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Sample records for doe goals perspectives

  1. Does Extrinsic Goal Framing Enhance Extrinsic Goal-Oriented Individuals' Learning and Performance? An Experimental Test of the Match Perspective versus Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Timmermans, Tinneke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Previous work within self-determination theory has shown that experimentally framing a learning activity in terms of extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals results in poorer conceptual learning and performance, presumably because extrinsic goal framing detracts attention from the learning activity and is less directly satisfying of basic…

  2. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  3. Classroom Management: Students' Perspectives, Goals and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James D.

    A study investigated classroom management from the students' perspective. Ninety-seven high school students (primarily ninth graders) were observed in one school for 15 weeks in five different classes. Data were collected from this observation, as well as from student and teacher interviews. The guidelines of the Constant-Comparative Method of…

  4. Extending the Multiple-Goal Perspective to Tertiary Classroom Goal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vennessa H.; Yates, Shirley M.

    2007-01-01

    The multiple-goal perspective has recently been applied to teacher behaviours in primary school classrooms through experimental intervention (Linnenbrink, 2005) and objective observation (Sideridis, 2005). However, there is evidence suggesting that rather than centered only on teacher behaviour, classroom goal structures are a whole class feature…

  5. A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kristin

    2004-03-01

    As one of the lead agencies for nanotechnology research and development, the Department of Energy (DOE) is revolutionizing the way we understand and manipulate materials at the nanoscale. As the Federal government's single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and overseeing the Nation's cross-cutting research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences, the DOE guides the grand challenges in nanomaterials research that will have an impact on everything from medicine, to energy production, to manufacturing. Within the DOE's Office of Science, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) leads research and development at the nanoscale, which supports the Department's missions of national security, energy, science, and the environment. The cornerstone of the program in nanoscience is the establishment and operation of five new Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), which are under development at six DOE Laboratories. Throughout its history, DOE's Office of Science has designed, constructed and operated many of the nation's most advanced, large-scale research and development user facilities, of importance to all areas of science. These state-of-the art facilities are shared with the science community worldwide and contain technologies and instruments that are available nowhere else. Like all DOE national user facilities, the new NSRCs are designed to make novel state-of-the-art research tools available to the world, and to accelerate a broad scale national effort in basic nanoscience and nanotechnology. The NSRCs will be sited adjacent to or near existing DOE/BES major user facilities, and are designed to enable national user access to world-class capabilities for the synthesis, processing, fabrication, and analysis of materials at the nanoscale, and to transform the nation's approach to nanomaterials.

  6. Motivation Goals during Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.; Wosnitza, Marold

    2010-01-01

    Goal theory perspectives on motivation are at the forefront of research regarding adolescents' motivation in learning contexts, focusing on the purposes (both academic and social) individuals perceive for engaging in achievement related behaviour. Much research however, has focused on early adolescence, meaning there is limited research regarding…

  7. College Students' Perspectives, Goals, and Strategies in Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the perspective, goals, and strategies of students enrolled in collegiate physical education courses. Our aim was to determine the extent to which a model developed by Allen (1986) describing student-social systems in high schools would approximate those in a collegiate setting. Forty-six students from two elective volleyball classes…

  8. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A.; Phillips, Prudence

    1985-01-01

    Presents two discussions which focus on the rationale for and goals of teaching electrochemistry at high school and college levels. The first is "Electrochemistry" by Ronald Perkins and the second is "Goals in Teaching Electrochemistry" by J. T. Maloy. (JN)

  9. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. PMID:26479070

  10. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A., Ed.; Phillips, Prudence, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are two brief articles related to teaching the history of chemistry in college chemistry, "Utilizing a Historical Perspective in the Teaching of Chemistry" (Joseph W. Kamsar), and "History of Chemistry" (George B. Kauffman). (RH)

  11. Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cecil Max

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

  12. Retention and Attrition: Does It Relate to Students' Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Wayne D.; And Others

    The relationships among students' goals, demographic variables, and attrition at Delta Community College (Michigan) were investigated. A total of 600 (out of a random sample of 1,000) fall 1976 students credit courses agreed to participate in the study and identified their goals in attending the college. In the winter 1977 semester, 493 returning…

  13. Contextual influences and goal perspectives among female youth sport participants.

    PubMed

    Williams, L

    1998-03-01

    This study investigated two research questions: (1) do goal involvement and state anxiety vary between athletic games and athletic practices? and (2) do goal orientations change over the course of a competitive season as a function of the perceived team motivational climate? Middle school athletes (n = 127) were assessed on goal orientations, goal involvement, state anxiety, and motivational climate. Results indicated that athletes were more task involved and less anxious in practice than in game situations, and task goal orientation changed over the season relative to perceptions of mastery and performance climates. These results may indicate that sport offers an environment different from the academic setting and that mainstream psychology theories need to be adapted for the sport context. PMID:9532622

  14. DOE Perspectives on the Supercollider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, James

    2015-04-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider was to be built in Texas at a cost of more than 8B and completed in 1999. It would have been the most expensive scientific instrument ever built with a discovery potential far exceeding any existing accelerator. If it had been completed, the future of continued discovery at the ``energy frontier'' of high energy physics would be assured and the fortunes of high energy physics in the United States would be much more robust. There were many issues that contributed to the final decision by Congress to cease funding of the SSC. Some of these were: perceived value of the SSC's science; competition for funding in an environment of constrained federal funding (e.g. the Space Station); attacks by parts of the scientific community; management issues; cost growth; lack of significant foreign participation; and lowering of the national priority of physics at the end of the Cold War. Real and perceived issues were used by dedicated Congressional opponents to kill the SSC. There are differing opinions as to which factors were the most important and which could have been avoided. There are many stories about what happened behind the scenes at high levels of government. Perhaps more important than the history of what went wrong are the lessons learned from project management to the politics of very large projects. The viewpoints expressed in this talk are based on my involvement in the SSC primarily as Deputy Director of DOE's Office of Science.

  15. Understanding Emerging Adulthood from a Goal-Setting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The chapter first introduces the concept of emerging adulthood as a period of life that is characterized by instabilities and fluctuations. Then, the role of goal setting and aspirations in individual development during this stage of life is discussed. Following this, seven chapters of the present special issue are introduced, and the ways in…

  16. Gender and Autonomy-Supportive Contexts: Theoretical Perspectives of Self-Determination and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shinyi; Chen, Yu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    In integrating theoretical perspectives of self-determination and goal-setting, this study proposes a conceptual model with moderating and mediating effects exploring gender issue in autonomy-supportive learning in higher education as research context. In the proposed model, goal-setting attributes, i.e., individual determinants, social…

  17. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  18. A Perspective: Educational Goals and Changes, 1988-2010. Educational Benchmarks 2000 Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The author provides a perspective on progress in the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states since 1988, when SREB developed 12 goals to reach by the year 2000. Growth in population and school enrollment trends are highlighted--what was expected and the huge population and job growth that occurred. Looking ahead to 2010, projected job…

  19. Faculty Perspectives of Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Goals and Obstacles to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    Faculty perspectives of the undergraduate chemistry laboratory were the focus of a study to articulate the goals, strategies, and assessments used in undergraduate teaching laboratories. Data were collected via semistructured interviews with faculty (N = 22) from community colleges, liberal arts colleges, comprehensive universities, and research…

  20. Taiwanese Sixth Graders' Achievement Goals and Their Motivation, Strategy Use, and Grades: An Examination of the Multiple Goal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2005-01-01

    Using the trichotomous framework of achievement goals, in the present study I investigated the effects of different combinations of achievement goals on Taiwanese sixth graders' motivation, strategy use, and performance. 242 students completed a self-report survey assessing their achievement goal orientations and a range of outcomes including…

  1. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed. PMID:24237280

  2. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  3. The Evaluation of "Sesame Street's" Social Goals: The Interpersonal Strategies of Cooperation, Conflict Resolution, and Differing Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, D. Lynn; Paulson, F. Leon

    This report reviews "Sesame Street's" development of procedure and materials for the 1970-1971 season with emphasis on the social goals of cooperation, conflict resolution, and realization of differing perspectives. These goals mark a departure from the first year of programing which emphasized cognitive learning objectives. Research design,…

  4. An Investigation of Achievement Goals and Time Perspective in Community College Students Engaged in a First-Year Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campen, Darrin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between time perspective and achievement goals among 144 community college students engaged in a first-year experience course. A 4 X 5 correlational model was utilized to examine the relationship between four different achievement goals as measured by scores on the…

  5. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed. PMID:26914815

  6. In Lumbar Fusion Patients, How Does Establishing a Comfort Function Goal Preoperatively Impact Postoperative Pain Scores?

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Winnie; Wagner, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Handley, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? PMID:26293197

  7. MSW Students' Perspectives on Social Work Goals and Social Activism before and after Completing Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizrahi, Terry; Dodd, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes perspectives on the goals of the social work profession and social activism of a cohort of MSW students before and after attending their graduate program. This study provides insights into the question about whether and how preexisting values, experiences, and background characteristics affect beginning and ending…

  8. Personal Best Goals and Academic and Social Functioning: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Stone, Barbara; Herrett, Maree

    2012-01-01

    Personal best goals (PB goals) articulate a target performance standard that matches or exceeds one's previous best. This study examined the role of PB goals in academic and social functioning. Alongside academic and social outcome measures, PB goal items were administered to 249 high-school students at the beginning and end of their school year.…

  9. Promotion of Students' Mastery Goal Orientations: Does TARGET Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation. The TARGET framework is one example of…

  10. Teaching Perspectives of Chinese Teachers: Compatibility with the Goals of the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy Sau-ching; Wen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This research primarily aimed to examine the compatibility of teaching perspectives of teachers with the Physical Education (PE) curriculum in China. The Teaching Perspective Inventory (Pratt, 1998) was used to collect data from 272 PE teachers. Descriptive statistics, MANOVAs, and correlational procedures were used for quantitative data analysis.…

  11. Researching Task Difficulty from an Individual Differences Perspective: The Case of Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maad, Mohamed Ridha Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which highlighted goal orientation as an approachable individual difference (ID) variable which may further our understanding of foreign/second language learning experience. The study sought to (i) gauge the extent of goal orientation in foreign language learners' profile and (ii) examine how goal orientation affects…

  12. Life Goals and Well-Being: Does Financial Status Matter? Evidence from a Representative Hungarian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, Tamas; Kopp, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research with the Aspiration Index suggests that the importance of intrinsic life goals (e.g. personal growth and relationships) is in positive association with indicators of well-being, whereas an orientation toward extrinsic life goals (e.g. wealth and appearance) is connected with decreased positive functioning. Our study extended the…

  13. The Effect of Conflict Goals on Avoidance Strategies: What Does Not Communicating Communicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Fink, Edward L.; Cai, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Avoidance is proposed to be a goal-directed behavior rather than a behavior that reflects passivity or inaction. To evaluate this proposition, a typology of conflict goals and a typology of conflict avoidance strategies are created, and the relationship between nonavoidance strategies and the elements of these 2 typologies are evaluated within a…

  14. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  15. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p < .05) and negatively associated with low frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p < .05) while performance goal orientation was significantly associated with low frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context

  16. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  17. A Cultural Perspective of Conceptual Change: Re-Examining the Goal of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    The goal of science education is usually meant to develop students' basic knowledge, skills, and scientific attitudes as stated in many countries' curriculum documents, with little consideration of what backgrounds students bring into the classroom. A cultural approach to education has challenged this universal goal of science education. This…

  18. Cultural Perspectives on School Motivation: The Relevance and Application of Goal Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Whether goals held by students from diverse cultural backgrounds differ and the relationship of these goals to school motivation and achievement were studied with 2,156 Australian (Anglo, immigrant, and Aboriginal), 529 Navajo, and 198 Canadian Montagnais Betsiamite Indian secondary school students. Cross cultural and educational implications are…

  19. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  20. Teacher performance goal practices and elementary students’ behavioral engagement: A developmental perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students’ behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. PMID:21215834

  1. Teacher performance goal practices and elementary students' behavioral engagement: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G

    2011-02-01

    We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. PMID:21215834

  2. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  3. Goals and design of public physics lectures: perspectives of high-school students, physics teachers and lecturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapon, S.; Ganiel, U.; Eylon, B.

    2009-09-01

    Many large scientific projects and scientific centres incorporate some kind of outreach programme. Almost all of these outreach programmes include public scientific lectures delivered by practising scientists. In this article, we examine such lectures from the perspectives of: (i) lecturers (7) who are practising scientists acknowledged to be good public lecturers and (ii) audiences composed of high-school students (169) and high-school physics teachers (80) who attended these lectures. We identify and discuss the main goals as expressed by the lecturers and the audiences, and the correspondence between these goals. We also discuss how the lecturers' goals impact on the design of their lectures and examine how the lecture affects audiences with different attitudes towards (and interests in) physics. Our findings suggest that the goals of the participating lecturers and the expectations of their audiences were highly congruent. Both believe that a good public scientific lecture must successfully communicate state-of-the-art scientific knowledge to the public, while inspiring interest in and appreciation of science. Our findings also suggest that exemplary public scientific lectures incorporate content, structure and explanatory means that explicitly adhere to the lecturers' goals. We identify and list several design principles.

  4. How Does a Sales Team Reach Goals in Intercultural Business Negotiations? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuorela, Taina

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a report of an on-going study of intercultural business negotiations. Two meetings were under scrutiny: a company-internal strategy meeting of a sales team ("the sellers' internal meeting"), which was analysed on a general level for goals and other background information; a client negotiation with the same sellers meeting a potential…

  5. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  6. Does this computational theory solve the right problem? Marr, Gibson, and the goal of vision.

    PubMed

    Warren, William H

    2012-01-01

    David Marr's book Vision attempted to formulate athoroughgoing formal theory of perception. Marr borrowed much of the "computational" level from James Gibson: a proper understanding of the goal of vision, the natural constraints, and the available information are prerequisite to describing the processes and mechanisms by which the goal is achieved. Yet, as a research program leading to a computational model of human vision, Marr's program did not succeed. This article asks why, using the perception of 3D shape as a morality tale. Marr presumed that the goal of vision is to recover a general-purpose Euclidean description of the world, which can be deployed for any task or action. On this formulation, vision is underdetermined by information, which in turn necessitates auxiliary assumptions to solve the problem. But Marr's assumptions did not actually reflect natural constraints, and consequently the solutions were not robust. We now know that humans do not in fact recover Euclidean structure--rather, they reliably perceive qualitative shape (hills, dales, courses, ridges), which is specified by the second-order differential structure of images. By recasting the goals of vision in terms of our perceptual competencies, and doing the hard work of analyzing the information available under ecological constraints, we can reformulate the problem so that perception is determined by information and prior knowledge is unnecessary. PMID:23409371

  7. Policy Perspective: Meeting the Challenge of the DOE Order 436.1 Departmental Sustainability - 12527

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Jennifer C.

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Sustainability Performance Office is working to meet sustainability goals at DOE by implementing Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) and legislation related to sustainability. Through implementation of Executive Orders, Departmental policy, the SSPP, statutory requirements and regular reporting, analysis and communication, DOE's SPO is working to maintain and expand DOE's leadership in sustainability. (authors)

  8. University students' perspectives on a psychology of death and dying course: exploring motivation to enroll, goals, and impact.

    PubMed

    Buckle, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of the motivations, goals, and impact on 23 university students enrolled in a Psychology of Death and Dying course. Through a grounded theory analysis of precourse perspective and postcourse reflection assignments, several key themes emerged. Participants were motivated to enroll in the course by their self-identified lack of knowledge on the topic and its professional and personal relevance. They identified three main course goals: cognitive comfort, preparation to support others, and personal growth. At the end of the course, participants noted heightened awareness of personal mortality and increased comfort with death-related topics, as well as reduced fear, surprise at the depth of the thanatology field, and enriched context for their experiences with death and dying. The implications of the results for death educators, researchers, and students are discussed. PMID:24517595

  9. Antecedents and Trajectories of Achievement Goals: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Hilpert, Jonathan C.; Easter, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that both achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are quite useful in explaining student motivation and success in academic contexts. However, little is known about how the two theories relate to each other. Aim: The current research used SDT as a framework to understand why students enter classes…

  10. "My Understanding Has Grown, My Perspective Has Switched": Linking Informal Writing to Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudd, Suzanne S.; Smart, Robert A.; Delohery, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of informal writing is common in sociology. This article presents one model for integrating informal written work with learning goals through a theoretical framework known as concentric thinking. More commonly referred to as "the PTA model" because of the series of cognitive tasks it promotes--prioritization, translation, and analogy…

  11. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  12. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  13. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  14. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  15. Does the goal justify the methods? Harm and benefit in neuroscience research using animals.

    PubMed

    Vieira de Castro, Ana Catarina; Olsson, I Anna S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present chapter is to open up for discussion some of the major ethical issues involved in animal-based neuroscience research. We begin by approaching the question of the moral acceptability of the use of animals in research at all, exploring the implications of three different ethical theories: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights. In the rest of this chapter, we discuss more specific issues of neuroscience research within what we argue is the mainstream framework for research animal ethics, namely one based on harm-benefit analysis. We explore issues of harms and benefits and how to balance them as well as how to reduce harm and increase benefit within neuroscience research. PMID:24844681

  16. Does the Constellation Program Offer Opportunities to Achieve Space Science Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.; Dissel, Adam F.; Folta, David C.; Stevens, John; Budinoff, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Future space science missions developed to achieve the most ambitious goals are likely to be complex, large, publicly and professionally very important, and at the limit of affordability. Consequently, it may be valuable if such missions can be upgraded, repaired, and/or deployed in space, either with robots or with astronauts. In response to a Request for Information from the US National Research Council panel on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System, we developed a concept for astronaut-based in-space servicing at the Earth-Moon L1,2 locations that may be implemented by using elements of NASA's Constellation architecture. This libration point jobsite could be of great value for major heliospheric and astronomy missions operating at Earth-Sun Lagrange points. We explored five alternative servicing options that plausibly would be available within about a decade. We highlight one that we believe is both the least costly and most efficiently uses Constellation hardware that appears to be available by mid-next decade: the Ares I launch vehicle, Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle, Centaur vehicle, and an airlock/servicing node developed for lunar surface operations. Our concept may be considered similar to the Apollo 8 mission: a valuable exercise before descent by astronauts to the lunar surface.

  17. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output. PMID:26652084

  18. Testing fundamental physics with laser ranged satellites: perspectives and goals of the LARASE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    Passive laser-ranged satellites, launched for geodynamics and geophysics purposes, not only have contributed to significant measurements in space geodesy that enabled, among several aspects, a deeper knowledge of the Earth's geopotential (both in its static and dynamic behavior), as well as of the geocenter motion and GM value up to the definition of the terrestrial reference frame, but they also provided an outstanding test bench to fundamental physics, as in the case of the first measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession on the combined nodes of the two LAGEOS satellites, or in the case of the total relativistic precession of the argument of pericenter of LAGEOS II. Indeed, the physical characteristics of such satellites -- such as their low area-to-mass ratio -- as well as those of their orbits, and the availability of high-quality tracking data provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), allow for precise tests of gravitational theories. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of Earth, i.e. in the weak-field and-slow motion limit of general relativity, by the joint analysis of the orbits of the two LAGEOS satellites and that of the most recent LARES satellite. One of the key ingredients to reach such a goal is to provide high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of such satellites. A large amount of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II has been analyzed using a set of dedicated models for satellite dynamics, and the related post-fit residuals have been analyzed. A parallel work is on-going in the case of LARES that, due to its much lower altitude, is subject to larger gravitational and non-gravitational effects; the latter are mitigated in part by its much lower area-to-mass ratio. Recent work on the data analysis of the orbit of such satellites will be presented together

  19. Teaching and Learning and Technology: Does WebCT Help Universities Meet Organisational and Customer Goals? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, L.; Vigar-Ellis, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores whether WebCT, a virtual learning technology, meets organisational and customer goals at Coventry University Business School (CBS). Lecturer and student perceptions about the benefits of WebCT as a teaching and learning resource are examined as well as the goals of WebCT for the university as an organization. CBS students…

  20. The spider does not always win the fight for attention: Disengagement from threat is modulated by goal set.

    PubMed

    Vromen, Joyce M G; Lipp, Ottmar V; Remington, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus-driven preferential attention to threat can be modulated by goal-driven attention. However, it remains unclear how this goal-driven modulation affects specific attentional components implied in threat interference. We hypothesise that goal-driven modulation most strongly impacts delayed disengagement from threat. A spatial cueing task was used that disentangles delayed disengagement from attentional capture by tightly manipulating the locus of attention at the time of target onset. Different top-down goals were induced by instructing participants to identify bird/fish targets (Experiment 1) or spider/cat targets (Experiment 2) among animal non-targets. Delayed disengagement from a non-target spider was observed only when the spider was part of the target set, not when it was task-irrelevant. This corroborates evidence that threat stimuli do not necessarily override goal-driven attentional control and that extended processing of threatening distractors is not obligatory. PMID:25329044

  1. PERSPECTIVES ON A DOE CONSEQUENCE INPUTS FOR ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    , K; Jonathan Lowrie, J; David Thoman , D; Austin Keller , A

    2008-07-30

    Department of Energy (DOE) accident analysis for establishing the required control sets for nuclear facility safety applies a series of simplifying, reasonably conservative assumptions regarding inputs and methodologies for quantifying dose consequences. Most of the analytical practices are conservative, have a technical basis, and are based on regulatory precedent. However, others are judgmental and based on older understanding of phenomenology. The latter type of practices can be found in modeling hypothetical releases into the atmosphere and the subsequent exposure. Often the judgments applied are not based on current technical understanding but on work that has been superseded. The objective of this paper is to review the technical basis for the major inputs and assumptions in the quantification of consequence estimates supporting DOE accident analysis, and to identify those that could be reassessed in light of current understanding of atmospheric dispersion and radiological exposure. Inputs and assumptions of interest include: Meteorological data basis; Breathing rate; and Inhalation dose conversion factor. A simple dose calculation is provided to show the relative difference achieved by improving the technical bases.

  2. Self-Image Goals and Compassionate Goals: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Jennifer; Olivier, Marc-Andre; Nuer, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Two types of interpersonal goals—self-image goals and compassionate goals—reflect distinct motivational perspectives on the relationship between the self and others—egosystem and ecosystem perspectives, respectively. Research on the associations of self-image goals and compassionate goals with students’ experiences in their first semester of college is described. Chronic self-image goals and compassionate goals predict changes in learning and achievement goals, self-regulation and goal progress, social support and friendships, emotions, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Self-image goals have costs for belonging, and compassionate goals have benefits for belonging. PMID:21218194

  3. Does WEEE recycling make sense from an environmental perspective?

    SciTech Connect

    Hischier, R. . E-mail: johannes.gauglhofer@empa.ch

    2005-07-15

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing markets in the world. At the same time this also means that the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) will continue to increase in the coming decades. As it is crucial to obtain more knowledge about the environmental consequences of the different WEEE treatment options, a study examining the two Swiss take-back and recycling systems of SWICO (for computers, consumer electronics and telecommunication equipment) and S.EN.S (household appliances) has been conducted. The two systems, which are based on an advanced recycling fee, are well established within Switzerland. With a combined approach of material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA), the environmental impacts of these two systems have been estimated, including all further treatment steps, which transform the fractions either into secondary materials or into waste for final disposal. As a baseline, we have used a scenario assuming that no WEEE is recycled and hence only primary production for the similar amount of raw materials. The impact assessment is based on characterization factors according to the Dutch CML methodology. The results show that throughout the complete recycling chain the sorting and dismantling activities of companies are of minor interest; instead the main impact occurs during the treatment applied further downstream to turn the waste into secondary raw materials. Within the two systems in Switzerland, the collection of WEEE seems much more relevant than the sorting and dismantling activities. When comparing the environmental impact of WEEE recycling with that derived from the baseline scenario (incineration of all WEEE and primary production of the raw materials), WEEE recycling proves to be clearly advantageous from an environmental perspective.

