hetero- and gender normative status quo. Cultural competence with LGBTQ patients requires learning with, rather than learning about, LGBTQ people's particular health care concerns as well as paying explicit attention to pervasive power relations and normative contexts. PMID:25196115

    4. The French "Chroniques de Langage" between Prescriptivism, Normative Discourse and Anti-Prescriptivism

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Osthus, Dietmar

      2016-01-01

      France has a long tradition of linguistic prescriptivism, linked to a casuistic metalinguistic literature going back to Vaugelas, Gilles Ménage, and others. This type of normative discourse has survived into the twenty-first century, but is affected by changes in the media. Since the emergence of mass media in the late nineteenth century, national…

    5. The Availability of Normative Data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mohr, Caroline; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John; Einfeld, Stewart L.

      2012-01-01

      Background: Standardised normative data for checklists of behavioural and emotional disturbance have a demonstrated usefulness for clinicians, researchers, and service providers. Method: The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults (DBC-A) was the instrument used in a large-scale Australian study (n = 1,538) of emotional and behavioural…

    6. An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

      1990-01-01

      An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

    7. Efficacy of Web-Based Personalized Normative Feedback: A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.

      2010-01-01

      Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…

    8. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

      2013-01-01

      Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

    9. The "Gainful Employment Rule" and Student Loan Defaults: How the Policy Frame Overlooks Important Normative Implications

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Serna, Gabriel

      2014-01-01

      This essay examines normative aspects of the gainful employment rule and how the policy frame and image miss important implications for student aid policy. Because the economic and social burdens associated with the policy are typically borne by certain socioeconomic and ethnic groups, the policy frame and image do not identify possible negative…

    10. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

      2012-01-01

      The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…

    11. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

      SciTech Connect

      Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

      1997-04-01

      The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

    12. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

      2009-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

    13. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Carr, Paul R.

      2010-01-01

      Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

    14. Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Middlemiss, Wendy

      2004-01-01

      Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect…

    15. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

      2009-01-01

      Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

    16. Performing an Archive of Resistance: Challenging Normative Life Narratives through Literary Reading and Memoir Writing Research

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis; Luce-Kapler, Rebecca

      2011-01-01

      This research explores the ways in which normative structures organize experiences and representations of identities. It reports on two groups, one in which the members identified as rural and heterosexual and the other as urban and lesbian. Both participated in literary reading and response practices organized by a literary anthropological…

    17. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fyffe, Richard

      2015-01-01

      This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in

    18. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

      2014-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical

    19. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

      2012-01-01

      This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences

    20. Espousal of Undergraduate Teaching Normative Patterns of First-Year Teaching Assistants

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Helland, Patricia A.

      2010-01-01

      This study focuses on the espousal of undergraduate teaching normative patterns. Results showed that entering teaching assistants had higher levels of disdain than Research I faculty. The country in which students received their undergraduate degrees and gender variables also showed differences in espousal levels. The results give insight into

    1. Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and nonnormative collective action.

      PubMed

      Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N

      2011-07-01

      A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative actions such as participating in demonstrations. We argue that the relations between emotions, efficacy, and action differ for more extreme, nonnormative actions and propose (a) that nonnormative actions are often driven by a sense of low efficacy and (b) that contempt, which, unlike anger, entails psychological distancing and a lack of reconciliatory intentions, predicts nonnormative action. These ideas were tested in 3 survey studies examining student protests against tuition fees in Germany (N = 332), Indian Muslims' action support in relation to ingroup disadvantage (N = 156), and British Muslims' responses to British foreign policy (N = 466). Results were generally supportive of predictions and indicated that (a) anger was strongly related to normative action but overall unrelated or less strongly related to nonnormative action, (b) contempt was either unrelated or negatively related to normative action but significantly positively predicted nonnormative action, and (c) efficacy was positively related to normative action and negatively related to nonnormative action. The implications of these findings for understanding and dealing with extreme intergroup phenomena such as terrorism are discussed. PMID:21500925

    2. Benchmarks for Expected Annual Academic Growth for Students in the Bottom Quartile of the Normative Distribution

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Scammacca, Nancy K.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

      2015-01-01

      Effect sizes are commonly reported for the results of educational interventions. However, researchers struggle with interpreting their magnitude in a way that transcends generic guidelines. Effect sizes can be interpreted in a meaningful context by benchmarking them against typical growth for students in the normative distribution. Such benchmarks…

    3. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

      2007-01-01

      Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

    4. The Effects of Parental Influences on College Student Normative Perceptions of Peer Alcohol Use

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mowry Dobran, Emily S.

      2009-01-01

      There has been speculation as to how college students develop normative descriptive and injunctive perceptions of college student alcohol use. One possible explanation is that parents may be "carriers" of the skewed social norm, passing on their misperceptions of alcohol use to their children (Perkins, 2002). The influence of parents was…

    5. Mayo's Older American Normative Studies: Separate Norms for WMS-R Logical Memory Stories.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Smith, Glenn E.; Wong, Jennifer S.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Malec, James F.

      1997-01-01

      Norms are presented for persons ages 56 to 93 years for each story from the Logical Memory subtests of the revised edition of the Wechsler Memory Scale following the methods used for other Mayo's Older American Normative Studies. Means and standard deviations are presented for 3-year interval age groups from age 61 to 88. (SLD)

    6. Normative Sexuality Development in Adolescence: A Decade in Review, 2000-2009

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.

      2011-01-01

      This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…

    7. Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

      2014-01-01

      This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

    8. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

      2013-01-01

      The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,

    9. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

      2015-01-01

      This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

    10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bourdon, Karen H.; Goodman, Robert; Rae, Donald S.; Simpson, Gloria; Koretz, Doreen S.

      2005-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a U.S. national population sample of children and adolescents, develop normative scoring bands, and test the association of high-scoring groups with service contacts or use for mental health reasons. Method: An Americanized version of the Strengths and Difficulties…

    11. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

      2007-01-01

      Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two

    12. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

      2013-01-01

      This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty

    13. Infant Sleep: A Review of Normative and Problematic Sleep and Interventions

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Middlemiss, Wendy

      2004-01-01

      Providing families with information about infant sleep can positively impact parents' well-being and infants' sleep habits. Few parents receive professionally based information about sleep, perhaps due to contradictory information found in the literature. This review summarizes: (1) normative sleep patterns for infants; (2) factors that affect

    14. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

      2013-01-01

      The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

    15. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

      2012-01-01

      This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

    16. School Moral Atmosphere and Normative Orientation to Explain Aggressive and Transgressive Behaviours at Secondary School

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana

      2012-01-01

      The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664

    17. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

      2009-01-01

      Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants

    18. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

      PubMed

      Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

      2015-06-01

      Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met. PMID:25985843

    19. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fyffe, Richard

      2015-01-01

      This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in…

    20. National Normative and Reliability Data for the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Reynolds, Cecil R.; Paget, Kathleen D.

      1983-01-01

      To develop normative data for the revision of the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the scale was administered to 4,972 children, ages 6 to 19 years, representing all geographic regions of the United States. Reliability was satisfactory for all groups except Black females below age 12 years. (Author/BW)

    1. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

      2006-01-01

      On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

    2. Normative Childhood Repetitive Routines and Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology in 6-Year-Old Twins

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bolton, Derek; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Briskman, Jacqueline; Perrin, Sean

      2009-01-01

      Background: To investigate the association between normative repetitive routines of childhood and paediatric obsessive compulsive symptom syndrome (OCSS) and the extent to which it is genetically mediated. Methods: In a two-phase design a community sample of 4,662 6-year-old twin-pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase…

    3. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

      2006-01-01

      On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would

    4. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

      2012-01-01

      With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

    5. Normative Values in Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Belief System Approach

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan

      2011-01-01

      The effects of teachers' normative values and emotive reactions on teaching in higher education have received relatively little research attention. The focus is often on descriptive beliefs such as conceptions of teaching and their inter-relations with practice. In this study, which is illustrated by a heuristic model, a belief system approach is…

    6. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

      2009-01-01

      Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

    7. Teachers in Trouble: An Exploration of the Normative Character of Teaching.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Piddocke, Stuart; Magsino, Romulo; Manley-Casimir, Michael

      This book poses fundamental questions about the role of teachers in society. Chapter 1, "Contentious Behaviors," presents four hypothetical cases of teacher behavior (an affair, bare facts, world views in collision, and crossing boundaries). It also discusses the case of trouble, the normative base, teacher role, social drama, a national study,…

    8. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

      2012-01-01

      With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as

    9. E-Learning: A Comparison between Expected and Observed Attitudes of Normative and Dropout Adolescents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Romi, Shlomo; Hansenson, Gabriel; Hansenson, Arie

      2002-01-01

      Describes a study in Israel that was conducted to examine the attitudes of dropout adolescents to electronic learning and to compare these to the attitudes of normative 10th graders. Considers demographic differences, including parents' education and computer ownership; motivation; enjoyment; cognition; and accessibility of computers. (LRW)

    10. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

      2013-01-01

      This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

    11. Reorganization in Coping Behavior at 1 1/2 Years: Dynamic Systems and Normative Change

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lewis, Marc D.; Zimmerman, Sara; Hollenstein, Tom; Lamey, Alex V.

      2004-01-01

      By the age of 1 year toddlers demonstrate distinct coping habits for dealing with frustration. However, these habits may be open to change and reorganization at subsequent developmental junctures. We investigated change in coping habits at 18-20 months, a normative age for major advances in social cognition, focusing on the dynamic systems…

    12. An Observation of Normative Structure for College Admission and Recruitment Officers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hodum, Robert L.; James, Glenn W.

      2010-01-01

      This study suggests that an unwritten code of ethics exists in the form of a behavioral normative structure for college and university admission officers. Also considered are the influences that personal and institutional factors have on the espousal of these norms. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

    13. Examining the Efficacy of a Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce College Student Gambling

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.

      2014-01-01

      Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…

    14. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

      2011-01-01

      The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

    15. Masculinity and perceived normative health behaviors as predictors of men's health behaviors.

      PubMed

      Mahalik, James R; Burns, Shaun M; Syzdek, Matthew

      2007-06-01

      This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's health behaviors in predicting men's self-reported health behaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18-78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative health behaviors for men and women, and 8 health behaviors (i.e., alcohol abuse, seatbelt use, tobacco use, physical fighting, use of social support, exercise, dietary habits, and receipt of annual medical check-ups). Findings suggest that masculinity and the perceived normativeness of other men's health behaviors significantly predicted participants' own health behaviors beyond that accounted for by socio-demographic variables (e.g., education, income). Perceptions of the normativeness of women's health behaviors were unrelated to participants' health behaviors. The findings support previous research which has found that traditional masculine gender socialization and social norms models encourage men to put their health at risk, and suggest directions for health promotion efforts when working with men. PMID:17383784

    16. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Carr, Paul R.

      2010-01-01

      Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is

    17. Social Capital by Design: Normative Systems and Social Structures in Six High Schools.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Marks, Helen M.

      This paper focuses on investigating the purposive design of learning environments to counter the erosion of social capital in communities and schools in contemporary society. Can schools intentionally replenish stocks of social capital by creating normative systems conducive to the optimal academic and social development of students, and by…

    18. Social Evaluation Fear in Childhood and Adolescence: Normative Developmental Course and Continuity of Individual Differences

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Westenberg, P. Michiel; Gullone, Eleonora; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Heyne, David A.; King, Neville J.

      2007-01-01

      Using cross-sectional (N=910) and longitudinal (N = 261) data from Gullone and King's (1993,1997) studies of normal fear in children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, the normative developmental pattern of social evaluation fear and the continuity of individual differences were investigated. Participants' responses were analysed according to two…

    19. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

      2013-01-01

      Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments…

    20. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

      2010-01-01

      This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292

    1. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

      2009-01-01

      We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

    2. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

      2010-01-01

      This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

    3. [Audioscan automatic audiometry: theoretical basis and normative data].

      PubMed

      Pelosi, G; Hatzopoulos, S; Martini, A

      1999-08-01

      Audioscan automatic audiometry is a high resolution method to explore hearing thresholds in the 125 Hz-16 KHz range offering a resolution of 64 points per octave. This procedure makes it possible to study hearing threshold levels at intermediate frequencies which are not measured by conventional audiometry. As suggested in the literature, it is possible to identify hearing threshold notches, considered indicators of mild or subclinical cochlear pathology. In clinical practice, the use of a new audiometric technique requires affirmation of reliability, sensitivity and replicability in time. It also requires defining standard criteria for use in various otologic pathologies. The present study examined 50 normal hearing subjects with conventional audiometry and Audioscan (Essilor model) measurements. A standard acquisition protocol was followed where three Audioscan measurements were conducted per subject. Subjects with a history of acute otologic pathology and familiarity for genetic deafness were ruled out of the study. Multiple, pairwise correlation analyses of the audiometric and Audioscan responses indicate that: (1) there are no significant differences between threshold levels measured by Audioscan and conventional audiometry; (2) there are no significant variations in the hearing levels measured by three Audioscan retests. Three mean indicators of the threshold level have been defined, expressing Audioscan normality in three different frequency ranges. The data suggest that there are some difficulties in the subjectivity of the Audioscan method and some technical problems regarding the lower octave frequencies and these need to be addressed. The results obtained in this study confirmed reliability of the Audioscan in the mid and high frequencies. The definition of the standard mi criteria makes it easier to interpret the Audioscan measurements from cases presenting various otologic pathologies. Therefore, the plasticity and high detection sensitivity of hearing loss make the automatic Audioscan audiometry a useful clinical tool for diagnostic and/or preventive purposes. PMID:10736925

    4. Normative Study of the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment in Illiterate and Literate Elderly Koreans

      PubMed Central

      Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, Seong-Jin; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Choi, Seong Hye; Han, Seol-Heui; Shim, Yong S.; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Jeong, Jee H.

