Science.gov

Sample records for dog resembling human

  1. A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel's Deformity in humans.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2015-03-01

    A five-year-old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity. PMID:25196886

  2. Multi-system progressive angiomatosis in a dog resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Ide, K; Uchida, N; Iyori, K; Mochizuki, T; Fukushima, R; Iwasaki, T; Nishifuji, K

    2013-04-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female golden retriever was presented with generalised, dark purple to black cutaneous nodules and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Histopathologically, all cutaneous nodules were diagnosed as benign cavernous haemangiomas. Endoscopic analysis revealed similar nodules in the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. At laparotomy, similar nodules were seen on the visceral peritoneal lining of abdominal organs. Metastatic haemangiosarcoma was ruled out based on histological features and lack of primary tumour in spleen, liver or heart ultrasonographically. Blood loss associated with gastrointestinal haemorrhage was managed with blood transfusion. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first canine case of multi-system progressive angiomatosis resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans. PMID:23496103

  3. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  4. Social perception of facial resemblance in humans.

    PubMed

    DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Perrett, David I

    2008-02-01

    Two lines of reasoning predict that highly social species will have mechanisms to influence behavior toward individuals depending on their degree of relatedness. First, inclusive fitness theory leads to the prediction that organisms will preferentially help closely related kin over more distantly related individuals. Second, evaluation of the relative costs and potential benefits of inbreeding suggests that the degree of kinship should also be considered when choosing a mate. In order to behaviorally discriminate between individuals with different levels of relatedness, organisms must be able to discriminate cues of kinship. Facial resemblance is one such potential cue in humans. Computer-graphic manipulation of face images has made it possible to experimentally test hypotheses about human kin recognition by facial phenotype matching. We review recent experimental evidence that humans respond to facial resemblance in ways consistent with inclusive fitness theory and considerations of the costs of inbreeding, namely by increasing prosocial behavior and positive attributions toward self-resembling images and selectively tempering attributions of attractiveness to other-sex faces in the context of a sexual relationship. PMID:18157627

  5. Pathological features of proteinuric nephropathy resembling Alport syndrome in a young Pyrenean Mountain dog

    PubMed Central

    SUGAHARA, Go; NAITO, Ichiro; MIYAGAWA, Yuichi; KOMIYAMA, Takaaki; TAKEMURA, Naoyuki; KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; MINESHIGE, Takayuki; KAMIIE, Junichi; SHIROTA, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    The renal biopsy tissue from a 9-month-old, male Pyrenean Mountain dog with renal disorder and severe proteinuria was examined. Ultrastructural examination revealed multilaminar splitting and fragmentation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and diffuse podocyte foot process effacement. Immunofluorescent staining for α(IV) chains revealed presence of α5(IV) and complete absence of α3(IV) and α4(IV) chains in the GBM. Immunohistochemistry also revealed decreased and altered expression of nephrin and podocin in the glomeruli compared with normal canine glomeruli. These results suggested that the glomerular disease of the present case might be consistent with canine hereditary nephropathy resembling human Alport syndrome caused by genetic defect of type IV collagen, and indicated possible contribution of podocyte injury to severe proteinuria in this case. PMID:25892536

  6. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  7. Frontal lobe epilepsy with atypical seizure semiology resembling shuddering attacks or wet dog shake seizures.

    PubMed

    Jahodova, Alena; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Kudr, Martin; Kyncl, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Tichy, Michal

    2012-03-01

    We report a girl with a drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia, who exhibited uncommon seizures. The seizures consisted of shoulder or whole body shuddering after a short psychic aura and face grimacing. Consciousness was fully preserved. The seizures resembled "wet dog shake" seizures described in rat models of epilepsy or shuddering attacks in infants. EEG findings were inconclusive, however, MRI showed a clear dysplastic lesion in the right frontal mesial and polar structures. The patient underwent an extended lesionectomy guided by neuronavigation and intraoperative electrocorticography. Focal cortical dysplasia type Ib was histologically confirmed and the patient has been seizure-free for the three years following resection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:22425715

  8. A mucocutaneous disease in the dog, resembling pemphigus vulgaris in man.

    PubMed

    Stannard, A A; Gribble, D H; BakerBB

    1975-03-15

    A chronic mucocutaneous disease was diagnosed in 3 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by erosions and ulcerations of the oral mucosa, various mucocutaneous junctions, and the skin. Histologically, there was acantholysis or a separation of the epithelial cells from one another, resulting in the formation of clefts and bullae. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, the disease seemed to be the canine equivalent of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) in man. PMID:1120727

  9. Nasal Cavity Masses Resembling Chondro-osseous Respiratory Epithelial Adenomatoid Hamartomas in 3 Dogs.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Michel, A O; Lindl Bylicki, B J; Cifuentes, F F; Affolter, V K; Murphy, B G

    2016-05-01

    Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas (COREAHs) are rare tumors in the nasal cavity of people, which have not been described in other species. COREAHs in people are minimally invasive and rarely recur following excision. Histologically, these tumors are composed of disorganized, mature, nasal turbinate tissue that is organized into polypoid growths. These growths are lined by respiratory epithelium, contain glandular elements, and are organized around central cores of chondro-osseous matrix. This report describes 3 cases of dogs with nasal tumors that have histomorphology similar to that of COREAH in people. The tumors were all identified within the nasal cavity and were associated with regional bony lysis of the turbinates and surrounding skull bones, a feature that has not been reported in COREAH in people. There was no evidence of metastasis or extension beyond the nasal cavity in any of the 3 cases. PMID:26253881

  10. Inferior cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in purebred Eurasier dogs with familial non-progressive ataxia: a retrospective and prospective clinical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Filipa; Rentmeister, Kai; Schmidt, Martin J; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara A; Lauda, Alexander; Schoon, Heinz A; Fischer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5-6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior) fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:25668516

  11. Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

    PubMed Central

    Hygum, Katrine; Lildballe, Dorte L.; Greibe, Eva H.; Morkbak, Anne L.; Poulsen, Steen S.; Sorensen, Boe S.; Petersen, Torben E.; Nexo, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the cobalamin (Cbl) -binding protein transcobalamin (TC) transports Cbl from the intestine and into all the cells of the body, whereas the glycoprotein haptocorrin (HC), which is present in both blood and exocrine secretions, is able to bind also corrinoids other than Cbl. The aim of this study is to explore the expression of the Cbl-binding protein HC as well as TC in mice. BLAST analysis showed no homologous gene coding for HC in mice. Submaxillary glands and serum displayed one protein capable of binding Cbl. This Cbl-binding protein was purified from 300 submaxillary glands by affinity chromatography. Subsequent sequencing identified the protein as TC. Further characterization in terms of glycosylation status and binding specificity to the Cbl-analogue cobinamide revealed that mouse TC does not bind Concanavalin A sepharose (like human TC), but is capable of binding cobinamide (like human HC). Antibodies raised against mouse TC identified the protein in secretory cells of the submaxillary gland and in the ducts of the mammary gland, i.e. at locations where HC is also found in humans. Analysis of the TC-mRNA level showed a high TC transcript level in these glands and also in the kidney. By precipitation to insolubilised antibodies against mouse TC, we also showed that >97% of the Cbl-binding capacity and >98% of the Cbl were precipitated in serum. This indicates that TC is the only Cbl-binding protein in the mouse circulation. Our data show that TC but not HC is present in the mouse. Mouse TC is observed in tissues where humans express TC and/or HC. Mouse TC has features in common with both human TC and HC. Our results suggest that the Cbl-binding proteins present in the circulation and exocrine glands may vary amongst species. PMID:21655200

  12. A Deletion in the VLDLR Gene in Eurasier Dogs with Cerebellar Hypoplasia Resembling a Dandy-Walker-Like Malformation (DWLM)

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Martina; Fischer, Andrea; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Michaela; Drögemüller, Cord; Schmidt, Martin J.; Bernardino, Filipa; Manz, Eberhard; Matiasek, Kaspar; Rentmeister, Kai; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM) is the result of aberrant brain development and mainly characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia. DWLM affected dogs display a non-progressive cerebellar ataxia. Several DWLM cases were recently observed in the Eurasier dog breed, which strongly suggested a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in this breed. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 9 cases and 11 controls and found the best association of DWLM with markers on chromosome 1. Subsequent homozygosity mapping confirmed that all 9 cases were homozygous for a shared haplotype in this region, which delineated a critical interval of 3.35 Mb. We sequenced the genome of an affected Eurasier and compared it with the Boxer reference genome and 47 control genomes of dogs from other breeds. This analysis revealed 4 private non-synonymous variants in the critical interval of the affected Eurasier. We genotyped these variants in additional dogs and found perfect association for only one of these variants, a single base deletion in the VLDLR gene encoding the very low density lipoprotein receptor. This variant, VLDLR:c.1713delC is predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon (p.W572Gfs*10). Variants in the VLDLR gene have been shown to cause congenital cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation in human patients and Vldlr knockout mice also display an ataxia phenotype. Our combined genetic data together with the functional knowledge on the VLDLR gene from other species thus strongly suggest that VLDLR:c.1713delC is indeed causing DWLM in Eurasier dogs. PMID:25668033

  13. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. PMID:27185394

  14. Comprehension of human communicative signs in pet dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Soproni, K; Miklósi, A; Topál, J; Csányi, V

    2001-06-01

    On the basis of a study by D. J. Povinelli, D. T. Bierschwale, and C. G. Cech (1999), the performance of family dogs (Canis familiaris) was examined in a 2-way food choice task in which 4 types of directional cues were given by the experimenter: pointing and gazing, head-nodding ("at target"), head turning above the correct container ("above target"), and glancing only ("eyes only"). The results showed that the performance of the dogs resembled more closely that of the children in D. J. Povinelli et al.'s study, in contrast to the chimpanzees' performance in the same study. It seems that dogs, like children, interpret the test situation as being a form of communication. The hypothesis is that this similarity is attributable to the social experience and acquired social routines in dogs because they spend more time in close contact with humans than apes do, and as a result dogs are probably more experienced in the recognition of human gestures. PMID:11459158

  15. “Groundsubstance” Resembling Amyloid Extracted from the Cervical Portion of Human Cervix Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Gröschel-Stewart, U.; Hermann, U.; Schwalm, H.

    1973-01-01

    A groundsubstance glycoprotein has been isolated from normal human cervix uteri that has a remarkable resemblance in its primary structure to a protein found in amyloid disease and to other acidic fibrous proteins found in mammalian tissue. Cervical groundsubstance, acidic fibrous protein from human uterus and the cardiac groundsubstance, which is significantly increased in amyloid disease, are immunologically identical or closely related. ImagesFigs. 1-4 PMID:4633712

  16. Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B.