  4. The DOE Meteorological Coordinating Council Perspective on the Application to Meteorological Software of DOE's Software Quality Assurance Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzola, Carl; Schalk, Walt; Glantz, Clifford S.

    2008-03-12

    Since 1994, the DOE Meteorological Coordinating Council (DMCC) has been addressing meteorological monitoring and meteorological applications program issues at U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Safety Administration (DOE/NNSA) sites and providing solutions to these issues. The fundamental objectives of the DMCC include promoting cost-effective meteorological support and facilitating the use of common meteorological methods, procedures, and standards at all DOE/NNSA sites. In 2005, the DOE established strict software quality assurance (SQA) requirements for safety software, including consequence assessment software used for hazard assessments and safety analyses. These evaluations often utilize meteorological data supplied by DOE/NNSA site-based meteorological programs. However, the DOE has not established SQA guidance for this type of safety-related meteorological software. To address this gap, the DMCC is developing this guidance for the use of both public- and private-sector organizations. The goal for the DMCC is to mimic the SQA requirements for safety software but allow a much greater degree of “grading” in determining exactly what specific activities are needed. The emphasis of the DMCC SQA guidelines is on three key elements: 1) design and implementation documentation, 2) configuration management, and 3) verification and validation testing. These SQA guidelines should provide owners and users of meteorological software with a fair degree of assurance that their software is reliable, documented, and tested without putting an undue burden on meteorological system software developers.

  5. US DOE Perspectives on Advisory Board Effectiveness - 13539

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, David

    2013-07-01

    Federal missions on the Oak Ridge Reservation began with the Manhattan Project, and continues today with major facilities supporting the Nation's Science and National Security missions. While most of the land area on the Oak Ridge Reservation is free of environmental impacts from these activities, significant legacy contamination is associated with specific facilities and past waste management areas. In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on National Priorities List, and DOE established its Office of Environmental Management that same year. Three years later, in 1992, the Federal Facility Agreement for the reservation was signed. Three years afterward, the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board was established to augment ongoing public involvement activities related to Oak Ridge Reservation cleanup activities. One of the early and most impactful decisions the board made was to organize the End Use Working Group. This broad-based group of board members, DOE representatives, and members of the public was formed in 1997 to study future uses for contaminated areas of the reservation. The group was instrumental in building consensus in the Oak Ridge community regarding the long-term end state of reservation lands. The group's recommendations were a fundamental input into Record's of Decision subsequently developed to establish cleanup requirements across the ORR, and they continue to influence decisions being made today. In developing its recommendations on end states, the End Use Working Group came to the realization that long-term stewardship of contaminated areas of the reservation would be necessary, in some cases in perpetuity. It was from this concept that the Oak Ridge SSAB's 15-year involvement in stewardship would begin. A stewardship committee formed by the End Use Working Group wrote Volume 1 of the Stakeholder Report on Stewardship. This document-and its companion Volume 2, which was written a year later-form a crucial foundation for stewardship

  6. Goals and Design of Public Physics Lectures: Perspectives of High-School Students, Physics Teachers and Lecturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, S.; Ganiel, U.; Eylon, B.

    2009-01-01

    Many large scientific projects and scientific centres incorporate some kind of outreach programme. Almost all of these outreach programmes include public scientific lectures delivered by practising scientists. In this article, we examine such lectures from the perspectives of: (i) lecturers (7) who are practising scientists acknowledged to be good…

  7. Does line-edge roughness matter?: FEOL and BEOL perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinghuang; Black, Charles T.; Detavernier, Christophe; Gignac, Lynne; Guarini, Kathryn; Herbst, Brian; Kim, Hyungjun; Oldiges, Philip; Petrillo, Karen E.; Sanchez, Martha I.

    2003-06-01

    Line edge roughness (LER) has been widely perceived to be one of the roadblocks to the continuing scaling of semiconductor devices. However, little evidence has been published on the impact of LER on device performance, particularly on the performance and the reliability of advanced interconnects. In this paper, we present such evidence from both the Front-End-Of-Line (FEOL) and Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL) standpoints. In the FEOL, we employed computer simulations to estimate the effects of LER on a number of performance parameters of sub-100nm transistors based on 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional device models. LER has been shown to affect both the average value and the variance of key device performance parameters for sub-100nm transistors. In the BEOL, we investigated the impact of LER on the performance of barrier layers in dual damascene copper interconnects. To this end, we emulated LER by roughening Si surfaces with controlled patterning by self-assembled diblock copolymers and reactive ion etching. In-situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study Cu diffusion through about 5nm Ta and TaN barrier layers deposited by plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) on both smooth and rough surfaces. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that the surface roughness does not degrade barrier performance of the ALD Cu barriers. Mechanism of the roughness effects is also discussed. Line edge roughness is, however, expected to degrade copper interconnect performance by increasing copper electrical resistivity through enhanced electron surface scattering.

  8. The effects of goal-driven and data-driven regulation on metacognitive monitoring during learning: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Ackerman, Rakefet; Adiv, Shiri; Lockl, Kathrin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Research in metacognition (Koriat, Ma'ayan, & Nussinson, 2006) suggests bidirectional links between monitoring and control during learning: When self-regulation is goal-driven, monitoring affects control so that increased study time (ST) enhances judgments of learning (JOLs). However, when self-regulation is data-driven, JOLs are based on the feedback from control, and therefore JOLs decrease with ST under the heuristic that ease of encoding is diagnostic of successful recall. Evidence for both types of relationships occurring within the same situation was found for adults. We examined the development of the ability to respond differentially to data-driven and goal-driven variation in ST within the same task. Children in Grades 5 and 6 exhibited a positive ST-JOL relationship for goal-driven regulation and a negative relationship for data-driven regulation but never in the same task. In contrast, the JOLs and recall of 9th graders and college students yielded differential cosensitivity to data-driven and goal-driven variation. The 5th and 6th graders also evidenced an adult-like pattern of JOLs and recall under a partitioning procedure that helped them in factoring the variation in ST due to data-driven and goal-driven variation in ST. The results are discussed in terms of the metacognitive sophistication needed for considering both types of variation simultaneously in making metacognitive judgments. PMID:23421442

  9. Does Goal Orientation Matter for Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance? An Investigation in University Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes (Behzadi, Hamzei, Nori and Salehian, 2011; Duda and Whitehead, 1998; Roberts, 2001; Biddle, 2001;…

  10. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  11. Does Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect Always Exist? Investigation of Goal Orientations as Moderators in the Hong Kong Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2014-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) posits that students with the same ability will have higher academic self-concepts when they are in low-ability classes than in high-ability classes. Our research puts the BFLPE under scrutiny by examining goal orientations as the moderators that may affect the size of the BFLPE. We collected data on…

  12. Similarity of Mothers' and Preschool Teachers' Evaluations of Socialization Goals in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Döge, Paula; Keller, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the similarity of socialization goals of a group of mothers with different cultural backgrounds and their children's respective preschool teachers in Germany. Additionally, the researchers were interested in the relationship between the degree of mother-teacher similarity and maternal satisfaction with child care.…

  13. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention. PMID:27483371

  14. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26651213

  15. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  16. An introduction to KuaFu project (scientific goals, scientific payloads, historical events, present status and perspectives)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, C.-Y.; Schwenn, R.; Donovan, E.; Wang, J.-S.; Xia, L.-D.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Kuafu Study Team

    KuaFu mission is composed of three spacecraft KuaFu-A and KuaFu B1 and B2 KuaFu-A will be located at the L1 Lagrangian point The satellite pair KuaFu-B1 B2 will fly on the same polar Earth orbit but with a phase difference of half-period KuaFu-A will be instrumented to continuously observe the solar disk in EUV including Lyman alpha emission to register Coronal Mass Ejections CMEs in white light and Lyman alpha radiation to trace CME propagation by radio wave measurements and to measure the local solar wind plasma and magnetic field and solar energetic particles Another remote sensing instrument will observe the hard X-ray and Gamma-ray spectrum KuaFu-B1 and -B2 will carry out continuous 24 hours a day observation of the northern hemisphere auroral oval and the ring current as well as systematic conjugate aurora observations KuaFu-B will also carry a limited suite of in situ instruments including a fluxgate magnetometer and charged particle detectors The KuaFu project is now a space science mission selected by China National Space Administration CNSA The Comprehensive Study project already began in which careful review of scientific payload initial design of spacecraft platforms launch tracking and control and data transferring will be addressed The KuaFu mission may start at the next solar maximum launch in 2012 hopefully and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years The KuaFu mission will be an essential element of the ILWS program The scientific goal is to study globally the Sun-Earth complex system The mission is

  17. Goal-Directed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Marc F.; Troisi, Thomas J.; Pompilio, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of every school district is to help students succeed academically and personally. But does every district leverage its most valuable resource, its teachers, to meet that goal? At the Valley Stream Central High School District in Nassau County, New York, these authors know how important teacher commitment is to student success, so they…

  18. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals. PMID:12733420

  19. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  20. [Decision making, empathy and morality in psychopaths: does empirical research offer new perspectives concerning legal responsibility?].

    PubMed

    Schmoll, D

    2012-04-01

    Psychopathy is a well explored dimensional construct only partially overlapping with dissocial personality disorder according to ICD-10. Until now, psychopaths have not been assessed as having diminished legal responsibility, unless they show impulsive or dissocial behaviour in an early stage of development, since they are considered able to adapt themselves to social norms. This forensic practice has been criticised from a deterministic-neurobiological point of view. This article discusses whether the latest empirical results on the psychopath's capacity for decision-making, empathy, and morality should lead to a new assessment of legal responsibility. The author shows that the psychopath's reduced capacities for decision-making, response reversal, and emotional empathy do not tell us much about the way such an individual arrives at decisions outside the laboratory since there has been no exploration of how compensation is made for psychophysiological deviation. Studies comparing criminal and non-criminal (so called "successful") psychopaths support the view that single physiological findings such as a hypoarousal do not necessarily lead to criminal behaviour. The moral knowledge of psychopaths is not disturbed. That is why criminality seems to be caused mainly by developed motivational factors (risk-seeking and hedonistic life-style). Empirical research into psychopathy may enlarge our knowledge about pathogenesis but does not offer new perspectives concerning legal responsibility. PMID:22113366

  1. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  2. Rehabilitation Goals: Their Hierarchical and Multifaceted Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch

    1988-01-01

    Rehabilitation goals are analyzed from a hierarchical, multifaceted perspective, illustrating reduction of the ultimate goal of life adjustment to smaller goals. Addressed are: the contexts within which rehabilitation takes place, the activity levels defining human performance, and the functional levels achieved. A matrix of 12 sets of goals is…

  3. A Study of 8th Graders' Perceptions of Socio-Cultural Perspective of Creativity by Using Information Technology Tools in Realisation of Homework Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongun, Erdem; Atlas, Dilek; Demirag, Askin

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating the perceptions of 8th graders towards the use of information technologies ranging from the internet and multimedia tools in socio-cultural perspective of creativity while they are doing their homework in the light of the National Education Ministry's regulation related to elementary and secondary school students'…

  4. What Is the Nature of the Achievement Gap, Why Does It Persist and Are Government Goals Sufficient to Create Social Justice in the Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ruth; Burton, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The "achievement gap"--the term typically used to refer to differences in pupil attainment associated with social class, ethnicity and gender--remains an enduring obstacle to government goals of creating a socially just society. This article explores the nature of the achievement gap and some of the mechanisms that serve to perpetuate disadvantage…

  5. Meeting the 2020 American Graduation Initiative (AGI) Goal of Increasing Postsecondary Graduation Rates and Completions: A Macro Perspective of Community College Student Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotamraju, Pradeep; Blackman, Orville

    2011-01-01

    The paper uses the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data system (IPEDS) data to simulate the 2020 American Graduation Initiative (AGI) goal introduced by President Obama in the summer of 2009. We estimate community college graduation rates and completion numbers under different scenarios that include the following sets of variables: (a) internal…

  6. Where Does Weather Come From? A Response to "Behavioral Disorders: A Postmodern Perspective".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Eugene

    1998-01-01

    This response to "Behavior Disorders: A Postmodern Perspective" (David Elkind) rejects the postmodern notion that there can be no common narratives and proposes three possible metanarratives that could be useful in thinking about behavioral disorders: democracy, spirituality, and the notions of Nick Hobbs. (CR)

  7. Does Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study of Perspectives across Genders, Age and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…

  8. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  9. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  10. The patient’s perspective of the feasibility of a patient-specific instrument in physiotherapy goal setting: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Anita; Moser, Albine; Köke, Albère; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient participation in goal setting is important to deliver client-centered care. In daily practice, however, patient involvement in goal setting is not optimal. Patient-specific instruments, such as the Patient Specific Complaints (PSC) instrument, can support the goal-setting process because patients can identify and rate their own problems. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ experiences with the feasibility of the PSC, in the physiotherapy goal setting. Method We performed a qualitative study. Data were collected by observations of physiotherapy sessions (n=23) and through interviews with patients (n=23) with chronic conditions in physiotherapy practices. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Results The PSC was used at different moments and in different ways. Two feasibility themes were analyzed. First was the perceived ambiguity with the process of administration: patients perceived a broad range of experiences, such as emotional and supportive, as well as feeling a type of uncomfortableness. The second was the perceived usefulness: patients found the PSC useful for themselves – to increase awareness and motivation and to inform the physiotherapist – as well as being useful for the physiotherapist – to determine appropriate treatment for their personal needs. Some patients did not perceive any usefulness and were not aware of any relation with their treatment. Patients with a more positive attitude toward questionnaires, patients with an active role, and health-literate patients appreciated the PSC and felt facilitated by it. Patients who lacked these attributes did not fully understand the PSC’s process or purpose and let the physiotherapist take the lead. Conclusion The PSC is a feasible tool to support patient participation in the physiotherapy goal setting. However, in the daily use of the PSC, patients are not always fully involved and informed. Patients reported varied experiences related to their personal

  11. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  12. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  13. How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that children engage in Level 2 visual perspective-taking, that is, the understanding that others may see things in a different way, between 4 and 5 years of age (e.g., J. H. Flavell, B. A. Everett, K. Croft, & E. R. Flavell, 1981). This ability was reexamined in 36-month-olds using color filters. In Experiment 1 (N =…

  14. Commentary: What Does "Student-Centered" Mean and How Can It Be Implemented? A Systematic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Manuel Joao

    2013-01-01

    Student-centered education is in the air. It is present in many reform agendas for higher education across every discipline and is shortlisted as an important goal for teaching and learning in many reports and recommendations of professional agencies and scientific societies. There is wide consensus that moving from teacher-centered to…

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 55: Career goals and educational preparation of aerospace engineering and science students: An international perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey of aerospace engineering and science students conducted in India, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The similarities and differences among aerospace engineering and science students from the five countries are examined in the context of two general aspects of educational experience. First, the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that led to the choice of a career in aerospace, their current levels of satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives is considered. Second, the importance of certain communications/information-use skills for professional use is examined, as well as the frequency of use and importance of specific information sources and products to meet students' educational needs. Overall, the students who participated in this research remain relatively happy with the choice of a career in aerospace engineering, despite pessimism in some quarters about the future of the industry. Regardless of national identity, aerospace engineering and science students appear to share a similar vision of the profession in terms of their career goals and aspirations. The data also indicate that aerospace engineering and science students are well aware of the importance of communications/information-use skills to professional success and that competency in these skills will help them to be productive members of their profession. Collectively, all of the students appear to use and value similar information sources and products, although some differences appear by country.

  16. What does "success" in public engagement activities mean? A comparison of goals, motivations and embedded assumptions in four polar outreach activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roop, H. A.; Salmon, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using four very different polar outreach case studies, we will discuss scientists' motivations, expectations, and institutional incentives (and dis-incentives) to engage with the public, and argue that improved training, evaluation, and academic value needs to be associated with scientist-led communication efforts - as well as clearer fora for sharing best practice in this field. We will illustrate our argument using examples from an Antarctic festival with public lectures and science cafes, outreach associated with an Antarctic expedition, the global launch of a climate change documentary that had a significant focus on Antarctica, and a series of "Polar Weeks" led by an international community of scientists and educators. While there is an excellent culture of accountability in both formal and informal science communication sectors, the same rigour is not applied to the majority of 'outreach' activities that are initiated by the science research community. Many of these activities are undertaken based on 'what feels right' and opportunism, and are proclaimed to be a success based on little or no formal evaluation. As a result, much of this work goes undocumented, is not evaluated from the perspective of the science community, and is rarely subject to peer-review and its associated benefits, including professional rewards. We therefore recommend new opportunities for publication in this field that would encourage science communication theory and practice to better inform each other, and for scientists to gain professional recognition for their efforts in this arena.

  17. [TEACHING BIO-MEDICAL INFORMATICS TO MEDICAL STUDENTS IN THE FACULTY OF MEDICINE IN THE GALILEE - GOALS, LESSONS AND A FUTURE PERSPECTIVE].

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Amir; Onn, Itay

    2016-04-01

    Bioinformatics is a scientific discipline that deals with the processing of biological data by computers. In recent years, bioinformatic tools were applied to the analysis of medical databases in order to develop new pathways for diagnosis and to improve medical treatment. The best example is personalized medicine, which depends on bioinformatic analysis. Despite early assessments, bioinformatics didn't change the clinical landscape dramatically, and personalized medicine is still not a main approach in healthcare. One of the holdbacks is the knowledge gap among clinicians. Therefore, massive integration of bioinformatics into the clinic will most likely be the challenge of the new generations of clinicians to come. As part of the innovative curriculum of the newly established Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, it took up the challenge of teaching bioinformatics, and by doing so, joined some of the leading medical schools worldwide. In this review we will provide a few examples for the use of bioinformatics in the clinic. Furthermore, we will describe the content of the bioinformatics course in the Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee and discuss some of the lessons learned and future perspectives. PMID:27323540

  18. Planned approaches to business and school partnerships. Does it make a difference? The business perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kerry; Hope, John; Abdulghani, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    In many countries, schools are encouraged to link with business to add authenticity to learning. The number of these business-school partnerships has shown a marked increase over the last twenty years. Traditionally researchers investigating these partnerships have focussed on the schools' perspectives (Du, Bhattacharya, & Sen, 2010, pp. 32-33), however this New Zealand research has focused solely on the business perspective of established school partnerships. The study used a mixed methods approach utilising both online survey and semi-structured interviews. Ten out of the forty participating businesses surveyed used a brokering organisation as a way of developing and maintaining these partnerships and some developed rationales to support the partnership. This study investigated the value of using brokering organisations, rationales and designated staff to support business-school partnerships. Findings indicate that brokers and designated staff play a very effective role in enhancing business-school links, and more benefits are perceived when a rationale has been established. It is anticipated that these findings will support the development and success of business-school partnerships. PMID:26724714

  19. Dopamine antagonism does not impair learning of Pavlovian conditioned approach to manipulable or non-manipulable cues but biases responding towards goal tracking.

    PubMed

    Scülfort, Stefanie A; Bartsch, Dusan; Enkel, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Dopamine's (DA) role in reward-processing is currently discussed as either providing a teaching signal to guide learning or mediating the transfer of incentive salience (i.e. motivational aspects) from unconditioned stimuli (US) to conditioned stimuli (CS). We used a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) procedure to further investigate DAs contribution to these processes. Experiment 1 assessed the acquisition of PCA to a manipulable lever cue for 7days under DA-blockade with Flupenthixol (FLU; 225μg/kg) or Saline (SAL) treatment, followed by 6-days off-drug testing. FLU decreased the number of conditioned responses (CR) during the treatment phase, but cessation of treatment resulted in an immediate increase in CR to levels comparable to SAL controls; notably, CR in FLU-treated rats were restricted to goal tracking behaviour. During continued off-drug testing, rats from the FLU group developed sign tracking with a similar temporal pattern as controls. In experiment 2, acquisition of PCA to a non-manipulable auditory cue was investigated. FLU reduced the number of CR during treatment, and removing DA antagonism resulted in a similar rapid increase of CR as seen in experiment 1. These data complement other reports by demonstrating that, independently from the physical properties of the CS, DA is not required for learning predictive aspects of a CS-US relationship but for the development of behaviour (namely sign tracking) which is based on the motivational aspects of a CS-US relationship. PMID:27478141

  20. Does a threat appeal moderate reckless driving? A terror management theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, O T; Florian, V; Mikulincer, M

    2000-01-01

    A series of two studies examined the effects of threat appeals on reckless driving from a terror management theory perspective. In both studies, all the participants (N = 109) reported on the relevance of driving to their self-esteem, and, then, half of them were exposed to a road trauma film and the remaining to a neutral film. In Study 1, the dependent variable was the self-report of intentions to drive recklessly in hypothetical scenarios. In Study 2, the dependent variable was actual behavior (driving speed) in a driving simulator. Findings indicated that a road trauma film led to less reported intentions of reckless driving, but to higher driving speed than a neutral film. These effects were only found among participants who perceived driving as relevant to their self-esteem. The discussion emphasized the self-enhancing mechanisms proposed by the terror management theory. PMID:10576671

  1. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  2. Achievement Goal Orientations and Identity Formation Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    The present article points to shared underlying theoretical assumptions and central processes of a prominent academic motivation perspective--achievement goal theory--and recent process perspectives in the identity formation literature, and more specifically, identity formation styles. The review highlights the shared definition of achievement…

  3. Motivating Adolescents: Goals for Australian Students in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2010-01-01

    Student motivation during adolescence has become an increasingly important issue for educators and researchers. Using a goal theory perspective, researchers have investigated a range of goals (including achievement goals, social goals and future goals) that influence students' desire to achieve at school. The present study examines the range of…

  4. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  5. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Story, Giles W; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a "model-based" (or goal-directed) system and a "model-free" (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960

  6. Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective

    PubMed Central

    Story, Giles W.; Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The tendency to make unhealthy choices is hypothesized to be related to an individual's temporal discount rate, the theoretical rate at which they devalue delayed rewards. Furthermore, a particular form of temporal discounting, hyperbolic discounting, has been proposed to explain why unhealthy behavior can occur despite healthy intentions. We examine these two hypotheses in turn. We first systematically review studies which investigate whether discount rates can predict unhealthy behavior. These studies reveal that high discount rates for money (and in some instances food or drug rewards) are associated with several unhealthy behaviors and markers of health status, establishing discounting as a promising predictive measure. We secondly examine whether intention-incongruent unhealthy actions are consistent with hyperbolic discounting. We conclude that intention-incongruent actions are often triggered by environmental cues or changes in motivational state, whose effects are not parameterized by hyperbolic discounting. We propose a framework for understanding these state-based effects in terms of the interplay of two distinct reinforcement learning mechanisms: a “model-based” (or goal-directed) system and a “model-free” (or habitual) system. Under this framework, while discounting of delayed health may contribute to the initiation of unhealthy behavior, with repetition, many unhealthy behaviors become habitual; if health goals then change, habitual behavior can still arise in response to environmental cues. We propose that the burgeoning development of computational models of these processes will permit further identification of health decision-making phenotypes. PMID:24659960

  7. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  8. Chromium does not belong in the diabetes treatment arsenal: Current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Landman, Gijs Wd; Bilo, Henk Jg; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2014-04-15