      2015-01-01

      Objective The aim of this study was to provide normative data on the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment (LICA) and to explore the effects of age, education/literacy, and gender on the performance of this test. Methods Eight hundred and eighty-eight healthy elderly subjects, including 164 healthy illiterate subjects, participated in this study. None of the participants had serious medical, psychiatric, or neurological disorders including dementia. Bivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of age, education/literacy, and sex on the score in each of the LICA cognitive tests. The normative scores for each age and education/literacy groups are presented. Results Bivariate linear regression analyses revealed that total score and all cognitive tests of the LICA were significantly influenced by both age and education/literacy. Younger and more-educated subjects outperformed older and illiterate or less-educated subjects, respectively, in all of the tests. The normative scores of LICA total score and subset score were presented according to age (60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-80, and ≥80 years) and educational levels (illiterate, and 0-3, 4-6, and ≥7 years of education). Conclusion These results on demographic variables suggest that age and education should be taken into account when attempting to accurately interpret the results of the LICA cognitive subtests. These normative data will be useful for clinical interpretations of the LICA neuropsychological battery in illiterate and literate elderly Koreans. Similar normative studies and validations of the LICA involving different ethnic groups will help to enhance the dementia diagnosis of illiterate people of different ethnicities. PMID:26207122

    5. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

      SciTech Connect

      Coutant, C.C.

      1998-09-23

      Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

    6. Document Flowdown Tool

      SciTech Connect

      2010-12-31

      DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). • Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level

    7. Document Flowdown Tool

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

      2010-12-31

      DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). •more » Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level« less

    8. Making the Past Present

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hawkins, B. Denise

      2006-01-01

      Lonnie G. Bunch III, the founding director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, is at work to make his vision, which is to build a national museum devoted exclusively to the documentation of African-American life, art, history and culture, a reality. Currently the museum location has not been decided, but

    9. Making Images That Move

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rennie, Richard

      2015-01-01

      The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

    10. Making the Past Present

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hawkins, B. Denise

      2006-01-01

      Lonnie G. Bunch III, the founding director of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, is at work to make his vision, which is to build a national museum devoted exclusively to the documentation of African-American life, art, history and culture, a reality. Currently the museum location has not been decided, but…

    11. ANOPP programming and documentation standards document

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1976-01-01

      Standards defining the requirements for preparing software for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) were given. It is the intent of these standards to provide definition, design, coding, and documentation criteria for the achievement of a unity among ANOPP products. These standards apply to all of ANOPP's standard software system. The standards encompass philosophy as well as techniques and conventions.

    12. A normative theory of forgetting: lessons from the fruit fly.

      PubMed

      Brea, Johanni; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

      2014-06-01

      Recent experiments revealed that the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a dedicated mechanism for forgetting: blocking the G-protein Rac leads to slower and activating Rac to faster forgetting. This active form of forgetting lacks a satisfactory functional explanation. We investigated optimal decision making for an agent adapting to a stochastic environment where a stimulus may switch between being indicative of reward or punishment. Like Drosophila, an optimal agent shows forgetting with a rate that is linked to the time scale of changes in the environment. Moreover, to reduce the odds of missing future reward, an optimal agent may trade the risk of immediate pain for information gain and thus forget faster after aversive conditioning. A simple neuronal network reproduces these features. Our theory shows that forgetting in Drosophila appears as an optimal adaptive behavior in a changing environment. This is in line with the view that forgetting is adaptive rather than a consequence of limitations of the memory system. PMID:24901935

    13. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

      SciTech Connect

      Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

      2011-09-01

      A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

    14. Decision making under uncertain categorization

      PubMed Central

      Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

      2014-01-01

      Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475

    15. Proposal of a new analytical procedure for the measurement of water absorption by stone. Preliminary study for an alternative to the Italian technical normative NORMAL 07-81

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion) by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material. PMID:22738248

    16. The David and Goliath principle: cultural, ideological, and attitudinal underpinnings of the normative protection of low-status groups from criticism.

      PubMed

      Jeffries, Carla H; Hornsey, Matthew J; Sutton, Robbie M; Douglas, Karen M; Bain, Paul G

      2012-08-01

      Two studies documented the "David and Goliath" rule--the tendency for people to perceive criticism of "David" groups (groups with low power and status) as less normatively permissible than criticism of "Goliath" groups (groups with high power and status). The authors confirmed the existence of the David and Goliath rule across Western and Chinese cultures (Study 1). However, the rule was endorsed more strongly in Western than in Chinese cultures, an effect mediated by cultural differences in power distance. Study 2 identified the psychological underpinnings of this rule in an Australian sample. Lower social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with greater endorsement of the rule, an effect mediated through the differential attribution of stereotypes. Specifically, those low in SDO were more likely to attribute traits of warmth and incompetence to David versus Goliath groups, a pattern of stereotypes that was related to the protection of David groups from criticism. PMID:22539216

    17. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the large extent dominated by expected utility theory. The model also provides a platform for reconciling two groups of competing dual processing theories (parallel competitive with default-interventionalist theories). PMID:22943520

    18. IDC System Specification Document.

      SciTech Connect

      Clifford, David J.

      2014-12-01

      This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

    19. Documenting Community Organizations.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Central New York Library Resources Council, Syracuse.

      This booklet offers an introduction to keeping and documenting the history of community organizations. With their variety of purposes these organizations add texture and variety to a community's heritage. A knowledge of that heritage, provided by written documentation as well as oral tradition, proves valuable to members of the organization, to…

    20. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cawkell, A. E.

      1991-01-01

      Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

    1. NASA Software Documentation Standard

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1991-01-01

      The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

    2. Significant Attributes of Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Armstrong, Frances T.

      The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of finding the significant attributes of documents established during the course of research on the automatic classification of documents. The problem was first approached by examining the way in which an existing hierarchical classification system classifies things. The study of biological…

    3. System Documentation Manual.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

      The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

    4. Document Design: Part 1.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Andrews, Deborah C., Ed.; Dyrud, Marilyn, Ed.

      1996-01-01

      Presents four articles that provide suggestions for teaching document design: (1) "Teaching the Rhetoric of Document Design" (Michael J. Hassett); (2) "Teaching by Example: Suggestions for Assignment Design" (Marilyn A. Dyrud); (3) "Teaching the Page as a Visual Unit" (Bill Hart-Davidson); and (4) "Designing a Home Page for the Web" (Lynette…

    5. Cognitive complaints in cancer: The French version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog), normative data from a healthy population.

      PubMed

      Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Morel, Nastassja; Eustache, Francis; Joly, Florence; Giffard, Bénédicte

      2016-06-01

      Cancer patients often report cognitive changes after chemotherapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) is a self-report questionnaire that assesses these changes. The aims of the present study were (1) to establish normative data, and (2) to compare the scores of patients and healthy controls to assess whether or not the questionnaire is able to discriminate between these populations. The normative sample included 213 healthy participants. The patient group included 63 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, who were compared to a subsample of 63 matched healthy controls. The questionnaire had good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas = .74-.91). The oldest patients had significantly more cognitive complaints (p < .001). Cognitive complaints were significantly related with Trail Making Test scores (p < .001). Furthermore, the FACT-Cog subscales correlated significantly with anxiety and depression. Patients had more complaints than matched controls on the subscales Perceived Cognitive Impairments (p = .01), Impact on Quality of Life (p = .001) and Perceived Cognitive Abilities (p = .027). The reference values from the healthy population reported here could be used for comparison with the values measured in French-speaking cancer patients. The values provide a benchmark against which clinicians can evaluate the impact of the disease and/or the treatments on cognitive complaints and help to improve quality of life by providing appropriate care. PMID:25947039

    6. Magnetic imaging of currencies and secure documents

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Jagielinski, Tomasz M.; Chamberlain, Fred

      2002-04-01

      Today the ubiquitous distribution of high technology scanning and printing equipment enables the home user to make counterfeits of high value documents. There is an ever-increasing demand for new technologies and methods to machine authenticate printed documents and safeguard their integrity. Magnetic technology has been used to add hidden information to documents including banknotes, checks, airline tickets, identification cards, and transit documents. A solution to forensics is magnetic imaging where invisible magnetic patterns or recorded information can be displayed as an image for comparison with an optical scan. The use of small, highly sensitive detectors enables high resolution scanning of magnetic documents, creating magnetic images with fine detail. Depending on the design of a document, if the magnetic image is identical to the optical image, the document may be a counterfeit. In this paper, we will address the issues related to magnetic scanning of security documents. We will present and discuss magnetic images of documents printed with magnetic inks. We will also show how magnetic imaging can provide valuable information in understanding the alteration of magnetic data in documents such as tickets, licenses with pictures, and holograms.

    7. Emotional and physiological responses to normative and idiographic positive stimuli in bipolar disorder

      PubMed Central

      Gruber, June; Dutra, Sunny; Eidelman, Polina; Johnson, Sheri L.; Harvey, Allison G.

      2012-01-01

      Background Few studies have examined differences in emotional responding among distinct types of positive stimuli. This is important to understand both for individuals characterized by extreme positive mood (i.e., bipolar disorder) and healthy adults. Methods Using a multi-method within-subjects design, the current study examined physiological, behavioral, and self-reported responses to normative (film) and idiographic (memory) happy stimuli in bipolar (BD; n=25) and healthy control groups (CTL; n=23). Results For both groups, the happy films were associated with greater self-reported and behavioral displays of positive emotion compared to the happy memory. Furthermore, the BD group displayed greater cardiac vagal tone – a putative marker of positive emotion – across both the film and memory. Conclusion Normative stimuli were more potent elicitors of positive emotion compared to idiographic stimuli. The study provided further evidence for cardiac vagal tone as a potential biomarker of extreme positive emotion in BD. PMID:21601926

    8. Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness.

      PubMed

      Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A

      2010-01-01

      This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness. PMID:20438455

    9. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching.

      PubMed

      Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

      2015-01-01

      Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' "empirical" or "normative" expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

    10. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M. Teresa; García-Madruga, Juan A.; Elosúa, M. Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

      2015-01-01

      The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided. PMID:26500594

    11. Magnetic petrology of eastern North America diabases. I - Olivine-normative dikes from western South Carolina

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Warner, Richard D.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

      1990-01-01

      The oxide mineralogy and the magnetic behavior of 15 olivine-normative samples obtained from South-Caroline diabase dikes were investigated using electron microprobe and SEM analyses and measurements of natural remanence magnetization (NRM), saturation isothermal remanence magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteritic remanence magnetization. It was found that chromite (which for these olivine-normative diabases is a sensitive petrologic indicator) constitutes up to 0.5 vol pct and that its abundance and composition correlate with bulk rock Cr. Microscopic analyses showed that titanomagnetite compositions were mostly between 0.4 and 0.55. The values of NRM and the NRM/SIRM ratios varied between 4 and 0.01 A sq m/kg and 0.0019 and 0.032, respectively. These properties inversely correlate with Cr content and demonstrably contrast Cr-rich and Cr-poor samples.