    2013-01-01

    Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs. PMID:24023954

  17. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  18. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

  19. A renal adenocarcinoma in a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) resembling human collecting duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chi-Fei; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Tsao, Wen-Tien; Lee, An-Hsing; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Wang, Fun-In

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old male captive corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) with caudal coelomic swelling was admitted for surgical treatment. Laparotomy revealed a 5 × 4 × 2.5 cm, firm, expansile, irregularly shaped mass arising from the middle portion of the right kidney with a mild lobulated pattern and mottled white-to-tan. Microscopically, the mass was composed of numerous bizarre angulated tubules of polygonal neoplastic cells separated by a scirrhous stroma with remarkable heterophilic infiltrates. The neoplastic cells were nonciliated and mucin secreting, with abundant brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm. There were marked cellular and nuclear atypia, frequent cell individualization, and stromal invasion, indicative of malignant behavior, which was confirmed by metastasis to the left kidney 1.5 months postoperatively. Both neoplastic epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells contributing to the scirrhous stroma had variable immunopositivity for pan-cytokeratin. The neoplasm was considered a renal adenocarcinoma resembling human collecting duct carcinoma. PMID:27493139

  20. Rules and Resemblance: Their Changing Balance in the Category Learning of Humans (Homo sapiens) and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, Justin J.; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Smith, J. David

    2010-01-01

    In an early dissociation between intentional and incidental category learning, Kemler Nelson (1984) gave participants a categorization task that could be performed by responding either to a single-dimensional rule or to overall family resemblance. Humans learning intentionally deliberately adopted rule-based strategies; humans learning incidentally adopted family-resemblance strategies. The present authors replicated Kemler Nelson’s human experiment and found a similar dissociation. They also extended her paradigm so as to evaluate the balance between rules and family-resemblance in determining the category decisions of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys heavily favored the family-resemblance strategy. Formal models showed that even after many sessions and thousands of trials, they spread attention across all stimulus dimensions rather than focus on a single, criterial dimension that could also produce perfect categorization. PMID:20384398

  1. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-01

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population. PMID:23492927

  2. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:25046696

  3. Human endomembrane H sup + pump strongly resembles the ATP-synthetase of Archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Suedhof, T.C.; Stone, D.K.; Johnston, P.A.; Xie, Xiaosong ); Fried, V.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Preparations of mammalian H{sup +} pumps that acidify intracellular vesicles contain eight or nine polypeptides, ranging in size from 116 to 17 kDa. Biochemical analysis indicates that the 70- and 58-kDa polypeptides are subunits critical for ATP hydrolysis. The amino acid sequences of the major catalytic subunits (58 and 70 kDa) of the endomembrane H{sup +} pump are unknown from animal cells. The authors report here the complete sequence of the 58-kDa subunit derived from a human kidney cDNA clone and partial sequences of the 70- and 58-kDa subunits purified from clathrin-coated vesicles of bovine brain. The amino acid sequences of both proteins strongly resemble the sequences of the corresponding subunits of the vacuolar H{sup +} pumps of Archaebacteria, plants, and fungi. The archaebacterial enzyme is believed to use a H{sup +} gradient to synthesize ATP. Thus, a common ancestral protein has given rise to a H{sup +} pump that synthesizes ATP in one organism and hydrolyzes it in another and is highly conserved from prokaryotes to humans. The same pump appears to mediate the acidification of intracellular organelles, including coated vesicles, lysosomes, and secretory granules, as well as extracellular fluids such as urine.

  4. Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Sareh, Houtan; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Shah, Nirav G; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic studies in military personnel operating in hot environments and elite athletes suggest that repeated exposure to hyperthermia may also exert long-term health effects. Animal models demonstrate that coincident exposure to mild hyperthermia or prior exposure to severe hyperthermia can profoundly affect the course of experimental infection and injury, but these models do not represent HA. In this study, we demonstrate that CD-1 mice continuously exposed to mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature ~37°C causing ~2°C increase in core temperature) for 5 days and then exposed to a thermal stress (42°C ambient temperature for 40 min) exhibited some of the salient features of human HA, including (1) slower warming during thermal stress and more rapid cooling during recovery and (2) increased activity during thermal stress, as well as some of the features of ATT, including (1) increased baseline expression of HSP72 and HSP90 in lung, heart, spleen, liver, and brain; and (2) blunted incremental increase in HSP72 expression following acute thermal stress. This study suggests that continuous 5-day exposure of CD-1 mice to mild hyperthermia induces a state that resembles the physiologic and cellular responses of human HA. This model may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of HA and its consequences on host responsiveness to subsequent stresses. PMID:21080137

  5. Cortical dysplasia resembling human type 2 lissencephaly in mice lacking all three APP family members

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Jochen; Anliker, Brigitte; Heber, Sabine; Ring, Sabine; Fuhrmann, Martin; Kretzschmar, Hans; Sisodia, Sangram; Müller, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a larger gene family that includes the amyloid precursor-like proteins, termed APLP1 and APLP2. We previously documented that APLP2−/−APLP1−/− and APLP2−/−APP−/− mice die postnatally, while APLP1−/−APP−/− mice and single mutants were viable. We now report that mice lacking all three APP/APLP family members survive through embryonic development, and die shortly after birth. In contrast to double-mutant animals with perinatal lethality, 81% of triple mutants showed cranial abnormalities. In 68% of triple mutants, we observed cortical dysplasias characterized by focal ectopic neuroblasts that had migrated through the basal lamina and pial membrane, a phenotype that resembles human type II lissencephaly. Moreover, at E18.5 triple mutants showed a partial loss of cortical Cajal Retzius (CR) cells, suggesting that APP/APLPs play a crucial role in the survival of CR cells and neuronal adhesion. Collectively, our data reveal an essential role for APP family members in normal brain development and early postnatal survival. PMID:15385965

  6. PNPLA1 mutations cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in golden retriever dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Grall, Anaïs; Guaguère, Eric; Planchais, Sandrine; Grond, Susanne; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Hausser, Ingrid; Hitte, Christophe; Le Gallo, Matthieu; Derbois, Céline; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Lagoutte, Laëtitia; Degorce-Rubiales, Frédérique; Radner, Franz P W; Thomas, Anne; Küry, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Fontaine, Jacques; Pin, Didier; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Lathrop, Mark; Galibert, Francis; André, Catherine; Fischer, Judith

    2012-02-01

    Ichthyoses comprise a heterogeneous group of genodermatoses characterized by abnormal desquamation over the whole body, for which the genetic causes of several human forms remain unknown. We used a spontaneous dog model in the golden retriever breed, which is affected by a lamellar ichthyosis resembling human autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI), to carry out a genome-wide association study. We identified a homozygous insertion-deletion (indel) mutation in PNPLA1 that leads to a premature stop codon in all affected golden retriever dogs. We subsequently found one missense and one nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of human PNPLA1 in six individuals with ARCI from two families. Further experiments highlighted the importance of PNPLA1 in the formation of the epidermal lipid barrier. This study identifies a new gene involved in human ichthyoses and provides insights into the localization and function of this yet uncharacterized member of the PNPLA protein family. PMID:22246504

  7. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  8. Attacks by packs of dogs involving predation on human beings

    PubMed Central

    Borchelt, Peter L.; Lockwood, Randall; Beck, Alan M.; Voith, Victoria L.

    1983-01-01

    Dog bites are a medical problem for millions of people, children being the most common victims. Human deaths attributable to dog bite injury (not rabies) are relatively infrequent. There have been some epidemiologic reviews, but this study is the first attempt to arrive at an understanding of bites involving predation on human beings by conducting behavioral examinations under controlled conditions of the dogs involved, and by interviewing victims, witnesses, and people familiar with the animals. The three cases studied involved two fatalities and an attack that was nearly fatal. The victims were 11, 14, and 81. In each case, owned pet dogs consumed some human tissue. The severity of the victims' injuries was not the consequence of a single dog bite, but the result of repeated attacks by dogs behaving as a social group. Factors that might contribute to a dog's regarding human beings as potential prey were examined, including hunger, prior predation, group behaviors, defense of territory, previous interactions with people, the presence of estrous female dogs, and environmental stimuli. In two of the cases, it was possible, by using similar stimuli, to duplicate the circumstances at the time of the attack. The results of the observations showed the value of behavioral analysis and simulations methods in evaluating possible factors in dog attacks. Among the many factors probably involved in severe dog attacks are the size, number, and nutritional status of the dogs; the dogs' previous aggressive contacts with people; the victim's age, size, health, and behavior; and the absence of other human beings in the vicinity. Imagesp61-ap61-bp61-c PMID:6828639

  9. Human Perception of Fear in Dogs Varies According to Experience with Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans’ perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the “fearful” category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the “happy” category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  10. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs' looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when - after relearning - confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active

  11. Do domestic dogs learn words based on humans' referential behaviour?

    PubMed

    Tempelmann, Sebastian; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some domestic dogs learn to comprehend human words, although the nature and basis of this learning is unknown. In the studies presented here we investigated whether dogs learn words through an understanding of referential actions by humans rather than simple association. In three studies, each modelled on a study conducted with human infants, we confronted four word-experienced dogs with situations involving no spatial-temporal contiguity between the word and the referent; the only available cues were referential actions displaced in time from exposure to their referents. We found that no dogs were able to reliably link an object with a label based on social-pragmatic cues alone in all the tests. However, one dog did show skills in some tests, possibly indicating an ability to learn based on social-pragmatic cues. PMID:24646732

  12. Discrimination of familiar human faces in dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active

  13. Domestic dogs comprehend human communication with iconic signs.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Juliane; Tempelmann, Sebastian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-11-01

    A key skill in early human development is the ability to comprehend communicative intentions as expressed in both nonlinguistic gestures and language. In the current studies, we confronted domestic dogs (some of whom knew many human 'words') with a task in which they had to infer the intended referent of a human's communicative act via iconic signs--specifically, replicas and photographs. Both trained and untrained dogs successfully used iconic replicas to fetch the desired item, with many doing so from the first trial. Dogs' ability to use photographs in this same situation was less consistent. Because simple matching to sample in experimental contexts typically takes hundreds of trials (and because similarity between iconic sign and target item did not predict success), we propose that dogs' skillful performance in the current task reflects important aspects of the comprehension of human communicative intentions. PMID:19840038

  14. Deep Networks Can Resemble Human Feed-forward Vision in Invariant Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have attracted much attention recently, and have shown to be able to recognize thousands of object categories in natural image databases. Their architecture is somewhat similar to that of the human visual system: both use restricted receptive fields, and a hierarchy of layers which progressively extract more and more abstracted features. Yet it is unknown whether DCNNs match human performance at the task of view-invariant object recognition, whether they make similar errors and use similar representations for this task, and whether the answers depend on the magnitude of the viewpoint variations. To investigate these issues, we benchmarked eight state-of-the-art DCNNs, the HMAX model, and a baseline shallow model and compared their results to those of humans with backward masking. Unlike in all previous DCNN studies, we carefully controlled the magnitude of the viewpoint variations to demonstrate that shallow nets can outperform deep nets and humans when variations are weak. When facing larger variations, however, more layers were needed to match human performance and error distributions, and to have representations that are consistent with human behavior. A very deep net with 18 layers even outperformed humans at the highest variation level, using the most human-like representations. PMID:27601096

  15. Deep Networks Can Resemble Human Feed-forward Vision in Invariant Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Masquelier, Timothée