    Chromium is considered to have positive effects on insulin sensitivity and is marketed as an adjunctive therapy for inducing glucose tolerance in cases of insulin resistance ("the glucose tolerance factor"). Case reports on patients who received prolonged parenteral nutrition indeed showed that the absence of trivalent chromium caused insulin resistance and diabetes. However, whether patients with type 2 diabetes can develop a clinically relevant chromium deficiency is unclear. This review summarizes the available evidence regarding the potential effectiveness of chromium supplementation on glycemic control (Hemoglobin A1c levels) in patients with type 2 diabetes. No studies investigating the long-term safety of chromium in humans were found. All clinical trials that have been performed had a relative short follow-up period. None of the trials investigated whether the patients had risk factors for chromium deficiency. The evidence from randomized trials in patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrated that chromium supplementation does not effectively improve glycemic control. The meta-analyses showed that chromium supplementation did not improve fasting plasma glucose levels. Moreover, there were no clinically relevant chromium effects on body weight in individuals with or without diabetes. Future studies should focus on reliable methods to estimate chromium status to identify patients at risk for pathological alterations in their metabolism associated with chromium deficiency. Given the present data, there is no evidence that supports advising patients with type 2 diabetes to take chromium supplements. PMID:24748929

  9. Students' Perspectives on Communities-Oriented Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kelsey D.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars and professional organizations have described participation in target language (TL) communities as one of the primary aims of language learning, but little work has been done to determine how students define those communities or envision their own involvement within them. This exploratory study drew on questionnaire and interview data to…

  10. Self-Regulatory Responses to Unattainable Goals: The Role of Goal Motives

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Laura C.; Sedikides, Constantine; Smith, Alison L.; Duda, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Does motivation for goal pursuit predict how individuals will respond when confronted with unattainable goals? Two studies examined the role of autonomous and controlled motives when pursuing an unattainable goal without (Study 1) or with (Study 2) the opportunity to reengage in alternative goal pursuit. Autonomous motives positively predicted the cognitive ease of reengagement with an alternative goal when the current goal was perceived as unattainable, especially when participants realized goal unattainability relatively early during goal striving. Autonomous motives, however, were negative predictors of cognitive ease of disengagement from an unattainable goal. When faced with failure, autonomously motivated individuals are better off realizing early the goal unattainability. Otherwise, they will find it difficult to disengage cognitively from the pursued goal (despite reengaging cognitively in an alternative goal), possibly due to interfering rumination. PMID:25104918

  11. Does Your Approach to Time Matter for Your Learning? The Role of Time Perspectives on Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Time perspectives have been found to be related to a wide range of psychological phenomena. However, in the educational context, there remains to be a lack of research on how they relate to important academic outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine how time perspectives are related to educational outcomes such as engagement,…

  12. Effective Goal-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Setting organizational or program objectives is seen as requiring three steps (brainstorming goals for the year, prioritizing them, and visualizing them as smaller, discrete tasks) and six principles (making goals group-specific, setting deadlines, being realistic and explicit, writing down goals, defining measurable steps, and creating…

  13. Structuring Training Goals for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A multiaxial model that structures educational goals for psychodynamic psychotherapy has been developed. It specifies core aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clusters them in categories that further define and link related areas, and presents a sequence that enables educators and students to focus on training goals in a consistent progression. This model has been used by the Director of Education as a basis for developing the curriculum, by students as a way of focusing learning and giving perspective to current work, and by supervisors to link individual teaching to the goals of the training program. This method has enhanced consistency, clarity, and efficiency in the psychotherapy program. PMID:9407472

  14. The Selfish Goal

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed. PMID:19081795

  15. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  16. THE GOALS OF INTEGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANDLIN, OSCAR

    THE LACK OF CLEARLY DEFINED GOALS WITHIN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IS IMPEDING ITS TACTICS AND MOMENTUM. THE STATED GOAL OF INTEGRATION ACTUALLY HAS TWO ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS--FULL LEGAL EQUALITY AND RACIAL BALANCE. THE NEWER STRESS ON RACIAL BALANCE RESTS ON THE FALLACIOUS ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE NEGRO'S SITUATION IS UNIQUE BECAUSE OF SLAVERY…

  17. Addressees of Performance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Dresel, Markus; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2008-01-01

    As performance goals aim to both procure acknowledgment of one's abilities and to avoid revealing a lack of one's abilities, the authors hypothesized that students hold specific performance goals for different addressees and that there are specific correlational patterns with other motivational constructs. They analyzed a data set of 2,675 pupils…

  18. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  19. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  20. The Case of the Missing Pronouns: Does Mentally Simulated Perspective Play a Functional Role in the Comprehension of Person?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Manami; Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Language comprehenders can mentally simulate perceptual and motor features of scenes they hear or read about (Barsalou, 1999; Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002; Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002). Recent research shows that these simulations adopt a particular perspective (Borghi, Glenberg & Kaschak, 2004; Brunye, Ditman, Mahoney, Augustyn, & Taylor, 2009).…

  1. Risk segmentation: goal or problem?

    PubMed

    Feldman, R; Dowd, B

    2000-07-01

    This paper traces the evolution of economists' views about risk segmentation in health insurance markets. Originally seen as a desirable goal, risk segmentation has come to be viewed as leading to abnormal profits, wasted resources, and inefficient limitations on coverage and services. We suggest that risk segmentation may be efficient if one takes an ex post view (i.e., after consumers' risks are known). From this perspective, managed care may be a much better method for achieving risk segmentation than limitations on coverage. The most serious objection to risk segmentation is the ex ante concern that it undermines long-term insurance contracts that would protect consumers against changes in lifetime risk. PMID:11010237

  2. Hydrogen program goal-setting methodologies: Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-08-01

    DOE's Hydrogen Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress summarizes the processes used to set Hydrogen Program goals and milestones. Published in August 2006, it fulfills the requirement under section 1819 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  3. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  4. Long-term Career Goals for Professional Women in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Betty

    1986-01-01

    Encourages the formation of long-term career goals for women in agronomy. Offers perspectives and practical suggestions for obtaining positions, maintaining professional credentials, and managing personal and career related obligations. (ML)

  5. What Does It Mean for a Student to Understand the First-Year Calculus? Perspectives of 24 Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronas, Kimberly S.; DeFranco, Thomas C.; Vinsonhaler, Charles; Gorgievski, Nicholas; Schroeder, Larissa; Hamelin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the views of 24 nationally recognized authorities in the field of mathematics, and in particular the calculus, on student understanding of the first-year calculus. A framework emerged that includes four overarching end goals for understanding of the first-year calculus: (a) mastery of the fundamental concepts and-or skills of…

  6. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals: A Longitudinal Study of Cognitive, Emotional, and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Newall, Nancy E.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Within achievement goal theory debate remains regarding the adaptiveness of certain combinations of goals. Assuming a multiple-goals perspective, we used cluster analysis to classify 1002 undergraduate students according to their mastery and performance-approach goals. Four clusters emerged, representing different goal combinations: high…

  7. A DOE contractor`s perspective of environmental monitoring requirements at a low-level waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ferns, T.W.

    1989-11-01

    Environmental monitoring at a low-level waste disposal facility (LLWDF) should, (1) demonstrate compliance with environmental laws; (2) detect any spatial or temporal environmental changes; and (3) provide information on the potential or actual exposure of humans and/or the environment to disposed waste and/or waste by-products. Under the DOE Order system the LLWDF site manager has more freedom of implementation for a monitoring program than either the semi-prescriptive NRC, or the prescriptive EPA hazardous waste programs. This paper will attempt to compare and contrast environmental monitoring under the different systems (DOE, NRC, and EPA), and determine if the DOE might benefit from a more prescriptive system.

  8. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  9. Does University Campus Experience Develop Motivation to Lead or Readiness to Lead among Undergraduate Students? "A Malaysian Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Jamaliah Abdul; Krauss, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Do students' experiences on university campuses cultivate motivation to lead or a sense of readiness to lead that does not necessarily translate to active leadership? To address this question, a study was conducted with 369 undergraduates from Malaysia. Campus experience was more predictive of leadership readiness than motivation. Student…

  10. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  11. Exploring Goals. Career Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to enable senior high school students to relate their abilities scores from the Developed Abilities Performance (DAP) instrument to actual vocational areas and Long Range [occupational] Goals (LRG) for later indepth study. The length of the unit is six 55-minute periods. Instructional…

  12. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  13. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  14. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  15. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  16. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  17. The Contributions and Prospects of Goal Orientation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Avi; Maehr, Martin L.

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, goal orientation theory has become an important perspective in the field of achievement motivation, and particularly in academic motivation. However, as research in the theory has proliferated, the use of multiple methods to assess goal orientations seems to have contributed to theoretical vagueness, especially with regard…

  18. Introduction to the Summit Session, "Leading Perspectives in Energy Research", from the Director of the DOE Office of Science, Bill Brinkman (2011 EFRC Summit)

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Bill

    2011-05-25

    In this video Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science, introduces the session, "Leading Perspectives in Energy Research," at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. During the introduction of the senior representatives from both the public and private sector, Dr. Brinkman explained the motivation for creating the Energy Frontiers Research Centers program. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  19. Introduction to the Summit Session, "Leading Perspectives in Energy Research", from the Director of the DOE Office of Science, Bill Brinkman (2011 EFRC Summit)

    ScienceCinema

    Brinkman, Bill (Director, DOE Office of Science)

    2012-03-14

    In this video Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science, introduces the session, "Leading Perspectives in Energy Research," at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. During the introduction of the senior representatives from both the public and private sector, Dr. Brinkman explained the motivation for creating the Energy Frontiers Research Centers program. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  20. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  1. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  2. Reading for Different Goals: The Interplay of EFL College Students' Multiple Goals, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Tung-hsien

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of achievement goals on English as a foreign language (EFL) college students' reading strategy use and reading comprehension from the perspective of multiple goals. Fifty-seven participants verbalised their thoughts while reading an English expository essay. They also completed assessments on their reading goal…

  3. Critical and Theoretical Perspective on Scapular Stabilization: What Does It Really Mean, and Are We on the Right Track?

    PubMed

    McQuade, Kevin J; Borstad, John; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani

    2016-08-01

    Stabilization exercises have been a focus and mainstay of many therapeutic and performance training programs in the past decade. Whether the focus is core stabilization for the spine or scapular stabilization, clinicians and trainers alike have endorsed these programs, largely on the basis of conceptual theory and anecdotal experience. The notion that an unstable scapula is related to shoulder dysfunction and pathology is well accepted, but is it accurate? The aim of this perspective article is to challenge the concept of scapular stabilization through the application of biomechanical and motor control constructs. The objectives are to critically examine current beliefs about scapular stabilization, to discuss definitions of stabilization and stability in the context of the scapulothoracic region, and to evaluate key evidence regarding scapular stabilization and scapular dyskinesia. Several new approaches that may affect the understanding of normal and atypical scapula motion are explored. Finally, a historical analogy is presented and future research and clinical directions are suggested. The aims are to lead readers to the essential concepts implied on scapular stabilization, to increase the critical thought process in rehabilitation practice, and to suggest some open topics to be explored in future research. PMID:26847012

  4. GMUGLE: A goal lattice constructor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2001-08-01

    Goal lattices are a method for ordering the goals of a system and associating with each goal the value of performing that goal in terms of how much it contributes to the accomplishment of the topmost goal of a system. This paper presents a progress report on the development of a web-based implementation of the George Mason University Goal Lattice Engine (GMUGLE). GMUGLE allows a user to interactively create goal lattices, add/delete goals, and specify their ordering relations through a web-based interface. The database portion automatically computes the GLB and LUB of pairs of goals which have been entered to form them into a lattice. Yet to be implemented is the code to input goal values, automatically apportion the values among included goals, and accrue value among the included goals.

  5. A synthetic ecology perspective: How well does behavior of model organisms in the laboratory predict microbial activities in natural habitats?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Zheng; Krause, Sascha M. B.; Beck, David A. C.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2016-06-15

    In this perspective article, we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today's -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high-throughput fashion and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sedimentmore » for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified cooccurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here, we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species) to rather complex (50-species) synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. Furthermore, these findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities.« less

  6. A Synthetic Ecology Perspective: How Well Does Behavior of Model Organisms in the Laboratory Predict Microbial Activities in Natural Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zheng; Krause, Sascha M. B.; Beck, David A. C.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today’s -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high-throughput fashion and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sediment for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified co-occurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here, we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species) to rather complex (50-species) synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities. PMID:27379075

  7. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  8. Treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease: does one size fit all? A narrative review from a nephrologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Godela

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease is still controversial, particularly in regards to the intensity of blood pressure lowering. The 2014 guidelines for the management of hypertension in adults released by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) have sparked criticism from nephrologists, and various societies have issued differing guidelines. In this article we present a few case vignettes and provide a brief review of the various guidelines, particularly in regards to patients with chronic kidney disease. We review some of the landmark trials that have influenced guidelines and the practice of nephrology, as well as the limitations of the evidence on which the current guidelines are based. We discuss treatment for the patients presented in the case vignettes in light of the guidelines and the evidence. Finally, it will be clear that there is no single BP goal or single drug that is appropriate for all patients, and that our knowledge base for optimal treatment of hypertension in chronic kidney disease is still limited. PMID:25567505

  9. A Mind-Reader Does Not Always Have Deontological Moral Judgments and Prosocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    of mind may be a permanent tool for moral judgment development but a temporary tool for prosocial behavior development. Thus, the present study enriches the rationalistic theories of morality from a developmental perspective. Different relationships between theory of mind and morality from middle childhood to late adulthood are discussed. PMID:27602011

  10. A Mind-Reader Does Not Always Have Deontological Moral Judgments and Prosocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    of mind may be a permanent tool for moral judgment development but a temporary tool for prosocial behavior development. Thus, the present study enriches the rationalistic theories of morality from a developmental perspective. Different relationships between theory of mind and morality from middle childhood to late adulthood are discussed. PMID:27602011

  11. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  12. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students. PMID:24308535

  13. A goal-driven neural propositional interpreter.

    PubMed

    Lima, P M

    2001-06-01

    This work presents ARQ-PROP-II, the propositional version of a neural engine for finding proofs by refutation using the Resolution Principle. This neural architecture does not require special arrangements or modules to do forward or backward reasoning, being driven by the goal posed to it. ARQ-PROP-II is capable of integrated monotonic reasoning with complete and incomplete knowledge. The neural mechanism presented herein is the first to our knowledge that does not require that the knowledge base be either pre-encoded or learnt. PMID:11574968

  14. The Evaluation of Goal and Goal-Free Training Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl; Roffe, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Goal-based training has specific, predetermined objectives, whereas goal-free training involves implementation of innovations whose outcomes cannot be predicted. Evaluation of goal-free training must consider clients' requirements, the effectiveness of the initiative, and application of feedback. (SK)

  15. Goal Contents and Goal Contexts: Experiments with Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Hu, Xiao Yong; Guo, Yong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Using samples of Chinese middle school students, the 2 experimental studies presented here examined the effects of goal content and goal context on test performance, free-choice engagement, and test anxiety within the framework of self-determination theory. Students' learning goals were induced as intrinsic or extrinsic with the learning…

  16. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  17. Cosmetic surgery: surgical tools--psychosocial goals.

    PubMed

    Grossbart, T A; Sarwer, D B

    1999-06-01

    What determines patients' goals for cosmetic surgery and their satisfaction with the outcome? Historical trends, body image theory, evolutionary biology, and clinical and experimental psychology each contribute answers. The physical changes that patients seek are typically a means to psychosocial goals. Individual objectives vary, but often share an origin in recurrent painful feelings, thoughts, or experiences. Surgical goals include: (1) changes in emotional states or cognitions; (2) improvement in interpersonal relationships; and (3) an altering of reactions of the larger society. Psychological studies of cosmetic surgery patients have been designed primarily to address two fundamental questions: (1) is there a preoperative psychological profile of cosmetic surgery patients; and (2) does cosmetic surgery produce enduring, beneficial psychological change? The use of specialized screening interview questions, and effective collaboration with mental health providers, help a wider range of patients achieve successful surgical outcomes. PMID:10385278

  18. Perspective of Using the Results of Monitoring and Modeling of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's Cooling Pond as Analogue for the US DOE Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.; Voitsekhovich, O. V.; Bugay, D.; Skalskjj, A.; Shestopalov, V. M.; Zheleznyak, M.; Kashparov, V. A.; Antropov, A. S.; Kireev, S. I.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Ivanov, Y.; Oskolkov, B.; Marra, J.; Jannik, T.; Farfan, E.; Monken-Fernandes, H.; Hinton, T.; Smith, J.; Onishi, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are many contaminated sites that may be suitable candidates for providing analogue information for the development and testing of environmental modeling and risk assessment approaches, of particular scientific and practical interests is the feasibility study of planned decommissioning and remediation of the highly contaminated Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CP), located within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The presence of the CP has caused an artificially high groundwater table within the ChEZ. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the CP, substantial areas of sediments, containing 137Cs, 90Sr, and hot particles with U, Pu, and Am. will be exposed to the atmosphere, and the groundwater level is expected to decline by as much as 7 m. The areal extent of the exposed zone, the dissolution rate, mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will vary over time, depending on the dynamics of seepage losses from the pond and climatic conditions. The objective of the presentation is to discuss hydrological and geochemical processes, a conceptual model, and the results and perspectives of numerical modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater flow and transport, including the parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation for various decommissioning and remediation options of the CP. In particular, the results of 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations of radionuclide transport in surface water and groundwater will be discussed, along with the evaluation of Kd parameters from the results of field monitoring and modeling of seasonal variations of 137Cs concentrations in pond water and sediments. It will be shown that the results of field monitoring and modeling of the Chernobyl CP can be used as analogue for several US DOE sites to improve scientific and practical understanding of subsurface hydrological and geochemical processes, as well as to obtain a better understanding of processes affecting natural attenuation of radionuclides in

  19. Goal-oriented rectification of camera-based document images.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulos, Nikolaos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Perantonis, Stavros J

    2011-04-01

    Document digitization with either flatbed scanners or camera-based systems results in document images which often suffer from warping and perspective distortions that deteriorate the performance of current OCR approaches. In this paper, we present a goal-oriented rectification methodology to compensate for undesirable document image distortions aiming to improve the OCR result. Our approach relies upon a coarse-to-fine strategy. First, a coarse rectification is accomplished with the aid of a computationally low cost transformation which addresses the projection of a curved surface to a 2-D rectangular area. The projection of the curved surface on the plane is guided only by the textual content's appearance in the document image while incorporating a transformation which does not depend on specific model primitives or camera setup parameters. Second, pose normalization is applied on the word level aiming to restore all the local distortions of the document image. Experimental results on various document images with a variety of distortions demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed rectification methodology using a consistent evaluation methodology that encounters OCR accuracy and a newly introduced measure using a semi-automatic procedure. PMID:20876019

  20. Effectively Using IEP Goal Banks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ellen; McCall, Renee; Aiello, Rocco; Lieberman, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    For students with disabilities, annual goals are the nuts and bolts of the everyday program outlined in their individualized education program (IEP). According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004, a present level of performance with measurable annual goals must be outlined in a student's IEP. Goals should…

  1. 48 CFR 2452.219-74 - Small business subcontracting goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small business... Provisions and Clauses 2452.219-74 Small business subcontracting goals. As prescribed in 2419.708(b), insert the following provision: Small Business Subcontracting Goals (DEC 2012) (a) This provision does...

  2. 48 CFR 2452.219-74 - Small business subcontracting goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small business... Provisions and Clauses 2452.219-74 Small business subcontracting goals. As prescribed in 2419.708(b), insert the following provision: Small Business Subcontracting Goals (DEC 2012) (a) This provision does...

  3. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  4. Group Therapy Goals: A Comparison of Group Therapy Providers and Male Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert D.; Garland, J. Travis; Rozycki, Alicia T.; Reich, Darcy A.; Wilson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify important process and content goals from the perspective of inmates and compare these goals to the goals identified by group therapists in a previous study conducted by Winterowd, Morgan, and Ferrell (2001). Utilizing survey data from 156 incarcerated adult males, an initial confirmatory factor analysis…

  5. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  6. University Students' Achievement Goals and Approaches to Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Francisco; Berben, A. B. G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Achievement goals (AG) and students' approaches to learning (SAL) are two research perspectives on student motivation and learning in higher education that have until now been pursued quite independently. Aims: This study sets out: (a) to explore the relationship between the most representative variables of SAL and AG; (b) to identify…

  7. Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Goal Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary

    2011-01-01

    We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…

  8. A Technical and Operational Perspective on the DOE Energy Innovation Hub in Fuels from Sunlight, the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, N.; Royea, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    The design of highly efficient, non-biological, molecular-level energy conversion 'machines' that generate fuels directly from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide is both a formidable challenge and an opportunity that, if realized, could have a revolutionary impact on our energy system. Basic research has already provided enormous advances in our understanding of the subtle and complex photochemistry behind the natural photosynthetic system, and in the use of inorganic photo-catalytic methods to split water or reduce carbon dioxide--key steps in photosynthesis. Yet we still lack sufficient knowledge to design solar fuel generation systems with the required efficiency, scalability, and sustainability to be economically viable. In the DOE Energy Innovation Hub, the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, we are developing an artificial photosynthetic system that will only utilize sunlight and water as the inputs and will produce hydrogen and oxygen as the outputs. We are taking a modular, parallel development approach in which the three distinct primary components--the photoanode, the photocathode, and the product-separating but ion-conducting membrane--are fabricated and optimized separately before assembly into a complete water-splitting system. The design principles incorporate two separate, photosensitive semiconductor/liquid junctions that will collectively generate the 1.7-1.9 V at open circuit necessary to support both the oxidation of H2O (or OH-) and the reduction of H+ (or H2O). The photoanode and photocathode will consist of rod-like semiconductor components, with attached heterogeneous multi-electron transfer catalysts, which are needed to drive the oxidation or reduction reactions at low overpotentials. This talk will discuss a feasible and functional prototype and blueprint for an artificial photosynthetic system, composed of only inexpensive, earth-abundant materials, that is simultaneously efficient, durable, scalably manufacturable, and readily

  9. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  10. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  11. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical

  12. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  13. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  14. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  15. Theme: Achieving 2020 Goal 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Reinventing Agricultural Education 2020 Project's goal of partnerships and strategic alliances, which serves as a catalyst to ensure that the other goals are accomplished and sustained. Eleven articles discuss establishing partnerships at local, state, and national levels and balancing old alliances with new connections.…

  16. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for Adolescents Questionnaire)…

  17. Eyes on the prize: The longitudinal benefits of goal focus on progress toward a weight loss goal

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Kyle E.; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Eibach, Richard P.; Crescioni, A. William; Alquist, Jessica L.; Gerend, Mary A.; Dutton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that focusing on what has not yet been accomplished (goal focus) signals a lack of progress towards one’s high commitment goals and inspires greater motivation than does focusing on what has already been accomplished (accomplishment focus). The present investigation extends this research to a longitudinal, important domain by exploring the consequences of focusing on one’s goals versus accomplishments when pursuing a weight loss goal. Participants were tracked over the course of a 12-week weight loss program that utilized weekly group discussions and a companion website to direct participants’ focus toward their end weight loss goal or toward what they had already achieved. Goal-focused participants reported higher levels of commitment to their goal and, ultimately, lost more weight than did accomplishment-focused and no focus control participants. Accomplishment-focused participants did not differ from controls on any measure. PMID:21643510

  18. Final Report for DOE Award ER25756

    SciTech Connect

    Kesselman, Carl

    2014-11-17

    The SciDAC-funded Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) was established to address technical challenges that arise due to the frequent geographic distribution of data producers (in particular, supercomputers and scientific instruments) and data consumers (people and computers) within the DOE laboratory system. Its goal is to produce technical innovations that meet DOE end-user needs for (a) rapid and dependable placement of large quantities of data within a distributed high-performance environment, and (b) the convenient construction of scalable science services that provide for the reliable and high-performance processing of computation and data analysis requests from many remote clients. The Center is also addressing (c) the important problem of troubleshooting these and other related ultra-high-performance distributed activities from the perspective of both performance and functionality

  19. Goal Disengagement in Emerging Adulthood: The Adaptive Potential of Action Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In emerging adulthood, being committed to and making progress on important personal goals constitutes a source of identity and well-being. Goal striving, however, does not always go without problems. Even though highly committed to a goal, individuals may experience recurring setbacks and, consequently, increasing doubts about the goal that might…

  20. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  1. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  2. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  3. Motivation through Goal Setting: A Self-Determined Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Gregory S.; Strode, James P.