    12. Normative data for the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (1969) in Spanish.

      PubMed

      Marful, Alejandra; Díez, Emiliano; Fernandez, Angel

      2015-09-01

      Knowledge of specific characteristics of verbal material is imperative in cognitive research, and this need calls for periodical updating of normative data. With this aim, and considering that the most recent Spanish-language category norms for adults date back to more than 30 years ago, and that they do not include some very common categories, a new normative study was conducted. In this study, production data for exemplars in the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 1-46, 1969) were collected from a pool of 284 young adults who were native speakers of Spanish using an exemplar production task. With the goal of providing a useful tool for cognitive research to be conducted with Spanish-speaking samples, indices of frequency, rank, and lexical availability for the exemplars of each category are provided in a computerized database. The norms described are available for downloading as supplemental material with this article. PMID:25159692

    13. Normative Data of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Greek Population and Parkinsonian Dementia.

      PubMed

      Konstantopoulos, K; Vogazianos, P; Doskas, T

      2016-05-01

      The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief cognitive instrument for the measurement of dementia. The aim of the present study is to provide normative data for the MoCA test in the Greek speaking population and to measure its validity in a clinical group of parkinsonian dementia participants. A total of 710 healthy Greek speaking participants and 19 parkinsonian dementia participants took part in the study. Both, the MoCA test and a neuropsychological test battery (digit span, semantic verbal fluency, phonemic verbal fluency, Color Trails Test) were administered to the normative and clinical samples. The test was found to correlate with all neuropsychological tests used in the test battery and it showed high discriminant validity (optimal screening cutoff point = 21, sensitivity = 0.82, specificity = 0.90) in the parkinsonian dementia participants. Further research is needed to use it in larger clinical samples and in different neurological diseases. PMID:26891720

    14. Barred from each other: why normative husbands remain married to incarcerated wives--an exploratory study.

      PubMed

      Einat, Tomer; Harel-Aviram, Inbal; Rabinovitz, Sharon

      2015-06-01

      This study explores men's motivation and justification to remain married to their criminal, imprisoned wives. Using semistructured interviews and content-analysis, data were collected and analyzed from eight men who maintain stable marriage relationships with their incarcerated wives. Participants are normative men who describe incarceration as a challenge that enhances mutual responsibility and commitment. They exaggerate the extent to which their partners resemble archetypal romantic ideals. They use motivational accounts to explain the woman's criminal conduct, which is perceived as nonrelevant to her real identity. Physical separation and lack of physical intimacy are perceived as the major difficulties in maintaining their marriage relations. Length of imprisonment and marriage was found to be related to the decision whether to continue or terminate the relationships. Women-inmates' partners experience difficulties and use coping strategies very similar to those cited by other normative spouses facing lengthy separation. PMID:24285832

    15. Normative auditory brainstem response data for bone conduction in the dog.

      PubMed

      Munro, K J; Paul, B; Cox, C L

      1997-08-01

      Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of hearing disorders in dogs, but is hampered by the lack of published normative data. The aim of the present study was to obtain normative data for bone conduction, without masking, under clearly defined conditions. Subjects comprised 20 Dalmatians and 20 Jack Russell terriers. Two methods were investigated: holding the bone vibrator against the head by hand or by applying a 500 g weight. The results revealed no difference in hearing threshold between the two breeds or for the two methods of applying the bone vibrator to the head. The mean hearing threshold was close to 0 decibels re normal hearing level (dB nHL), which is the biological norm for humans. Hence, bone conduction thresholds can be used for confirmation of conductive hearing impairment in the dog, in the same way as in humans. PMID:9282342

    16. Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dupuy, Jean-Pierre; Grinbaum, Alexei

      2005-03-01

      The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that it is, paradoxically, a matter of forming a project on the basis of a fixed future which one does not want, and this in a coordinated way at the level of social institutions. Ongoing assessment may be viewed as a prescription to live with uncertainty, in a particular sense of the term, in order for a future catastrophe not to occur. The assessment is necessarily normative in that it must include the anticipation of a retrospective ethical judgment on present choices (notion of moral luck). To cite this article: J.-P. Dupuy, A. Grinbaum, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

    17. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations With Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

      PubMed Central

      Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

      2010-01-01

      This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers’ and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers’ use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness. PMID:20438455

    18. Development of normative neuropsychological performance in Thailand for the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

      PubMed

      Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Chairangsaris, Parnsiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Tipsuk, Somporn; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Fletcher, James; Shikuma, Cecilia; Ananworanich, Jintanat

      2013-01-01

      International studies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are needed to determine the viral and host factors associated with cognitive impairment particularly as more than 80% of HIV+ subjects reside in resource-limited settings. Recent diagnostic nomenclature of HAND requires comparison of cognitive performance specifically to local normative data. To evaluate this need for local norms, we compared normative data obtained locally in Thailand to Western norms. The current study examined cognitive performance in 477 seronegative Thai participants (male = 211, female = 266) who completed a battery of tests sensitive to cognitive changes in HIV. The cohort was divided into three age brackets (20-34; 35-49; 50-65 years) and four educational levels (no education or primary education, less than secondary certificate, high-school/associates degree, bachelor's degree or greater). The Thai cohort was compared (using analysis of covariance, ANCOVA) on a number of measures to a seronegative US cohort (n = 236; male = 198, female = 38) to examine cultural differences in performance. Normative data are provided with age and education stratification. The Thai and US groups performed significantly differently on all neuropsychological measures with the exception of verbal fluency. The Thai group performed better on measures of verbal learning (p < .001) and memory (p < .001) and measures of psychomotor speed (p < .001). Education was a more powerful predictor of performance in the Thai cohort than in the US group. These results highlight the continued need for the development of normative data within local populations. The use of Western norms as a comparison group could lead to inaccurate identification of HAND in culturally distinct groups. PMID:23113809

    19. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: expanded AVLT Recognition Trial norms for ages 57 to 98.

      PubMed

      Harris, Milton E; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E

      2002-04-01

      This paper expands upon previously published Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) norms by presenting age and gender specific data for Recognition Trial accuracy (recognition 'hits' corrected for false positive errors) in a total of 836 subjects (the original sample, augmented by an additional 311 subjects). Observations are offered concerning clinical implications of AVLT Recognition Trial performance. Gender differences in recognition memory are discussed. PMID:11992204

    20. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

      PubMed

      Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

      2010-10-01

      Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health. PMID:20728972

    1. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model

      PubMed Central

      Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

      2014-01-01

      There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

    2. Contributions of Work Stressors, Alcohol, and Normative Beliefs to Partner Violence

      PubMed Central

      Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn

      2013-01-01

      Objective: A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Method: Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Results: Analyses of data revealed that men’s and women’s normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to male-to-female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners’ levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner’s frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner’s adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and work-related factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. Discussion: These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture. PMID:23384367

    3. Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions.

      PubMed

      Doumas, Diana M; Workman, Camille; Smith, Diana; Navarro, Anabel

      2011-06-01

      This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity and binge drinking frequency than those in the SWF group at follow-up (M = 8 months). Students in the CWF group also reported significantly greater reductions in estimates of peer drinking from baseline to the follow-up assessment than students in the SWF group. In addition, changes in estimates of peer drinking partially mediated the effect of the intervention on changes in drinking. Results suggest that counselor-guided feedback may be more effective in reducing drinking among mandated students relative to self-guided feedback in the long term. PMID:21295938

    4. Demonstration of the need for cardiovascular and pulmonary normative data for cancer survivors.

      PubMed

      Schneider, C M; Repka, C P; Brown, J M; Lalonde, T L; Dallow, K T; Barlow, C E; Hayward, R

      2014-12-01

      Despite evidence that cancer and its treatments severely reduce cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), normative data for cancer survivors do not exist. The present study identifies age and gender-specific CRF distributions in a cancer population. The use of cancer-specific normative CRF data may help stratify initial fitness status and assess improvements in response to exercise interventions in cancer survivors. Data from 703 cancer survivors were analyzed for this study. Quintiles were compiled for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) for males and females in 5 age groups (19-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ≥70 years of age). VO2peak values for the cancer population were significantly lower than the general US population. The cancer population average in each age group fell within the "very poor" classification of VO2peak values for the general population. FVC values in the cancer population were similar to the general population. Cancer survivors had very low age group-specific VO2peak values compared to the apparently healthy general US population. Previously, CRF values of cancer survivors were compared to normative values for the apparently healthy general population, which yielded imprecise classifications of initial fitness and changes in fitness, resulting in patient discouragement. PMID:24995960

    5. The Effect of Framing and Normative Messages in Building Support for Climate Policies

      PubMed Central

      Hurlstone, Mark J.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Newell, Ben R.; Sewell, Brittany

      2014-01-01

      Deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are required to mitigate climate change. However, there is low willingness amongst the public to prioritise climate policies for reducing emissions. Here we show that the extent to which Australians are prepared to reduce their country's CO2 emissions is greater when the costs to future national income are framed as a “foregone-gain”—incomes rise in the future but not by as much as in the absence of emission cuts—rather than as a “loss”—incomes decrease relative to the baseline expected future levels (Studies 1 & 2). The provision of a normative message identifying Australia as one of the world's largest CO2 emitters did not increase the amount by which individuals were prepared to reduce emissions (Study 1), whereas a normative message revealing the emission policy preferences of other Australians did (Study 2). The results suggest that framing the costs of reducing emissions as a smaller increase in future income and communicating normative information about others' emission policy preferences are effective methods for leveraging public support for emission cuts. PMID:25501009

    6. An updated Italian normative dataset for the Stroop color word test (SCWT).

      PubMed

      Brugnolo, A; De Carli, F; Accardo, J; Amore, M; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ferrara, M; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Girtler, N

      2016-03-01

      The Stroop color and word test (SCWT) is widely used to evaluate attention, information processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. Normative values for the Italian population are available only for selected age groups, or for the short version of the test. The aim of this study was to provide updated normal values for the full version, balancing groups across gender, age decades, and education. Two kinds of indexes were derived from the performance of 192 normal subjects, divided by decade (from 20 to 90) and level of education (4 levels: 3-5; 6-8; 9-13; >13 years). They were (i) the correct answers achieved for each table in the first 30 s (word items, WI; color items, CI; color word items, CWI) and (ii) the total time required for reading the three tables (word time, WT; color time, CT; color word time, CWT). For each index, the regression model was evaluated using age, education, and gender as independent variables. The normative data were then computed following the equivalent scores method. In the regression model, age and education significantly influenced the performance in each of the 6 indexes, whereas gender had no significant effect. This study confirms the effect of age and education on the main indexes of the Stroop test and provides updated normative data for an Italian healthy population, well balanced across age, education, and gender. It will be useful to Italian researchers studying attentional functions in health and disease. PMID:26621362

    7. Dissatisfaction with dentofacial appearance and the normative need for orthodontic treatment: determinant factors

      PubMed Central

      de Almeida, Anderson Barbosa; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Marques, Leandro Silva

      2014-01-01

      Objective This study aims at assessing the normative need for orthodontic treatment and the factors that determine the subjective impact of malocclusion on 12-year-old Brazilian school children. Methods A total of 451 subjects (215 males and 236 females) were randomly selected from private and public schools of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The collected data included sociodemographic information and occlusal conditions. The esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion was assessed by means of the Orthodontic Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score - OASIS, whereas the malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment were assessed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC). Results Prevalence of normative need for orthodontic treatment was 65.6% (n = 155), and prevalence of orthodontic esthetic subjective impact was 14.9%. The following variables showed significant association with esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion: female (p = 0.042; OR = 0.5; CI = 0.2-0.9), public school student (p = 0.002; OR = 6.8; CI = 1.9-23.8), maxillary overjet ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.037; OR = 1.7; CI = 1-3) and gingival smile ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.008; OR = 3.4; CI = 1.3-8.8). Conclusion The normative need for orthodontic treatment overestimated the perceived need. Occlusal and sociocultural factors influenced the dissatisfaction of schoolchildren with their dentofacial appearance. PMID:25162576

    8. "Supporting" Beginning Secondary Science Teachers through Induction: A Multi-Case Study of Their Meaning Making and Identities

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Webb, Angela W.

      2012-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to explore the induction experiences of beginning secondary science teachers, including their afforded and enacted identities-in-practice and their meaning making. I applied a model of identities and meaning making that considered the iterative nature of the (a) normative science teacher identities afforded by…

    9. Transportation System Requirements Document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1993-09-01

      This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

    10. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

      SciTech Connect

      Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

      2004-03-18

      This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

    11. Software Document Inventory Program

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Merwarth, P. D.

      1984-01-01

      Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

    12. Controlled Document Tracking Software

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

      1992-08-24

      MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

    13. Evaluation of online documentation.

      PubMed Central

      Prophet, C. M.; Krall, M. E.; Budreau, G. K.; Gibbs, T. D.; Walker, K. P.; Eyman, J. M.; Hafner, M. J.