    2016-01-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have attracted much attention recently, and have shown to be able to recognize thousands of object categories in natural image databases. Their architecture is somewhat similar to that of the human visual system: both use restricted receptive fields, and a hierarchy of layers which progressively extract more and more abstracted features. Yet it is unknown whether DCNNs match human performance at the task of view-invariant object recognition, whether they make similar errors and use similar representations for this task, and whether the answers depend on the magnitude of the viewpoint variations. To investigate these issues, we benchmarked eight state-of-the-art DCNNs, the HMAX model, and a baseline shallow model and compared their results to those of humans with backward masking. Unlike in all previous DCNN studies, we carefully controlled the magnitude of the viewpoint variations to demonstrate that shallow nets can outperform deep nets and humans when variations are weak. When facing larger variations, however, more layers were needed to match human performance and error distributions, and to have representations that are consistent with human behavior. A very deep net with 18 layers even outperformed humans at the highest variation level, using the most human-like representations. PMID:27601096

  16. Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A.; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas. PMID:16704811

  17. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    PubMed

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations. PMID:20438815

  18. Synaptogenesis and development of pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology in the chimpanzee neocortex resembles humans

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Serena; Duka, Tetyana; Larsen, Michael D.; Janssen, William G. M.; Collins, Zachary; Bauernfeind, Amy L.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Hopkins, William D.; Wildman, Derek E.; Lipovich, Leonard; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Jacobs, Bob; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2013-01-01

    Neocortical development in humans is characterized by an extended period of synaptic proliferation that peaks in mid-childhood, with subsequent pruning through early adulthood, as well as relatively delayed maturation of neuronal arborization in the prefrontal cortex compared with sensorimotor areas. In macaque monkeys, cortical synaptogenesis peaks during early infancy and developmental changes in synapse density and dendritic spines occur synchronously across cortical regions. Thus, relatively prolonged synapse and neuronal maturation in humans might contribute to enhancement of social learning during development and transmission of cultural practices, including language. However, because macaques, which share a last common ancestor with humans ∼25 million years ago, have served as the predominant comparative primate model in neurodevelopmental research, the paucity of data from more closely related great apes leaves unresolved when these evolutionary changes in the timing of cortical development became established in the human lineage. To address this question, we used immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and Golgi staining to characterize synaptic density and dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in primary somatosensory (area 3b), primary motor (area 4), prestriate visual (area 18), and prefrontal (area 10) cortices of developing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that synaptogenesis occurs synchronously across cortical areas, with a peak of synapse density during the juvenile period (3–5 y). Moreover, similar to findings in humans, dendrites of prefrontal pyramidal neurons developed later than sensorimotor areas. These results suggest that evolutionary changes to neocortical development promoting greater neuronal plasticity early in postnatal life preceded the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages. PMID:23754422

  19. [Spontaneous models of human diseases in dogs: ichthyoses as an example].

    PubMed

    André, Catherine; Grall, Anaïs; Guaguere, Éric; Thomas, Anne; Galibert, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Ichthyoses encompass a heterogeneous group of genodermatoses characterized by abnormal desquamation over the entire body due to defects of the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and desquamation, which occur in the upper layer of the epidermis. Even though in humans more than 40 genes have already been identified, the genetic causes of several forms remain unknown and are difficult to identify in Humans. Strikingly, several purebred dogs are also affected by specific forms of ichthyoses. In the Golden retriever dog breed, an autosomal recessive form of ichthyosis, resembling human autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, has recently been diagnosed with a high incidence. We first characterized the disease occurring in the golden retriever breed and collected cases and controls. A genome-wide association study on 40 unrelated Golden retriever dogs, using the canine 49.000 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) array (Affymetrix v2), followed by statistical analyses and candidate gene sequencing, allowed to identify the causal mutation in the lipase coding PNPLA1 gene (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein). Screening for alterations in the human ortholog gene in 10 autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses families, for which no genetic cause has been identified thus far, allowed to identify two recessive mutations in the PNPLA1 protein in two families. This collaborative work between "human" and "canine" geneticists, practicians, histopathologists, biochemists and electron microscopy experts not only allowed to identify, in humans, an eighth gene for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, but also allowed to highlight the function of this as-yet-unknown skin specific lipase in the lipid metabolism of the skin barrier. For veterinary medicine and breeding practices, a genetic test has been developed. These findings illustrate the importance of the discovery of relevant human orthologous canine genetic diseases, whose causes can be tracked

  20. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV). Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift. PMID:20109187

  1. Animal cognition. Number-space mapping in the newborn chick resembles humans' mental number line.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Rosa; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Priftis, Konstantinos; Regolin, Lucia

    2015-01-30

    Humans represent numbers along a mental number line (MNL), where smaller values are located on the left and larger on the right. The origin of the MNL and its connections with cultural experience are unclear: Pre-verbal infants and nonhuman species master a variety of numerical abilities, supporting the existence of evolutionary ancient precursor systems. In our experiments, 3-day-old domestic chicks, once familiarized with a target number (5), spontaneously associated a smaller number (2) with the left space and a larger number (8) with the right space. The same number (8), though, was associated with the left space when the target number was 20. Similarly to humans, chicks associate smaller numbers with the left space and larger numbers with the right space. PMID:25635096

  2. Domestic Dogs Comprehend Human Communication with Iconic Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Tempelmann, Sebastian; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A key skill in early human development is the ability to comprehend communicative intentions as expressed in both nonlinguistic gestures and language. In the current studies, we confronted domestic dogs (some of whom knew many human "words") with a task in which they had to infer the intended referent of a human's communicative act via iconic…

  3. The response of guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze).

    PubMed

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Gaunet, Florence

    2009-03-01

    The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond to point, point and gaze, gaze and control cues of referential communication given by their owners. Results indicate that the two groups of dogs do not differ from each other, revealing that the visual status of the owner is not a factor in the use of cues of referential communication. Both groups of dogs have higher frequencies of performance and faster latencies for the point and the point and gaze cues as compared to gaze cue only. However, responses to control cues are below chance performance for the guide dogs, whereas the pet dogs perform at chance. The below chance performance of the guide dogs may be explained by a tendency among them to go and stand by the owner. The study indicates that both groups of dogs respond similarly in normal daily dyadic interaction with their owners and the lower comprehension of the human gaze may be a less salient cue among dogs in comparison to the pointing gesture. PMID:18769948

  4. Transgenic Expression of the Chemokine Receptor Encoded by Human Herpesvirus 8 Induces an Angioproliferative Disease Resembling Kaposi's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tong-Yuan; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Leach, Michael W.; Manfra, Denise; Homey, Bernhard; Wiekowski, Maria; Sullivan, Lee; Jenh, Chung-Her; Narula, Satwant K.; Chensue, Stephen W.; Lira, Sergio A.

    2000-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) has been implicated as an etiologic agent for KS, an angiogenic tumor composed of endothelial, inflammatory, and spindle cells. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing the HHV8-encoded chemokine receptor (viral G protein–coupled receptor) within hematopoietic cells develop angioproliferative lesions in multiple organs that morphologically resemble KS lesions. These lesions are characterized by a spectrum of changes ranging from erythematous maculae to vascular tumors, by the presence of spindle and inflammatory cells, and by expression of vGPCR, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We conclude that vGPCR contributes to the development of the angioproliferative lesions observed in these mice and suggest that this chemokine receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis of KS in humans. PMID:10662790

  5. Transgenic expression of the chemokine receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8 induces an angioproliferative disease resembling Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, T Y; Chen, S C; Leach, M W; Manfra, D; Homey, B; Wiekowski, M; Sullivan, L; Jenh, C H; Narula, S K; Chensue, S W; Lira, S A

    2000-02-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) has been implicated as an etiologic agent for KS, an angiogenic tumor composed of endothelial, inflammatory, and spindle cells. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing the HHV8-encoded chemokine receptor (viral G protein-coupled receptor) within hematopoietic cells develop angioproliferative lesions in multiple organs that morphologically resemble KS lesions. These lesions are characterized by a spectrum of changes ranging from erythematous maculae to vascular tumors, by the presence of spindle and inflammatory cells, and by expression of vGPCR, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We conclude that vGPCR contributes to the development of the angioproliferative lesions observed in these mice and suggest that this chemokine receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis of KS in humans. PMID:10662790

  6. Ablation of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 resembles the human CACT metabolic myopathy

    PubMed Central

    York, Brian; Reineke, Erin L.; Sagen, Jørn V.; Nikolai, Bryan C.; Zhou, Suoling; Louet, Jean-Francois; Chopra, Atul R.; Chen, Xian; Reed, Graham; Noebels, Jeffrey; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Yu, Hui; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Stevens, Robert D.; Wenner, Brett R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Xu, Jianming; Newgard, Christopher B.; O’Malley, Bert W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency of CACT in humans is accompanied by a constellation of metabolic and toxicity phenotypes including hypoketonemia, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and impaired neurologic, cardiac and skeletal muscle performance, each of which is apparent in mice lacking SRC-3 expression. Consistent with human cases of CACT deficiency, dietary rescue with short chain fatty acids drastically attenuates the clinical hallmarks of the disease in mice devoid of SRC-3. Collectively, our results position SRC-3 as a key regulator of β-oxidation. Moreover, these findings allow us to consider platform coactivators such as the SRCs as potential contributors to syndromes such as CACT deficiency, previously considered as monogenic. PMID:22560224

  7. Domestic dogs and puppies can use human voice direction referentially

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Federico; Nitzschner, Marie; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are particularly skilled at using human visual signals to locate hidden food. This is, to our knowledge, the first series of studies that investigates the ability of dogs to use only auditory communicative acts to locate hidden food. In a first study, from behind a barrier, a human expressed excitement towards a baited box on either the right or left side, while sitting closer to the unbaited box. Dogs were successful in following the human's voice direction and locating the food. In the two following control studies, we excluded the possibility that dogs could locate the box containing food just by relying on smell, and we showed that they would interpret a human's voice direction in a referential manner only when they could locate a possible referent (i.e. one of the boxes) in the environment. Finally, in a fourth study, we tested 8–14-week-old puppies in the main experimental test and found that those with a reasonable amount of human experience performed overall even better than the adult dogs. These results suggest that domestic dogs’ skills in comprehending human communication are not based on visual cues alone, but are instead multi-modal and highly flexible. Moreover, the similarity between young and adult dogs’ performances has important implications for the domestication hypothesis. PMID:24807249

  8. ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hathcock, Karen S.; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Camps, Jordi; Shin, Dong-Mi; Triner, Daniel; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Maul, Robert W.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Staudt, Louis M.; Morse, Herbert C.; Ried, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity. In mice, ATM deficiency is exclusively associated with T-cell lymphoma development, whereas B-cell tumors predominate in human ataxia-telangiectasia patients. We demonstrate in this study that when T cells are removed as targets for lymphomagenesis and as mediators of immune surveillance, ATM-deficient mice exclusively develop early-onset immunoglobulin M+ B-cell lymphomas that do not transplant to immunocompetent mice and that histologically and genetically resemble the activated B cell–like (ABC) subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These B-cell lymphomas show considerable chromosomal instability and a recurrent genomic amplification of a 4.48-Mb region on chromosome 18 that contains Malt1 and is orthologous to a region similarly amplified in human ABC DLBCL. Of importance, amplification of Malt1 in these lymphomas correlates with their dependence on nuclear factor (NF)-κB, MALT1, and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival, paralleling human ABC DLBCL. Further, like some human ABC DLBCLs, these mouse B-cell lymphomas also exhibit constitutive BCR-dependent NF-κB activation. This study reveals that ATM protects against development of B-cell lymphomas that model human ABC DLBCL and identifies a potential role for T cells in preventing the emergence of these tumors. PMID:26400962

  9. Emotional contagion: dogs and humans show a similar physiological response to human infant crying.

    PubMed

    Yong, Min Hooi; Ruffman, Ted

    2014-10-01

    Humans respond to an infant crying with an increase in cortisol level and heightened alertness, a response interpreted as emotional contagion, a primitive form of empathy. Previous results are mixed when examining whether dogs might respond similarly to human distress. We examined whether domestic dogs, which have a long history of affiliation with humans, show signs of emotional contagion, testing canine (n=75) and human (n=74) responses to one of three auditory stimuli: a human infant crying, a human infant babbling, and computer-generated "white noise", with the latter two stimuli acting as controls. Cortisol levels in both humans and dogs increased significantly from baseline only after listening to crying. In addition, dogs showed a unique behavioral response to crying, combining submissiveness with alertness. These findings suggest that dogs experience emotional contagion in response to human infant crying and provide the first clear evidence of a primitive form of cross-species empathy. PMID:25452080

  10. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  11. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    York, Ashley; Kutluay, Sebla B; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  12. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  13. A case of antibacterial-responsive mucocutaneous disease in a seven-year-old dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) resembling mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs.