    2010-01-01

    For many coaches, motivation comes in the form of a great pre-game speech that fires up the athletes and inspires them to victory. While a pep-talk may certainly aid in motivating a team, its merits are often relied upon too heavily regarding its efficacy. Despite the tremendous amount of research that has been conducted, motivation still appears…

  4. Theorizing University Identity Development: Multiple Perspectives and Common Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Ginger Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Universities articulate their identities during moments of organizational change. The process of development of university identity is herein explored from multiple theoretical strands: (a) industrial/organizational psychology, (b) human development/social psychology, (c) marketing, and (d) postmodern sociological. This article provides an…

  5. Wind Powering America: Goals, Approach, Perspectives, and Prospects; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L. T.; Dougherty, P. J.

    2002-03-01

    While wind development activity in the United States has dramatically increased over the last 3 years, it has been mainly driven by policy mandates in the investor owned utility community. Also, while significant wind development has and is now occurring in the Northwest, the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, Texas, and several eastern states, there remain a number of states that have excellent resources that are essentially undeveloped. Additionally, the U.S. federal agencies represent the largest institutional load in the world, and thus are a potential large market for green (wind) energy. Rural America is economically stressed and traditional agricultural incomes are seriously threatened; wind development in these windy regions offers one of the most promising''crops'' of the 21st century. Public power serves these communities, and local development of wind with low-cost financing appears to be competitive with new conventional fossil energy sources.

  6. Science Goal Monitor: Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist s desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve om understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an operational prototype so that the perceived risks associated

  7. COMPLEMENTARITY OF ECOLOGICAL GOAL FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes, in the framework of network environ analysis, a set of analyses of energy-matter flow and storage in steady state systems. The network perspective is used to codify and unify ten ecological orientors or external principles: maximum power (Lotka), maximum st...

  8. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  9. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational. PMID:25772207

  10. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. A.; Dirks, J. A.; Brown, D. R.

    1985-05-01

    Long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies are discussed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of 0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  11. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  12. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  13. Reading Education: Student Terminal Goals, Program Goals, and Behavioral Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    This pamphlet of behavioral objectives for teachers of elementary school reading instruction was compiled by the Mesa Public School System, Mesa, Arizona. Terminal goals are stated behaviorally for prereading and readiness skills, which include comprehension, interests in letters and books, visual perception, and psychomotor awareness. Terminal…

  14. Science Goal Monitor: science goal driven automation for NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA's future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts' onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists' goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist's desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve our understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an "operational" prototype so that the perceived risks

  15. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  16. Federal Financing and University Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, John F.

    Universities that base their priorities on the availability of government funds rather than on carefully designed institutional goals and realistic calculations of their resources often overextend their financial resources. Since participation in federal programs requires a commitment of institutional funds, the reduction or curtailment of federal…

  17. Organizational Constraints and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putney, Frederick B.; Wotman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Management modeling techniques are applied to setting operational and capital goals using cost analysis techniques in this case study at the Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The model was created as a planning tool used in developing a financially feasible operating plan and a 100 percent physical renewal plan. (LBH)

  18. Cost goals for biofuels technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Flaim, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Federally funded energy research seeks to demonstrate that alternative fuels can be produced and then to induce private sector involvement by showing that they can be produced profitably. Prices for fossil fuels may be used as cost goals for biofuels to determine when profitability may be achieved. Achieving equality with fossil fuel prices drives out the highest-cost sources of supply and enables initial market penetration; as costs decrease, biofuels can potentially gain a greater market share. However, achieving competitive costs is not a sufficient condition for success unless prices of conventional substitutes are expected to rise. Cost goals are used for research planning purposes, as a common denominator to allow comparisons among many biofuels options. Application of standard investment criteria to biofuels R and D would require that benefits from their use pay back research costs. These benefits must be discounted because they are realized in the future. Furthermore, realization of future savings is uncertain, so risks must be accounted for. Research may be justified if the expected value of the discounted benefits is greater than the discounted cost of the research. Cost goals satisfying this condition might be substantially lower than projected fuel prices. This paper examines recent fossil fuel price projections and discusses the challenges biofuels research faces just to produce competitive products. In light of the difficult goals, researchers should adopt a strategy targeting major technological breakthroughs rather than incremental improvements. Production of ethanol from wood is used as an example of this strategy. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Meeting Weight Management Goals: The Role of Partner Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Dailey, René M; Crook, Brittani; Glowacki, Elizabeth; Prenger, Erica; Winslow, Addie Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Social support research suggests romantic partners could play a vital role in the success of individuals' weight management (WM) efforts, but contradictory findings from previous research have impeded our understanding of how romantic partners influence weight management goal attainment. Employing a confirmation perspective, overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] greater than 25) who were actively trying to manage their weight (N = 53) were asked to respond to daily questionnaires for a period of 2 weeks regarding their interactions with their romantic partner. Diet, exercise, and general weight management goal accomplishment were assessed. HLM was employed to assess the independent and interactive effects of partner acceptance and challenge on each of these goals. Findings suggest that perceiving high levels of both acceptance and challenge from partners was associated with more general WM and diet goal accomplishment. However, greater attainment of exercise goals was associated with only challenge. Fluctuations in partner acceptance and challenge were also examined to determine whether consistency in confirmation behaviors was associated with WM goals. Hierarchical regressions revealed that fluctuations in acceptance, but not challenge, were linked with goal attainment. Specifically, fluctuations in acceptance were helpful for those whose partners were perceived to exhibit lower levels of acceptance, but fluctuations were detrimental for those whose partners exhibited greater acceptance. Implications for communication among couples in which one partner is attempting to lose weight are discussed. PMID:27092591

  20. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  1. Relationships among Properties of College Students' Self-Set Academic Goals and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…

  2. Windows to the Future: Can the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Provide Opportunities for Nursing?

    PubMed

    Benton, David C; Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Windows of opportunity are wide open for the nursing profession to actively participate and engage in the policy implementation, evaluation, and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nurses bring valuable perspectives as members of diverse governance structures and offer a range of solutions that can help governments pursue and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and targets by 2030. PMID:27265954

  3. Communicating Aims and Learning Goals in Physical Education: Part of a Subject for Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelius, Karin; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Öhman, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, the aim of this article is to examine how aims and learning goals are communicated in physical education (PE) practice. A special focus is on scrutinising how teaching practices are framed in terms of whether and how the aims and learning goals are made explicit or not to students. The aim is also…

  4. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  5. Why Most Dieters Fail but Some Succeed: A Goal Conflict Model of Eating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.; Papies, Esther K.; Aarts, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Theories of eating regulation often attribute overweight to a malfunction of homeostatic regulation of body weight. With the goal conflict model of eating, we present a new perspective that attributes the difficulty of chronic dieters (i.e., restrained eaters) in regulating their food intake to a conflict between 2 incompatible goals--namely,…

  6. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  7. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  8. Are We Really Impacting Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Does It Matter?: Longitudinal Perspectives on Early Intervention from the Irish Public Health Services.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Mary; McDonough, Catherine M; Doyle, Roisin; Waddington, John L

    2016-06-01

    Although early intervention in psychosis is clinically intuitive and theoretically feasible, the reality is that over recent decades the evidence base to support it has not advanced as much as might have been anticipated. Material benefits of early intervention in established psychosis have not been universally demonstrated and much uncertainty continues to surround the field of treatment in the prodromal phase. Undoubtedly methodological differences between studies are relevant and better understanding of different treatment models and the effectiveness of their constituent parts may yield the most benefit, particularly from a public health perspective. PMID:27216898

  9. Examining Hong Kong Students' Achievement Goals and Their Relations with Students' Perceived Classroom Environment and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-Ling; Lee, John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Hong Kong students' achievement goals and their relations with students' perceived classroom environment and strategy use based on the multiple goal perspective of goal orientation theory. A total of 925 Grade 8 students from six secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily responded to a questionnaire that measured these three…

  10. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Wright, Julie A.; Migneault, Jeffrey P.; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals. PMID:25750817

  11. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Setting and Monitoring Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russell R.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluated therapeutic effectiveness of setting goals in behavioral terms while monitoring subject's progress in attaining these goals. Greater beneficial changes in patient attainment of goals were effected using a structured patient-therapist collaboration on weekly goals. Results indicate the goal attainment model with periodic monitoring is…

  12. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  13. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  14. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space. PMID:26216760

  15. Goal directed behavior and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Goal directed behavior is explained by two approaches: the first, which can be named as cybertetic (behavior is wieved as homeostatic and reflexive), and second, as cognitive approach, a learned response, (skills developed by whaching the behavior of another individual). The aim of the paper is to present a noninvasive method described as an interaction of human beings with environment, recording the electrical activity of the brain from the human scalp. Obtained results are in agreement of psychological theories that place at determined levels of age the acquisition of the capacities of abstract thinking and with the functional neuroanatomic studies according to which biological maturation is necessary for learning processes to develop. An acquired level of learning is in close relationship with the maturation level of the cerebral structures. PMID:27442417

  16. Building Pedagogical Intelligence. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2005-01-01

    It is hard to find a campus today that does not collect student evaluations of teaching. Not everyone, it is true, puts full stock in the results, but it is hard to argue with the idea that students have important perspectives to contribute. The writer advocates that listening to students is a good idea that does not go far enough. Describing…

  17. On becoming ready to pursue a goal you don't know you have: Effects of nonconscious goals on evaluative readiness

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Melissa J.

    2010-01-01

    Findings showed that the nonconscious activation of a goal in memory led to increased positive implicit attitudes toward stimuli that could facilitate the goal. This evaluative readiness to pursue the nonconscious goal emerged even when participants were consciously unaware of the goal-relevant stimuli themselves. The effect emerged the most strongly for those with some skill at the goal, and for those for whom the goal was most currently important. The effect of implicit goal activation on implicit attitudes emerged in both an immediate condition as well as a delay condition, suggesting that a goal rather than a non-motivational construct was activated. Participants' implicit attitudes toward a nonconscious goal also predicted their goal-relevant behavior. These findings suggest that people can become evaluatively ready to pursue a goal whenever it has been activated -- a readiness that apparently does not require conscious awareness or deliberation about either the goal or the goal-relevant stimuli. Theoretical implications of this type of implicit goal readiness are discussed. PMID:19025283

  18. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  19. Differential Valuations of Elementary Educational Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.

    Based upon a comprehensive approach to educational goal selection, a national sampling of elementary school principals, teachers, and parents was compared over various demographic variables in terms of their goal priorities. The data consisted of the rating of 106 goals by each person sampled in the study. In addition to the goal ratings, each…

  20. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  1. Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress & Future Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa

    2001-01-01

    This award was intended to provide financial support for an international astrophysics conference on gravitational lensing which was held at Boston University from July 25 to July 30, 1999. Because of the nature of the award, no specific research was proposed, nor was any carried out. The participants at the conference presented results of their on-going research efforts, and written summaries of their presentations have been published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific as part of their conference series. The reference to the conference proceedings book is Gravitational Lensing: Recent Progress and Future Goals, ASP Conference Series volume 237, eds. T. G. Brainerd and C. S. Kochanek (2001). The ISBN number of this book is 1-58381-074-9. The goal of the conference was to bring together both senior and junior investigators who were actively involved in all aspects of gravitational lensing research. This was the first conference in four years to address gravitational lensing from such a broad perspective (the previous such conference being IAU Symposium 173 held in Melbourne, Australia in July 1995). The conference was attended by 190 participants, who represented of order 70 different institutions and of order 15 different countries. The Scientific Organizing Committee members were Matthias Bartelmann (co-chair), Tereasa Brainerd (co-chair), Ian Browne, Richard Ellis, Nick Kaiser, Yannick Mellier, Sjur Refsdal, HansWalter Rix, Joachim Wambsganss, and Rachel Webster. The Local Organizing Committee members were Tereasa Brainerd (chair), Emilio Falco, Jacqueline Hewitt, Christopher Kochanek, and Irwin Shapiro. The oral sessions were organized around specific applications of gravitational lensing and included invited reviews, invited 'targeted talks', and contributed talks. The review speakers were Roger Blandford, Tereasa Brainerd, Gus Evrard, Nick Kaiser, Guinevere Kaufmann, Chris Kochanek, Charley Lineweaver, Gerry Luppino, Shude Mao, Paul Schechter, Peter

  2. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R.; Leicht, Christof A.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Romer, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  3. Perspective: Does Laboratory-Based Maximal Incremental Exercise Testing Elicit Maximum Physiological Responses in Highly-Trained Athletes with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Romer, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    The physiological assessment of highly-trained athletes is a cornerstone of many scientific support programs. In the present article, we provide original data followed by our perspective on the topic of laboratory-based incremental exercise testing in elite athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. We retrospectively reviewed our data on Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby athletes collected during the last two Paralympic cycles. We extracted and compared peak cardiometabolic (heart rate and blood lactate) responses between a standard laboratory-based incremental exercise test on a treadmill and two different maximal field tests (4 min and 40 min maximal push). In the nine athletes studied, both field tests elicited higher peak responses than the laboratory-based test. The present data imply that laboratory-based incremental protocols preclude the attainment of true peak cardiometabolic responses. This may be due to the different locomotor patterns required to sustain wheelchair propulsion during treadmill exercise or that maximal incremental treadmill protocols only require individuals to exercise at or near maximal exhaustion for a relatively short period of time. We acknowledge that both field- and laboratory-based testing have respective merits and pitfalls and suggest that the choice of test be dictated by the question at hand: if true peak responses are required then field-based testing is warranted, whereas laboratory-based testing may be more appropriate for obtaining cardiometabolic responses across a range of standardized exercise intensities. PMID:26834642

  4. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  5. Goal-based dictator game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  6. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  7. The rocky road from attitudes to behaviors: Charting the goal systemic course of actions.

    PubMed

    Kruglanski, Arie W; Jasko, Katarzyna; Chernikova, Marina; Milyavsky, Maxim; Babush, Maxim; Baldner, Conrad; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The issue of attitude-behavior relations is revisited in light of recent work on motivation and the psychology of goals. It is suggested that for object-attitudes to drive a specific behavior, a chain of contingencies must be realized: Liking must be transmuted into wanting, wanting must evolve into a goal, the goal must be momentarily dominant, and the specific behavior must be chosen as means of goal pursuit. Our model thus specifies a set of mediating processes that transpire between attitudes and behavior. Prior theories of attitude-behavior relations are examined from the present perspective, and its conceptual and empirical implications are noted. PMID:26192134

  8. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT. PMID:19454771

  9. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  10. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student’s major satisfaction between medical and business. Methods: A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Results: Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Conclusion: Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students’ goal and developing programs to enhance students’ social value of goal is necessary. PMID:26838564

  11. Career goals in the high risk adolescent.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Charlene; Woods, Charles; Barkin, Shari L

    2006-10-01

    Possessing a career goal might serve as a protective factor for an adolescent's healthy development. This could be especially important in adolescents who engage in high risk behaviors. The relationship between high risk adolescents' future career goals and selected predictor variables were examined. Almost half (49%) the students indicated a career goal. Students who reported a job were 5.1-fold more likely to have listed a future career goal. Females, those aged 18 years, and those whose mothers were employed were twice as likely to have a career goal. Considerations for fostering career goals for high risk students are warranted. PMID:16968962

  12. Does training on performance based financing make a difference in performance and quality of health care delivery? Health care provider’s perspective in Rungwe Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Performance Based Financing (PBF); a form of result based financing, has attracted a global attention in health systems in developing countries. PBF promotes autonomous health facilities, motivates and introduces financial incentives to motivate health facilities and health workers to attain pre-determined targets. To achieve this, the Tanzanian government through the Christian Social Services Commission initiated a PBF pilot project in Rungwe district, Mbeya region. Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center was given the role of training health workers on PBF principles in Rungwe. The aim of this study was to explore health care providers’ perception on a three years training on PBF principles in a PBF pilot project at Rungwe District in Mbeya, Tanzania. Methods This was an explorative qualitative study, which took place at Rungwe PBF pilot area in October 2012. Twenty six (26) participants were purposively selected. Six took part in- depth interviews (IDIs) and twenty (20) in the group discussions. Both the IDIs and the GDs explored the perceived benefit and challenges of implementing PBF in their workplace. Data were manually analyzed using content analysis approach. Results Overall informants had positive perspectives on PBF training. Most of the health facilities were able to implement some of the PBF concepts in their work places after the training, such as developing job descriptions for their staff, creating quarterly business plans for their facilities, costing for their services and entering service agreement with the government, improved record keeping, customer care and involving community as partners in running their facilities. The most common principle of paying individual performance bonuses was mentioned as a major challenge due to inadequate funding and poor design of Rungwe PBF pilot project. Conclusion Despite poor design and inadequate funding, our findings have shown some promising results after PBF training in the

  13. Social cues to joint actions: the role of shared goals

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Lucia M.; Aglioti, Salvatore M.; Candidi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we do not just move independently from how others move. Rather, the way we move conveys information about our cognitive and affective attitudes toward our conspecifics. However, the implicit social substrate of our movements is not easy to capture and isolate given the complexity of human interactive behaviors. In this perspective article we discuss the crucial conditions for exploring the impact of “interpersonal” cognitive/emotional dimensions on the motor behavior of individuals interacting in realistic contexts. We argue that testing interactions requires one to build up naturalistic and yet controlled scenarios where participants reciprocally adapt their movements in order to achieve an overarching “shared goal.” We suggest that a shared goal is what singles out real interactions from situations where two or more individuals contingently but independently act next to each other, and that “interpersonal” socio-emotional dimensions might fail to affect co-agents’ behaviors if real interactions are not at place. We report the results of a novel joint-grasping task suitable for exploring how individual sub-goals (i.e., correctly grasping an object) relate to, and depend from, the representation of “shared goals.” PMID:26283986

  14. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  15. ASD Academic Transitions: Trends in Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cindy; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic transitions are a necessary and important part of an ASD student's life. Parental involvement and perspective is a vital part of each transition planning process. The primary goal of this research was to identify trends in parent perspectives regarding ASD academic transitions through meta-synthesis of current research. The research…

  16. Analyzing Educational Policies: A Learning Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe and illustrate an analytical perspective in which educational policies are viewed as designs for supporting learning. From the learning design perspective, a policy comprises 3 components that we term the what, how, and "why of policy": the goals for the learning of members of the group targeted by the policy, the…

  17. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  18. Program Goals and Subject Matter Taxonomies for Course Goals, K-12. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tri-County Goal Development Project, Portland, OR.

    This collection of program goals and subject matter taxonomies was produced by the Tri-County (Oregon) Goal Development Project in response to requests that the project make available in one volume those sections of the course goal collections that are most useful for broad-based planning and decision-making. Program goals and course goals differ…

  19. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section. (c) Principles for developing interim goals. (1) RECOVER, using best available science and... available science. These goals may be modified, based on best available science and the adaptive assessment...) Improvement in native plant and animal abundance. (3) In developing the interim goals based upon water...

  20. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section. (c) Principles for developing interim goals. (1) RECOVER, using best available science and... available science. These goals may be modified, based on best available science and the adaptive assessment...) Improvement in native plant and animal abundance. (3) In developing the interim goals based upon water...

  1. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  2. Applications of Goal Programming to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This paper discusses goal programming, a computer-based operations research technique that is basically a modification and extension of linear programming. The authors first discuss the similarities and differences between goal programming and linear programming, then describe the limitations of goal programming and its possible applications for…

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS--A SYSTEMS APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OHM, ROBERT E.

    CONTEMPORARY SYSTEMS THEORISTS HAVE PROVIDED A HELPFUL VIEW OF THE WAY GOAL-STRUCTURE MAY SHAPE ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. THE "TRADITIONALIST" VIEW ASSIGNED ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS THE FUNCTIONS OF FORECASTING AND PLANNING. THE "EMERGING MODEL" VIEWED GOALS AS UNDEFINED ELEMENTS REQUIRING LITTLE SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT IN A…

  4. Examining the Stability of Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Edwards, Ordene

    2009-01-01

    We examined stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations over varying tasks. Two naturalistic longitudinal studies were conducted in undergraduate courses. Students completed self-reports designed to measure their achievement goals. Achievement goals were measured four times: prior to two assignments and two exams. Four…

  5. Goals of Universal Basic and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joel E.

    2006-01-01

    This essay discusses educational goals for universal basic and secondary education. It suggests some of the difficulties that may explain the great diversity of educational goals. The purposes of this essay are to (1) stimulate attention to educational goals on the part of individuals, families, educational professionals, community leaders in…

  6. The Common Goals of Michigan Education, Tentative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The common goals of Michigan education are grouped into four areas. The goals in the first area, citizenship and morality, deal with morality, citizenship and social responsibility, and rights and responsibilities of students. The goals in the second area, democracy and equal opportunity, deal with equality of educational opportunity, education of…

  7. The Language Factor in Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    Although development goals are usually set as targets that must be achieved in a development process, experience with development goals in Africa has tended to underscore underperformance either in terms of a shortfall in the targets attained or in terms of inadequate pursuit of specific goals. To illustrate this syndrome, the African Union's…

  8. Parental Goals and Talk with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Casillas, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents' goals for their 30-month olds were gathered…

  9. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    (NSRL) located at DoE s Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY. We describe recent NSRL results that are closing the knowledge gap in HZE radiobiology and improving exploration risk estimates. Linking probabilistic risk assessment to research goals makes it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, which include the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits, and probabilistic assessments of the effectiveness of design trade spaces such as material type, mass, solar cycle, crew selection criteria, and biological countermeasures. New research in SPE alert and risk assessment, individual radiation sensitivity, and biological countermeasure development are described.

  10. Exploring preferences for domain-specific goal management in patients with polyarthritis: what to do when an important goal becomes threatened?

    PubMed

    Arends, Roos Y; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-11-01

    Usually priorities in goal management--intended to minimize discrepancies between a given and desired situation--are studied as person characteristics, neglecting possible domain-specific aspects. However, people may make different decisions in different situations depending on the importance of the personal issues at stake. Aim of the present study therefore was to develop arthritis-related vignettes to examine domain-specific goal management and to explore patients' preferences. Based on interviews and literature, situation-specific hypothetical stories were developed in which the main character encounters a problem with a valued goal due to arthritis. Thirty-one patients (61 % female, mean age 60 years) evaluated the face validity of the newly developed vignettes. Secondly, 262 patients (60 % female, mean age 63 years) were asked to come up with possible solutions for the problems with attaining a goal described in a subset of the vignettes. Goal management strategies within the responses and the preference for the various strategies were identified. The 11 developed vignettes in three domains were found to be face-valid. In 90 % of the responses, goal management strategies were identified (31 % goal maintenance, 29 % goal adjustment, 21 % goal disengagement, and 10 % goal re-engagement). Strategy preference was related to domains. Solutions containing goal disengagement were the least preferred. Using vignettes for measuring domain-specific goal management appears as valuable addition to the existing questionnaires. The vignettes can be used to study how patients with arthritis cope with threatened goals in specific domains from a patient's perspective. Domain-specific strategy preference emphasizes the importance of a situation-specific instrument. PMID:26265022

  11. Effective Protection of Open Space: Does Planning Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Toddi A.; Hess, George R.