      1998-01-01

      The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) implemented an online documentation system for patient care orders in 1994-1996. Developed entirely in-house, the INFORMM NIS (Information Network for Online Retrieval & Medical Management Nursing Information System) features order-generated task lists, defaulted charting responses, computer-generated chart forms, and graphical data displays. To measure the impact of automation on user perceptions, and documentation compliance, completeness, time, and location, a team of nursing and information systems representatives captured data before and after implementation. Staff surveys show more positive user perceptions. Documentation results indicate increased compliance and completeness, and a decrease or no change in time. Online documentation occurs mainly at unit workstations. PMID:9929221

    14. They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*

      PubMed Central

      Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

      2011-01-01

      Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

    15. Getting documentation right.

      PubMed

      Davies, Nicola

      2014-12-31

      Between medication administration, care tasks and communication with colleagues and patients' families, documentation often gets put on the back-burner. However, it is a critical aspect of nursing care that provides a precise account of your actions that is vital for your legal protection and that of your employer. Below are a few suggestions to ensure your documentation is accurate and timely. PMID:25515489

    16. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

      2010-02-01

      Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

    17. Technical approach document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1988-04-01

      This document describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) and final designs that comply with EPS standards. This document is a revision to the original document. Major revisions were made to the sections in riprap selection and sizing, and ground-water; only minor revisions were made to the remainder of the document. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared a Standard Review Plan (NRC-SRP) which describes factors to be considered by the NRC in approving the RAP. Sections 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 7.0 of this document are arranged under the same headings as those used in the NRC-SRP. This approach is adopted in order to facilitate joint use of the documents. Section 2.0 (not included in the NRC-SRP) discusses design considerations; Section 3.0 describes surface-water hydrology and erosion control; Section 4.0 describes geotechnical aspects of pile design; Section 5.0 discusses the Alternate Site Selection Process; Section 6.0 deals with radiological issues (in particular, the design of the radon barrier); Section 7.0 discusses protection of groundwater resources; and Section 8.0 discusses site design criteria for the RAC.

    18. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fruchterman, James R.

      2007-01-01

      Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

    19. 6 CFR 37.13 - Document verification requirements.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Document verification requirements. 37.13... LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.13 Document verification requirements. (a) States shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that...

    20. 6 CFR 37.13 - Document verification requirements.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

      2014-01-01

      ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Document verification requirements. 37.13... LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.13 Document verification requirements. (a) States shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that...

    1. 6 CFR 37.13 - Document verification requirements.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Document verification requirements. 37.13... LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.13 Document verification requirements. (a) States shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that...

    2. 6 CFR 37.13 - Document verification requirements.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document verification requirements. 37.13... LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.13 Document verification requirements. (a) States shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that...

    3. A Multi-site Randomized Trial of Normative Feedback for Heavy Drinking: Social Comparison versus Social Comparison plus Correction of Normative Misperceptions

      PubMed Central

      Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; LaBrie, Joseph; DiBello, Angelo M.; Young, Chelsie M.; Rinker, Dipali V.; Litt, Dana; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Knee, C. Raymond; Hamor, Ezekiel; Jerabeck, Jessica M.; Larimer, Mary E.

      2015-01-01

      Objective Given widespread alcohol misuse among college students, numerous intervention programs have been developed, including personalized normative feedback (PNF). Most research evaluating PNF assumes that presenting one's own perceived norms is necessary to correct normative misperceptions and thereby reduce drinking. Alternatively, simply providing social comparison information showing that one drinks more than others may be sufficient. The present study evaluated the efficacy of full PNF (one's own drinking, campus drinking rates, and perceived norms) and a partial personalized social comparison feedback (PSCF; one's own drinking and campus drinking rates) in a randomized trial among heavy-drinking college students. Method Participants included 623 heavy-drinking students from three universities. Assessments occurred at baseline and three- and six-months post-baseline. Results Primary analyses examined differences across four drinking outcomes (drinks per week, total drinks past month, frequency of past month drinking, and negative alcohol-related consequences) at three- and six-month follow-ups controlling for the baseline variable. Results revealed significant reductions across all alcohol consumption outcomes at three months in both intervention conditions compared to attention-control. Mediation analyses demonstrated significant indirect effects of the intervention on six-month drinking through changes in perceived norms at three months. Moreover, evidence emerged for changes in drinking at three months as a mediator of the association between PSCF and six-month perceived norms. Conclusions The present research suggests PNF may not require explicit consideration of one's perceived norms in order to be effective and that direct social comparison provides an alternative theoretical mechanism for PNF efficacy. PMID:26727407

    4. Documentation: No Substitute for Communication

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Strickland, John

      2005-01-01

      SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

    5. Making Movies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Crompton, Zoe; Davies, Emma

      2012-01-01

      Children enjoy making movies but can it help them to understand science? In this article, the authors discuss how creating stop-frame animations of salt dissolving can deepen children's understanding of this process. (Contains 1 figure.)

    6. Document Concurrence System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

      2004-01-01

      The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

    7. Document Concurrence System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

      2003-01-01

      The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

    8. Document Concurrence System

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

      2003-01-01

      The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users' expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list had concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

    9. NORMATIVE SCIENCE

      EPA Science Inventory

      Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations has been diminished...

    10. Quality documentation. Quality care.

      PubMed

      Peters, D A

      1988-10-01

      Providing home care services is becoming a greater challenge as the resources of professional staffing, time, and money become more scarce. However, simultaneously, the need for quality services is increasing as the numbers and needs of people requiring these services increase. Since home care services are essentially "invisible" because they are rendered behind the closed doors of the patient's house, assuring quality becomes dependent on the documentation. This article has presented a framework for organizing care and the documentation of care which provides both a comprehensive assessment and systematic process for uniformly managing that assessment. Us of this framework provides one way to define home health services for both home health personnel and others. Having such a definition focuses everyone's efforts and moves the industry toward quality care and quality documentation. PMID:10290325

    11. Hazard baseline documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1994-08-01

      This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

    12. Computer integrated documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Boy, Guy

      1991-01-01

      The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

    13. Customer Communication Document

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2009-01-01

      This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

    14. Related environmental documents

      SciTech Connect

      1995-10-01

      This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

    15. An Automated FORTRAN documenter

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Erickson, T.

      1982-01-01

      A set of programs designed to help R&D programmers document their FORTRAN programs more effectively were written. The central program reads FORTRAN source code and asks the programmer questions about things it has not heard of before. It inserts the answers to these questions as comments into the FORTRAN code. The comments, as well as extensive cross-reference information, are also written to an unformatted file. Other programs read this file to produce printed information or to act as an interactive document.

    16. Software for Better Documentation of Other Software

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Pinedo, John

      2003-01-01

      The Literate Programming Extraction Engine is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language- (PERL-)based computer program that facilitates and simplifies the implementation of a concept of self-documented literate programming in a fashion tailored to the typical needs of scientists. The advantage for the programmer is that documentation and source code are written side-by-side in the same file, reducing the likelihood that the documentation will be inconsistent with the code and improving the verification that the code performs its intended functions. The advantage for the user is the knowledge that the documentation matches the software because they come from the same file. This program unifies the documentation process for a variety of programming languages, including C, C++, and several versions of FORTRAN. This program can process the documentation in any markup language, and incorporates the LaTeX typesetting software. The program includes sample Makefile scripts for automating both the code-compilation (when appropriate) and documentation-generation processes into a single command-line statement. Also included are macro instructions for the Emacs display-editor software, making it easy for a programmer to toggle between editing in a code or a documentation mode.

    17. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

      PubMed

      Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Marquine, Maria; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mungas, Daniel; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

      2016-03-01

      Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnicity in the United States, yet there are limited well-validated neuropsychological tools in Spanish, and an even greater paucity of normative standards representing this population. The Spanish NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neurocognitive screener; however, the original norms were developed combining Spanish- and English-versions of the battery. We developed normative standards for the Spanish NIHTB-CB, fully adjusting for demographic variables and based entirely on a Spanish-speaking sample. A total of 408 Spanish-speaking neurologically healthy adults (ages 18-85 years) and 496 children (ages 3-7 years) completed the NIH Toolbox norming project. We developed three types of scores: uncorrected based on the entire Spanish-speaking cohort, age-corrected, and fully demographically corrected (age, education, sex) scores for each of the seven NIHTB-CB tests and three composites (Fluid, Crystallized, Total Composites). Corrected scores were developed using polynomial regression models. Demographic factors demonstrated medium-to-large effects on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores in a pattern that differed from that observed on the English NIHTB-CB. For example, in Spanish-speaking adults, education was more strongly associated with Fluid scores, but showed the strongest association with Crystallized scores among English-speaking adults. Demographic factors were no longer associated with fully corrected scores. The original norms were not successful in eliminating demographic effects, overestimating children's performances, and underestimating adults' performances on the Spanish NIHTB-CB. The disparate pattern of demographic associations on the Spanish versus English NIHTB-CB supports the need for distinct normative standards developed separately for each population. Fully adjusted scores presented here will aid in more accurately characterizing acquired brain dysfunction among U.S. Spanish-speakers. (JINS, 2016, 21, 364-374). PMID:26817924

    18. Reliability, minimal detectable change, and normative values for tests of upper extremity function and power.

      PubMed

      Negrete, Rodney J; Hanney, William J; Kolber, Morey J; Davies, George J; Ansley, Megan K; McBride, Amanda B; Overstreet, Amber L

      2010-12-01

      The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and determine normative values of 3 upper extremity (UE) tests of function and power. One hundred eighty participants, men (n = 69) and women (n = 111), were tested on 3 UE strength and power maneuvers in a multicenter study to determine baseline normative values. Forty-six subjects returned for a second day of testing within 5 days of the initial assessment for the reliability component of the investigation. Explosive power was assessed via a seated shot-put test for the dominant and nondominant arms. Relationships between the dominant and nondominant arms were also analyzed. A push-up and modified pull-up were performed to measure the amount of work performed in short (15-second) bursts of activity. The relationship between the push-up and modified pull-up was also determined. Analysis showed test-retest reliability for the modified pull-up, timed push-up, dominant single-arm seated shot-put tests, and nondominant single-arm seated shot-put tests to be intraclass correlation coefficient(3,1) 0.958, 0.989, 0.988, and 0.971, respectively. The MDC for both the push-up and modified pull-up was 2 repetitions. The MDCs for the shot put with the dominant arm and the nondominant arm were 17 and 18 in., respectively. The result of this study indicates that these field tests possess excellent reliability. Normative values have been identified, which require further validation. These tests demonstrate a practical and effective method to measure upper extremity functional power. PMID:21088548

    19. The Framingham Heart Study Clock Drawing Performance: Normative Data from the Offspring Cohort

      PubMed Central

      Nyborn, Justin A.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Du, Yangchun; Kaplan, Edith; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Rinn, William E.; Denison, Helen S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

      2013-01-01

      Background/Study Context While the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a popular tool used to assess cognitive function, limited normative data on CDT performance exists. The objective of the current study was to provide normative data on an expanded version of previous CDT scoring protocols from a large community-based sample of middle to older adults (aged 43 to 91) from the Framingham Heart Study. Methods The CDT was administered to 1476 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants using a scoring protocol that assigned error scores to drawn features. Total error scores were computed, as well as for subscales pertaining to outline, numeral placement, time-setting, center, and “other.” Results Higher levels of education were significantly associated with fewer errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numerals (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Older age was significantly associated with more errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numeral (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Significant differences were also found between education groups on the Command condition for all but the oldest age group (75+). Conclusion Results provide normative data on CDT performance within a community-based cohort. Errors appear to be more prevalent in older compared with younger individuals, and may be less prevalent in individuals who completed at least some college compared with those who did not. Future studies are needed to determine whether this expanded scoring system allows detection of preclinical symptoms of future risk for dementia. PMID:23316738

    20. Digitizing legacy documents: A knowledge-base preservation project

      SciTech Connect

      Anderson, E.; Atkinson, R.; Crego, C.; Slisz, J.; Tompson, S.

      1998-09-01

      As more library customers and staff throughout the world come to rely upon rapid electronic access to fulltext documents, there is increasing demand to also make older documents electronically accessible. Illinois State Library grant funds allowed us to purchase hardware and software necessary to answer this demand. We created a production system to scan our legacy documents, convert them into Portable Document Format (PDF), save them to a server for World Wide Web access, and write them to CD discs for distribution.

    1. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

      DOEpatents

      Sanfilippo, Antonio; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

      2009-12-22

      Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

    2. Identifying complications and low provider adherence to normative practices using administrative data.

      PubMed Central

      Kuykendall, D H; Ashton, C M; Johnson, M L; Geraci, J M

      1995-01-01

      OBJECTIVE. This study investigated whether unexpected length of stay (LOS) could be used as an indicator to identify hospital patients who experienced complications or whose care exhibited low adherence to normative practices. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. We analyzed 1,477 cases admitted for one of three medical conditions. All cases were discharged from one of nine participating Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals from October 1987 through September 1989. Analyses used administrative data and information abstracted through chart reviews that included severity of illness indicators, complications, and explicit process of care criteria reflecting adherence to normative practices. STUDY DESIGN. We developed separate multiple linear regression models for each disease using LOS as the dependent measure and variables that could be assumed present at the time of admission as explanatory variables. Unexpectedly long LOS (i.e., discharges with high residuals) was used to target complications and unexpectedly short LOS was used to target cases whose care might have exhibited low adherence to normative practices. Information gleaned from chart reviews served as the gold standard for determining actual complications and low adherence. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Analyses of administrative data showed that unexpectedly long LOS identified complications with sensitivities ranging from 40 through 62 percent across the three conditions. Positive predictive values all were at greater than chance levels (p < .05). This represented substantial improvement over identification of complications using ICD-9-CM codes contained in the administrative database where sensitivities were from 26 through 39 percent. Unexpectedly short LOS identified low provider adherence with sensitivities ranging from 33 through 45 percent with positive predictive values all above chance levels (p < .05). The addition to the LOS models of chart-based severity of illness information helped explain LOS, but failed to facilitate identification of complications or low adherence beyond what was accomplished using administrative data. CONCLUSIONS. Administrative data can be used to target cases when seeking to identify complications or low provider adherence to normative practices. Targeting can be accomplished through the creation of indirect measures based on unexpected LOS. Future efforts should be devoted to validating unexpected LOS as a hospital-level quality indicator. RELEVANCE/IMPACT. Scrutiny of unexpected LOS holds promise for enhancing the usefulness of administrative data as a resource for quality initiatives. PMID:7591780

    3. Comparison of dynamic crystallization techniques on Apollo 15 quartz normative basalts

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Lofgren, G. E.; Grove, T. L.; Brown, R. W.; Smith, D. P.