    PubMed

    Benato, L; Stoeckli, M R; Smith, S H; Dickson, S; Thoday, K L; Meredith, A

    2013-04-01

    A seven-year-old, ovariohysterectomised female dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was referred with severe swelling and erythema of the mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, nares and vulva. Bilateral, severe periocular dermatitis was also present. Heavy pure growths of a member of the Staphylococcus intermedius group were cultured from nasal and aural swabs and skin biopsies. Other possible differential diagnoses were eliminated by standard tests. The clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the biopsies were most consistent with mucocutaneous pyoderma, a dermatosis previously reported in dogs but not in rabbits. Treatment of the bacterial infection with oral marbofloxacin and topical ofloxacin eye drops together with supportive therapy resulted in resolution of the lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous bacterial pyoderma, similar to mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs, in a rabbit. PMID:23346925

  14. Nicotine Delivery to Rats via Lung Alveolar Region-Targeted Aerosol Technology Produces Blood Pharmacokinetics Resembling Human Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. Methods: A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Results: Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2±15.7ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1–4min and declined over the next 20min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. Conclusions: A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics. PMID:23239844

  15. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a 'theory of mind'.

    PubMed

    Penn, Derek C; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2007-04-29

    After decades of effort by some of our brightest human and non-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand the concept of a 'mental state'. In the present paper, we confront four related and contentious questions head-on: (i) What exactly would it mean for a non-verbal organism to have an 'understanding' or a 'representation' of another animal's mental state? (ii) What should (and should not) count as compelling empirical evidence that a non-verbal cognitive agent has a system for understanding or forming representations about mental states in a functionally adaptive manner? (iii) Why have the kind of experimental protocols that are currently in vogue failed to produce compelling evidence that non-human animals possess anything even remotely resembling a theory of mind? (iv) What kind of experiments could, at least in principle, provide compelling evidence for such a system in a non-verbal organism? PMID:17264056

  16. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences. PMID:26473057

  17. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences. PMID:26473057

  18. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190–54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. Conclusions/Significance The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis. PMID:21931798

  19. Effect of catheter placement on 3-D velocity profiles in curved tubes resembling the human coronary system.

    PubMed

    Krams, R; Wentzel, J J; Cespedes, I; Vinke, R; Carlier, S; van der Steen, A F; Lancee, C T; Slager, C J

    1999-06-01

    Novel measurement techniques based on intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) technology ('IVUS-Flowmetry') require the location of a catheter inside the coronary bed. The present study quantifies disturbances in the 3-D velocity profile induced by catheter placement inside a tube, applying computational fluid dynamics. Two curved, circular meshes (radius K = 0.025 m and K = 0.035 m) with and without a catheter inside the lumen were applied. The catheter was located at the inner curve, the outer curve and at the top position. Boundary conditions were: no slip on the wall, zero stress at the outlet, uniform inflow with entrance velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 m/s. Curvature-associated centrifugal forces shifted the maximal velocity to the outer curve and introduced two symmetrical vortices. Additional catheter placement redistributed the 3-D axial velocity field away from the catheter, which was accompanied by the appearance of multiple low-strength vortices. In addition, peak axial velocity increased, peak secondary velocities decreased, axial pressure drop increased and shear stress increased. Flow calculations simulated to resemble IVUS-based flowmetry changed by only 1% after considering secondary velocity. In conclusion, placement of a catheter inside a curved tube resembling the human coronary system changes the velocity field and reduces secondary patterns. The present study supports the usefulness of catheter-based flowmetry during resting flow conditions. During hyperemic flow conditions, flow measurements might be accompanied by large axial pressure drops because the catheter, itself, might act as a significant stenosis. PMID:10414897

  20. T wave changes in humans and dogs during experimental dives.

    PubMed

    Joulia, F; Barthèlemy, P; Guerrero, F; Jammes, Y

    1992-11-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis was performed in three human divers studied at 21 and 23.5 ATA while they breathed various gas mixtures containing H2 and/or He (COMEX HYDRA IX experiment) and in five dogs exposed to 91 ATA of He-O2 or He-N2-O2. In all cases, the O2 partial pressure was slightly higher than its physiological value. These human and animal studies reveal that elevated pressure of different inert gases did not change the resting heart rate or its respiratory fluctuation. However, the T wave amplitude increased in proportion to the gas density in the three divers; this was also found in four of the five dogs studied. Changes in peak T wave configurations were also observed in the dog experiments. Positional changes in QRS or T vectors cannot explain these T wave changes. PMID:1474041

  1. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    PubMed

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. PMID:25703740

  2. Metabolism of intravenous methylnaltrexone in mice, rats, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Appavu; Tong, Zeen; Li, Hongshan; Erve, John C L; DeMaio, William; Goljer, Igor; McConnell, Oliver; Rotshteyn, Yakov; Hultin, Theresa; Talaat, Rasmy; Scatina, JoAnn

    2010-04-01

    Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, functions as a peripherally acting receptor antagonist in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the metabolic fate of [(3)H]MNTX or [(14)C]MNTX bromide in mice, rats, dogs, and humans after intravenous administration. Separation and identification of plasma and urinary MNTX metabolites was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography-radioactivity detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The structures of the most abundant human metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Analysis of radioactivity in plasma and urine showed that MNTX underwent two major pathways of metabolism in humans: sulfation of the phenolic group to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and reduction of the carbonyl group to two epimeric alcohols, methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5). Neither naltrexone nor its metabolite 6beta-naltrexol were detected in human plasma after administration of MNTX, confirming an earlier observation that N-demethylation was not a metabolic pathway of MNTX in humans. The urinary metabolite profiles in humans were consistent with plasma profiles. In mice, the circulating and urinary metabolites included M5, MNTX-3-glucuronide (M9), 2-hydroxy-3-O-methyl MNTX (M6), and its glucuronide (M10). M2, M5, M6, and M9 were observed in rats. Dogs produced only one metabolite, M9. In conclusion, MNTX was not extensively metabolized in humans. Conversion to methyl-6-naltrexol isomers (M4 and M5) and M2 were the primary pathways of metabolism in humans. MNTX was metabolized to a higher extent in mice than in rats, dogs, and humans. Glucuronidation was a major metabolic pathway in mice, rats, and dogs, but not in humans. Overall, the data suggested species differences in the metabolism of MNTX. PMID:20053817

  3. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  4. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV) Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1)

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmer, Michaela; Oevermann, Anna; Borer-Germann, Stephanie E.; Gorgas, Daniela; Shelton, G. Diane; Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Henke, Diana; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV). The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1), which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs. PMID:26596647

  5. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-03-01

    One hundred and thirty-one bronchial samples from 62 patients have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. Complete patient records including occupational and smoking histories, as well as possible exposure to radon, are obtained. In addition, one hundred and sixty-two mongol dog bronchi dissected from different lobes of 23 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. Ninety-four human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 532 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 240 micrographs of dog epithelium from 31 bronchial samples have been entered into COSAS. We have, using the COSAS planimetry program, established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. The data are being used to develop weighting factors for dosimetry and radon risk analysis. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city

    PubMed Central

    Zinsstag, J.; Dürr, S.; Penny, M. A.; Mindekem, R.; Roth, F.; Gonzalez, S. Menendez; Naissengar, S.; Hattendorf, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N′Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rates between dogs (βd) were 0.0807 km2/(dogs·week) and between dogs and humans (βdh) 0.0002 km2/(dogs·week). The effective reproductive ratio (Re) at the onset of our observations was estimated at 1.01, indicating low-level endemic stability of rabies transmission. Human rabies incidence depended critically on dog-related transmission parameters. We simulated the effects of mass dog vaccination and the culling of a percentage of the dog population on human rabies incidence. A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is the current practice in Chad. PEP does not reduce future human exposure. Its cost-effectiveness is estimated at US $46 per disability adjusted life-years averted. Cost-effectiveness for PEP, together with a dog-vaccination campaign, breaks even with cost-effectiveness of PEP alone after almost 5 years. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone. PMID:19706492

  7. Transmission dynamics and economics of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city.

    PubMed

    Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J

    2009-09-01

    Human rabies in developing countries can be prevented through interventions directed at dogs. Potential cost-savings for the public health sector of interventions aimed at animal-host reservoirs should be assessed. Available deterministic models of rabies transmission between dogs were extended to include dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to routine weekly rabid-dog and exposed-human cases reported in N'Djaména, the capital of Chad. The estimated transmission rates between dogs (beta(d)) were 0.0807 km2/(dogs x week) and between dogs and humans (beta(dh)) 0.0002 km2/(dogs x week). The effective reproductive ratio (R(e)) at the onset of our observations was estimated at 1.01, indicating low-level endemic stability of rabies transmission. Human rabies incidence depended critically on dog-related transmission parameters. We simulated the effects of mass dog vaccination and the culling of a percentage of the dog population on human rabies incidence. A single parenteral dog rabies-mass vaccination campaign achieving a coverage of least 70% appears to be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is the current practice in Chad. PEP does not reduce future human exposure. Its cost-effectiveness is estimated at US $46 per disability adjusted life-years averted. Cost-effectiveness for PEP, together with a dog-vaccination campaign, breaks even with cost-effectiveness of PEP alone after almost 5 years. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, it appears to be more cost-effective to combine parenteral dog-vaccination campaigns with human PEP compared to human PEP alone. PMID:19706492

  8. Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to information provided by human and artificial hands.