    2009-07-01

    High quality plans are considered a crucial part of good land use planning and often used as a proxy measure for success in plan implementation and goal attainment. We explored the relationship of open space plan quality to the implementation of open space plans and attainment of open space protection goals in Research Triangle, North Carolina, USA. To measure plan quality, we used a standard plan evaluation matrix that we modified to focus on open space plans. We evaluated all open space plans in the region that contained a natural resource protection element. To measure plan implementation and open space protection, we developed an online survey and administered it to open space planners charged with implementing the plans. The survey elicited each planner’s perspective on aspects of open space protection in his or her organization. The empirical results (1) indicate that success in implementation and attaining goals are not related to plan quality, (2) highlight the importance of when and how stakeholders are involved in planning and implementation processes, and (3) raise questions about the relationship of planning to implementation. These results suggest that a technically excellent plan does not guarantee the long-term relationships among local landowners, political and appointed officials, and other organizations that are crucial to meeting land protection goals. A greater balance of attention to the entire decision process and building relationships might lead to more success in protecting open space.

  12. Effective protection of open space: does planning matter?

    PubMed

    Steelman, Toddi A; Hess, George R

    2009-07-01

    High quality plans are considered a crucial part of good land use planning and often used as a proxy measure for success in plan implementation and goal attainment. We explored the relationship of open space plan quality to the implementation of open space plans and attainment of open space protection goals in Research Triangle, North Carolina, USA. To measure plan quality, we used a standard plan evaluation matrix that we modified to focus on open space plans. We evaluated all open space plans in the region that contained a natural resource protection element. To measure plan implementation and open space protection, we developed an online survey and administered it to open space planners charged with implementing the plans. The survey elicited each planner's perspective on aspects of open space protection in his or her organization. The empirical results (1) indicate that success in implementation and attaining goals are not related to plan quality, (2) highlight the importance of when and how stakeholders are involved in planning and implementation processes, and (3) raise questions about the relationship of planning to implementation. These results suggest that a technically excellent plan does not guarantee the long-term relationships among local land owners, political and appointed officials, and other organizations that are crucial to meeting land protection goals. A greater balance of attention to the entire decision process and building relationships might lead to more success in protecting open space. PMID:19219489

  13. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviors. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month-olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactions were investigated via coding videotapes of observations in the home. Parents’ short- and long-term goals spanned several areas including educational, social-emotional, developmental and pragmatic goals. Parental utterances most frequently focused on pragmatic issues, followed by play and academic topics. Parents who mentioned long-term educational goals devoted more of their talk to academic topics and less to pragmatic topics, controlling for socio-economic status. Thus, parental goals differ and these differences relate to the conversations parents engage in with their children. PMID:22003316

  14. Creating good relationships: responsiveness, relationship quality, and interpersonal goals.

    PubMed

    Canevello, Amy; Crocker, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Perceived partner responsiveness is a core feature of close, satisfying relationships. But how does responsiveness originate? Can people create relationships characterized by high responsiveness and, consequently, higher quality relationships? The authors suggest that goals contribute to cycles of responsiveness between two people, improving relationship quality for both of them. The present studies examine (a) how interpersonal goals initiate responsiveness processes in close relationships, (b) the self-perpetuating nature of these processes, and (c) how responsiveness evolves dynamically over time through both intrapersonal projection and reciprocal interpersonal relationship processes. In a semester-long study of 115 roommate dyads, actors' compassionate and self-image goals predicted a cycle of responsiveness between roommates, occurring within weeks and across the semester. In a 3-week study of 65 roommate dyads, actors' goals again predicted cycles of responsiveness between roommates, which then contributed to both actors' and partners' relationship quality. Results suggest that both projection and reciprocation of responsiveness associated with compassionate goals create upward spirals of responsiveness that ultimately enhance relationship quality for both people. PMID:20565187

  15. Encoding the goal of an object-directed but uncompleted reaching action in 6- and 9-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-07-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement towards one of two objects. This reaching movement was only presented until the hand passed the midpoint between the starting position and the position of the target object. Subsequently, two final states of the reaching movement were presented simultaneously. In the plausible final state, the hand grasped the object to which the reaching movement was geared; in the implausible final state, the hand grasped the other object. In Studies 1 and 3, infants watched the actor from an allocentric perspective, and in Studies 2 and 3 from an egocentric perspective. Results indicate a discrimination of the two final states if the scene was presented from an allocentric perspective: both 6- and 9-month-olds looked longer at the implausible final state. This was not the case if infants saw the action from an egocentric perspective. The presented findings show that using this paradigm, 6-month-olds are already able to infer the goal of an uncompleted action without seeing the achievement of the goal itself. However, they encoded the goal of the reaching action only when it was presented from an allocentric perspective but not from an egocentric perspective. PMID:18576968

  16. Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla

    Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

  17. Islamic Educational Goals, Methods, and Content, with Emphasis on Shia' Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    As a major world religion representing approximately 20% of the human family, Islam holds particular and significant educational perspectives. The purpose of this article is to identify and interpret the viewpoints of Islam on education (with emphasis on Shia' faith). To accomplish this aim, "educational goals" from the viewpoint of Islam have…

  18. Positive Deviance during Organization Change: Researchers' Social Construction of Expanded University Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Claire Euline

    2013-01-01

    Many universities have expanded from teaching only to include research goals, requiring shifts in organization behavior. An exploratory case study method was used to examine these dynamics among positive deviant researchers at the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech), the single case examined, from a social construction perspective. As a…

  19. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom: Effects of Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Hartzell, Stephanie A.; Greene, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships of teachers' epistemological beliefs, motivation, and goal orientation to their instructional practices that foster student creativity were examined. Teachers' perceived instructional practices that facilitate the development of multiple perspectives in problem solving, transfer, task commitment, creative skill use, and…

  20. Goal-Source Asymmetry and Crosslinguistic Grammaticalization Patterns: A Cognitive-Typological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabata, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the patterns of semantic extensions of allative markers are compared with those of ablative markers from a cognitive-typological perspective. Despite the symmetry the two notions appear to exhibit semantically, goal and source exhibit asymmetry and the prevalence of the former over the latter can be seen in a wide range of…

  1. Interrelationships between Expressive Individualism and Other Achievement Goal Orientations among African and European American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the construct of expressive individualism and its relationship to other goal perspectives established in sport literature. European and African American high school athletes completed surveys. Results indicate that personal expression relates to task orientation for African Americans, whereas for European Americans it relates to ego…

  2. Considering anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    PubMed

    Blair, R J R

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to consider anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Five main claims are made: First, reactive aggression is the ultimate behavioral expression of anger and thus we can begin to understand anger by understanding reactive aggression. Second, neural systems implicated in reactive aggression (amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray; the basic threat system) are critically implicated in anger. Factors such as exposure to extreme threat that increase the responsiveness of these systems, should be (and are in the context of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), associated with increased anger. Third, regions of frontal cortex implicated in regulating the basic threat system, when dysfunctional (e.g., in the context of lesions) should be associated with increased anger. Fourth, frustration occurs when an individual continues to do an action in the expectation of a reward but does not actually receive that reward, and is associated with anger. Individuals who show impairment in the ability to alter behavioral responding when actions no longer receive their expected rewards should be (and are in the context of psychopathy) associated with increased anger. Fifth, someone not doing what another person wants them to do (particularly if this thwarts the person's goal) is frustrating and consequently anger inducing. The response to such a frustrating social event relies on the neural architecture implicated in changing behavioral responses in non-social frustrating situations. PMID:22267973

  3. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  4. Preschoolers' comprehension of goal structure in narratives.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Jennifer A

    2004-03-01

    Preschool children's understanding and use of goals were studied in two experiments. Children heard stories in the presence of pictures or props. The stories were varied by goal success occurring early or late in the story, with late goal success resulting in more causal connections in the narrative. The results showed that children recalled goals spontaneously and that their recall benefited from goal structure of the stories. Pictures benefited the children when the stories were short. Enactment of the props versus static displays of the props did not enhance recall in the second experiment. Preschool children thus demonstrated ability to infer and use goal and causal information in stories for both picture and object support. PMID:15250184

  5. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  6. An application of performance goal based method for the design and evaluation of structures

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1996-10-15

    This paper describes an application of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) performance goal based method for the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components (SSCS) at Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH). The philosophy on which DOE`s method is based has been employed to construct a graded approach to the minimum structural design and evaluation criteriz@ used at the DOE Hanford Site that complies with the DOE Order 54E;0.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation. The FDH structural design and evaluation criteria applies to both nuclear and non-nuclear SSCs that are not covered by a reactor safety analysis report.

  7. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  8. Goal desires moderate intention-behaviour relations.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Perugini, Marco; Hurling, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Models such as the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour and the Theory of Planned Behaviour imply that the impact of one's goals on behaviour is mediated by more proximal determinants. We hypothesize that goals can have a broader and more dynamic impact on behaviour and, specifically, that goal desires can moderate the effect of intentions on behaviour. Four studies addressed this issue by examining the direct and moderated effects of goal desires on behaviour. All of the studies required participants to complete baseline measures and then a follow-up indicator of behaviour. In Study 1 (N=119) that focused on fruit intake, Study 2 (N=123) and Study 3 (N=96) concerned with drinking alcohol and Study 4 (N=109) regarding snack consumption, behavioural intentions were more reliably related to behaviour when goal desires were strong. The results of Study 3 suggested that goal desire stability increases the likelihood of this moderator effect emerging and Study 4 revealed that this effect was not suppressed by intention stability. The findings suggest that goals and behavioural intentions can operate simultaneously and jointly influence action, a view that contradicts predictions that the effects of goals are fully mediated by more proximal behavioural determinants. PMID:17594757

  9. Goal Engagement and Goal Attainment in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study analyzed the effects of domain-specific goal engagement on the attainment of four developmental goals in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and in 449 sighted peers. Goal engagement predicted stronger progress in goal attainment with regard to getting access to a peer group, career choice and development of…

  10. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  11. Goal Self-Concordance Moderates the Relationship between Achievement Goals and Indicators of Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery- and performance-approach achievement goals depend on the extent to which these goals are pursued for self-concordant reasons. A sample of 220 undergraduate students completed measures of achievement goals, goal self-concordance, academic satisfaction, and academic…

  12. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and…

  13. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  14. Achievement Goal Pursuit: Are Different Goals Activated and More Beneficial in Different Types of Academic Situations?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Finney, Sara J.; Davis, Susan L.; Owens, Kara M.

    This study was intended to evaluate whether a recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal model could be replicated, and it aimed to evaluate whether students were more advantaged by pursuing one type of goal or a combination of goals. The achievement goals and graded performance of 1,213 undergraduates were studied at 3 time points during a semester…

  15. Maryland Reaches for the Goals: A Report on Maryland's Progress toward National Education Goals 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document reports on Maryland's progress as of 1995 toward the eight National Education Goals. The document lists the National Education Goals; describes state progress made toward each goal; describes programs that address each goal; and presents statistics on enrollment, public school funding, teacher salaries, attendance, special programs,…

  16. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  17. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  18. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  19. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  20. Striving for Excellence: The National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    This compilation of ERIC Digests describes issues, highlights exemplary programs and promising practices, and explains research results that can assist educators in achieving the far-reaching national education goals adopted by the President and the governors in 1990. The two lead digests are "An Overview of the Six National Education Goals" and…

  1. Course Goals in Computer Education, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allenbrand, Bob, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be used in conjunction with a school district's educational goals and focusing on what is to be learned rather than the methodology to be used, the program and course goals presented here are intended as guidelines for planning and evaluating elementary and secondary school curricula in computer education. Of four possible levels of…

  2. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  3. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Garza, J.C. de la

    1994-12-31

    Because performance standards are not established for the Yucca Mountain Site (the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been remanded), it is necessary to define surrogate or derived criteria to evaluate performance. The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) in 1988 attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish repository performance. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. This paper reports on a two month effort undertaken to reevaluate the SCP thermal goals using an expert Working Group. Fifteen thermal goals identified in various sections of the SCP were evaluated by the Working Group. It was recommended that two goals be deleted: (1) to keep borehole wall temperature < 275 degrees C and keep the mid-drift temperature < 100 degrees C. It was also recommended that one goal be added to establish a thermal loading that would not degrade the Upper Paintbrush Tuff Formation (Lowermost Tiva Canyon; Yucca Mountain; Pah Canyon; and Uppermost Topopah Spring Members) (Vitric nonwelded) (PTn) barrier. Two other thermal goals and a process statement were reworded to afford compatibility with any emplacement mode, not just the vertical borehole. A recommendation was made to increase the conservatism of a goal to limit potential impact on the surface environment by limiting temperature rise to < 2 degrees C rather than < 6 degrees C. This revised set of goals was used in the Thermal Loading Systems Study.

  4. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  5. Goals for Curriculum Development in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    This paper lists goals for curriculum development in environmental education prepared in response to objectives proposed at the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education in 1977. The goals are presented in four levels. In level one, the ecological foundation level, nine conceptual components are presented including…

  6. Middle Level Students' Goal Orientations and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Emmanuel; Atta, George

    2015-01-01

    The study used a phenomenological lens to explore middle level classroom goal perceptions and classroom experiences that were pivotal in motivating students to achieve their learning goals. A total of 46 participants (31 students and 15 teachers) from two middle schools in a Midwestern city participated in focus group discussions and one-on-one…

  7. An Approach to Goal-Statement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, John R.; Robinson, Donald W.

    1969-01-01

    "The results of this study support the proposition that the application of environmental assessment techniques based on CUES items provides information which can help evaluate the formal goals of an institution in terms of the degree to which the institutional environment is facilitative of those goals. (Author)

  8. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  9. 28 CFR 544.81 - Program goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program goals. 544.81 Section 544.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.81 Program goals. The Warden shall ensure that an inmate with the need, capacity,...

  10. Goal Setting with Couples in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ross M.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests goal development as an effective way to set the stage for change with couples in groups. It helps to clarify issues, opens channels of communication, change behaviors in desired directions, and evaluate that change. Spouses, group members, and counselors can benefit from goal-setting. (Author/BEF)

  11. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  12. 7 CFR 3550.151 - Servicing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing goals. 3550.151 Section 3550.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.151 Servicing goals. This subpart sets forth the Rural Housing...

  13. Online Goals Before There Was Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that digital resources and telecommunications give librarians the best chance in decades to reexamine and achieve many of their fundamental goals. Discusses the goals of providing the right information in appropriate formats, keeping the intellectual record, providing personalized information services, and serving as educators, and cites…

  14. Rural Development: Goals, Dynamics, Crises and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlik, Paul J.

    The continuing transition of rural development from its old to present day form is discussed, treating varied perceptions of its goals and the continuing resolution of approaches through legislation and appropriations. Some of the goals are community development, human resources development, natural resources preservation, and a more equitable…

  15. It's not the goal ... it's the journey.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, C

    1994-10-01

    His first real odyssey began 18 years ago in Alaska. The goal was Ecuador. He got as far as the Panama Canal. Traveling man John Glaser, now vice president of Information Systems at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital, learned long ago that the actual goal sometimes matters less than what happens along the way. PMID:10161109

  16. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  17. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  18. Infants Generate Goal-Based Action Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the actions of others is critical to smooth social interactions. Prior work suggests that both understanding and anticipation of goal-directed actions appears early in development. In this study, on-line goal prediction was tested explicitly using an adaptation of Woodward's (1998) paradigm for an eye-tracking task. Twenty 11-month-olds…

  19. Consumer Buying Goals and Communication Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Four hundred eight female users of cosmetics in Madison, Wisconsin, responded to questionnaires which sought to discover correlations among the goal of the purchaser and the type and source of information sought in the buying decision. Two goals were identified: rational (cost, functional benefits of product, or possible undesirable consequences…

  20. Goal Attainment Scaling. A responsive measure of client outcomes.

    PubMed

    Forbes, D A

    1998-12-01

    Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) was developed by Kiresuk and Sherman in 1968. Although highly criticized in the early years of its conception, GAS is beginning to be recognized as a reliable, valid, and responsive outcome measurement approach. This article describes the application of GAS, using elderly home health care clients as an example. Reliability and validity issues are examined. Criticism of GAS is often based on traditional psychometric assumptions associated with normative assessment and does not reflect the evaluative nature of the GAS methodology. The advantages and limitations of GAS are discussed. Goal Attainment Scaling has the potential to demonstrate the important contribution home health care programs make to clients by measuring the change that has occurred during their admission to the program. This kind of information is required by policy makers, case managers, and home health care providers to develop policy, allocate limited resources, and offer appropriate and effective services. PMID:10025309

  1. GOAL-to-HAL translation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  2. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  3. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis. PMID:26688112

  4. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  5. Does Retention Help? Perspectives after Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Nancy Baenen

    The Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (AISD-ORE) has recently completed a three year study of the effects of retention on elementary students. As in other studies comparing the academic achievement of elementary retainees and similar students not retained, findings indicated that promoted students generally show…

  6. An Orthopedic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Mark; Grana, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the development of osteoarthritis and whether running and other impact loading sports promote it. Although these sports do not cause arthritis in normal weight bearing limbs, they can accelerate it in damaged joints. It is important to identify people with preeexisting joint disease so they can choose nonimpact-loading aerobic exercise.…

  7. Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew

    2010-06-01

    The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

  8. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions. PMID:26139447

  9. The Effects of Pain Intensity on Goal Schemas and Goal Pursuit: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A.; Enders, Craig; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle goals remain uncharted. This study investigated the impact of pain intensity (assessed on three occasions each day) and goal-related schematic thinking (ratings of importance, planning, and goal pursuit opportunities, assessed only in the morning) on afternoon and evening work and lifestyle goal pursuit. Methods A community sample of working adults with chronic pain (N =131) were screened and interviewed about their work and lifestyle goals and completed a 21-day telephonic diary. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate within-person and between-person effects. Results At the within-person level, morning pain intensity was inversely related to schematic cognition concerning work and lifestyle goals, whereas, at the between-person level, morning pain intensity varied positively with schematic thinking about work goals as well with afternoon life-style goal pursuit. At both the between- and within- analytic levels, morning goal schemas were positively associated with the pursuit of each type of goal in the afternoon and again in the evening. Moreover, positive carry-over effects of morning goal schemas on next day afternoon goal pursuit were observed. Conclusions Whereas morning pain intensity exhibited inconsistent effects across analytic levels, morning goal-related schematic thinking consistently predicted goal pursuit across analytic levels, type of goal, and time of day. These findings have implications for treatment and prevention of pain’s potentially deleterious effects on workplace and lifestyle goals. PMID:25180547

  10. Aristotle, Hume and the goals of medicine.

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, David

    2016-08-01

    Whilst medicine is now an immense global industry clinicians often appear unclear as to its goals. This paper uses two philosophical steps to clarify our conceptualization of health and thus our goals for healthcare. Firstly, clinicians need to understand the significance of Hume's fact / value distinction in medicine, for medicine relies on both facts and values. Secondly clinicians need a better specified definition of 'health' to use as a goal for healthcare. Aristotle's model of human flourishing is used as the starting point for a new conceptualization of health. PMID:25851463

  11. Translation of clinical problems in osteoarthritis into pathophysiological research goals

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Francis; Blanco, Francisco J; Cosimo, de Bari; Lafeber, Floris; Hauge, Ellen; Higginbottom, Adele; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Loughlin, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Moilanen, Eeva; Pitsillidou, Irene; Tsezou, Aspasia; van Meurs, Joyce; Vincent, Tonia; Wittoek, Ruth; Lories, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) accounts for more disability among the elderly than any other disease and is associated with an increased mortality rate. The prevalence in Europe will rise in the future since this continent has a strongly ageing population and an obesity epidemic; obesity and age both being major risk factors for OA. No adequate therapeutic options, besides joint replacement, are available, although they are greatly needed and should be acquired by adequate research investments. However, the perspective on OA from a researcher's point of view is not always aligned with the perspective of a patient with OA. Researchers base their views on OA mainly on abnormalities in structure and function while patients consider OA as a collection of symptoms. In this viewpoint paper, we discuss the possibility of translating the most important clinical problems into pathophysiological research goals to facilitate the translation from bench to bedside and vice versa. This viewpoint is the outcome of a dialogue within the ‘European League Against Rheumatism study group on OA’ and People with Arthritis/Rheumatism across Europe (PARE) representatives. PMID:27252894

  12. Perspective: Nonadiabatic dynamics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, John C.

    2012-12-01

    Nonadiabatic dynamics—nuclear motion evolving on multiple potential energy surfaces—has captivated the interest of chemists for decades. Exciting advances in experimentation and theory have combined to greatly enhance our understanding of the rates and pathways of nonadiabatic chemical transformations. Nevertheless, there is a growing urgency for further development of theories that are practical and yet capable of reliable predictions, driven by fields such as solar energy, interstellar and atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, vision, single molecule electronics, radiation damage, and many more. This Perspective examines the most significant theoretical and computational obstacles to achieving this goal, and suggests some possible strategies that may prove fruitful.

  13. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  14. SURFACES PRELIMINARY REMEDIATION GOALS FOR RADIONUCLIDES (SPRG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internet based Calculational tool for establishing 10(-6) cancer risk based Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for radioactively contaminated outside hard surfaces (e.g., streets, sidewalks, slabs, and outside of buildings) for CERCLA remedial response actions.

  15. Motivation and goals of ERL 2005

    SciTech Connect

    S. Chattopadhyay

    2005-03-19

    Various types of ERL sources are introduced, the relevant beam physics and accelerator technology issues noted, innovative areas of development identified and current and future goals of ERL research and development established.

  16. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate...

  17. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate...

  18. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate...

  19. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate...

  20. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  1. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities (see 28 CFR 544.81). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate...

  2. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  3. Integration through Magnet Schools: Goals and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgan, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Considers magnet school programs in eight cities and concludes that the integrative function of these schools is questionable. Proposes that the goal of improving educational opportunity through magnet schools effects only a small number of students. (Author/MK)

  4. How to Succeed In MBO Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odiorne, George S.

    1978-01-01

    From a 1977 survey of twelve administrators who successfully use a management-by-objectives (MBO) method, the author lists twenty-seven steps for company management to take in setting their organizational goals. (MF)

  5. Progress Toward N+1 Noise Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2008-01-01

    A review of the progress made towards achieving the Subsonic Fixed Wing project's noise goal for the next generation single aisle aircraft is presented. The review includes the technology path selected for achieving the goal as well as highlights from several in-house and partnership test programs that have contributed to this effort. In addition, a detailed, self-consistent, analysis of the aircraft system noise for a conceptual next generation single aisle aircraft is also presented. The results indicate that with the current suite of noise reduction technologies incorporated into the conceptual aircraft a cumulative noise reduction margin of 26 EPNdB could be expected. This falls 6 dB short of the N+1 goal, which is 32 EPNdB below Stage 4 noise standard. Potential additional noise reduction technologies to help achieve the goal are briefly discussed.

  6. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  7. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) textbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickison, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The textbook provides a semantical explanation accompanying a complete set of GOAL syntax diagrams, system concepts, language component interaction, and general language concepts necessary for efficient language implementation/execution.