      1979-01-01

      The paper compares dynamic crystallization techniques used on Apollo 15 quartz normative basalts which show differences related to their method. The variation of pyroxene core major element chemistry with cooling rate is confirmed, and it is shown that the Fe loss from liquid is shifted toward the En-Di joint; it is suggested that the nucleation temperature and breakdown of equilibrium partitioning as a function of cooling rate dictate the core composition. It is concluded that the different crystallization behavior that results from the Fe-capsule and Fe-loop container methods is related to the nucleation kinetics.

    4. Smoking mediates the effect of conscientiousness on mortality: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Turiano, Nicholas A.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

      2013-01-01

      This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043

    5. Simulation Detection in Handwritten Documents by Forensic Document Examiners.

      PubMed

      Kam, Moshe; Abichandani, Pramod; Hewett, Tom

      2015-07-01

      This study documents the results of a controlled experiment designed to quantify the abilities of forensic document examiners (FDEs) and laypersons to detect simulations in handwritten documents. Nineteen professional FDEs and 26 laypersons (typical of a jury pool) were asked to inspect test packages that contained six (6) known handwritten documents written by the same person and two (2) questioned handwritten documents. Each questioned document was either written by the person who wrote the known documents, or written by a different person who tried to simulate the writing of the person who wrote the known document. The error rates of the FDEs were smaller than those of the laypersons when detecting simulations in the questioned documents. Among other findings, the FDEs never labeled a questioned document that was written by the same person who wrote the known documents as "simulation." There was a significant statistical difference between the responses of the FDEs and layperson for documents without simulations. PMID:26190151

    6. USGS Documents 2015 Drought

      A hydrologic technician from the USGS Idaho Water Science Center measures streamflow in Fall Creek near Anderson Ranch Dam in southwestern Idaho. The USGS is collecting data at hundreds of sites on rivers and streams in six western states to document the 2015 drought. USGS scientists will analy...

    7. The Iranian Documentation Centre.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Harvey, John F.

      The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…

    8. Multimedia Document Retrieval.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Ozkarahan, Esen

      1995-01-01

      This study develops an integrated conceptual representation scheme for multimedia documents that are viewed to comprise an object-oriented database; the necessary abstractions for the conceptual model and extensions to the relational model used as the search structure; a retrieval model that includes associative, semantic and media-specific…

    9. Client Oriented Management Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Limaye, Mohan R.; Hightower, Rick

      Noting that accounting reports, including management advisory service (MAS) studies, reports on internal control, and tax memoranda, often appear rather dense and heavy in style--partly because of the legal environment's demand for careful expression and partly because such documents convey very complex information--this paper presents four…

    10. STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

      EPA Science Inventory

      EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance...

    11. ELT Documents, January 1975.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

      The theme of this issue of ELT Documents is the use of the language laboratory in language learning. An article by A. Maley summarizes the conference on the use of the language laboratory for advanced learners, held in Paris, 2-4 Oct. 1974, from which two main perspectives emerged. One is critical of the structuralist audio-lingual assumptions…

    12. Documentation of Employee Performance.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Frels, Kelly; Cooper, Timothy

      Although the main purpose of a school district's evaluation system is to improve employees' performance, the evaluation procedures and the supporting documentation must also serve as evidence in the termination hearings of an unsatisfactory employee. Accordingly, this chapter provides practical advice to school administrators concerning

    13. Stressor Identification Guidance Document

      EPA Science Inventory

      EPA has made availabile the Stressor Identification Guidance Document (EPA 822-B-00-025) published under the authority of Section 304(a)(2) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This technical guidance doc...

    14. Documents in Microform.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lyons, Janet, Ed.

      1976-01-01

      This issue of "Illinois Libraries" contains the papers delivered at a 1974 workshop on government publications in microform. Twelve articles focus on such issues as: 1) reasons to collect microforms; 2) criteria for selecting microform documents; 3) microform hardware and software; 4) procurement procedures; 5) bibliographic control; and 6)

    15. Teaching America's Founding Documents.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tucker, James

      1993-01-01

      Reflects on the author's experiences teaching a course on great documents in American history to high school students, concentrating on teaching the Declaration of Independence and the "Federalist Papers." Countering the students' tendencies toward superficial reading and encouraging deep analysis are the teacher's primary goals. (SLD)

    16. Electronic document interchange

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Erwin, Jim

      1993-01-01

      The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

    17. Electronic document interchange

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Tuey, Dick

      1993-01-01

      Evaluation and implementation tasks for the NASA-wide electronic publishing system known as networked DOCUTECH are examined and the system configuration is graphically depicted. DOCUTECH provides the capability to print on demand electronically stored documents. Use of the electronic publishing system in several applications has generated productivity gains ranging from 33 to 88 percent at geographically dispersed NASA centers.

    18. Technical approach document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1989-12-01

      The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

    19. TECHNICAL RESOURCE DOCUMENT ON MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

      EPA Science Inventory

      In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a document entitled Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA, 2005), which provides technical and policy guidance for project managers and teams making risk manageme...

    20. [New documentation on the Robert baby bottle].

      PubMed

      Julien, P

      1996-01-01

      The author makes known about a dozen unpublished documents (puzzle-cards, invoice, advertisements, post card, stamped tin signs printed in colors, catalogue, prospectuses) which shed light on the history of the manufacture Robert baby bottles (located successively in Dijon, Paris and in Martres-de-Veyre) and on the practice of bottle feeding. PMID:11624777

    1. Skill Standards and Certification Project. Final Document.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      North Lake Coll., Irving, TX.

      This document contains the report of a project conducted to make the concept of a world-class work force a reality. The project was intended to design a comprehensive strategy to link elements from the state's existing vocational-technical education, job training, adult education, tech prep, and apprenticeship programs with the components of SCANS…

    2. The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.

      SciTech Connect

      Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L.

      2002-10-01

      The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main stem and ocean bottlenecks are not overriding, restoration of floodplain connectivity by elevating base flows throughout the corridor, removing revetments and refilling gravel pits by natural riverine transport of gravel where possible could be successful in substantially enhancing Yakima salmon and steelhead runs. Hence, the overarching purpose of this research was to determine the ecology of major floodplain reaches of the Yakima River: Cle Elum, Kittitas, Naches, Union Gap and Wapato. Specifically, the study documented groundwater-channel connectivity and flow relations; use and quality of side channel and other floodplain habitats by salmonid fishes; and classification and analysis of floodplain habitat using remote sensing and documentation of geomorphic processes, required for a robust understanding of the feasibility of revetment removal and establishment of a normative flow regime for the mainstem river.

    3. Making Connections

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Turner, Paul

      2015-01-01

      This article aims to illustrate a process of making connections, not between mathematics and other activities, but within mathematics itself--between diverse parts of the subject. Novel connections are still possible in previously explored mathematics when the material happens to be unfamiliar, as may be the case for a learner at any career stage.…

    4. Empirical population and public health ethics: A review and critical analysis to advance robust empirical-normative inquiry.

      PubMed

      Knight, Rod

      2016-05-01

      The field of population and public health ethics (PPHE) has yet to fully embrace the generation of evidence as an important project. This article reviews the philosophical debates related to the 'empirical turn' in clinical bioethics, and critically analyses how PPHE has and can engage with the philosophical implications of generating empirical data within the task of normative inquiry. A set of five conceptual and theoretical issues pertaining to population health that are unresolved and could potentially benefit from empirical PPHE approaches to normative inquiry are discussed. Each issue differs from traditional empirical bioethical approaches, in that they emphasize (1) concerns related to the population, (2) 'upstream' policy-relevant health interventions - within and outside of the health care system and (3) the prevention of illness and disease. Within each theoretical issue, a conceptual example from population and public health approaches to HIV prevention and health promotion is interrogated. Based on the review and critical analysis, this article concludes that empirical-normative approaches to population and public health ethics would be most usefully pursued as an iterative project (rather than as a linear project), in which the normative informs the empirical questions to be asked and new empirical evidence constantly directs conceptualizations of what constitutes morally robust public health practices. Finally, a conceptualization of an empirical population and public health ethics is advanced in order to open up new interdisciplinary 'spaces', in which empirical and normative approaches to ethical inquiry are transparently (and ethically) integrated. PMID:25956917

    5. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hourcle, Joseph

      2014-06-01

      Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

    6. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

      PubMed Central

      Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

      2016-01-01

      The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined use of APACS with other neuropsychological tests could also improve our understanding of the cognitive substrates of pragmatic abilities and their breakdown. PMID:26903894

    7. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

      PubMed

      Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

      2016-01-01

      The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined use of APACS with other neuropsychological tests could also improve our understanding of the cognitive substrates of pragmatic abilities and their breakdown. PMID:26903894

    8. Normative influence and desired family size among young people in rural Egypt.

      PubMed

      Harbour, Catherine

      2011-06-01

      Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size. PMID:21834412

    9. Normative data for Aδ contact heat evoked potentials in adult population: a multicenter study.

      PubMed

      Granovsky, Yelena; Anand, Praveen; Nakae, Aya; Nascimento, Osvaldo; Smith, Benn; Sprecher, Elliot; Valls-Solé, Josep

      2016-05-01

      There has been a significant increase over recent years in the use of contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) for the evaluation of small nerve fiber function. Measuring CHEP amplitude and latency has clinical utility for the diagnosis and assessment of conditions with neuropathic pain. This international multicenter study aimed to provide reference values for CHEPs to stimuli at 5 commonly examined body sites. Contact heat evoked potentials were recorded from 226 subjects (114 females), distributed per age decade between 20 and 79 years. Temperature stimuli were delivered by a thermode (32°C-51°C at a rate of 70°C/s). In phase I of the study, we investigated side-to-side differences and reported the maximum normal side-to-side difference in Aδ CHEP peak latency and amplitude for leg, forearm, and face. In phase II, we obtained normative data for 3 CHEP parameters (N2P2 amplitude, N2 latency, and P2 latency), stratified for gender and age decades from face, upper and lower limbs, and overlying cervical and lumbar spine. In general, larger CHEP amplitudes were associated with higher evoked pain scores. Females had CHEPs of larger amplitude and shorter latency than males. This substantive data set of normative values will facilitate the clinical use of CHEPs as a rapid, noninvasive, and objective technique for the assessment of patients presenting with neuropathic pain. PMID:26907092

    10. The Exxon Valdez oil spill revisited and the dangers of normative science.

      PubMed

      Landis, Wayne G

      2007-07-01

      In the July 2006 issue of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, a paper by Harwell and Gentile was published assessing the present ecological significance of the impacts from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). First, this paper compares the major conclusions of Harwell and Gentile and a paper reviewing the current impacts of EVOS by Peterson et al as published by Science in 2003. Stark differences exist between the conclusions of the 2 papers regarding continuing impacts. Part of the difference appears to be the infusion of different social values or policy goals into each. Normative science is the use or interpretation of data in support of specific values or policies. Examples of values or policies intertwined with science are constructs such as ecosystem health, ecosystem integrity, ecological significance, and recovery. Examination of the environmental risk assessment and toxicology literature reveals that the symptoms of normative science are common and the implications widespread. Separation of science from policy or at a minimum a transparent acknowledgment of the science-policy interaction is clearly necessary in order to obtain a clear picture of the ecological system under investigation. PMID:17695114

    11. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

      PubMed

      Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

      2014-01-01

      Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts. PMID:23682754

    12. A Normative Study of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) in Children and Adolescents

      PubMed Central

      Snyder, Aliyah R.; Bauer, Russell M.

      2014-01-01

      Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool [SCAT2]) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of ‘normal’ or ‘impaired’ score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption. PMID:25244434

    13. [Reproductive medicine and the desire for a child : from normative judgment to conceptual analysis].