    PubMed

    Kundey, Shannon M A; Delise, Justin; De Los Reyes, Andres; Ford, Kathy; Starnes, Blair; Dennen, Weston

    2014-03-01

    Even young humans show sensitivity to the accuracy and reliability of informants' reports. Children are selective in soliciting information and in accepting claims. Recent research has also investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) sensitivity to agreement among human informants. Such research utilizing a common human pointing gesture to which dogs are sensitive in a food retrieval paradigm suggests that dogs might choose among informants according to the number of points exhibited, rather than the number of individuals indicating a particular location. Here, we further investigated dogs' use of information from human informants using a stationary pointing gesture, as well as the conditions under which dogs would utilize a stationary point. First, we explored whether the number of points or the number of individuals more strongly influenced dogs' choices. To this end, dogs encountered a choice situation in which the number of points exhibited toward a particular location and the number of individuals exhibiting those points conflicted. Results indicated that dogs chose in accordance with the number of points exhibited toward a particular location. In a second experiment, we explored the possibility that previously learned associations drove dogs' responses to the stationary pointing gesture. In this experiment, dogs encountered a choice situation in which artificial hands exhibited a stationary pointing gesture toward or away from choice locations in the absence of humans. Dogs chose the location to which the artificial hand pointed. These results are consistent with the notion that dogs may respond to a human pointing gesture due to their past-learning history. PMID:23812648

  9. Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID

  10. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH) causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation. PMID:23324440

  11. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  12. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  13. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-09-01

    One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and twenty one bronchial samples from 58 patients (54 useable; 32 female, 22 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. Complete patient records including occupational and smoking histories, as well as possible exposure to radon, are being kept. In addition, mongol dog bronchi dissected from different lobes of 23 dog lungs have been used to establish protocols. Ninety human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 913 electron micrographs of which 471 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. We have, using the COSAS planimetry program, established a small data base which describes the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, nonsmokers and ex-smokers. The data is being used to develop weighting factors for dosimetry and radon risk analysis. The electron micrographs of dog bronchial epithelium are unanalyzed as yet. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Exploring the existence and potential underpinnings of dog-human and horse-human attachment bonds.

    PubMed

    Payne, Elyssa; DeAraugo, Jodi; Bennett, Pauleen; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews evidence for the existence of attachment bonds directed toward humans in dog-human and horse-human dyads. It explores each species' alignment with the four features of a typical attachment bond: separation-related distress, safe haven, secure base and proximity seeking. While dog-human dyads show evidence of each of these, there is limited alignment for horse-human dyads. These differences are discussed in the light of the different selection paths of domestic dogs and horses as well as the different contexts in which the two species interact with humans. The role of emotional intelligence in humans as a potential mediator for human-animal relationships, attachment or otherwise, is also examined. Finally, future studies, which may clarify the interplay between attachment, human-animal relationships and emotional intelligence, are proposed. Such avenues of research may help us explore the concepts of trust and bonding that are often said to occur at the dog-human and horse-human interface. PMID:26470887

  16. Distinct antigen recognition pattern during zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Howard, Randall F; Bhatia, Ajay; Trigo, Joelma; Nakatani, Maria; Netto, Eduardo M; Reed, Steven G

    2009-03-23

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of endemic zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in regions of South America and the Mediterranean. Dogs are the major reservoirs for L. infantum in these regions, and control of disease in dogs could have a significant impact on human disease. Although dogs share many symptoms of VL with humans as a result of L. infantum infection, they also show some unique clinical manifestations, which are often a combination of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, suggesting different mechanisms of disease development in dogs and humans. Here, we compare antibody responses of dogs and humans with VL to various defined leishmanial antigens. Parasite lysate and K39, the two most commonly used antigens for serodiagnosis of VL, detected the highest levels of antibodies in both humans and dogs with VL, whereas the recognition patterns of these antigens were distinct between the hosts. Among other defined antigens tested, LmSTI1 and CPB detected higher levels of antibodies in dogs and humans, respectively. These results indicate there is a difference between humans and dogs in antigen recognition patterns during VL. We infer that different strategies may need to be used in development of vaccines and diagnostics for humans and for dogs. In addition, we show a correlation between antibody titers to several antigens and severity of clinical symptoms during canine VL. PMID:19059724

  17. Evidence for a synchronization of hormonal states between humans and dogs during competition.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Thompson, Breanna; Strasser, Rosemary; Santo, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Social interactions with humans have been shown to influence hormonal processes in dogs, but it is unclear how the hormonal states of humans factor into this relationship. In this study, we explored the associations between changes in the cortisol levels of dogs with humans' hormonal changes, behavior, and perceptions of their performance at an agility competition. A total of 58 dogs and their handlers (44 women, 14 men) provided saliva samples before and after competing. Dogs' saliva samples were later assayed for cortisol and humans' samples for cortisol and testosterone. Following the competition, handler-dog interactions were observed for affiliative and punitive behavior towards their dogs, and handlers completed questionnaires that included personal ratings of their performance. Structural equation modeling revealed that elevations in handlers' cortisol levels were associated with increases in their dogs' cortisol levels. Handlers' affiliative and punitive behaviors towards their dogs following competition were associated with their ratings of their performance, but these variables were unrelated to changes in their own cortisol levels and their dogs', implying their behavior did not mediate the relationship. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal states were reflected between humans and their dogs, and this relationship was not due to handlers' perceptions of their performance or the behaviors we observed during post-competition social interactions. This study is one of the first to provide evidence for a synchronization of hormonal changes between species. PMID:25862521

  18. What or where? The meaning of referential human pointing for dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor; Csík, Andor; Kis, Anna; Topál, József

    2015-11-01

    Dogs have a unique capacity to follow human pointing, and thus it is often assumed that they can comprehend the referential meaning of such signals. However, it is still unclear whether dogs perceive human directional gestures as signals referring to a target object (indicating what to manipulate) or a spatial cue (indicating where to do something). In the present study, we investigated which of these alternative interpretations may explain dogs' responses to human pointing gestures in ostensive communicative and nonostensive cuing contexts. To test whether dogs select the cued object or the cued location, subjects were presented with 2 alternative object-choice trials. An experimenter first attracted the attention of the dog either by calling the dog's name and looking at it (ostensive condition, n = 24) or by clapping the hands (nonostensive condition, n = 24) then pointed at 1 of 2 different toy objects. Subsequently, the experimenter switched the location of the 2 target objects in full view of the dogs by grasping the objects and making a 180° turn. Dogs were then allowed to choose between the 2 objects. In the ostensive condition, dogs showed a significant bias toward the cued location compared with the nonostensive condition in which they performed at chance. These results suggest that pointing refers to a direction or location for dogs, but only if they are addressed with ostensive cues that indicate the communicative intention of the signaler. PMID:26147704

  19. Adapting to the human world: dogs' responsiveness to our social cues.

    PubMed

    Reid, Pamela J

    2009-03-01

    Dogs are more skilful than a host of other species at tasks which require they respond to human communicative gestures in order to locate hidden food. Four basic interpretations for this proficiency surface from distilling the research findings. One possibility is that dogs simply have more opportunity than other species to learn to be responsive to human social cues. A different analysis suggests that the domestication process provided an opening for dogs to apply general cognitive problem-solving skills to a novel social niche. Some researchers go beyond this account and propose that dogs' co-evolution with humans equipped them with a theory of mind for social exchanges. Finally, a more prudent approach suggests that sensitivity to the behaviours of both humans and conspecifics would be particularly advantageous for a social scavenger like the dog. A predisposition to attend to human actions allows for rapid early learning of the association between gestures and the availability of food. PMID:19056474

  20. Trichuris vulpis Recovered from a Patient with Chronic Diarrhea and Five Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, James J.; Columbus, Sharon T.; Aldeen, William E.; Davis, Mark; Carroll, Karen C.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of human infection with the whipworm of dogs, Trichuris vulpis, in a woman with duodenal ulcer disease, chronic diarrhea, and close contact with dogs. Morphologically, T. vulpis ova resemble those of the human whipworm (T. trichiura) but are nearly twice their size. PMID:12089315

  1. Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Bożena M; Bisgaard, Magne; Christensen, Henrik; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Polyphasic analysis was done on 24 strains of Bisgaard taxon 16 from five European countries and mainly isolated from dogs and human dog-bite wounds. The isolates represented a phenotypically and genetically homogenous group within the family Pasteurellaceae. Their phenotypic profile was similar to members of the genus Pasteurella. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry clearly identified taxon 16 and separated it from all other genera of Pasteurellaceae showing a characteristic peak combination. Taxon 16 can be further separated and identified by a RecN protein signature sequence detectable by a specific PCR. In all phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, rpoB, infB and recN genes, taxon 16 formed a monophyletic branch with intraspecies sequence similarity of at least 99.1, 90.8, 96.8 and 97.2 %, respectively. Taxon 16 showed closest genetic relationship with Bibersteinia trehalosi as to the 16S rRNA gene (95.9 %), the rpoB (89.8 %) and the recN (74.4 %), and with Actinobacillus lignieresii for infB (84.9 %). Predicted genome similarity values based on the recN gene sequences between taxon 16 isolates and the type strains of known genera of Pasteurellaceae were below the genus level. Major whole cell fatty acids for the strain HPA 21(T) are C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C16:1 ω7c/C15:0 iso 2OH. Major respiratory quinones are menaquinone-8, ubiquinone-8 and demethylmenaquinone-8. We propose to classify these organisms as a novel genus and species within the family of Pasteurellaceae named Frederiksenia canicola gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is HPA 21(T) (= CCUG 62410(T) = DSM 25797(T)). PMID:24510449

  2. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by [alpha] particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

  3. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex. PMID:26804633

  4. A Review of Domestic Dogs' (Canis Familiaris) Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Udell, Monique A.R; Wynne, C.D.L

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are more human-like than any other species, including nonhuman primates. Behavior analysts should add their expertise to the study of dog behavior, both to add objective behavioral analyses of experimental data and to effectively integrate this new knowledge into applied work with dogs. PMID:18422021

  5. Dogs as Sources and Sentinels of Parasites in Humans and Wildlife, Northern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Salb, Amanda L.; Barkema, Herman W.; Elkin, Brett T.; Thompson, R.C. Andrew; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Black, Sandra R.; Dubey, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    A minimum of 11 genera of parasites, including 7 known or suspected to cause zoonoses, were detected in dogs in 2 northern Canadian communities. Dogs in remote settlements receive minimal veterinary care and may serve as sources and sentinels for parasites in persons and wildlife, and as parasite bridges between wildlife and humans. PMID:18258078

  6. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  7. A Review of Domestic Dogs' ("Canis Familiaris") Human-Like Behaviors: Or Why Behavior Analysts Should Stop Worrying and Love Their Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udell, Monique A. R.; Wynne, C. D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs likely were the first animals to be domesticated and as such have shared a common environment with humans for over ten thousand years. Only recently, however, has this species' behavior been subject to scientific scrutiny. Most of this work has been inspired by research in human cognitive psychology and suggests that in many ways dogs are…

  8. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  9. Description of Dogs and Owners in Outdoor Built-Up Areas and Their More-Than-Human Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunet, Florence; Pari-Perrin, Elodie; Bernardin, Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    Tensions are generated by the inevitable presence of dogs accompanying humans in cities. Built-up outdoor areas, spaces that are "in between" the home and dog parks, are widely frequented by dogs and their owners. The present case study, performed in Lyon (France), is the first to provide a description of these dyads in areas that vary according to terrain, district, dog legislation and use in three areas: a busy street where dogs are allowed and a park and a square where dogs are forbidden. Dog-owner profiles were identified. They adjusted their presence differently across areas and according to anthropogenic and ecological pressures, such as day of the week, time of day, weather, frequentation, and legislation. They mutually adapted their behaviors. Interactions between dogs or owners and other social agents were few; dogs primarily sniffed and urinated. There was little barking, no aggression, minor impact on the environment, and, despite instances of dogs appropriating forbidden areas and dogs off their leashes, the dogs seemed to go virtually unnoticed. The study shows how the need for more-than-human areas is evident in outdoor built-up areas (for instance, the results on types of interaction and activity across areas, absence of a leash, and appropriation of forbidden areas) as well as how the cultural and natural aspects of dogs play out. The results suggest that dog regulations should be adjusted in outdoor built-up areas and that dog parks should be developed.