  8. The Goal Model and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warriner, Charles K.

    This analysis is an attempt to specify the purposes and factors in organizational change and continuity. Denial of the purposeful premise makes possible an environmental perspective that views the characteristics of organizations as a function of their adaptation to their environment. This approach is based on the premises that (1) change in what…

  9. Distal Goal and Proximal Goal Transfer of Training Interventions in an Executive Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Travor C.; Warren, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed transfer from a customized executive training program involving 89 public sector employees. Participants who set a distal goal had higher self-efficacy than those in both the "do your best" (DYB) and the proximal plus distal goal conditions. Participants who set proximal plus distal goals had higher maintenance than those who…

  10. Situation-Specificity of Children's Social Goals: Changing Goals According to Changing Situations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Children's agentic and communal goals were examined in hypothetical "conflict," "group entry," "victimization," and "positive" situations (N = 310, 11-13 years). Multilevel modeling was used to separate the variation in goals to the between- and within- (i.e., situation-specific) individual levels. About half of the variation in goals was due to…

  11. Teaching Students to Attain Annual Transition Goals Using the Take Action Goal Attainment Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jodie D.; Martin, James E.; Osmani, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used the Take Action goal attainment lesson package and assistive technology to teach nine high school students with mild to moderate disabilities to attain annual transition goals. The Take Action lessons increased students' goal attainment knowledge, and this knowledge generalized to improved Plan Organizers, and slightly…

  12. Academic Goals, Goal Process Cognition, and Exam Performance among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris A.; Fairholme, Chris; Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Newton, Craig

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N = 365) and in Study 2 (N = 325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology…

  13. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  14. The Role of Goal Orientations and Goal Structures in Explaining Classroom Social and Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polychroni, Fotini; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Sideridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Examining motivational variables may prove to be particularly fruitful towards our understanding of classroom processes, student behaviors and school outcomes. The present study examined the role of personal and contextual goals (goals and goal structures) towards explaining social relationships (peer, teacher-student and home-school). 1493 fifth…

  15. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  16. Differentiating Life Goals and Therapeutic Goals: Expanding Our Understanding of the Working Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Reviews have shown that goal consensus and collaboration between client and therapist are significant for treatment outcome. This study introduces a differentiation between goals and tasks in the client's everyday life and goals and tasks in psychotherapy sessions while focusing on the links between the two. Five typical types of problematic goal…

  17. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  18. Software for Optimizing Plans Involving Interdependent Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    A computer program enables construction and optimization of plans for activities that are directed toward achievement of goals that are interdependent. Goal interdependence is defined as the achievement of one or more goals affecting the desirability or priority of achieving one or more other goals. This program is overlaid on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system, aspects of which have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. Unlike other known or related planning programs, this program considers interdependences among goals that can change between problems and provides a language for easily specifying such dependences. Specifications of the interdependences can be formulated dynamically and provided to the associated planning software as part of the goal input. Then an optimization algorithm provided by this program enables the planning software to reason about the interdependences and incorporate them into an overall objective function that it uses to rate the quality of a plan under construction and to direct its optimization search. In tests on a series of problems of planning geological experiments by a team of instrumented robotic vehicles (rovers) on new terrain, this program was found to enhance plan quality.

  19. The US Department of Energy PFBC perspective, 1994 update

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, L.K.; Dellefield, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Significant progress in the development and commercialization of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) technology has occurred since the 1992 Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) Conference. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been and continues to be an active partner in most of these activities. This paper presents the 1994 status of DOE activities and a discussion of the importance DOE places on the development and commercialization of PFBC systems. Specifically, this paper discusses the status and focus of DOE activities. Currently, first-generation PFBC systems are on the brink of commercial deployment. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting in this process by funding demonstration programs to validate that PFBC technologies are a low-risk, environmentally-attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. A brief discussion of the scope and the status of major demonstrations are presented. This paper also presents a snapshot of the PFBC development activities that are part of the DOE Research and Development (R&D) Program, i.e., hot gas particulate removal systems and pilot-plant facilities in support of advanced PFBC combined-cycle systems. The R&D pilot plant activities discussed include advanced component development tests at the Foster Wheeler Development Facility and the status of the fully integrated advanced PFBC being built as part of the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, Alabama. Finally, a brief perspective is provided as to how PFBC systems will need to further evolve in order to continue to remain viable. As we look into the next century, there will be continual pressure to make power systems cleaner and more efficient. By increasing cycle efficiencies to over 50 percent and further reducing emissions, it is possible for PFBC systems to meet these challenges. Suggested goals and development targets for advanced, super-clean PFBC systems are briefly discussed.

  20. Goal Pursuit in Individuals with Chronic Pain: A Personal Project Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crombez, Geert; Lauwerier, Emelien; Goubert, Liesbet; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In individuals with chronic pain (ICPs), controlling pain often is a salient goal, despite the difficulty to achieve it. This situation may bring along frustration and distress. Yet much remains unknown about the content, appraisal, and structure of goals that ICPs pursue. Here, we explore these goals, and specifically focus upon possible differences and interrelations between pain control goals (e.g., “to control my pain”) and non-pain goals (e.g., “to go to work”). Design and Methods: “Personal Project Analysis” was used in 73 ICPs (48 females; 25 males; Mage = 49.85 years; SD = 9.72) to elicit goals and goal appraisals. Interrelations between pain and non-pain goals, namely interference (i.e., negative influence), facilitation (i.e., positive influence), and necessary condition (i.e., conditional relation between pain control goal and non-pain goals) were measured with three items. Self-report measures of pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, problem solving and acceptance were completed. Results: Participants reported a variety of goals. Appraisals of pain control goals were less favorable than appraisals of non-pain goals. ICPs with higher acceptance and meaningfulness of life reported more control over pain goals, and more progress in reaching pain control goals. These individuals also reported an overall much more positive appraisal of non-pain goals (i.e., less stress, difficulty, more progress, control). In contrast, high catastrophizing and the need to solve pain were negatively related to goal appraisals. Importantly, ICP’s with high perceived meaningfulness of life despite pain experienced less necessity to achieve pain control goals in order to achieve non-pain goals. This was opposite for individuals with high levels of catastrophizing. Discussion: An understanding of why ICPs may become stuck in attempts to control their pain does not only require an understanding of how individuals appraise their pain, but also requires an

  1. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  2. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  3. Integrating two epistemological goals: why shouldn't we give it another chance?

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shinobu

    2012-07-01

    As Beller, Bender, and Medin (in press) pointed out in their target article, in the contemporary study of culture in psychology, anthropology is virtually invisible. In this commentary, I traced this invisibility to a root conflict in epistemological goals of the two disciplines: Whereas anthropologists value rich description of specific cultures, psychologists aspire to achieve theoretical simplicity. To anthropologists, then, to understand culture is to articulate symbolic systems that are at work in a given location at a given time. In contrast, to psychologists, to understand culture amounts to identifying socio-cultural variables that moderate psychological effects. These divergent epistemological goals dictate both theoretical perspectives and empirical approaches in both disciplines. Yet, the two goals are both valid and in fact complementary. A renewed effort toward integration of the two goals may enrich both disciplines. PMID:22684774

  4. Joint attention, shared goals and social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel social closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task whilst sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e. averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any significant effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected co-actors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  5. Measuring Achievement Goal Orientations of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muthart, Thomas; Khan, Ghous M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the achievement goal orientations of pharmacy students attending a 3-year (accelerated) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. A 16-item survey based on the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to first-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy (ACP). Students were instructed to indicate to what degree each statement was true for them using a 7-point Likert scale (1=not true of me, 7=very true of me). Results. One hundred twenty of the 155 students (77%) completed the survey. Most students had mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and/or performance-avoidance goal orientations; few had work-avoidance goal orientations. Second-year students and male students had higher work-avoidance mean scores than did P1 students and female students (p<0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacy students were mastery- and performance-oriented learners, and most did not have work-avoidance goal orientations. Male students and P2 students had higher work-avoidance than did female students and P1 students, respectively. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24761015

  6. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  7. Breastfeeding: population-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2013-02-01

    From a population perspective, the achievement of the goals of exclusive breastfeeding throughout the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with the introduction of age-appropriate complementary feeding for infant feeding, women and families must be inspired and empowered to overcome health system, sociocultural, and economic/political barriers. This article discusses trends in breastfeeding, influences on the reacceptance of a breastfeeding norm, and breastfeeding as a social and public health issue. The goal is to create an enabling environment for optimal breastfeeding in health care and social norms, and to adjust the social and political realities to support an economic milieu that favors breastfeeding. PMID:23178058

  8. Using goal-driven deep learning models to understand sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Yamins, Daniel L K; DiCarlo, James J

    2016-03-01

    Fueled by innovation in the computer vision and artificial intelligence communities, recent developments in computational neuroscience have used goal-driven hierarchical convolutional neural networks (HCNNs) to make strides in modeling neural single-unit and population responses in higher visual cortical areas. In this Perspective, we review the recent progress in a broader modeling context and describe some of the key technical innovations that have supported it. We then outline how the goal-driven HCNN approach can be used to delve even more deeply into understanding the development and organization of sensory cortical processing. PMID:26906502

  9. Habitual control of goal selection in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Fiery; Morris, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Humans choose actions based on both habit and planning. Habitual control is computationally frugal but adapts slowly to novel circumstances, whereas planning is computationally expensive but can adapt swiftly. Current research emphasizes the competition between habits and plans for behavioral control, yet many complex tasks instead favor their integration. We consider a hierarchical architecture that exploits the computational efficiency of habitual control to select goals while preserving the flexibility of planning to achieve those goals. We formalize this mechanism in a reinforcement learning setting, illustrate its costs and benefits, and experimentally demonstrate its spontaneous application in a sequential decision-making task. PMID:26460050

  10. Evolutionary programming for goal-driven dynamic planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Guest, Clark C.; Ross, David O.

    2002-03-01

    Many complex artificial intelligence (IA) problems are goal- driven in nature and the opportunity exists to realize the benefits of a goal-oriented solution. In many cases, such as in command and control, a goal-oriented approach may be the only option. One of many appropriate applications for such an approach is War Gaming. War Gaming is an important tool for command and control because it provides a set of alternative courses of actions so that military leaders can contemplate their next move in the battlefield. For instance, when making decisions that save lives, it is necessary to completely understand the consequences of a given order. A goal-oriented approach provides a slowly evolving tractably reasoned solution that inherently follows one of the principles of war: namely concentration on the objective. Future decision-making will depend not only on the battlefield, but also on a virtual world where military leaders can wage wars and determine their options by playing computer war games much like the real world. The problem with these games is that the built-in AI does not learn nor adapt and many times cheats, because the intelligent player has access to all the information, while the user has access to limited information provided on a display. These games are written for the purpose of entertainment and actions are calculated a priori and off-line, and are made prior or during their development. With these games getting more sophisticated in structure and less domain specific in scope, there needs to be a more general intelligent player that can adapt and learn in case the battlefield situations or the rules of engagement change. One such war game that might be considered is Risk. Risk incorporates the principles of war, is a top-down scalable model, and provides a good application for testing a variety of goal- oriented AI approaches. By integrating a goal-oriented hybrid approach, one can develop a program that plays the Risk game effectively and move

  11. Transforming student perspectives through reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Ruland, Judith P; Ahern, Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary goals of registered nurse-to-bachelor of science in nursing education is to help registered nurses see things in a new way or to transform their perspective. A package of 4 commonly used reflective writing activities used before, during, and after class is described as it is used for perspective transformation. This learning package goal is to push registered nurse-to-bachelor of science in nursing students in their first course to consider new ways of thinking about their practice and their education. PMID:17496824

  12. Rural Youth and Anticipatory Goal Deflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Evans W.; And Others

    Race, sex, community size, occupation of major wage earner, father's education, mother's education, and certainty of expectations were the variables used in this study to determine the "anticipatory occupational goal deflection" (AOGD) of urban and rural youth (blacks and whites) in Louisiana. Least squares analysis of variance and other…

  13. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  14. Goal Orientation towards Teaching (GOTT) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucsera, John V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Walls, Stephen; Walker, Josh; Svinicki, Marilla

    2011-01-01

    Goal orientation theory has been widely investigated and found to affect many motivation and behavior variables in relation to student learning and work performance. However, unlike the motivational construct of self-efficacy, researchers have yet to investigate whether this theory can be applied to the field of teaching and contribute to the…

  15. Accomplishing Multiple Goals through Community Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jody

    2007-01-01

    With schools being asked to accomplish more and more, it is increasingly important to, whenever possible, address multiple goals in teaching. Educating the whole child dictates that we find ways to ensure our graduates are well-rounded, independent thinkers capable of becoming well-adjusted, contributing adults. Thus community service has become a…

  16. Israeli Students' Perceptions of Geography Instruction Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Gal, B.; Sofer, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the official Israeli Ministry of Education's curriculum goals of studying geography with the perceptions of Israeli Jewish and Arab junior high school students who study the subject. In addition, the perceptions of Jewish and Arab students about the importance of studying geography are compared. In the first stage of…

  17. Intentional change, intrinsic motivations, and goal generation.

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Moderato, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Wilson et al. draw our attention to the problem of a science of intentional change. We stress the connection between their approach and existing paradigms for learning and goal generation that have been developed in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and psychology. These paradigms outline the structural principles of a domain-general and teleologically open agent. PMID:25162876

  18. Triple-goal estimates for disease mapping.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Louis, T A

    Maps of regional morbidity and mortality rates play an important role in assessing environmental equity. They provide effective tools for identifying areas with potentially elevated risk, determining spatial trend, and formulating and validating aetiological hypotheses about disease. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods produce stable small-area rate estimates that retain geographic and demographic resolution. The beauty of the Bayesian approach lies in its ability to structure complicated models, inferential goals and analyses. Three inferential goals are relevant to disease mapping and risk assessment: (i) computing accurate estimates of disease rates in small geographic areas; (ii) estimating the distribution of disease rates over the region; (iii) ranking the disease rates so that environmental investigation can be prioritized. No single set of estimates can simultaneously optimize these three goals, and Shen and Louis propose a set of estimates that perform well on all three goals. These are optimal for estimating the distribution of rates and for ranking, and maintain a high accuracy in estimating area-specific rates. However, the Shen/Louis method is sensitive to choice of priors. To address this issue we introduce a robustified version of the method based on a smoothed non-parametric estimate of the prior. We evaluate the performance of this method through a simulation study, and illustrate it using a data set of county-specific lung cancer rates in Ohio. PMID:10960854

  19. Scientific Goals of the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    The Human Genome Project, an effort to sequence all the DNA of a human cell, is needed to better understand the behavior of chromosomes during cell division, with the ultimate goal of understanding the specific genes contributing to specific diseases and disabilities. (MSE)

  20. Achieving Learning Goals through Play. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widerstrom, Anne H.

    2004-01-01

    Play is more than just fun; it is a powerful teaching tool that helps young children learn. With this practical, activity-filled guide, teachers will have ready-to-use strategies for weaving individual learning goals into play throughout the school day. Created for use with children ages 2 to 5 who have special needs--but equally effective for…

  1. The Influence of Momentary Goal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents' cognition is influenced by a dynamic educational environment. Studies examining the influence of schools, classrooms, and teachers often overlook the momentary variation found in these environments and the effect this variation has on student cognition. Using an achievement goal theory framework, this study examined the momentary…

  2. Production Goals Process: Means and End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leske, Gary W.

    1974-01-01

    To remain educationally accountable, agriculture instructors must use production enterprises whenever they are available, exploiting their potential for facilitating the development of students' decision-making abilities through management practices, presented here in sequential development (student-set goals, standards, records, record analyses,…

  3. Beef Up the Meatless National Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith L.

    1991-01-01

    To achieve the national goals for education, we must exert the same energy, time, money, and practice on education basics as we devote to sports, video games, rock music, television viewing, shopping, and other diversions. Modest suggestions, such as a law that switches off TV nationally during early weekday evenings, are provided. (MLH)

  4. Children's Developing Commitments to Joint Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Katharina; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated young children's commitment to a joint goal by assessing whether peers in collaborative activities continue to collaborate until all received their rewards. Forty-eight 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children worked on an apparatus dyadically. One child got access to her reward early. For the partner to benefit as well, this child…

  5. Benefit assessment of NASA space technology goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The socio-economic benefits to be derived from system applications of space technology goals developed by NASA were assessed. Specific studies include: electronic mail; personal telephone communications; weather and climate monitoring, prediction, and control; crop production forecasting and water availability; planetary engineering of the planet Venus; and planetary exploration.

  6. CETA Goal Making: Perception and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Haskel D., II.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes alternative staff and participant perceptions regarding the goals of the CETA program in Tennessee. The perceptions regarded the relative importance of the economic, personal development, and social outcomes of participating in a CETA program. It was concluded that avoidance of staff stereotyping of clientele would benefit the program.…

  7. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim goals. 385.38 Section 385.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water...

  8. Mapping to Curricular and Institutional Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaks, D'Arcy J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will discuss how institutional research professionals might integrate co-curricular learning outcomes into larger measures of institutional effectiveness. By mapping co-curricular learning outcomes to align with curricular and institutional goals, linkages can be made that demonstrate mission-congruent activities and outcomes across…

  9. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of the Natural... restoration success of the Plan may be evaluated, and ultimately reported to Congress in accordance with § 385...) Purpose. (1) Interim goals are a means by which the restoration success of the Plan may be evaluated...

  10. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  11. Curriculum in English I: Options, Goals, Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S.

    Intended as a handbook for students of curriculum and teaching methods, this booklet surveys two of the three major elements of an English curriculum (goals and content) as defined by the National Council of Teachers of English. The first chapter traces some philosophical options open to the teacher and curriculum developer and offers a short…

  12. University Student's Goal Profiles and Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, undergraduate students provided confidence ratings to predict future performance in answering questions drawn from the text before reading the text, after reading the text and after rereading the text. Self-reports of achievement goal orientations during reading and posttest scores were also collected. Student's calibration index…

  13. Less Is Sometimes More: Goal Content Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia; Lacante, Marlies

    2004-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theories, increasing the utility value of a learning activity should result in higher motivation and better learning. In contrast, self-determination theory posits that the content of the future goals (intrinsic vs. extrinsic) that enhance the utility value of the learning activity needs to be considered as well.…

  14. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  15. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  16. True North: Goals for Denver Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnell-Kay Foundation (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many metrics along K-12 education may serve as indicators of potential success, but they are not goals. Students must leave the public school system at least proficient enough to face the tasks ahead. At the moment when students depart the K-12 system to enter college or career, it matters neither how proficient they were years before, nor the…

  17. National Goals Prove An Elusive Target

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, David M.

    1972-01-01

    Reports the results of a three-day workshop sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Social and physical scientists discussed some of the broad questions regarding the role of science and technology in national goals. (Author/TS)

  18. Student Goal Analysis for Accountability and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    1989-01-01

    Draws from a survey of student educational objectives conducted at Prince George's Community College during registration to present a typology of student goals. Defines five types of students: job seekers, job upgraders, transfer preparers, enrichers, and explorers. Discusses implications for marketing. (DMM)

  19. Is goal ascription possible in minimal mindreading?

    PubMed

    Butterfill, Stephen A; Apperly, Ian A

    2016-03-01

    In this response to the commentary by Michael and Christensen, we first explain how minimal mindreading is compatible with the development of increasingly sophisticated mindreading behaviors that involve both executive functions and general knowledge and then sketch 1 approach to a minimal account of goal ascription. PMID:26901746

  20. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  1. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  2. Seven Factors in Setting Career Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Kenneth

    1981-01-01

    Discusses seven factors that influence students in setting career goals, including: (1) monetary reward; (2) type of work; (3) level of responsibility; (4) type of environment; (5) social needs (self and family); (6) ego satisfaction/prestige; and (7) security. (RC)

  3. Musically Meaningful: The Interpersonal Goals of Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    To enhance music learning and performance, teachers can direct learners toward authentic, interpersonal goals. Teachers' aspirations for their students' positive musical experiences may be realized when learners seek to connect with their audiences and evoke responses in listeners. Instead of anxiety-promoting concerns over judgment,…

  4. Lumina Foundation's Strategic Plan. Goal 2025

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The mission of Lumina Foundation for Education is to expand access and success in education beyond high school, particularly among adults, first-generation college-going students, low-income students and students of color. This mission is directed toward a single, overarching "big goal"--to increase the percentage of Americans with high-quality…

  5. Possibilities and goals for the future SST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, A.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of the social value of the SST project are presented. It is emphasized that the means of civil mass transportation reaching the same range available to military decrease the tension among neighboring nations and reduce human fatigue. The present status of the SST in the United States, together with the future goals, are described.

  6. Parental Engagement Proves No Easy Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Few would quarrel with the goal of increasing parents' and families' engagement in education in the name of school improvement. But there is far less consensus on what that engagement should look like--and on how educators and policymakers should be promoting it. Those questions are evident in the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which…

  7. Conation, Goal Accomplishment Style and Wholistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Kathryn S.; Romano, Patricia R.

    Conation is a domain of behavior or mental processes associated with goal directed action. Wholistic education stresses an integrated approach to an individual's learning process; thus, consideration of the integration of the four domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor and conative) can find a receptive niche among educators who seek to…

  8. Goals 2000: What's in a Name?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Goals 2000 is the offspring of "A Nation at Risk," a 1983 teacher- and school-bashing report. IBM CEO Louis Gerstner named the problem and defined the solution, claiming the need for choice, competition, and technology, recasting students as human capital, and marketizing the teacher/community relationship. Tables summarize critics' concerns.…

  9. Educational Goals of Teacher and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsdale, Edward M.

    1970-01-01

    There is a wide difference between student goals and those most engineering faculty set for students, which can be bridged if faculty persuade students to assume major responsibility for their own education. Article adapted from address at American Society for Engineering Education's Rocky Mountain Section Effective Teaching Institute, May 1,…

  10. Discovering Educational Goals -- A Research Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.

    This paper reexamines the primary goals of education as they were stated by educators many years ago as the seven "Cardinal Principals" of public education: (1) Instruction in health, the inculcation of good health habits, and the provision of physical education; (2) the acquisition of the basic skills--reading, writing, oral expression, and…

  11. A Taxonomy of Counseling Goals and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, David H.; Raming, Henry E.

    1979-01-01

    Taxonomies were generated from theorists in counseling and psychotherapy. Goal clusters included: Transfer of Therapy Learning to Outside Situations, Awareness and Acceptance of Self in Conflict, Specific Symptom Removal, and Awareness of Positive Inner Resources. Process clusters included: Client Acceptance, Active Critical Questioning, and…

  12. New FCC Goal in Ownership Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Josh

    By first describing the historical stance of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) toward ownership of broadcast facilities and then describing the FCC's most recent policy statements, this report compares the differing viewpoints and recognizes that the new value or goal that seems to have been established conflicts with the past emphasis…

  13. Goals & Objectives Statements. SPEC Kit 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of statements of goals and objectives from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) sections from management review and analysis program reports from the University of Washington Libraries and the University of Rochester Library; (2) a detailed organization description from the Columbia…

  14. Visualising Learning Goals with the Quail Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botturi, Luca

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the Quail Model, a device for the classification and visualisation of learning goals. The model is a communication tool that can smoothen the discussion within a course design team, support shared understanding, and improve decision making. Its theoretical background mingles contributions from instructional design (Bloom,…

  15. Navajo Health Authority: Accomplishments--Future Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    Accomplishments of the Navajo Health Authority (NHA) since it began in 1972 are presented in synopsis form in a report of programs underway at Window Rock and Shiprock, along with NHA goals: to promote development of Navajo Health manpower, preventive medicine, health education, and native healing sciences. After a brief review of executive and…

  16. The nucleus accumbens as a nexus between values and goals in goal-directed behavior: a review and a new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Gurney, Kevin; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is a fundamental means by which animals can flexibly solve the challenges posed by variable external and internal conditions. Recently, the processes and brain mechanisms underlying such behavior have been extensively studied from behavioral, neuroscientific and computational perspectives. This research has highlighted the processes underlying goal-directed behavior and associated brain systems including prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and, in particular therein, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). This paper focusses on one particular process at the core of goal-directed behavior: how motivational value is assigned to goals on the basis of internal states and environmental stimuli, and how this supports goal selection processes. Various biological and computational accounts have been given of this problem and of related multiple neural and behavior phenomena, but we still lack an integrated hypothesis on the generation and use of value for goal selection. This paper proposes an hypothesis that aims to solve this problem and is based on this key elements: (a) amygdala and hippocampus establish the motivational value of stimuli and goals; (b) prefrontal cortex encodes various types of action outcomes; (c) NAcc integrates different sources of value, representing them in terms of a common currency with the aid of dopamine, and thereby plays a major role in selecting action outcomes within prefrontal cortex. The “goals” pursued by the organism are the outcomes selected by these processes. The hypothesis is developed in the context of a critical review of relevant biological and computational literature which offer it support. The paper shows how the hypothesis has the potential to integrate existing interpretations of motivational value and goal selection. PMID:24167476

  17. Using Growth Norms to Set Instructional Goals for Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Lindsay B.; Stickney, Eric M.; Ysseldyke, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which classroom teachers in naturalistic settings used a Goal-Setting Tool to set instructional goals for struggling students, the kinds of goals they set, their progress monitoring practices with and without goals, and the extent to which students gain more when a goal-setting tool is used. The goal-setting tool…

  18. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing goals. An Enterprise shall be in compliance with a single-family housing goal if its performance under...