      PubMed

      Gaille, Marie

      2014-02-01

      Reproductive medicine is widely discussed today in France, far beyond the borders of medical community. It is a topic of public controversy. The notion of "desire for a child" is very frequently referred to in this debate. It is wrongly considered as an obvious idea. A philosophical examination of the "desire for a child" allows us to elaborate a critical definition of it, cut from the normative judgments made about it. It highlights its double nature, being a desire linked to the private sphere as well as to public policies and social norms. It gives some reasons to understand how it became something that could be said and even claimed for in the public sphere. It examines the explanations that have been proposed about the desire for a child (its origin, the goal it fulfills). It proposes a frame of analysis based on a case-by-case approach and acknowledges as essential features of this desire its complexity, its ambiguous frontiers and its variability. The normative evaluation of the "desire for a child" cannot skip the phase of this conceptual analysis. PMID:24572122

    14. The Development of Stranger Fear in Infancy and Toddlerhood: Normative Development, Individual Differences, Antecedents, and Outcomes

      PubMed Central

      Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

      2014-01-01

      Despite implications that stranger fear is an important aspect of developing behavioral inhibition, a known risk factor for anxiety, normative and atypical developmental trajectories of stranger fear across infancy and toddlerhood remain understudied. We used a large, longitudinal data set (N = 1285) including multi-trait, multi-method assessments of temperament to examine the normative course of development for stranger fear and to explore the possibility that individual differences exist in trajectories of stranger fear development between 6 and 36 months of age. A latent class growth analysis suggested four different trajectories of stranger fear during this period. Stable, high levels of stranger fear over time were associated with poorer RSA suppression at six months of age. Rates of concordance in trajectory-based class membership for identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins, along with associations between atypical stranger fear development and greater anxiety-related maternal characteristics, suggested that individual differences in developmental trajectories of stranger fear may be heritable. Importantly, trajectories of stranger fear during infancy and toddlerhood were linked to individual differences in behavioral inhibition, with chronically high levels of stranger fear and sharp increases in stranger fear over time related to greater levels of inhibition than other developmental trajectories. PMID:24118713

    15. King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.

      PubMed

      Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

      2015-06-01

      The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median = 22.0 years, range = 16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0 s (SD = 6.1 s, range = 24.0-65.7 s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC = 0.92, Pearson = 0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

    16. Demographic, Behavioural and Normative Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Amongst Sports Bettors.

      PubMed

      Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew

      2016-06-01

      Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form. PMID:26342843

    17. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

      PubMed Central

      Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

      2016-01-01

      Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil.

    18. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

      PubMed

      Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

      2016-02-01

      Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

    19. A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) with examples of petrologic problem solving

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, G.

      1979-01-01

      A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.

    20. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

      PubMed

      Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

      2015-01-01

      Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD. PMID:25679880

    1. Normative and standardized data for cognitive measures in the Mexican Health and Aging Study

      PubMed Central

      Mejía-Arango, Silvia; Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra

      2015-01-01

      Objective To describe the cognitive instrument used in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) in Mexican individuals aged 60 and over and to provide normative values for the Cross Cultural Cognitive Examination test and its modified versions (CCCE). Materials and methods The CCCE was administered to 5 120 subjects as part of a population-based sample free of neurologic and psychiatric disease from the MHAS 2012 survey. Normative data were generated by age and education for each test in the cognitive instrument as well as for the total cognition score. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationship of scores to demographic variables. Results Results present standardized normed scores for eight cognitive domains: orientation, attention, verbal learning memory, verbal recall memory, visuospatial abilities, visual memory, executive function, and numeracy in three education groups within three age groups. Conclusion These highlight the need for population-based norms for the CCCE, which has been used in population-based studies. Demographic factors such as age and education must be considered when interpreting the cognitive measures. PMID:26172239

    2. Both odor identification and ApoE-ε4 contribute to normative cognitive aging.

      PubMed

      Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

      2011-12-01

      Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ε4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features. PMID:21517181

    3. Functional movement ScreenTM--normative values in healthy distance runners.

      PubMed

      Agresta, C; Slobodinsky, M; Tucker, C

      2014-12-01

      Recreational runners have an estimated overuse injury incidence rate of up to 79% and 90% for marathoners. A pre-participation screening tool that can identify risk for injury may help reduce overuse injury in runners. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS(TM)) is a reliable clinical tool used with athletes to help predict injury. To date, the FMS(TM) has not been used with endurance athletes. The purpose of this article is to establish normative FMS(TM) values for distance runners. 45 healthy runners performed the FMS(TM). Descriptive statistics were calculated; independent t-tests were performed to examine the effect of gender, experience and injury on scores. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate whether significant differences in scores exist for any component of the FMS(TM). The mean FMS(TM) score was 13.13±1.8. No significant differences in FMS(TM) scores were found between novice and experienced runners (p=0.71) or runners with a history of injury and those without (p=0.20). While male and female runners did not differ significantly in their total FMS(TM) score (p=0.65), significant differences were found in the deep squat (p<0.05), trunk stability push-up (p<0.001) and active straight leg raise components (p=0.002). This study provides normative values for FMS(TM) scores when testing uninjured distance runners. PMID:25144432

    4. [A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].

      PubMed

      Dorschel, A

      1992-01-01

      Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr. PMID:1342729

    5. Normative values of major SCAT2 and SCAT3 components for a college athlete population.

      PubMed

      Zimmer, Adam; Marcinak, Jaquelyn; Hibyan, Stuart; Webbe, Frank

      2015-01-01

      The Sports Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2) is a posttrauma evaluative screener for concussion. Although a revised version (SCAT3) recently was released, the SCAT2 continues in use. Moreover, there have been no reports of normative values with college athletes with the SCAT2 or SCAT3. Similar to the SCAT3, the SCAT2 includes a 22-item self-report symptom scale, the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), and a hard surface-only version of the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The SCAT3 does not employ a total score and adds an optional gait component. The purpose of this study was to develop normative values for collegiate athletes on the SCAT2 and its subparts with respect to sex, collision risk by sport, and concussion history. In preseason, 477 college athletes (332 male, 145 female) completed the SCAT2. The average total score was 91.08 (SD = 5.60). The average number of symptoms endorsed was 1.75. Average SAC and BESS scores were 27.17 (SD = 2.01) and 25.64 (SD = 4.07), respectively. Little or no difference was found in total and component scores due to sex, sport type, or concussion history. When baseline measurement is lacking, these data provide a good benchmark for interpreting SCAT2 and SCAT3 performance. PMID:25117270

    6. Reliability and normative data for the comprehensive assessment of prospective memory (CAPM).

      PubMed

      Chau, Lien T; Lee, Jessica B; Fleming, Jennifer; Roche, Nadine; Shum, David

      2007-12-01

      The Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate frequency of prospective memory (PM) failures in people with brain injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAPM, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and to establish normative data by comparing CAPM scores between groups on the basis of sex, age, and education. Data were collected on 95 people aged 15-60 years living in the community, with no history of brain injury, using the CAPM. The results showed that the test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the CAPM were within acceptable ranges, indicating that the CAPM provides a stable and homogenous measure of an individual's self-report of PM failures. Normative data are presented in two age groups based on the significant difference found between the age groups 15-30 years and 31-60 years. These established norms can be used to describe perceived or observed behaviours indicative of PM failure in patients with brain injury by comparing CAPM ratings from significant others with the norms. The CAPM questionnaire provides researchers or clinicians with a stable and reliable assessment option that specifically focuses on PM for individuals with brain injury. PMID:17852758

    7. Cadmium technical support document

      SciTech Connect

      Not Available

      1986-09-01

      This Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion described in 40 CFR Part 154. Potential hazards will be examined further to determine the nature and extent of the risk, and considering the benefits of the subject active ingredient, whether such risks cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.

    8. Content Documents Management

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

      2011-01-01

      The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

    9. Self-reference and predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in applications of systems thinking in social sciences—(Survey)

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Mesjasz, Czesław

      2000-05-01

      Cybernetics, systems thinking or systems theory, have been viewed as instruments of enhancing predictive, normative and prescriptive capabilities of the social sciences, beginning from microscale-management and ending with various reference to the global system. Descriptions, explanations and predictions achieved thanks to various systems ideas were also viewed as supportive for potential governance of social phenomena. The main aim of the paper is to examine what could be the possible applications of modern systems thinking in predictive, normative and prescriptive approaches in modern social sciences, beginning from management theory and ending with global studies. Attention is paid not only to "classical" mathematical systems models but also to the role of predictive, normative and prescriptive interpretations of analogies and metaphors associated with application of the classical ("first order cybernetics") and modern ("second order cybernetics", "complexity theory") systems thinking in social sciences.

    10. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

      SciTech Connect

      Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

      2012-08-01

      In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

    11. SSC Safety Review Document

      SciTech Connect

      Toohig, T.E.

      1988-11-01

      The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

    12. [Documentation of injuries].

      PubMed

      Betz, P; Eisenmenger, W

      1993-09-01

      The expert assessment of injuries due to criminal offenses is of great importance for any later legal proceedings. The initial medical examination of severe lesions is very often performed by clinicians; however, and when it which must be surgically shows that immediate surgical treatment is indicated later forensic interpretation is only possible if precise records documenting the nature of the wounds have been kept by the first doctor involved. The most frequent patterns of these injuries and relevant forensic aspects are discussed. PMID:8235688

    13. Software design and documentation language

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kleine, H.

      1980-01-01

      Language supports design and documentation of complex software. Included are: design and documentation language for expressing design concepts; processor that produces intelligble documentation based on design specifications; and methodology for using language and processor to create well-structured top-down programs and documentation. Processor is written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5 programming language for use on UNIVAC, IBM, and CDC machines.

    14. Heart Rate Variability in Adolescents – Normative Data Stratified by Sex and Physical Activity

      PubMed Central

      Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan; Rajendran, Rajathi

      2015-01-01

      Background Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the cardiac rhythm occurring due to modulation of the pacemaker (sinoatrial node) activity of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors are increasingly occurring at a younger age (children and adolescents) and recording of HRV in them will help us to identify cardiovascular autonomic derangement earlier. However, to be used clinically, normative data has to be established in this age group considering other major factors that can influence HRV such as sex, physical activity, and BMI. Materials and Methods Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology has provided the standards for measurement of heart rate variability and we have followed the same. In the present study, we have described the normative data for HRV in the adolescent in the age group of 12-17 years, stratified based on sex and physical activity. Results Data given below are expressed as median with interquartile range (Median (IQR)) in the following order: non-athlete girls, non athlete boys, athlete girls and athlete boys. Time domain indices - SDNN - 66.35 (40.78), 63.20 (36.20), 113.00 (31.40) and 94.20 (35.55); RMSSD – 69.00 (50.55), 58.70 (43.40), 94.90 (42.10) and 100.30 (47.50); NN50 - 137.50 (100.25), 116.00 (90.50), 137.00 (81.00) and 156.00 (81.50). The frequency domain indices – LF power 1015.00 (1098.75), 945.00 (831.00), 1465 (642.25), and 1211.00 (811.37); HF power – 1324.00 (1707.00), 988.00 (1426.50), 2409.00 (1387.50), and 2219.00 (1752.00); Total power – 3374.50 (3094.25), 2757.00 (2641.00), 5202.00 (2501.50) and 5273.00 (3507.50); LFnu – 45.44 (16.61), 47.63 (29.98), 38.59 (11.81) and 37.10 (11.21); HFnu – 54.56 (16.61), 52.37 (29.98), 61.41 (11.81) and 62.90 (11.21). Conclusion We have given sex and physical activity stratified HRV normative data for adolescents in the age between 12-17 years. PMID:26557514

    15. Regulatory guidance document

      SciTech Connect

      1994-05-01

      The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

    16. A Model of Reward- and Effort-Based Optimal Decision Making and Motor Control

      PubMed Central

      Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

      2012-01-01

      Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

    17. A model of reward- and effort-based optimal decision making and motor control.

      PubMed

      Rigoux, Lionel; Guigon, Emmanuel

      2012-01-01

      Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure) and benefits (e.g. food) are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories). Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control. PMID:23055916

    18. Making Aliens

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Andreadis, A.

      During the next few decades, the decisions we make will determine the future of our biosphere and our species. In this context, space exploration will literally answer a question that has preoccupied us ever since we became self-aware: What is going to happen to us? Reaching and inhabiting other planets is often considered an extension of human exploration and occupation of Earth but the analogy is useful only as a metaphor. Whatever the extremes of Earth, we can live almost everywhere on it because we started and evolved here. Given the vagaries of chance in every event of planetmaking, we will never find an Earth twin. To live under strange skies will require courage, ingenuity and stamina ­ but above all, it will require a hard look at our assumptions, including what it means to be human.