  10. Description of dogs and owners in outdoor built-up areas and their more-than-human issues.

    PubMed

    Gaunet, Florence; Pari-Perrin, Elodie; Bernardin, Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    Tensions are generated by the inevitable presence of dogs accompanying humans in cities. Built-up outdoor areas, spaces that are "in between" the home and dog parks, are widely frequented by dogs and their owners. The present case study, performed in Lyon (France), is the first to provide a description of these dyads in areas that vary according to terrain, district, dog legislation and use in three areas: a busy street where dogs are allowed and a park and a square where dogs are forbidden. Dog-owner profiles were identified. They adjusted their presence differently across areas and according to anthropogenic and ecological pressures, such as day of the week, time of day, weather, frequentation, and legislation. They mutually adapted their behaviors. Interactions between dogs or owners and other social agents were few; dogs primarily sniffed and urinated. There was little barking, no aggression, minor impact on the environment, and, despite instances of dogs appropriating forbidden areas and dogs off their leashes, the dogs seemed to go virtually unnoticed. The study shows how the need for more-than-human areas is evident in outdoor built-up areas (for instance, the results on types of interaction and activity across areas, absence of a leash, and appropriation of forbidden areas) as well as how the cultural and natural aspects of dogs play out. The results suggest that dog regulations should be adjusted in outdoor built-up areas and that dog parks should be developed. PMID:25022886

  11. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) make counterproductive choices because they are sensitive to human ostensive cues?

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Valsecchi, Paola; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    Dogs appear to be sensitive to human ostensive communicative cues in a variety of situations, however there is still a measure of controversy as to the way in which these cues influence human-dog interactions. There is evidence for instance that dogs can be led into making evaluation errors in a quantity discrimination task, for example losing their preference for a larger food quantity if a human shows a preference for a smaller one, yet there is, so far, no explanation for this phenomenon. Using a modified version of this task, in the current study we investigated whether non-social, social or communicative cues (alone or in combination) cause dogs to go against their preference for the larger food quantity. Results show that dogs' evaluation errors are indeed caused by a social bias, but, somewhat contrary to previous studies, they highlight the potent effect of stimulus enhancement (handling the target) in influencing the dogs' response. A mild influence on the dog's behaviour was found only when different ostensive cues (and no handling of the target) were used in combination, suggesting their cumulative effect. The discussion addresses possible motives for discrepancies with previous studies suggesting that both the intentionality and the directionality of the action may be important in causing dogs' social biases. PMID:22558150

  12. Possible Platelet Thrombi Formation in Dog and Human Femoral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Folts, John D.; Detmer, Donald E.; Nadler, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a ubiquitous condition that commonly produces vessel stenosis and progresses ultimately to vascular occlusion. It is thought by many that platelets collect on sites of atherosclerosis and exacerbate its progression. We have previously shown that platelet thrombi can form within 10 minutes in the stenosed coronary arteries of a dog and can produce acute cyclical reduction in blood flow measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF). This is followed by sudden restoration of flow as the platelet thrombus breaks loose and is carried distally (Circulation 54:365-370, 1976). In five dogs, blood flow was measured simultaneously in a femoral artery stenosed 70%, exposed proximally with an EMF, and monitored distally over intact skin with a Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter (DUF). Cyclical reductions in blood flow were detected by both the EMF and the DUF, presumably due to platelet thrombi forming in the stenosed femoral artery and then breaking loose and moving distally. These flow reductions could be consistently abolished with aspirin (ASA). In ten patients with angiographically proven substantial stenoses of the femoral or popliteal arteries who were not taking ASA, the popliteal blood flow velocity was measured with a DUF. Six of the ten patients showed cyclical blood flow velocity reductions during 30 minutes of observation. These flow velocity reductions were similar to those observed in the stenosed dog femoral arteries. One hour after taking 600 mg ASA orally, five of the six patients no longer showed flow velocity reductions. Eight male control subjects who were not on ASA and had no known stenoses had no flow velocity reductions when studied with the DUF. Since many factors, such as cigarette smoking, diabetes, and elevated plasma lipids, are known to increase human platelet aggregation, we postulate that platelet thrombi may form in stenosed peripheral arteries, hasten the development of atherosclerosis, and reduce blood flow. This postulate

  13. Domestic Dogs Use Contextual Information and Tone of Voice when following a Human Pointing Gesture

    PubMed Central

    Scheider, Linda; Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the ‘context’ condition as opposed to the ‘no context’ condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice. PMID:21765904

  14. The zebrafish mutant lbk/vam6 resembles human multisystemic disorders caused by aberrant trafficking of endosomal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Schonthaler, Helia B; Fleisch, Valerie C; Biehlmaier, Oliver; Makhankov, Yuri; Rinner, Oliver; Bahadori, Ronja; Geisler, Robert; Schwarz, Heinz; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Dahm, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The trafficking of intracellular vesicles is essential for a number of cellular processes and defects in this process have been implicated in a wide range of human diseases. We identify the zebrafish mutant lbk as a novel model for such disorders. lbk displays hypopigmentation of skin melanocytes and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), an absence of iridophore reflections, defects in internal organs (liver, intestine) as well as functional defects in vision and the innate immune system (macrophages). Positional cloning, an allele screen, rescue experiments and morpholino knock-down reveal a mutation in the zebrafish orthologue of the vam6/vps39 gene. Vam6p is part of the HOPS complex, which is essential for vesicle tethering and fusion. Affected cells in the lbk RPE, liver, intestine and macrophages display increased numbers and enlarged intracellular vesicles. Physiological and behavioural analyses reveal severe defects in visual ability in lbk mutants. The present study provides the first phenotypic description of a lack of vam6 gene function in a multicellular organism. lbk shares many of the characteristics of human diseases and suggests a novel disease gene for pathologies associated with defective vesicle transport, including the arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome, the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, the Chediak-Higashi syndrome and the Griscelli syndrome. PMID:18077594

  15. Characterization of naturally occurring cutaneous neurofibromatosis in Holstein cattle. A disorder resembling neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, E. A.; Doran, S. E.; Riddell, M. G.; Herrera, G. A.; Tennyson, G. S.; D'Andrea, G.; Whitley, R. D.; Collins, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis in cattle is typically a noncutaneous disease. A small group of cows in a Holstein dairy herd developed cutaneous neurofibromatosis. This unique condition was investigated and compared with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in humans. All cutaneous lesions but one were consistent with neurofibromas in noncutaneous sites in cattle and neurofibromas in patients with NF1. One bovine lesion was classified as a neurofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy supported Schwannian differentiation in benign and malignant lesions. Linkage analysis with a polymorphism in the bovine NF1 gene confirmed that two affected animals from the same sire inherited the same paternal NF1 allele. Bovine cutaneous neurofibromatosis is a naturally occurring disease in this group of animals, characterized by skin tumors morphologically identical to those of NF1. An informative polymorphism at the NF1 locus of two animals and their sire suggests this disorder may be caused by hereditary mutations at the bovine NF1 locus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7977647

  16. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontology. Materials and Methods: 40 samples including 20 humans (10 males and 10 females) and 20 dogs of different breed were included in the study. Bite registration of all the samples were obtained on modeling wax and intercanine distance were measured. Data were analyzed and results were tabulated. Results: Arch size and intercanine distance showed variable differences among humans and on average dogs showed more intercanine distance and arch size. Among dog breeds larger dogs showed larger variables when compared to smaller dogs. Conclusion: Assessment of bite marks evidences made by animals needs further investigation so that it can be a tool to assist the justice system to answer crucial questions. PMID:26816456

  17. Tracking the evolutionary origins of dog-human cooperation: the “Canine Cooperation Hypothesis”

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    At present, beyond the fact that dogs can be easier socialized with humans than wolves, we know little about the motivational and cognitive effects of domestication. Despite this, it has been suggested that during domestication dogs have become socially more tolerant and attentive than wolves. These two characteristics are crucial for cooperation, and it has been argued that these changes allowed dogs to successfully live and work with humans. However, these domestication hypotheses have been put forward mainly based on dog-wolf differences reported in regard to their interactions with humans. Thus, it is possible that these differences reflect only an improved capability of dogs to accept humans as social partners instead of an increase of their general tolerance, attentiveness and cooperativeness. At the Wolf Science Center, in order to detangle these two explanations, we raise and keep dogs and wolves similarly socializing them with conspecifics and humans and then test them in interactions not just with humans but also conspecifics. When investigating attentiveness toward human and conspecific partners using different paradigms, we found that the wolves were at least as attentive as the dogs to their social partners and their actions. Based on these findings and the social ecology of wolves, we propose the Canine Cooperation Hypothesis suggesting that wolves are characterized with high social attentiveness and tolerance and are highly cooperative. This is in contrast with the implications of most domestication hypotheses about wolves. We argue, however, that these characteristics of wolves likely provided a good basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation. PMID:25642203

  18. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  19. Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2003-01-01

    It is often claimed that certain behavioral problems in domestic dogs can be triggered by the games played by dog and caregiver (owner). In this study, we examine possible links between the types of games played and dimensions of the dog-owner relationship that are generally considered to affect such problems. Fifty dog-owner partnerships were filmed during 3-min play sessions in which the owner was allowed to choose the games played. All partnerships then undertook a 1-hr test designed to measure elements of behavior commonly ascribed to "dominance" and "attachment." Principal components analysis of the data produced 2 dominance-related factors (Amenability and Confident Interactivity) and 4 factors describing aspects of attachment (Nonspecific Attention Seeking, Preference for Owner, Preference for Unfamiliar Person, and Separation-Related Behavior). Amenability, in particular, varied significantly between breeds. In the study, we then compared types of games played to each of these factors. Dogs playing rough-and-tumble scored higher for Amenability and lower on Separation-Related Behavior than did dogs playing other types of games. Dogs playing tug-of-war and fetch scored high on Confident Interactivity. Winning or losing these games had no consistent effect on their test scores. If the dog started the majority of the games, the dog was significantly less amenable and more likely to exhibit aggression. The results suggest that how dogs play reflects general attributes of their temperament and relationship with their owner. This study provides no evidence that games play a major deterministic role on dominance dimensions of dog-human relationships, but the results suggest that playing games involving considerable body contact may affect attachment dimensions. PMID:12909524