  19. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing goals. An Enterprise shall be in compliance with a single-family housing goal if its performance under...

  20. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing goals. An Enterprise shall be in compliance with a single-family housing goal if its performance under...

  1. 12 CFR 1282.12 - Single-family housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single-family housing goals. 1282.12 Section... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.12 Single-family housing goals. (a) Single-family housing goals. An Enterprise shall be in compliance with a single-family housing goal if its performance under...

  2. Continuum of Counseling Goals: A Framework for Differentiating Counseling Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Presents counseling goals in a developmental continuum similar in concept to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Discusses ego development goals, socialization goals, developmental goals, self-esteem goals, and self-realization goals and describes characteristics and implications of the continuum. (JAC)

  3. Requirements as Goals and Commitments Too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Amit K.; Mylopoulos, John; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo; Singh, Munindar P.

    In traditional software engineering research and practice, requirements are classified either as functional or non-functional. Functional requirements consist of all functions the system-to-be ought to support, and have been modeled in terms of box-and-arrow diagrams in the spirit of SADT. Non-functional requirements include desired software qualities for the system-to-be and have been described either in natural language or in terms of metrics. This orthodoxy was challenged in the mid-90 s by a host of proposals that had a common theme: all requirements are initially stakeholder goals and ought to be elicited, modeled and analyzed as such. Through systematic processes, these goals can be refined into specifications of functions the system-to-be needs to deliver, while actions assigned to external actors need to be executed. This view is dominating Requirements Engineering (RE) research and is beginning to have an impact on RE practice. We propose a next step along this line of research, by adopting the concept of conditional commitment as companion concept to that of goal. Goals are intentional entities that capture the needs and wants of stakeholders. Commitments, on the other hand, are social concepts that define the willingness and capability of an actor A to fulfill a predicate ϕ for the benefit of actor B, provided B (in return) fulfills predicate ψ for the benefit of actor A. In our conceptualization, goals are mapped to collections of commitments rather than functions, qualities, or actor assignments. We motivate the importance of the concept of commitment for RE through examples and discussion. We also contrast our proposal with state-of-the-art requirements modeling and analysis frameworks, such as KAOS, MAP, i * and Tropos.

  4. Striving for educational and career goals during the transition after high school: what is beneficial?

    PubMed

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Chang, Esther S; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2013-09-01

    The present study takes a motivational perspective that views youths' educational and career engagement as influential and potentially competing for the same motivational resources in the transition to adulthood. We investigated whether motivational engagement with educational and career goals in the year after high-school graduation was differentially associated with educational, career-related and subjective well-being outcomes 2 and 4 years after school graduation. Our longitudinal study of a multi-ethnic sample of Los Angeles high-school graduates followed participants 2 years (N = 561; 61.5 % female) and 4 years (N = 364; 59.8 % female) after high school graduation. The findings indicate that motivational engagement with educational goals after high school graduation predicted educational attainments and psychological well-being at follow-up 2 and 4 years after graduation, and occupational progress at 4 years after graduation. Work hours assessed shortly after high school graduation were associated with poorer educational outcomes both at 2 and 4 years after high school. Occupational goal engagement was not associated with better outcomes, but predicted less educational attainment 4 years after graduating. Thus, educational goal engagement predicted favorable outcomes, whereas career-related goal engagement for the most part was neutral with some select associations with negative educational outcomes. A strong motivational commitment to educational goals, but not to career goals, is an important component of a successful transition to adulthood. PMID:22956336

  5. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Morris, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  6. Online Education: A Science and Technology Studies Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Edward C.; Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that research into the pedagogical value and potential of new technologies is limited by the implicit philosophical perspectives on technology that such research adopts. These perspectives either imbue technologies with inalienable qualities (essentialism) or posit technology as a neutral means for realizing goals defined by…

  7. Jobs for Florida's Graduates Needs To Correct Start-Up Problems To Meet Statutory Goals. OPPAGA Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Legislature, Tallahassee. Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability.

    A review of the annual report of Jobs for America's Graduates, Inc., regarding the activities of the Jobs for Florida's Graduates Program, concluded that the program had not met its goals. It does not appear that the program will meet its statutory outcome goals of an 82 percent student graduation rate and a 70-75 percent employment rate, and the…

  8. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  9. Movement or Goal: Goal Salience and Verbal Cues Affect Preschoolers' Imitation of Action Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The impact of goal salience and verbal cues given by the model on 3- to 5-year-olds' reproduction of action components (movement or goal) was investigated in an imitation choice task. Preschoolers watched an experimenter moving a puppet up or down a ramp, terminating at one of two target objects. The target objects were either differently colored…

  10. Examination of Achievement Goals and Social Goals of College Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenowich, Patricia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Goal theory postulates that learners have both academic and social reasons for pursuing academic outcomes. In domain-learning theory, the development of expertise is domain specific and is a progressive learning process that is characterized by the interplay of knowledge, interest, and strategic processing. This study integrated goal theory and…

  11. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  12. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  13. Neural correlates of idiographic goal priming in depression: goal-specific dysfunctions in the orbitofrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Eddington, Kari M.; Dolcos, Florin; McLean, Amy Noll; Krishnan, K. Ranga; Cabeza, Roberto; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether depressed (vs non-depressed) adults showed differences in cortical activation in response to stimuli representing personal goals. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory as well as previous research, we predicted that depressed patients would manifest attenuated left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation in response to their own promotion goals as well as exaggerated right OFC activation in response to their own prevention goals. Unmedicated adults with major depression (n = 22) and adults with no history of affective disorder (n = 14) completed questionnaires and a personal goal interview. Several weeks later, they were scanned during a judgment task which (unknown to them) included stimuli representing their promotion and prevention goals. Both groups showed similar patterns of task-related activation. Consistent with predictions, patients showed significantly decreased left OFC and increased right OFC activation compared to controls on trials in which they were exposed incidentally to their promotion and prevention goals, respectively. The results suggest that depression involves dysfunction in processing two important types of personal goals. The findings extend models of the etiology of depression to incorporate cognitive and motivational processes underlying higher order goal representation and ultimately may provide an empirical basis for treatment matching. PMID:19433416

  14. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    2002-12-01

    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  15. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    SciTech Connect

    Graniere, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  16. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L.; Chang, Betty P. I.; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  17. Science Goal Driven Observing and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Amuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jones, Jeremy; Wolf, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft autonomy will be an integral part of mission operations in the coming decade. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will meet the science goals of a program, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the onboard software can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download a subset of observations at a reduced resolution, the spacecraft's overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof-of-concept effort to address the above challenge. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher level science goals from the scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations.

  18. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress.

    PubMed

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D; Farrow, Tom F D

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  19. Neural representation of emotion regulation goals.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Carmen; Bode, Stefan; Baudewig, Juergen; Jacobs, Arthur M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-02-01

    The use of top-down cognitive control mechanisms to regulate emotional responses as circumstances change is critical for mental and physical health. Several theoretical models of emotion regulation have been postulated; it remains unclear, however, in which brain regions emotion regulation goals (e.g., the downregulation of fear) are represented. Here, we examined the neural mechanisms of regulating emotion using fMRI and identified brain regions representing reappraisal goals. Using a multimethodological analysis approach, combining standard activation-based and pattern-information analyses, we identified a distributed network of lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal regions implicated in reappraisal and within it, a core system that represents reappraisal goals in an abstract, stimulus-independent fashion. Within this core system, the neural pattern-separability in a subset of regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe was related to the success in emotion regulation. Those brain regions might link the prefrontal control regions with the subcortical affective regions. Given the strong association of this subsystem with inner speech functions and semantic memory, we conclude that those cognitive mechanisms may be used for orchestrating emotion regulation. Hum Brain Mapp 37:600-620, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26537018

  20. Realistic Goals and Processes for Future Space Astronomy Portfolio Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    It is generally recognized that international participation and coordination is highly valuable for maximizing the scientific impact of modern space science facilities, as well as for cost-sharing reasons. Indeed, all large space science missions, and most medium and small missions, are international, even if one country or space agency has a clear leadership role and bears most of the development costs. International coordination is a necessary aspect of future mission planning, but how that coordination is done remains debatable. I propose that the community's scientific vision is generally homogeneous enough to permit international coordination of decadal-scale strategic science goals. However, the timing and budget allocation/funding mechanisms of individual countries and/or space agencies are too disparate for effective long-term strategic portfolio planning via a single international process. Rather, I argue that coordinated space mission portfolio planning is a natural consequence of international collaboration on individual strategic missions. I review the process and outcomes of the U.S. 2010 decadal survey in astronomy & astrophysics from the perspective of a government official who helped craft the survey charter and transmitted guidance to the scientific community on behalf of a sponsoring agency (NASA), while continuing to manage the current portfolio that involved ongoing negotiations with other space agencies. I analyze the difficulties associated with projecting long-term budgets, obtaining realistic mission costs (including the additional cost burdens of international partnerships), and developing new (possibly transformational) technologies. Finally, I remark on the future role that privately funded space science missions can have in accomplishing international science community goals.

  1. Hungarian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montvay, István; Biró, Tamás

    Rolf Hagedorn is introduced from the personal perspective of two Hungarian physics generations. A colleague (IM) and a student (TB) recount memories and events from the early-70-s to mid-80-s, and evaluate Hagedorn's impact on present particle and nuclear Hungarian physics community.

  2. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  3. Future Goal Setting, Task Motivation and Learning of Minority and Non-Minority Students in Dutch Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority…

  4. What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and…

  5. Trust, Shared Goals and Participation in Partnerships: Reflections of Post-16 Education and Training Providers in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Jaswinder K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of trust and shared goals in relation to participation in inter-organisational and multi-agency partnerships. It draws on a study of partnership working in England and focuses in particular on the perspectives of senior managers of post-16 education and training providers with substantial experience of working in…

  6. What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of Students' Motives and Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This comparative case study explored the motives and goals of two American students participating in short-term study abroad (SA). Findings, interpreted from an activity theory perspective, demonstrated that despite similar language-learning histories and demographic characteristics, the students were learning French and participating in SA for…

  7. Students' Achievement Goal Orientations and Their Behavioral and Emotional Engagement: Co-Examining the Role of Perceived School Goal Structures and Parent Goals during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Voulala, Katerina; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

    2009-01-01

    The role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals in predicting adolescents' goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement in the classroom was examined in the present study. Surveys were given to a sample of 271 seventh- and ninth-grade students. Path analyses showed that (a) perceived school mastery goal structures…

  8. Funding and the Attainment of Transformation Goals in South Africa's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The link between the funding of higher education and the attainment of higher education transformation goals in South Africa, especially access by students from previously under-represented communities, is the main focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper examines three questions: (a) How does public funding of higher education encourage (or…

  9. The Superintendent's Organizational Approach to Defined Autonomy and the Goal Implementation Process as It Impacts Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kultgen, Merrl Kent

    2010-01-01

    This single-case study addresses the lack of qualitative research describing the instructional role of the superintendent. Guiding this study are two research questions, "How does the goal implementation process as an element of the superintendent's organizational approach impact student success?" and "How does defined autonomy as an element of…

  10. Exploring the interplay between the motivational climate and goal orientation in predicting maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Buch, Robert; Nerstad, Christina G L; Aandstad, Anders; Säfvenbom, Reidar

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon achievement goal theory, this study explored the interplay between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and objective measurements of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The results of a study of 123 individuals from three Norwegian military academies revealed that under the condition of a high-performance orientation there is a stronger positive relationship between performance climate and VO2max for individuals reporting a low (rather than high)-mastery orientation. Furthermore, we found that for individuals with a high-mastery orientation there is a stronger positive relationship between mastery climate and VO2max for individuals reporting a low (rather than high)-performance orientation. These findings contribute to achievement goal theory by providing support for an interactionist person-environment fit perspective. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25995068

  11. Current Issues in Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintrich, Paul R.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Kempler, Toni M.

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on three general areas of research on achievement goal theory, including the definition and role of achievement goals, the role of contextual goals and factors, and the measurement and induction of goals. Issues regarding the definition of achievement goals include the generality of the approach/avoid dimension and the…

  12. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  13. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  14. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  15. 12 CFR 1281.11 - Bank housing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank housing goals. 1281.11 Section 1281.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING GOALS Housing Goals § 1281.11 Bank housing goals. (a) Volume threshold. The housing...

  16. Indiana 2000: Indiana Progress Report, National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    Indiana's progess toward meeting each of the six national goals proposed at the Education Summit in 1989 is described in this report. For each of the six goals, the progress made and the work remaining to meet future needs are provided. Information for each goal includes: (1) statement of the goal; (2) key questions (e.g., for goal 1--readiness,…

  17. When and How Goals Are Contagious in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Goal contagion occurs when a perceiver interacts with a partner whose behavior implies he/she is pursuing a particular goal and the perceiver accurately infers and subsequently pursues the partner's goal. Goal contagion was assessed in conversations between unacquainted individuals. In 2 experiments, the ways in which goal specificity, inference…

  18. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  19. Science Goal Driven Observing and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Grosvenor, Sandy; Korathkar, Anuradha; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Wolf, Karl; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft autonomy will be an integral part of mission operations in the coming decade. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will meet the science goals of a program, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the onboard software can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download a subset of observations at a reduced resolution, the spacecraft's overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof- of-concept effort to address the above challenge. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher-level science goals from the scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations. This paper will focus on our strategy for developing SGM and the technical challenges that we have encountered. We will discuss the SGM architecture as it applies to the proposed MIDEX-class mission Kronos. However, the architecture and interfaces will also be designed for easy adaptability to other observing platforms, including ground-based systems and to work with different scheduling and pipeline processing systems.

  20. Audioptimization: Goal-based acoustic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monks, Michael Christopher

    Acoustic design is a difficult process, because the human perception of sound depends on such things as decibel level, direction of propagation, and attenuation over time, none of which are tangible or visible. The advent of computer simulation and visualization techniques for acoustic design and analysis has yielded a variety of approaches for modeling acoustic performance. However, current computer-aided design and simulation tools suffer from two major drawbacks. First, obtaining the desired acoustic effects may require a long, tedious sequence of modeling and/or simulation steps. Second, current techniques for modeling the propagation of sound in an environment are prohibitively slow and do not support interactive design. This thesis presents a new approach to computer-aided acoustic design. It is based on the inverse problem of determining material and geometric settings for an environment from a description of the desired performance. The user interactively indicates a range of acceptable material and geometric modifications for an auditorium or similar space, and specifies acoustic goals in space and time by choosing target values for a set of acoustic measures. Given this set of goals and constraints, the system performs an optimization of surface material and geometric parameters using a combination of simulated annealing and steepest descent techniques. Visualization tools extract and present the simulated sound field for points sampled in space and time. The user manipulates the visualizations to create an intuitive expression of acoustic design goals. Interactive rates are achieved for surface material modifications by preprocessing the geometric component of the simulation, and accelerate geometric modifications to the auditorium. by trading accuracy for speed through a number of interactive controls. I describe an interactive system that allows flexible input and display of the solution and report results for several performance spaces. (Copies

  1. Establishing national health goals and standards.

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, D I

    1983-01-01

    Four statements of national health goals and standards were proclaimed from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services during the 1970s. Two were based on statutory mandates--the National Guidelines for Health Planning and the Model Standards for Community Preventive Health Services. Two were the results of administrative initiatives--the Forward Plans for Health and the complementary publications "Healthy People" and "Promoting Health/Preventing Disease". These efforts present a variety of approaches and experiences and can provide direction and lessons for future endeavors along these lines. The four issuances include guidance on national priorities, resource standards, and accessibility to care. They also offer goals and objectives for local services and health status. They address a multiplicity of issues, ranging from hospital bed supply and recommended uses of specialized medical equipment to infant mortality and proposed reductions in death and disability. Almost all urge further actions to prevent illness and promote health. The development of statements of national health goals and standards has been advocated by some experts and questioned by others. Advocates believe that these materials can help clarify purposes and priorities for health programs, resulting in more effective and efficient uses of resources and greater accountability. Critics are particularly concerned about deleterious impacts on creativity and local initiatives. Among the major lessons identifiable from these undertakings is the importance of committed leadership, broad-based consultation, and reliable data. Implementation inevitably encounters the complexities of the health system and depends upon available resources. In influencing the agenda of deliberation and debate, the symbolic value of these statements may often be more significant than the specific details. The continuing interest in these approaches suggests that future efforts along these lines are likely. PMID:6414027

  2. NASA's Long-range Technology Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is part of the Final Report performed under contract NASW-3864, titled "NASA's Long-Range Technology Goals". The objectives of the effort were: To identify technologies whose development falls within NASA's capability and purview, and which have high potential for leapfrog advances in the national industrial posture in the 2005-2010 era. To define which of these technologies can also enable quantum jumps in the national space program. To assess mechanisms of interaction between NASA and industry constituencies for realizing the leapfrog technologies. This Volume details the findings pertaining to the advanced space-enabling technologies.

  3. Power Goals for NASA's Exploration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Exciting Future Programs ahead for NASA. Power is needed for all Exploration vehicles and for the missions. For long term missions as in Lunar and Mars programs, safe, high energy/ultra high energy batteries are required. Safety is top priority for human-rated missions. Two-fault tolerance to catastrophic failures is required for human-rated safety To meet power safety goals -inherent cell safety may be required; it can lessen complexity of external protective electronics and prevents dependency on hardware that may also have limitations. Inherent cell safety will eliminate the need to carry out screening of all cells (X-rays, vibration, etc.)

  4. Television, Children, and Social Policy: Pedagogical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale; Murray, John

    A college-level course about the effects of television on children and the process of social policy formation is described in terms of pedagogical goals, strategies, and perspectives. The proposed course of instruction focuses on three primary areas of study: (1) child-related issues; (2) television-related issues; and (3) policy-related issues.…

  5. A Hermeneutic Perspective on Supervision Scholarship. Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Responding to Arthur Blumberg's article, this article claims that Blumberg misses the opportunity to ground his argument in an already existing tradition of interpretive or hermeneutic research in supervision. The hermeneutic perspective studies human intentionality and seeks shared understanding as a goal. Includes eight references. (MLH)

  6. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  7. Overview of PVQAT: Update and Perspectives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.; Kelly, G.; Govind, R.

    2015-02-01

    The presentation provides an overview of PVQAT: International PV Quality Assurance Task Force - historical perspective, projects, climate - specific (use - environment -specific) durability testing, consistency of manufacturing, system verification, IECRE vs PVQAT, how to become involved, current status and multiyear targets, goals for today.

  8. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  9. Perspectives on health.

    PubMed

    Huch, M H

    1991-01-01

    On May 12, 1989, in Pittsburgh, six nurse leaders participated in a panel discussion on health at Discovery International, Inc.'s Nurse Theorist Conference. The participants were Imogene King, Nola Pender, Betty Neuman, Martha E. Rogers, Afaf Meleis and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. The goal of the conferences was to present views on the meaning of health from different perspectives. The panel discussion provided the nurse leaders with an opportunity to engage in a dialogue about health. Five of the participants answered the questions posed and the conference keynote speaker Afaf Meleis responded. Four questions were posed to the panel relating to the meaning of health, the uniqueness of nursing, and nurse-person relationships. The dialogue of the panel discussion follows. PMID:2000198

  10. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum.

  11. Knowledge Building and Social Work Research: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig Winston

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses efforts to build social work research in a manner consistent with good science and research. A critical perspective is applied to examine what does not work in building knowledge and how social work research can address factors that limit knowledge building. A critical perspective is imperative to social work knowledge…

  12. Deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria to meet probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.A. ); Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. ); Hill, J.R. . Office of Safety Appraisals)

    1990-12-01

    For DOE facilities across the United States, seismic design and evaluation criteria are based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and IPEEE for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a deterministic specification of earthquake loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic seismic hazard curves for specification of earthquake loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 12 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Environment and safety: major goals for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Maninger, R.C.

    1983-03-16

    The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) is a conceptual design study for a commercial fusion power reactor. One of the major goals of MARS is to develop design guidance so that fusion reactors can meet reasonable expectations for environmental health and safety. One of the first steps in the assessment of health and safety requirements was to examine what the guidelines might be for health and safety in disposal of radioactive wastes from fusion reactors. Then, using these quidelines as criteria, the impact of materials selection upon generation of radioactive wastes through neutron activation of structural materials was investigated. A conclusion of this work is that fusion power systems may need substantial engineering effort in new materials development and selection to meet the probable publicly acceptable levels of radioactivity for waste disposal in the future.

  14. Accelerating Innovation: Turning Goals into Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Tu, Eugene (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The success of NASA's programs depends upon innovation, which is recognized by several characteristics. All aspects of a program including tools, processes, materials, subsystems, vehicles, and operations should be evaluated to determine possible innovations which might be implemented. Several examples are presented of ways in which innovation has substantially furthered the goals of NASA. The specific fields mentioned include high performance computing, advanced technologies for aerospace system design, advanced materials and manufacturing processes, neural based flight control, linear aerospike engines, advanced space propulsion systems, high altitude and long duration autonomous flights, advanced vehicle concepts, advanced space propulsion systems, as well as advanced weather information. A final list details the perceived ways in which NASA can benefit from continued innovation in such ways as partnering with the private sector.

  15. Teaching quantitative biology: goals, assessments, and resources

    PubMed Central

    Aikens, Melissa L.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since the publication of BIO2010, calling for an increased emphasis on quantitative skills in the undergraduate biology curriculum. In that time, relatively few papers have been published that describe educational innovations in quantitative biology or provide evidence of their effects on students. Using a “backward design” framework, we lay out quantitative skill and attitude goals, assessment strategies, and teaching resources to help biologists teach more quantitatively. Collaborations between quantitative biologists and education researchers are necessary to develop a broader and more appropriate suite of assessment tools, and to provide much-needed evidence on how particular teaching strategies affect biology students' quantitative skill development and attitudes toward quantitative work. PMID:25368425

  16. [Editorial on NASA and its Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Bohner, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering: A NASA Journal will address research and development issues that will be important to NASA in attaining its exploration goals. The journal will report on prior research and contemplate how it may be practically applied in future missions. It will provide feedback to the community on issues of concern to NASA and on work that NASA and its collaborators are performing to address these issues. It will also provide a forum for researchers to highlight topics that either are, or should be, of interest to NASA. The selection of papers in this our inaugural issue includes some work that has been funded by NASA in the past, and which has already been directly applied to NASA projects and missions, as well as research in areas that NASA has interest in, although the work reported has not been funded by NASA.