    19. Ensemble LUT classification for degraded document enhancement

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Obafemi-Ajayi, Tayo; Agam, Gady; Frieder, Ophir

      2008-01-01

      The fast evolution of scanning and computing technologies have led to the creation of large collections of scanned paper documents. Examples of such collections include historical collections, legal depositories, medical archives, and business archives. Moreover, in many situations such as legal litigation and security investigations scanned collections are being used to facilitate systematic exploration of the data. It is almost always the case that scanned documents suffer from some form of degradation. Large degradations make documents hard to read and substantially deteriorate the performance of automated document processing systems. Enhancement of degraded document images is normally performed assuming global degradation models. When the degradation is large, global degradation models do not perform well. In contrast, we propose to estimate local degradation models and use them in enhancing degraded document images. Using a semi-automated enhancement system we have labeled a subset of the Frieder diaries collection.1 This labeled subset was then used to train an ensemble classifier. The component classifiers are based on lookup tables (LUT) in conjunction with the approximated nearest neighbor algorithm. The resulting algorithm is highly effcient. Experimental evaluation results are provided using the Frieder diaries collection.1

    20. Critical Issues in an Electronic Documentation System

      PubMed Central

      Weir, Charlene R.; Nebeker, Jonathan R.

      2007-01-01

      The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs has instituted a medical record (EMR) that includes electronic documentation of all narrative components of the medical record. To support clinicians using the system, multiple efforts have been instituted to ease the creation of narrative reports. Although electronic documentation is easier to read and improves access to information, it also may create new and additional hazards for users. This study is the first step in a series of studies to evaluate the issues surrounding the creation and use of electronic documentation. Eighty-eight providers across multiple clinical roles were interviewed in 10 primary care sites in the VA system. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed for themes. In addition, specific questions were asked about perceived harm due to electronic documentation practices. Five themes relating to difficulties with electronic documentation were identified: 1) information overload; 2) hidden information; 3) lack of trust; 4) communication; 5) decision-making. Three providers reported that they knew of an incident where current documentation practices had caused patient harm and over 75% of respondents reported significant mis-trust of the system. PMID:18693944

    1. Profiles of Personal Resiliency for Normative and Clinical Samples of Youth Assessed by the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Prince-Embury, Sandra; Steer, Robert A.

      2010-01-01

      Cluster analyses with the three global scores of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents[TM] (RSCA) were used to determine personal resiliency profiles within normative (641) and outpatient clinical (285) samples of youth aged 9 to 18 years. Normative and clinical profiles were compared with each other and the clinical profiles were…

    2. Building a normative decision support system for clinical and operational risk management in hemodialysis.

      PubMed

      Cornalba, Chiara; Bellazzi, Roberto G; Bellazzi, Riccardo

      2008-09-01

      This paper describes the design and implementation of a decision support system for risk management in hemodialysis (HD) departments. The proposed system exploits a domain ontology to formalize the problem as a Bayesian network. It also relies on a software tool, able to automatically collect HD data, to learn the network conditional probabilities. By merging prior knowledge and the available data, the system allows to estimate risk profiles both for patients and HD departments. The risk management process is completed by an influence diagram that enables scenario analysis to choose the optimal decisions that mitigate a patient's risk. The methods and design of the decision support tool are described in detail, and the derived decision model is presented. Examples and case studies are also shown. The tool is one of the few examples of normative system explicitly conceived to manage operational and clinical risks in health care environments. PMID:18779083

    3. Loyal deviance: testing the normative conflict model of dissent in social groups.

      PubMed

      Packer, Dominic J; Chasteen, Alison L

      2010-01-01

      The normative conflict model predicts that expressions of dissent within groups can be motivated by the collective interest and that strongly identified members may dissent from group norms if and when they are perceived to be harmful to the collective. We present convergent evidence from four studies in support of the model. Study 1 investigated retrospective reports of disagreements and found that strongly identified members reported collectively oriented motives for expressing disagreement within their groups. Studies 2a and 2b provided experimental tests of the prediction that strongly identified group members are willing to dissent when they reflect on how a norm could harm their group but not when they reflect on negative individualistic consequences of the same norm. Finally, Study 3 replicated these effects using a correlational design that measured actual opinion expression in an ostensible online chat room. PMID:19907038

    4. Normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population sample.

      PubMed

      Pigliautile, Martina; Chiesi, Francesca; Rossetti, Sonia; Conestabile Della Staffa, Manuela; Ricci, Monica; Federici, Stefano; Chiloiro, Dora; Primi, Caterina; Mecocci, Patrizia

      2015-12-01

      The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a brief cognitive screening instrument also proposed to detect mild cognitive impairment, a high-risk condition for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. In this study, we report normative data on the ACE-R-Italian version, collected on a sample of 264 Italian healthy subjects aging between 60 and 93 years, and with a formal education from 1 to 19 years. The global normal cognition was established in accordance with the Italian version of the Mini-Mental State Examination score and with exclusion criteria derived by a consensus process. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and education on the ACE-R total performance score. We provide correction grids to adjust raw scores and equivalent scores with cut-off value to allow comparison between ACE-R performance and others neuropsychological test scores that can be administered to the same subject. PMID:26216492

    5. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching

      PubMed Central

      Andrighetto, Giulia; Grieco, Daniela; Tummolini, Luca

      2015-01-01

      Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others' esteem and the desire to meet others' expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others' expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others' “empirical” or “normative” expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what kind of expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others' normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms. PMID:26500568

    6. Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers.

      PubMed

      Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

      2011-02-01

      Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

    7. Validation of a Korean MMPI-2 Hwa-Byung scale using a Korean normative sample.

      PubMed

      Ketterer, Holly; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

      2010-07-01

      The psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of Hwa-Byung (HB), a Korean culture bound syndrome, using an updated version of the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, were examined in Korean normative sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that both the first-order four-factor model and the single second-order factor model fit the data well, but the latter may be superior because of its parsimony. The HB scale correlated modestly with age, sex, SES, and problems with family and finance. However, it showed substantial correlations with spouse ratings items that were identified a priori as prospective HB correlates, indicating excellent concurrent validity. The limitations of the study and the need for future studies employing HB patients were discussed. PMID:20658881

    8. Normative study of the implicit causality of 100 interpersonal verbs in Spanish.

      PubMed

      Goikoetxea, Edurne; Pascual, Gema; Acha, Joana

      2008-08-01

      This study provides normative data on the implicit causality of interpersonal verbs in Spanish. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, ratings of the implicit causality of 100 verbs classified into four types (agent-patient, agent-evocator, stimulus-experiencer, and experiencer-stimulus) were examined. An offline task was used in which 105 adults and 163 children had to complete sentences containing one verb. Both age and gender effects in the causal biases were examined. In Experiment 2, reading times for sentences containing 60 verbs were analyzed. An online reading task was used in which 34 adults had to read sentences that were both congruent and incongruent with the implicit causality of the verb. The results support the effect of implicit causality in both adults and children, and they support the taxonomy used. PMID:18697672

    9. Regulation of sexuality in Indonesian discourse: normative gender, criminal law and shifting strategies of control.

      PubMed

      Blackwood, Evelyn

      2007-01-01

      This paper examines changes in the regulation of sexuality in Indonesia in the period since 1980 as seen through state, religious and lesbian and gay activist discourses on sexuality. Three different eras during that period of Indonesian history are compared. Under the New Order regime of Suharto, the Indonesian state sought to control sexuality through a deployment of gender. During the 1990s, state Islamic discourses of sexuality shifted in response to international pressures to support same-sex marriage and sexual rights. During the third period following the end of the Suharto regime in 1998, a conservative Islamic minority pushed for more restrictive laws in the State Penal Code, initiating intense public debate on the role of the state in questions of sexuality and morality. Over this time period, the dominant discourse on sexuality moved from strategically linking normative gender with heterosexuality and marriage to direct attempts to legislate heterosexual marriage by criminalizing a wide range of sexual practices. PMID:17457732

    10. Perceived Instrumentality and Normativeness of Corporal Punishment Use among Black Mothers

      PubMed Central

      Taylor, Catherine A.; Hamvas, Lauren; Paris, Ruth

      2011-01-01

      Corporal punishment (CP) remains highly prevalent in the U.S. despite its association with increased risk for child aggression and physical abuse. Five focus groups were conducted with parents (n=18) from a community at particularly high risk for using CP (Black, low socioeconomic status, Southern) in order to investigate their perceptions about why CP use is so common. A systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using grounded theory techniques within an overall thematic analysis. Codes were collapsed and two broad themes emerged. CP was perceived to be: 1) instrumental in achieving parenting goals and 2) normative within participants' key social identity groups, including race/ethnicity, religion, and family of origin. Implications for the reduction of CP are discussed using a social ecological framework. PMID:22707816

    11. Do hassles and uplifts trajectories predict mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

      PubMed

      Jeong, Yu-Jin; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

      2016-06-01

      We examined whether longitudinal patterns of hassles and uplifts trajectories predicted mortality, using a sample of 1315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study (mean age = 65.31, SD = 7.6). In prior work, we identified different trajectory classes of hassles and uplifts exposure and intensity scores over a period of 16 years. In this study, we used the probabilities of these exposure and intensity class memberships to examine their ability to predict mortality. Men with higher probabilities of high hassle intensity trajectory class and high uplift intensity class had higher mortality risks. In a model combining the probabilities of hassle and uplift intensities, the probability of high intensity hassle class membership significantly increased the risk of mortality. This suggests that appraisals of hassles intensity are better predictors of mortality than simple exposure measures, and that uplifts have no independent effects. PMID:26721518

    12. Normative data of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation test for brazilian elderly population.

      PubMed

      Avila, Renata; Lopes, Marcos Antonio; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Bottino, Cassio M C

      2016-02-01

      Objective This study aims to present normative data for Fuld Object Memory Evaluation test stratified by sex, gender, age, and education for the Brazilian elderly population. Method We evaluated 2.132 healthy elderly both genders, with a mean age of 70.30 years (± 7.28) from two community-based samples in Brazil drawn from different economic areas who were screened with cognitive and functional tests and the memory test. Statistical analyses were performed by independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Results Statistical analyses showed that memory scores tend to improve significantly with increasing years of education and decrease significantly as age increased. Conclusion We conclude that gender, education and age had effect on the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation performance in this Brazilian community-based sample. PMID:26690838

    13. Normative data of a brief neuropsychological battery for Spanish individuals older than 49

      PubMed Central

      Alegret, Montserrat; Espinosa, Ana; Vinyes-Junqué, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Hernández, Isabel; Tárraga, Lluís; Becker, James T.; Boada, Mercè

      2011-01-01

      There is an increasing need for standardized assessment of cognition in older patients that is relatively brief, easy to administer, and has normative data adjusted for age and educational attainment. We tested 332 literate, cognitively normal, Spanish persons older than 49 years from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurociències Aplicades (Barcelona, Spain) with measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis, and executive functions. Several of the tests were affected by age, education, and/or gender, but the language of administration (i.e., Spanish or Catalan) did not affect the test scores. Standardized scores and percentile ranks were calculated for each age and/or education group for use by clinical neuropsychologists. PMID:22149440

    14. Young children's understanding of the context-relativity of normative rules in conventional games.

      PubMed

      Rakoczy, Hannes; Brosche, Nina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

      2009-06-01

      We investigated young children's awareness of the context-relative rule structure of simple games. Two contexts were established in the form of spatial locations. Familiar objects were used in their conventional way at location 1, but acquired specific functions in a rule game at location 2. A third party then performed the conventional act at either of the two locations, constituting a mistake at location 2 (experimental condition), but appropriate at location 1 (control condition). Three-year-olds (but not 2-year-olds) systematically distinguished the two conditions, spontaneously intervening with normative protest against the third party act in the experimental, but not in the control condition. Young children thus understand context-specific rules even when the context marking is non-linguistic. These results are discussed in the broader context of the development of social cognition and cultural learning. PMID:19998540

    15. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'.

      PubMed

      Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

      2015-10-01

      Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them. PMID:25300408

    16. Normative neurocognitive data for National Football League players: an initial compendium.

      PubMed

      Solomon, Gary S; Lovell, Mark R; Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C

      2015-03-01

      The use of clinical neuropsychological tests in the evaluation of National Football League (NFL) players has been ongoing for more than two decades. Prior research has demonstrated that the NFL population may perform differently than the general population on standard paper and pencil neuropsychological tests. Given the increased interest in the longitudinal and long-term assessment of neurocognitive functioning in this group of athletes, we reviewed the published neuropsychological literature in an attempt to compile an initial compendium of available normative data on paper and pencil as well as computerized neuropsychological tests for this group of football players. Thirteen published studies met the inclusion criteria, and the results are presented by athlete status (active vs. retired) and classified by neuropsychological domain. Suggestions for potential core batteries with this population are discussed, as are directions for future research. PMID:25638042

    17. The role of adaptation to disability and disease in health state valuation: a preliminary normative analysis.

      PubMed

      Menzel, Paul; Dolan, Paul; Richardson, Jeff; Olsen, Jan Abel

      2002-12-01

      Chronically ill and disabled patients generally rate the value of their lives in a given health state more highly than do hypothetical patients imagining themselves to be in such states. Much of this difference may be due to actual patients' adaptation to their health states, a phenomenon that would not typically affect the ratings of persons who only hypothetically imagine themselves to be patients. This article pursues a non-empirical, normative question: does such adaptation render actual patients' ratings of quality of life morally questionable for purposes of resource allocation? Distinguishing the different basic elements in patient adaptation reveals why, and in what respects, people are pulled strongly in opposite directions in responding to this question. Several more explicit moral arguments against using adapted patients' ratings have been articulated by economists and philosophers, and others are developed by the authors. While most of these arguments do not survive careful analysis, several do. Given the subsequent complexity of the matter, it is argued that: (1) Neither solely actual nor solely hypothetical patient perspectives should be used for rating quality of life. (2) Even if representatives of the general public acting as hypothetical patients provide ultimately the best perspective from which to discern societal values about health states, patients' values that are often influenced by adaptation must still be conveyed to and clearly understood by public representatives as a critically important fact about health-related quality of life. The article also points to the need for much additional work on adaptation, both empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:12409128

    18. Sex Differences in Neurophysiological Activation Patterns During Phonological Input Processing: An Influencing Factor for Normative Data.