  20. Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alexandra; Hecht, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction. PMID:27003698

  1. Endocrine diseases in dogs and cats: similarities and differences with endocrine diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Rijnberk, Ad; Kooistra, Hans S; Mol, Jan A

    2003-08-01

    Over several millennia, humans have created hundreds of dog and cat breeds by selective breeding, including fixation of mutant genes. The domestic dog is unique in the extent of its variation in height, weight and shape as well as its behavior. It is primarily the relatively long persistence of high levels of growth hormone (GH) release at a young age that accounts for the large body size in giant breeds of dogs. Several of the endocrine diseases of humans are also known to occur as similar entities in dogs and cats. With some variations, this is true for conditions such as diabetes mellitus and the hypofunction syndromes of the thyroid and adrenal cortex. Also, the hyperfunction syndromes of hypercortisolism and hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats have many similarities with their human counterparts. The exception seems to be Graves' disease. This condition, which is due to production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-receptor antibodies, has not been observed in dogs and cats. The very common form of hyperthyroidism in cats is due to toxic adenomas. In the 1980s it was discovered that in dogs exogenous progestins and endogenous progesterone can induce GH excess. This GH excess originates form the mammary gland and may give rise to acromegaly and insulin resistance. GH production by the mammary gland is not unique to the dog. It has become clear that cats and humans also express the GH gene in the mammary gland. There is increasing evidence that this locally produced GH not only plays a role in the morphologic changes of the mammary gland associated with the ovarian cycle and gestation, but that it is also involved in the development of breast cancer. In dogs, induction of mammary GH production by progestin administration allows for treatment of GH deficiency. PMID:12914747

  2. A case of accidental fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning involving humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Krishna, Karthik; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Rautji, Ravi; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum phosphide is one of the commonest poisons encountered in agricultural areas, and manner of death in the victims is often suicidal and rarely homicidal or accidental. This paper presents an unusual case, where two humans (owner and housemaid) and eight dogs were found dead in the morning hours inside a room of a house, used as shelter for stray dogs. There was allegation by the son of the owner that his father had been killed. Crime scene visit by forensic pathologists helped to collect vital evidence. Autopsies of both the human victims and the dogs were conducted. Toxicological analysis of viscera, vomitus, leftover food, and chemical container at the crime scene tested positive for aluminum phosphide. The cause of death in both humans and dogs was aluminum phosphide poisoning. Investigation by police and the forensic approach to the case helped in ascertaining the manner of death, which was accidental. PMID:25707792

  3. The dog nose "KNOWS" fear: Asymmetric nostril use during sniffing at canine and human emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; d'Ingeo, Serenella; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have reported striking asymmetries in the nostril use of dogs during sniffing at different emotive stimuli. Here we report, for the first time, that this asymmetry is also manifested during sniffing of both human and canine odours collected during different emotional events. Results showed that during sniffing of conspecific odour collected during a stressful situation (e.g. an "isolation" situation in which a dog was isolated from its owner in an unfamiliar environment) dogs consistently used their right nostril (right hemisphere). On the other hand, dogs consistently used the left nostril to sniff human odours collected during fearful situations (emotion-eliciting movies) and physical stress, suggesting the prevalent activation of the left hemisphere. The opposite bias shown in nostril use during sniffing at canine versus human odours suggests that chemosignals communicate conspecific and heterospecific emotional cues using different sensory pathways. PMID:26876141

  4. A quick assessment tool for human-directed aggression in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Klausz, Barbara; Kis, Anna; Persa, Eszter; Miklósi, Adám; Gácsi, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Many test series have been developed to assess dog temperament and aggressive behavior, but most of them have been criticized for their relatively low predictive validity or being too long, stressful, and/or problematic to carry out. We aimed to develop a short and effective series of tests that corresponds with (a) the dog's bite history, and (b) owner evaluation of the dog's aggressive tendencies. Seventy-three pet dogs were divided into three groups by their biting history; non-biter, bit once, and multiple biter. All dogs were exposed to a short test series modeling five real-life situations: friendly greeting, take away bone, threatening approach, tug-of-war, and roll over. We found strong correlations between the in-test behavior and owner reports of dogs' aggressive tendencies towards strangers; however, the test results did not mirror the reported owner-directed aggressive tendencies. Three test situations (friendly greeting, take-away bone, threatening approach) proved to be effective in evoking specific behavioral differences according to dog biting history. Non-biters differed from biters, and there were also specific differences related to aggression and fear between the two biter groups. When a subsample of dogs was retested, the test revealed consistent results over time. We suggest that our test is adequate for a quick, general assessment of human-directed aggression in dogs, particularly to evaluate their tendency for aggressive behaviors towards strangers. Identifying important behavioral indicators of aggressive tendencies, this test can serve as a useful tool to study the genetic or neural correlates of human-directed aggression in dogs. PMID:23945929

  5. Evidence of household transfer of ESBL-/pAmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae between humans and dogs – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungquist, Oskar; Ljungquist, Ditte; Myrenås, Mattias; Rydén, Cecilia; Finn, Maria; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ESCRE) are an increasing healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine. The spread of ESCRE is complex with multiple reservoirs and different transmission routes. The aim of this study was to investigate if ESCRE carriage in dogs is more prevalent in households with a known human carrier, compared to households where humans are known to be negative for ESCRE. Identical ESCRE strains in humans and dogs of the same household would suggest a possible spread between humans and dogs. Methods Twenty-two dog owners with a positive rectal culture for ESCRE each collected a rectal sample from their dog. In addition, a control group of 29 healthy dog owners with a documented negative rectal culture for ESCRE each sampled their household dog. Samples were cultivated for ESCRE using selective methods. In households where both humans and dogs carried ESCRE, isolates were further analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc diffusion or microdilution and for genotype and genetic relatedness using molecular methods. Results In 2 of 22 households studied, identical ESCRE strains with respect to bacterial species, antibiogram, genotype, and MLVA type were found in humans and dogs. The ESCRE found in the two households were ESBL-producing E. coli with the resistance gene blaCTX-M-27 and AmpC-producing E. coli with blaCMY-2, blaTEM-1. ESCRE were not found in dogs in the control group. Conclusions In households where humans are carrying ESCRE, identical strains were to a limited extent found also in household dogs, indicating a transfer between humans and dogs. In contrast, ESCRE were not found in dogs in households without human carriers. PMID:27330043

  6. Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dogs and cats in Brazil serve as primary hosts for a considerable number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. These may include endoparasites (e.g., protozoa, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes) and ectoparasites (i.e., fleas, lice, mites, and ticks). While some dog and cat parasites are highly host-specific (e.g., Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Felicola subrostratus for cats, and Angiostrongylus vasorum and Trichodectes canis for dogs), others may easily switch to other hosts, including humans. In fact, several dog and cat parasites (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara canis) are important not only from a veterinary perspective but also from a medical standpoint. In addition, some of them (e.g., Lynxacarus radovskyi on cats and Rangelia vitalii in dogs) are little known to most veterinary practitioners working in Brazil. This article is a compendium on dog and cat parasites in Brazil and a call for a One Health approach towards a better management of some of these parasites, which may potentially affect humans. Practical aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs and cats in Brazil are discussed. PMID:24423244

  7. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    PubMed

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. PMID:26781052

  8. Cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours in dogs and their relevance for human medicine.

    PubMed

    Galac, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours in pet dogs are an attractive animal model for their human counterparts. Adrenal morphology and function are similar in dogs and humans, and adrenocortical tumours have comparable clinical and pathological characteristics. Their relatively high incidence in pet dogs represents a potential source of adrenocortical tumour tissue to facilitate research. The molecular characteristics of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours suggest that they will be useful for the study of angiogenesis, the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, and the role of Steroidogenic Factor-1 in adrenal tumourigenesis. Pet dogs with spontaneous cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumours may also be useful in clinical testing of new drugs and in investigating the molecular background of adrenocortical tumours. PMID:26123587

  9. Differential risk perception of rural and urban Burrowing Owls exposed to humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Matilde; Baladrón, Alejandro V; Isacch, Juan Pablo; Biondi, Laura M; Bó, María Susana

    2016-03-01

    Urban areas expose wildlife to an array of novel predators, amongst which, humans and dogs are highly frequent. Thus, wild animals living in urban areas are forced to invest more time and energy in defence behaviours, which depend on how the risk is perceived and assessed. We experimentally tested whether Burrowing owls coming from rural and urban habitats showed differences in behavioural responses when facing humans and domestic dogs. We measured flight initiation distances (FIDs), nest returning, and aggressiveness level when owls faced a human and a human with a dog walking towards them. Our results showed that urban owls recognise a human with a dog as a greater threat than a human alone, thus indicating that fear of domestic animals should be considered as affecting owls' settlement in cities and towns. On the other hand, rural owls perceived human and dogs as similar threats, but showed higher FIDs, less aggressiveness, and lower tendency to return to the nest than urban owls in both treatments. These findings emphasize the importance of modified habitats in modelling the response of urban and rural owls to predators and represent another step in the explanation of how wild animals assess and respond to threats associated with living in urbanized environments. PMID:26718884

  10. Effect of training and familiarity on responsiveness to human cues in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Clare L; Ramos, Mari F

    2014-05-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) seem to possess an evolved competency to follow human-given cues, often out-performing their wild progenitor the wolf (Canis lupus) on cue-following tasks. However, domestication may not be solely responsible for the socio-cognitive skills of dogs, with ontogenetic experience also playing a role. This research evaluated the effects of intensive training on cue-following behaviour using an unreinforced object-choice paradigm. The responses of dogs that were trained to competitive levels were compared to those of pet dogs with only basic training, and dogs living in an animal shelter that demonstrated no or only rudimentary following of basic commands. Using a cue-following task where three types of cues were presented by familiar and unfamiliar human partners, the number of cues followed by each training group were recorded. All dogs found cues where gesture was combined with a congruent head and eye movement easier to follow than either gesture or eye gaze alone. Whether the cue-giver was familiar or not had a significant effect on number of cues followed in homed dogs, and the performance of shelter dogs was comparable to the other groups when faced with an unfamiliar cue-giver. Contrary to predictions, level of training did not improve performance on the cue-following task. This work does provide support for the presence of an evolved adaptation to exploit social cues provided by humans that can be augmented by familiarity with the cue giver. However, additional joint activity as experienced in an intensive training regime does not seem to increase accuracy in following human-given cues. PMID:24318516