  17. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  18. Goals and Habits in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Ray J.; Dayan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An enduring and richly elaborated dichotomy in cognitive neuroscience is that of reflective versus reflexive decision making and choice. Other literatures refer to the two ends of what is likely to be a spectrum with terms such as goal-directed versus habitual, model-based versus model-free or prospective versus retrospective. One of the most rigorous traditions of experimental work in the field started with studies in rodents and graduated via human versions and enrichments of those experiments to a current state in which new paradigms are probing and challenging the very heart of the distinction. We review four generations of work in this tradition and provide pointers to the forefront of the field’s fifth generation. PMID:24139036

  19. Sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S; Perkowitz, W T; Lurigio, A J; Weaver, F M

    1987-01-01

    Disparity in sentencing of criminals has been related to a variety of individual difference variables. We propose a framework establishing resonances or coherent patterns among sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality. Two studies are described, one with law and criminology students, the other with probation officers. Relations among the different types of variables reveal two resonances among both students and officers. One comprises various conservative and moralistic elements: a tough, punitive stance toward crime; belief in individual causality for crime; high scores on authoritarianism, dogmatism, and internal locus of control; lower moral stage; and political conservatism. The second comprises various liberal elements: rehabilitation, belief in economic and other external determinants of crime, higher moral stage, and belief in the powers and responsibilities of government to correct social problems. Implications of these results are discussed for individual differences in sentencing, attribution theory, and attempts to reduce disparity. PMID:3820064

  20. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated. PMID:7476012

  1. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6). PMID:25617118

  2. Communication about serious illness care goals: a review and synthesis of best practices.

    PubMed

    Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of patients' care goals in the context of a serious illness is an essential element of high-quality care, allowing clinicians to align the care provided with what is most important to the patient. Early discussions about goals of care are associated with better quality of life, reduced use of nonbeneficial medical care near death, enhanced goal-consistent care, positive family outcomes, and reduced costs. Existing evidence does not support the commonly held belief that communication about end-of-life issues increases patient distress. However, conversations about care goals are often conducted by physicians who do not know the patient, do not routinely address patients' nonmedical goals, and often fail to provide patients with sufficient information about prognosis to allow appropriate decisions; in addition, they tend to occur so late in the patient's illness that their impact on care processes is reduced. This article (1) reviews the evidence and describes best practices in conversations about serious illness care goals and (2) offers practical advice for clinicians and health care systems about developing a systematic approach to quality and timing of such communication to assure that each patient has a personalized serious illness care plan. Best practices in discussing goals of care include the following: sharing prognostic information, eliciting decision-making preferences, understanding fears and goals, exploring views on trade-offs and impaired function, and wishes for family involvement. Several interventions hold promise in systematizing conversations with patients about serious illness care goals: better education of physicians; systems to identify and trigger early discussions for appropriate patients; patient and family education; structured formats to guide discussions; dedicated, structured sections in the electronic health record for recording information; and continuous measurement. We conclude that communication about serious

  3. Perspectives on ethics

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C

    2007-01-01

    In his recent paper about understanding ethical issues, Boyd suggests that traditional approaches based on principles or people are understood better in terms of perspectives, especially the perspective‐based approach of hermeneutics, which he uses for conversation rather than controversy. However, we find that Boyd's undefined contrast between conversation and controversy does not point to any improvement in communication: disputes occur during conversation and controversy may be conducted in gentle tones. We agree with Boyd, that being prepared to listen and learn are excellent attitudes, but his vague attempts to establish these and similar virtues in hermeneutic theory are not plausible. Additionally, the current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research shows Boyd missing the opportunity to illustrate how conversation would improve understanding. PMID:17209105

  4. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  5. Course Goals in Music, Grades K-12. Critique Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multnomah County Intermediate Education District, Portland, OR.

    This document on course goals in music is one part of a critique series dealing with the development and evaluation of course goals in six subject matter areas for grades K-12. The series provides an initial pool of course-level goals that are expected to be of considerable value in assisting educators with goal definition related to curriculum…

  6. Course Goals in Social Science, Grades K-12. Critique Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multnomah County Intermediate Education District, Portland, OR.

    This document on course goals in the social sciences is one part of a critique series dealing with the development and evaluation of course goals in six subject matter areas for grades K-12. The series provides an initial pool of course-level goals that are expected to be of considerable value in assisting educators with goal definition related to…

  7. Course Goals in Art, Grades K-12. Critique Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multnomah County Intermediate Education District, Portland, OR.

    This document on course goals in art is one part of a critique series dealing with the development and evaluation of course goals in six subject matter areas for grades K-12. The series provides an initial pool of course-level goals that are expected to be of considerable value in assisting educators with goal definition related to curriculum…

  8. Goal Setting Participation and Leader Supportiveness Effects on Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossett, Dennis L.; And Others

    Although research in goal setting has demonstrated that specific, difficult goals lead to better performance, more refined research on the affect of participative decision making and supportive leadership on goal setting has produced ambiguous results. To investigate the relative importance of goal setting, leader supportiveness, and task…

  9. Ethnicity and Individual Differences in Achievement Goals in Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Barbara L.

    This study examined the effect of ethnicity on individual differences in achievement goals in a replication of the paradigm used by P. Smiley and C. Dweck (1994) to explore individual differences in achievement goals held by young children. The emphasis was on learning goals, which focus effort on mastering new tasks, and performance goals, which…

  10. Health Care, Nutrition, and Goal One. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    Goal One of the six national education goals now embodied in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act states that "By the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn." One of the objectives formulated to meet this goal asserts that "Children will receive the nutrition and health care needed to arrive at school with healthy minds…

  11. Revision of Achievement Goal Theory: Necessary and Illuminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Pintrich, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses three reasons to revise achievement goal theory: the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery approach goals to promote optimal motivation. Reviews theory and research to substantiate…

  12. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  13. Infants Attribute Goals Even to Biomechanically Impossible Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southgate, Victoria; Johnson, Mark H.; Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Human infants readily interpret the actions of others in terms of goals, but the origins of this important cognitive skill are keenly debated. We tested whether infants recognize others' actions as goal-directed on the basis of their experience with carrying out and observing goal-directed actions, or whether their perception of a goal-directed…

  14. Using goal setting and feedback to increase weekly running distance.

    PubMed

    Wack, Stephanie R; Crosland, Kimberly A; Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated goal setting with performance feedback to increase running distance among 5 healthy adults. Participants set a short-term goal each week and a long-term goal to achieve on completion of the study. Results demonstrated that goal setting and performance feedback increased running distance for all participants. PMID:24604394

  15. Perspective production in a savant autistic draughtsman.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S

    1995-05-01

    This study examines perspective construction in an autistic patient (E.C.) with quasinormal intelligence who exhibits exceptional ability when performing three-dimensional drawings of inanimate objects. Examination of E.C.'s spontaneous graphic productions showed that although his drawings approximate the 'linear perspective' system, the subject does not use vanishing points in his productions. Nevertheless, a formal computational analysis of E.C.'s accuracy in an experimental task showed that he was able to draw objects rotated in three-dimensional space more accurately than over-trained controls. This accuracy was not modified by suppressing graphic cues that permitted the construction of a vanishing point. E.C. was also able to detect a perspective incongruency between an object and a landscape at a level superior to that of control subjects. Since E.C. does not construct vanishing points in his drawings, it is proposed that his production of a precise realistic perspective is reached without the use of explicit or implicit perspective rules. 'Special abilities' in perspective are examined in relation to existing theoretical models of the cognitive deficit in autism and are compared to other special abilities in autism. PMID:7480443

  16. Science Goals for the ARM Recovery Act Radars

    SciTech Connect

    JH Mather

    2012-05-29

    Science Goals for the ARM Recovery Act Radars. In October 2008, an ARM workshop brought together approximately 30 climate research scientists to discuss the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's role in solving outstanding climate science issues. Through this discussion it was noted that one of ARM's primary contributions is to provide detailed information about cloud profiles and their impact on radiative fluxes. This work supports cloud parameterization development and improved understanding of cloud processes necessary for that development. A critical part of this work is measuring microphysical properties (cloud ice and liquid water content, cloud particle sizes, shapes, and distribution). ARM measurements and research have long included an emphasis on obtaining the best possible microphysical parameters with the available instrumentation. At the time of the workshop, this research was reaching the point where additional reduction in uncertainties in these critical parameters required new instrumentation for applications such as specifying radiative heating profiles, measuring vertical velocities, and studying the convective triggering and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) cloud fields. ARM was already operating a subset of the necessary instrumentation to make some progress on these problems; each of the ARM sites included (and still includes) a cloud radar (operating at 35 or 94 GHz), a cloud lidar, and balloon-borne temperature and humidity sensors. However, these measurements were inadequate for determining detailed microphysical properties in most cases. Additional instrumentation needed to improve retrievals of microphysical processes includes radars at two additional frequencies for a total of three at a single site (35 GHz, 94 GHz, and a precipitation radar) and a Doppler lidar. Evolving to a multi-frequency scanning radar is a medium-term goal to bridge our understanding of two-dimensional (2D) retrievals to the 3D cloud

  17. Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Breckenridge, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    The draft NASA Fault Management (FM) Handbook (2012) states that Fault Management (FM) is a "part of systems engineering", and that it "demands a system-level perspective" (NASAHDBK- 1002, 7). What, exactly, is the relationship between systems engineering and FM? To NASA, systems engineering (SE) is "the art and science of developing an operable system capable of meeting requirements within often opposed constraints" (NASA/SP-2007-6105, 3). Systems engineering starts with the elucidation and development of requirements, which set the goals that the system is to achieve. To achieve these goals, the systems engineer typically defines functions, and the functions in turn are the basis for design trades to determine the best means to perform the functions. System Health Management (SHM), by contrast, defines "the capabilities of a system that preserve the system's ability to function as intended" (Johnson et al., 2011, 3). Fault Management, in turn, is the operational subset of SHM, which detects current or future failures, and takes operational measures to prevent or respond to these failures. Failure, in turn, is the "unacceptable performance of intended function." (Johnson 2011, 605) Thus the relationship of SE to FM is that SE defines the functions and the design to perform those functions to meet system goals and requirements, while FM detects the inability to perform those functions and takes action. SHM and FM are in essence "the dark side" of SE. For every function to be performed (SE), there is the possibility that it is not successfully performed (SHM); FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this lack of success. We can also describe this in terms of goals: for every goal to be achieved, there is the possibility that it is not achieved; FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this inability to achieve the goal. This brief description of relationships between SE, SHM, and FM provide hints to a modeling approach to

  18. The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Two studies tested whether action control by implementation intentions is sensitive to the activation and strength of participants' underlying goal intentions. In Study 1, participants formed implementation intentions (or did not) and their goal intentions were measured. Findings revealed a significant interaction between implementation intentions and the strength of respective goal intentions. Implementation intentions benefited the rate of goal attainment when participants had strong goal intentions but not when goal intentions were weak. Study 2 activated either a task-relevant or a neutral goal outside of participants' conscious awareness and found that implementation intentions affected performance only when the relevant goal had been activated. These findings indicate that the rate of goal attainment engendered by implementation intentions takes account of the state (strength, activation) of people's superordinate goal intentions. PMID:15574664

  19. Goals, History and Current Programs of Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mr. Robert Fusaro, coordinator for the Glenn Research Center Space Mechanisms program, presented the goals of the workshop, history of previous workshops and gave an overview of current space mechanisms work performed by Glenn Research Center. Highlights of his presentation are shown. Following the presentation, Mr. Fusaro demonstrated the new NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide CD ROM, which was featured as a highlight of the workshop. The handbook is an authoritative guide for design and testing of space mechanisms and related components. Over 600 pages of guidelines written by 25 experts in the field provide in-depth information on how to design space mechanisms and components, including: deployables, release devices, latches, rotating and pointing mechanisms, dampers, motors, gears, fasteners, valves, etc. The handbook provides details on appropriate environmental and tribological testing methods and practices required to evaluate new mechanisms and components. Distribution of the Handbook and Reference Guide is limited by ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations). It is available only to US companies and citizens. A request form for the CD ROM can be found on the Space Mechanisms Project website at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/spacemech/.

  20. Teacher Goal Endorsement, Student Achievement Goals and Student Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deevers, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher practices, student motivation and student achievement on standardized mathematics assessments using an Achievement Goal Theory framework. From 2006 through 2009, 800 public school students participated in mathematics assessments and completed surveys measuring perceptions of teacher practices and…

  1. Literature Review on Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structure: Implications for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Since its origin in the late 1970s and early 1980s, achievement goal theory has provided significant contributions to the research and practice in education and psychology. The theory has been considered to be an influential framework for conceptualizing student motivation. The term motivation refers to the interaction dynamics of many factors in…

  2. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  3. Social Goals and Youth Aggression: Meta-Analysis of Prosocial and Antisocial Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Jennifer E.; Ojanen, Tiina; Hollo, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    To advance research evaluating the relationship between social information processing (Crick & Dodge) and youth aggression, this meta-analytic study examined associations between social goals and aggression in children in 21 separate research reports. Eligible studies provided descriptive or preintervention measurement of children's aggression and…

  4. Educational Goals Inventory. Establishing Goals for Older Adult Educational Programs. A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bella; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine

    This guidebook describes the nature and use of an Educational Goals Inventory (EGI) and the interpretation of the collected data. It is designed for use with a self-scoring process, the EGI Software Computer Package. Chapter I contains an overview of educational programming for older adults and a description of the Non-Traditional Educational…

  5. Biofuels from Bacteria Is PNNL Biochemist’s Goal (DOE Pulse Profile)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, Julie G.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2012-01-02

    When you ask Mary Lipton what her strengths are, she quickly responds with her personality type. 'I'm an Expressive,' she says, aptly punctuating her words with her hands. 'The plus side is that I communicate and collaborate well, and I look at the bigger picture. On the other hand, I don't concentrate on details. But I can incorporate the details into a larger vision.' Regardless of how they are perceived, these traits have served Lipton well as a scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She's nationally recognized for applying new mass spectrometry-based technologies to characterize environmental microbes and microbial communities, particularly for their use in generating biofuels. 'I work on biofuels because at some point, everyone pays for the high cost of fuel. It affects all of us, whether directly at the gas pump or by higher food and materials costs,' says Lipton. Lipton categorizes her biofuels research area as environmental proteomics, which she defines as the application of advanced protein-based techniques to understanding environmental and biological systems. But she's quick to note that environmental proteomics doesn't just aid development of new biofuels, but also helps further understanding of the impact of climate change and the use of organisms for bioremediation.

  6. Integrating Psychotherapy Research with Public Health and Public Policy Goals for Incarcerated Women and other Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research. PMID:24188727

  7. Frontostriatal Mechanisms in Instruction-Based Learning as a Hallmark of Flexible Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wolfensteller, Uta; Ruge, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The present review intends to provide a neuroscientific perspective on the flexible (here: almost instantaneous) adoption of novel goal-directed behaviors. The overarching goal is to sketch the emerging framework for examining instruction-based learning and how this can be related to more established research approaches to instrumental learning and goal-directed action. We particularly focus on the contribution of frontal and striatal brain regions drawing on studies in both, animals and humans, but with an emphasize put on human neuroimaging studies. In section one, we review and integrate a selection of previous studies that are suited to generally delineate the neural underpinnings of goal-directed action as opposed to more stimulus-based (i.e., habitual) action. Building on that the second section focuses more directly on the flexibility to rapidly implement novel behavioral rules as a hallmark of goal-directed action with a special emphasis on instructed rules. In essence, the current neuroscientific evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex and associative striatum are able to selectively and transiently code the currently relevant relationship between stimuli, actions, and the effects of these actions in both, instruction-based learning as well as in trial-and-error learning. The premotor cortex in turn seems to form more durable associations between stimuli and actions or stimuli, actions and effects (but not incentive values) thus representing the available action possibilities. Together, the central message of the present review is that instruction-based learning should be understood as a prime example of goal-directed action, necessitating a closer interlacing with basic mechanisms of goal-directed action on a more general level. PMID:22701445

  8. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE`s waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE`s waste management capabilities.

  9. Predicting Teachers' Achievement Goals for Teaching: The Role of Perceived School Goal Structure and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, YoonJung; Shim, Sungok Serena

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated contextual and personal factors associated with teachers' achievement goals for teaching. A total of 211 teachers completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived school mastery goal structure and performance goal structure predicted teachers' mastery goals and…

  10. Identity, Intimacy, Status and Sex Dating Goals as Correlates of Goal-Consistent Behavior and Satisfaction in Australian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Marguerite; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Boislard-P., Marie-Aude

    2012-01-01

    The most common dating goals of adolescents are identity, intimacy, status and sex. In this study of Australian youth (16-30 years, N = 208), dating goals were expected to explain goal-consistent behavior in each domain. Also, goals coupled with consistent behavior were expected to be associated with greater satisfaction in each domain. Age,…

  11. Space project IONOSAT- MICRO - goals and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Lizunov, Georgii; Fedorov, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The IONOSAT-MICRO project is a first stage of IONOSAT program devoted to the multi-point global monitoring of dynamic processes in the ionosphere. The IONOSAT program is planned to be realized in 2015-2020 with the help of three satellites at coordinated low Earth orbits (LEO). IONOSAT-MICRO is the forerunner project scheduled for launch in 2014 at sun-synchronous orbit with the aim to test the IONOSAT mission scientific postulates and preliminary collection of related space data. The main goal of the IONOSAT-MICRO project is the systematic study of the dynamic response of the ionosphere to the influence "from above" (sun, geomagnetic activity) and "from below" (powerful meteorological, seismic and anthropogenic impacts). More in details, the study of following formations in the ionosphere is foreseen: - Space-temporal structure and global distribution of inhomogeneities in neutral atmosphere and ionosphere; - Global structure and dynamics of quasi-stationary electric currents, electric and magnetic fields; - Wave structures and turbulences at different spatial and temporal scales. To realize such a research, the scientific payload of the MICROSAT spacecraft will provide the measurements of following parameters: - Neutral gas and plasma parameters - concentration, temperature; - DC-ELF-VLF electromagnetic field vectors and ELF-VLF plasma current fluctuations; - Total electron content (TEC); - Spectral content of plasma oscillations. Synchronous experiments with ground support facilities - both active and passive ones - are also foreseen. The IONOSAT-MICRO project will be realized onboard of MICROSAT microsatellite platform, manufactured by Yuzhnoye Design Office with new experimental models of ammonia propulsion system, battery, solar arrays and panels with thermal control coating, the in-flight tests of which are also planned in frames of the project. The composition of the scientific equipment developed by the international team of participants and sensors

  12. Setting Goals for Urban Scale Climate Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2007-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on temperate urban areas may include the increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potential adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Warmer average summertime temperatures are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities, such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities and populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. In the context of these trends, research at the city scale has sought to understand the social and economic impacts of climate change and variability and to evaluate strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. We review the goals and outcomes of several municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., neighborhood watch programs and cooling centers); improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect); and efforts to incentivize the use of non-fossil-fuel based energy sources. Urban initiatives in European and American cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our concern is to understand the active networked role of urban managers in climate policies and programs in relation to supranational objectives and non-state actors.

  13. The Personalized Medicine Coalition: goals and strategies.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Edward; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Silver, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The concept of personalized medicine--that medical care can be tailored to the genomic and molecular profile of the individual--has repercussions that extend far beyond the technology that makes it possible. The adoption of personalized medicine will require changes in healthcare infrastructure, diagnostics and therapeutics business models, reimbursement policy from government and private payers, and a different approach to regulatory oversight. Personalized medicine will shift medical practices upstream from the reactive treatment of disease, to proactive healthcare management including screening, early treatment, and prevention, and will alter the roles of both physician and patient. It will create a greater reliance on electronic medical records and decision support systems in an industry that has a long history of resistance to information technology. Personalized medicine requires a systems approach to implementation. But in a healthcare economy that is highly decentralized and market driven, it is incumbent upon the stakeholders themselves to advocate for a consistent set of policies and legislation that pave the way for the adoption of personalized medicine. To address this need, the Personalized Medicine Coalition (PMC) was formed as a nonprofit umbrella organization of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, diagnostic, and information technology companies, healthcare providers and payers, patient advocacy groups, industry policy organizations, major academic institutions, and government agencies. The PMC provides a structure for achieving consensus positions among these stakeholders on crucial public policy issues, a role which will be vital to translating personalized medicine into widespread clinical practice. In this article, we outline the goals of the PMC, and the strategies it will take to foster communication, debate, and consensus on issues such as genetic discrimination, the reimbursement structures for pharmacogenomic drugs and diagnostics, regulation

  14. Values based decision making: a tool for achieving the goals of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions

  15. Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The draft NASA Fault Management (FM) Handbook (2012) states that Fault Management (FM) is a "part of systems engineering", and that it "demands a system-level perspective" (NASAHDBK- 1002, 7). What, exactly, is the relationship between systems engineering and FM? To NASA, systems engineering (SE) is "the art and science of developing an operable system capable of meeting requirements within often opposed constraints" (NASA/SP-2007-6105, 3). Systems engineering starts with the elucidation and development of requirements, which set the goals that the system is to achieve. To achieve these goals, the systems engineer typically defines functions, and the functions in turn are the basis for design trades to determine the best means to perform the functions. System Health Management (SHM), by contrast, defines "the capabilities of a system that preserve the system's ability to function as intended" (Johnson et al., 2011, 3). Fault Management, in turn, is the operational subset of SHM, which detects current or future failures, and takes operational measures to prevent or respond to these failures. Failure, in turn, is the "unacceptable performance of intended function." (Johnson 2011, 605) Thus the relationship of SE to FM is that SE defines the functions and the design to perform those functions to meet system goals and requirements, while FM detects the inability to perform those functions and takes action. SHM and FM are in essence "the dark side" of SE. For every function to be performed (SE), there is the possibility that it is not successfully performed (SHM); FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this lack of success. We can also describe this in terms of goals: for every goal to be achieved, there is the possibility that it is not achieved; FM defines the means to operationally detect and respond to this inability to achieve the goal. This brief description of relationships between SE, SHM, and FM provide hints to a modeling approach to

  16. Challenges in Aligning Workplace Learning with Business Goals: A Perspective from HRD Professionals in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Tom; Harris, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Modern organisations have become more complex, less mechanistic and increasingly sensitive to rapid changes in the external environment than in previous eras. Today, executives lead employees through a maze of complexity and changing contexts. However, another group of dedicated professionals, the human resource managers and practitioners, also…

  17. The Impact of Parental Religiosity on Parenting Goals and Parenting Style: A Dutch Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Several studies, conducted mainly in the United States, have revealed that parental religiosity influences the way parents raise their children. Against this background, the current study explores if such an effect is also discernible in the Netherlands. Data were gathered as part of a longitudinal study, in which 356 Dutch parents answered…

  18. The French Society of Young Radiation Oncologists: History, goals and perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Fumagalli, Ingrid; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Leroy, Thomas; Pichon, Baptiste; Riou, Olivier; Thureau, Sebastien; Rivera, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    The SFjRO was created ten years ago to promote radiation oncology teaching in France. Our society has now more than 120 members from all around the country. Each year, two national courses are organized where all members are invited. PMID:24669304

  19. Communicative Influences on Perceived Similarity and Attraction: An Expansion of the Interpersonal Goals Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunnafrank, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Reveals that previously accepted positive association between attitude similarity and attraction is absent in beginning acquaintance. Suggests that information available during initial conversations may strongly influence perceptions of attitude similarity. Also examines the possibility that a potential initial acquaintance association between…

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Management & Integration Perspective Subcontractors as Partners in Site Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, A.; Eidam, G.

    2002-02-26

    In 1997, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office awarded the Management and Integration (M&I) contract for all five of their Oak Ridge Operations facilities to Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC). This paper will focus on the success and challenges of several of the M&I projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The initial goals for BJC were to transition up to 93% of their staff to the subcontract community as they moved away from operations to ''integration.'' The perspectives of BJC and one of their Remedial Action/Decontamination & Decommissioning (RADD) subcontractors will be combined in this paper to share with others how ''partnering'' together was essential for success. Projects completed by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) under their RADD subcontract will be used to illustrate the process and the challenges/successes to completion. These projects will include pond remediation, tank remediation, and building cleanup for reuse. All these projects were ''fixed price'' with defined milestones keyed into award fee for BJC and regulatory milestones for DOE. By working together to form integrated teams focused on site remediation without sacrificing safety, all milestones were met. This paper will discuss the following items associated with the M&I environmental restoration projects at ORNL: overview of the M&I Contract; challenges in transitioning from ''operations'' to ''integration''; subcontracting strategies; subcontractor pre-qualification process; overview of ORNL Projects; and integrated team effort required to achieve site restoration goals.