      PubMed

      Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

      2015-11-01

      In the context of neurophysiological normative data, it has been established that aging has a significant impact on neurophysiological correlates of auditory phonological input processes, such as phoneme discrimination (PD) and word recognition (WR). Besides age, sex is another demographic factor that influences several language processes. We aimed to disentangle whether sex has a similar effect on PD and WR. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 20 men and 24 women. During PD, three phonemic contrasts (place and manner of articulation and voicing) were compared using the attentive P300 and pre-attentive Mismatch Negativity. To investigate WR, real words were contrasted with pseudowords in a pre-attentive oddball task. Women demonstrated a larger sensitivity to spectrotemporal differences, as evidenced by larger P300 responses to the place of articulation (PoA) contrast and larger P300 and MMN responses than men in PoA-based PD. Men did not display such sensitivity. Attention played an important role, considering that women needed more attentional resources to differentiate between PoA and the other phonemic contrasts. During WR, pseudowords evoked larger amplitudes already 100 ms post-stimulus independent of sex. However, women had decreased P200 latencies, but longer N400 latencies in response to pseudowords, whereas men showed increased N400 latencies compared to women in response to real words. The current results demonstrate significant sex-related influences on phonological input processes. Therefore, existing neurophysiological normative data for age should be complemented for the factor sex. PMID:26014826

    19. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

      PubMed

      Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

      2016-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions. PMID:26070030

    20. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

      PubMed

      Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Beaumont, Jennifer; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

      2015-05-01

      Demographic factors impact neuropsychological test performances and accounting for them may help to better elucidate current brain functioning. The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neuropsychological tool, yet the original norms developed for the battery did not adequately account for important demographic/cultural factors known to impact test performances. We developed norms fully adjusting for all demographic variables within each language group (English and Spanish) separately. The current study describes the standards for individuals tested in English. Neurologically healthy adults (n=1038) and children (n=2917) who completed the NIH Toolbox norming project in English were included. We created uncorrected scores weighted to the 2010 Census demographics, and applied polynomial regression models to develop age-corrected and fully demographically adjusted (age, education, sex, race/ethnicity) scores for each NIHTB-CB test and composite (i.e., Fluid, Crystallized, and Total Composites). On uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores, age and education demonstrated significant, medium-to-large associations, while sex showed smaller, but statistically significant effects. In terms of race/ethnicity, a significant stair-step effect on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores was observed (African Americannormative corrections, NIHTB-CB no longer demonstrated any significant associations with demographic factors. The previously developed norms still maintained significant associations with demographic factors, and demonstrated more variable impairment rates in segments of the healthy normative sample. Similar to other neuropsychological tests, demographic factors demonstrated significant associations with unadjusted NIHTB-CB scores. Application of fully corrected scores will help account for unwanted variance that is associated with non-clinical factors to more accurately reflect effects of disease-related changes in brain function. PMID:26030001

    1. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

      PubMed

      DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

      2016-02-01

      Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26011476

    2. Normative processes and adolescents' smoking behaviour in Norway: a multilevel analysis.

      PubMed

      Wiium, Nora; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

      2006-04-01

      Currently, smoking prevalence is still high among adolescents. This is of major concern for public health organizations. Factors that influence adolescent smoking behaviour need to be identified and addressed. Research in this area has identified attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control as some of the contributing factors, but subjective norms have often been the weakest predictor of smoking behaviour. This could be due to inadequate measurement. The current paper suggests that examining different types of norms and their relationship with smoking behaviour could help increase the contribution of norms. The paper set out to identify other normative concepts, such as the subjective estimate of smoking prevalence, and descriptive and desired societal norms that are not captured by subjective norms but that could be related to adolescents' smoking behaviour. Data were collected from 15-year-old students from Norway (n = 1670 in 89 grade 10 school classes). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the various concepts of norms relate to each other and their relationship with adolescent smoking behaviour. The findings of the study showed that an individual's opinion of societal norms, and the expectations of significant others as well as their behaviour all seem significantly related to adolescent smoking behaviour, either as an individual or as a school class predictor. Hence, rather than playing down the role of norms, the addition of a subjective estimate of smoking prevalence, and descriptive and desired societal norms could extend the normative concept as well as increase its predictive power. Future intervention could address different types of norms as well as the effect of shared context to help prevent adolescents from smoking. PMID:16165262

    3. Normative Measurements of Grip and Pinch Strengths of 21st Century Korean Population

      PubMed Central

      Shim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Dong Chul; Ki, Sae Hwi; Yang, Jae Won; Jeon, Man Kyung; Lee, Sang Myung

      2013-01-01

      Background Measuring grip and pinch strength is an important part of hand injury evaluation. Currently, there are no standardized values of normal grip and pinch strength among the Korean population, and lack of such data prevents objective evaluation of post-surgical recovery in strength. This study was designed to establish the normal values of grip and pinch strength among the healthy Korean population and to identify any dependent variables affecting grip and pinch strength. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out. The inclusion criterion was being a healthy Korean person without a previous history of hand trauma. The grip strength was measured using a Jamar dynamometer. Pulp and key pinch strength were measured with a hydraulic pinch gauge. Intra-individual and inter-individual variations in these variables were analyzed in a standardized statistical manner. Results There were a total of 336 healthy participants between 13 and 77 years of age. As would be expected in any given population, the mean grip and pinch strength was greater in the right hand than the left. Male participants (137) showed mean strengths greater than female participants (199) when adjusted for age. Among the male participants, anthropometric variables correlated positively with grip strength, but no such correlations were identifiable in female participants in a statistically significant way. Conclusions Objective measurements of hand strength are an important component of hand injury evaluation, and population-specific normative data are essential for clinical and research purposes. This study reports updated normative hand strengths of the South Korean population in the 21st century. PMID:23362480

    4. Online NASTRAN documentation

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Turner, Horace Q.; Harper, David F.

      1991-01-01

      The distribution of NASTRAN User Manual information has been difficult because of the delay in printing and difficulty in identification of all the users. This has caused many users not to have the current information for the release of NASTRAN that could be available to them. The User Manual updates have been supplied with the NASTRAN Releases, but distribution within organizations was not coordinated with access to releases. The Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections are supplied in machine readable format with the 91 Release of NASTRAN. This information is supplied on the release tapes in ASCII format, and a FORTRAN program to access this information is supplied on the release tapes. This will allow each user to have immediate access to User Manual level documentation with the release. The sections on utilities, plotting, and substructures are expected to be prepared for the 92 Release.

    5. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

      PubMed

      Boulinier, G

      1996-01-01

      In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field. PMID:11624878

    6. CRRESPRO documentation. Technical report

      SciTech Connect

      Meffert, J.D.; Gussenhoven, M.S.

      1994-07-28

      This technical report documents the software package CRRESPRO developed by the Phillips Laboratory. The CRRESPRO utility calculates proton omnidirectional fluence and integral omnidirectional fluence over the energy range 1-100 MeV for orbits specified by the user. Proton fluence is calculated from proton flux models created using data measured by the proton telescope (PROTEL) on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES), which flew in a geosynchronous transfer orbit for 14 months during solar maximum. Because the March 1991 magnetic storm caused a reconfiguration of the inner magnetosphere resulting in double proton belts for certain energies, two CRRES models were constructed. The quiet (single proton belt) model uses PROTEL data from July 1990 to March 1991, and the active (double proton belt) model uses data from March 1991 to October 1991. CRRESPRO is best applied to orbits with altitudes greater than 1000 km. Unlike its sister program, CRRESRAD, CRRESPRO gives 100 percent coverage for orbits of any inclination.

    7. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy

      PubMed Central

      Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

      2012-01-01

      Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 1865 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

    8. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

      PubMed

      Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

      2012-09-01

      Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing international published standards relating to engineering drawing and visual communication. Large variations are also evident in standards or guidelines used for global coordinate systems across biomechanics, ergonomics, software systems and 3D software applications. This paper identifies where established good practice exists and suggests additional recommendations, informing an improved communication protocol, to assist reconstruction of skeletal anatomy using 3D digital modeling. PMID:22747678

    9. Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors from Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

      2010-01-01

      The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children's covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems…

    10. MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

      2011-01-01

      In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish

    11. Young People, Trouble, and Crime: Restorative Justice as a Normative Theory of Informal Social Control and Social Support.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bazemore, Gordon

      2001-01-01

      Reviews the normative theory of restorative justice in youth crime, highlighting three core principles: repairing the harm of crime; involving stakeholders; and transforming community and government roles in response to crime. Considers connections between restorative intervention theories and informal social control and social support mechanisms…

    12. The Valuation of Knowledge and Normative Reflection in Teacher Qualification: A Comparison of Teacher Educators, Novice and Experienced Teachers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Caspersen, Joakim

      2013-01-01

      The transition from teacher education to work in schools has been described as an "epistemic clash". Teacher educators', novice teachers' and experienced teachers' valuation of the academic, practical and normative demands of teaching are compared using survey data from teacher education and schools. All groups value academic knowledge and…

    13. Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Herscovitch, Lynne; Topolnytsky, Laryssa

      2002-01-01

      Meta-analysis of 155 research reports that used one of three commitment scales (affective, continuance, or normative) found strong correlations between the scales and correlates of jobs satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. All three were negatively related to withdrawal and turnover. Perceived organizational support had…

    14. MMPI-2 Characteristics of the Old Order Amish: A Comparison of Clinical, Nonclinical, and United States Normative Samples

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Knabb, Joshua J.; Vogt, Ronald G.; Newgren, Kevin P.

      2011-01-01

      In the current study, we investigated Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) characteristics in an Old Order Amish nonclinical sample (N = 84), comparing these data with both the United States normative sample (N = 2,600) and a sample of Old Order Amish outpatients (N = 136). Consistent with our hypothesis, the Old Order Amish…

    15. Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces Test in the Italian population.

      PubMed

      Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Arpone, Marta; Realmuto, Sabrina; Cappa, Stefano F

      2014-07-01

      The Ekman 60-Faces (EK-60F) Test is a well-known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty-two healthy Italian participants aged between 20 and 79 years with at least 5 years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK-60F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise). Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure [1]. The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 15 bvFTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition. We provided EK-60F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes. PMID:24442557

    16. The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hand, Cynthia G.; Archer, Robert P.; Handel, Richard W.; Forbey, Johnathan D.

      2007-01-01

      Numerous studies have reported that the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) produces a high frequency of within-normal-limits basic scale profiles for adolescents with significant clinical pathology (e.g., Archer, 2005). The current study builds on the observation that the MMPI-A normative sample included participants…

    17. Schooling in the "Iron Cage" and the Crucial Role of Interpretive, Normative, and Critical Perspectives in Social Foundations Studies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Dotts, Brian

      2013-01-01

      This article addresses the unique role performed by social foundations programs in colleges of education and in addressing broader issues facing education today, which fundamentally include the development of interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives in academia. All three perspectives serve to create a scholarly framework within which

    18. Attitudinal and Social Normative Factors as Predictors of Intended Alcohol Abuse among Fifth- and Seventh-Grade Students.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      London, F. Betty

      1982-01-01

      Using a model of behavior intention, a study attempted to identify attitudinal and social normative factors which might predict the behavioral intentions of preadolescents to alcohol abuse. Findings of the study indicate the importance of students' personal attitudes in their decision to drink alcoholic beverages. (JN)

    19. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

      1990-01-01

      A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

    20. Congruence and Personality. A Normative Study of Counsellors and Teachers in Training, Priests, High School Students and Army Officer Cadets.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Eberlein, Larry; And Others

      A study was conducted to obtain normative data on self concept (S) and ideal-self concept (I) congruence for the Interpersonal Check List (ICL) (Leary, 1957) and to examine differences in self concept, ideal-self concept, and S-I congruence between a variety of groups with different functional roles. The ICL was administered to a sample consisting…