  11. Nonbilayer Phospholipid Arrangements Are Toll-Like Receptor-2/6 and TLR-4 Agonists and Trigger Inflammation in a Mouse Model Resembling Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Tescucano, Alonso; Astudillo, Horacio; Reséndiz, Albany; Landa, Carla; España, Luis; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Estrada-García, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by dysregulated activation of T and B cells and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and, in some cases, lipid antigens. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a disease resembling human lupus in mice, including IgM and IgG antibodies against nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements. As the effect of these liposomes on the innate immune response is unknown and innate immune system activation is necessary for efficient antibody formation, we evaluated the effect of these liposomes on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, cytokine production, proinflammatory gene expression, and T, NKT, dendritic, and B cells. Liposomes induce TLR-4- and, to a lesser extent, TLR-2/TLR-6-dependent signaling in TLR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Mice with the lupus-like disease had increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, C3a and C5a; they also had more TLR-4-expressing splenocytes, a higher expression of genes associated with TRIF-dependent TLR-4-signaling and complement activation, and a lower expression of apoptosis-related genes, compared to healthy mice. The percentage of NKT and the percentage and activation of dendritic and B2 cells were also increased. Thus, TLR-4 and TLR-2/TLR-6 activation by nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements triggers an inflammatory response that could contribute to autoantibody production and the generation of a lupus-like disease in mice. PMID:26568960

  12. Dog-associated risk factors for human plague.

    PubMed

    Gould, L Hannah; Pape, J; Ettestad, P; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2008-10-01

    Plague is a rare but often fatal zoonosis endemic to the western United States. Previous studies have identified contact with pets as a potential risk factor for infection. We conducted a matched case-control study to better define the risks associated with pets at both the household and individual levels. Using a written questionnaire, we surveyed nine surviving plague patients, 12 household members of these patients, and 30 age- and neighbourhood-matched controls about household and individual exposures. Overall, 79% of households had at least one dog, 59% had at least one cat and 33% used flea control, with no significant differences between case and control households. Four (44%) case households reported having a sick dog versus no (0%) control households [matched odds ratio, (mOR) 18.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-infinity], and four (44%) patients reported sleeping in the same bed with a pet dog versus three (10%) controls (mOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.0-31.6). Within case households with multiple members, two (40%) of five patients slept with their dogs versus none (0%) of 12 healthy family members (P=0.13). The exposures to cats were not significant. Sleeping in the same bed as a pet dog remained significantly associated with infection in a multivariate logistic regression model (P=0.046). Our findings suggest that dogs may facilitate the transfer of fleas into the home and that activities with close extended contacts with dogs may increase the risk of plague infection. PMID:18489541

  13. The G protein-coupled receptor subset of the dog genome is more similar to that in humans than rodents

    PubMed Central

    Haitina, Tatjana; Fredriksson, Robert; Foord, Steven M; Schiöth, Helgi B; Gloriam, David E

    2009-01-01

    Background The dog is an important model organism and it is considered to be closer to humans than rodents regarding metabolism and responses to drugs. The close relationship between humans and dogs over many centuries has lead to the diversity of the canine species, important genetic discoveries and an appreciation of the effects of old age in another species. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the largest gene families in most mammals and the most exploited in terms of drug discovery. An accurate comparison of the GPCR repertoires in dog and human is valuable for the prediction of functional similarities and differences between the species. Results We searched the dog genome for non-olfactory GPCRs and obtained 353 full-length GPCR gene sequences, 18 incomplete sequences and 13 pseudogenes. We established relationships between human, dog, rat and mouse GPCRs resolving orthologous pairs and species-specific duplicates. We found that 12 dog GPCR genes are missing in humans while 24 human GPCR genes are not part of the dog GPCR repertoire. There is a higher number of orthologous pairs between dog and human that are conserved as compared with either mouse or rat. In almost all cases the differences observed between the dog and human genomes coincide with other variations in the rodent species. Several GPCR gene expansions characteristic for rodents are not found in dog. Conclusion The repertoire of dog non-olfactory GPCRs is more similar to the repertoire in humans as compared with the one in rodents. The comparison of the dog, human and rodent repertoires revealed several examples of species-specific gene duplications and deletions. This information is useful in the selection of model organisms for pharmacological experiments. PMID:19146662

  14. Relative efficacy of human social interaction and food as reinforcers for domestic dogs and hand-reared wolves.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  15. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity.

    PubMed

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  16. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity

    PubMed Central

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  17. Exposure of dogs to spotted fever group rickettsiae in urban sites associated with human rickettsioses in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Carranza, Marco V; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Troyo, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    The zoonotic transmission cycles of Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in Latin America have usually been associated with rural or sylvatic environments, although domestic dogs can be implicated in more populated settings. In this study, exposure of dogs to SFG rickettsiae in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica was investigated. Dogs from sites associated with human cases and from dog shelters were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using antigen of SFG rickettsiae. Rickettsia spp. were detected in ectoparasites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 18.5% (31/168) of dogs associated with human cases and 6.8% (11/161) of dogs in shelters had IgG end titers≥64 to Rickettsia spp. The odds of being seropositive were greater in dogs from areas associated with human cases when compared to shelters (OR: 3.2; 95% C.I: 1.5-5.6). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l.) was present in all sites associated with human cases. Rickettsia felis URRWXCal2 and R. felis-like RF2125 were detected in Ctenocephalides felis, and Rickettsia sp. IbR/CRC in Ixodes boliviensis. Results demonstrate that dogs from the main urban center of Costa Rica have been exposed to SFG rickettsiae, especially in areas with known human infection. Both human and animal health sectors must be aware of possible rickettsial diseases in urban areas, where dogs may also serve as sentinels for human infection. PMID:26995323

  18. Cadaver dog and handler team capabilities in the recovery of buried human remains in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Lasseter, Alanna E; Jacobi, Keith P; Farley, Ricky; Hensel, Lee

    2003-05-01

    The detection of human remains that have been deliberately buried to escape detection is a problem for law enforcement. Sometimes the cadaver dog and handler teams are successful, while other times law enforcement and cadaver dog teams are frustrated in their search. Five field trials tested the ability of four cadaver dog and handler teams to detect buried human remains. Human and animal remains were buried in various forested areas during the summer months near Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The remains ranged in decomposition from fresh to skeletonized. Cadaver dogs detected with varying success: buried human remains at different stages of decomposition, buried human remains at different depths, and buried decomposed human and animal remains. The results from these trials showed that some cadaver dogs were able to locate skeletonized remains buried at a significant depth. Fresh and skeletonized remains were found equally by the cadaver dogs along with some caveats. Dog handlers affected the reliability of the cadaver dog results. Observations and videotape of the cadaver dogs during field trials showed that they were reliable in finding buried human remains. PMID:12762533

  19. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  20. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Directed Social Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Ádám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (−212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5′ and 3′ UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3′ and 5′ UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene–behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  1. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lina S V; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor "playing often with the dog" (r = -0.34, P = 0.019) and "reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly" (r = -0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs. PMID:26791276

  2. Understanding hereditary diseases using the dog and human as companion model systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kate L.; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2007-01-01

    Animal models are requisite for genetic dissection of, and improved treatment regimens for, human hereditary diseases. While several animals have been used in academic and industrial research, the primary model for dissection of hereditary diseases has been the many strains of the laboratory mouse. However, given its greater (than the mouse) genetic similarity to the human, high number of naturally occurring hereditary diseases, unique population structure, and the availability of the complete genome sequence, the purebred dog has emerged as a powerful model for study of diseases. The major advantage the dog provides is that it is afflicted with approximately 450 hereditary diseases, about half of which have remarkable clinical similarities to corresponding diseases of the human. In addition, humankind has a strong desire to cure diseases of the dog so these two facts make the dog an ideal clinical and genetic model. This review highlights several of these shared hereditary diseases. Specifically, the canine models discussed herein have played important roles in identification of causative genes and/or have been utilized in novel therapeutic approaches of interest to the dog and human. PMID:17653794

  3. Dogs'olfactory diagnostics applied on human species: state of the art and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, B; Nardo, B; Lippi, G; Palmieri, L; Vadalà, M; Laurino, C

    2016-01-01

    Dogs'smell ability is about 10000-100000 more developed than humans' one. Dogs smell is usually exploited in forensic medicine, to find missing people and specific substances showing peculiar sensorial features. In clinic, there is the possibility to take advantage of dogs smell, which are conveniently trained, for the screening of cancers and other diseases. The common feature is the presence of molecules in organic samples that may be considered as biomarkers of a specific pathology. In cancer, scientific evidences exist about screening of melanoma, lung, breast, rectum, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancer. Instead, other pathologies manifest the presence of organic volatile compounds in biologic materials, such as spit, faeces and urine that may be studied by dogs smell in order to identify the presence of a specific disease. This review shows the state of the art of actual dogs' olfactory ability based on scientific principles and the advantages and the disadvantages of this method. The authors also reveal some potential pathologies joined by the presence of organic volatile compounds, which may be investigated by dogs smell. PMID:27598027

  4. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare.

    PubMed

    Millien, Max F; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne B; Wallace, Ryan; Caldas, Eduardo; Rwangabgoba, Jean M; Poncelet, Jean L; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti's rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR) and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP) with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population. PMID:26110845

  5. Control of Dog Mediated Human Rabies in Haiti: No Time to Spare

    PubMed Central

    Millien, Max F.; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne B.; Wallace, Ryan; Caldas, Eduardo; Rwangabgoba, Jean M.; Poncelet, Jean L.; Cosivi, Ottorino; Del Rio Vilas, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    The American region has pledged to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies by 2015. As part of these efforts, we describe the findings of a desk and field mission review of Haiti’s rabies situation by the end of 2013. While government officials recognize the importance of dog-mediated rabies control, and the national rabies plan adequately contemplates the basic capacities to that effect, regular and sufficient implementation, for example, of dog vaccination, is hampered by limited funding. Compounding insufficient funding and human resources, official surveillance figures do not accurately reflect the risk to the population, as evidenced by the large number of rabid dogs detected by focalized and enhanced surveillance activities conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR) and the Health and Population Ministry (MSPP) with the technical assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although international support is common, either in the form of on-the-ground technical support or donations of immunobiologicals, it is not comprehensive. In addition, there is limited coordination with MARNDR/MSPP and with other actors at the strategic or operational level due to human resources limitations. Given these findings, the 2015 elimination goal in the region is compromised by the situation in Haiti where control of the disease is not yet in sight despite the best efforts of the resolute national officials. More importantly, dog-mediated rabies is still a threat to the Haitian population. PMID:26110845

  6. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Sophie; Bregeras, Olivier; Puaux, Didier; Gervais, Rémi; Ferry, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately. PMID:26863620

  7. Ionic mechanisms limiting cardiac repolarization reserve in humans compared to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Norbert; Virág, László; Comtois, Philippe; Ördög, Balázs; Szuts, Viktória; Seprényi, György; Bitay, Miklós; Kohajda, Zsófia; Koncz, István; Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Magyar, János; Kovács, Mária; Puskás, László G; Lengyel, Csaba; Wettwer, Erich; Ravens, Ursula; Nánási, Péter P; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Nattel, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The species-specific determinants of repolarization are poorly understood. This study compared the contribution of various currents to cardiac repolarization in canine and human ventricle. Conventional microelectrode, whole-cell patch-clamp, molecular biological and mathematical modelling techniques were used. Selective IKr block (50–100 nmol l−1 dofetilide) lengthened AP duration at 90% of repolarization (APD90) >3-fold more in human than dog, suggesting smaller repolarization reserve in humans. Selective IK1 block (10 μmol l−1 BaCl2) and IKs block (1 μmol l−1 HMR-1556) increased APD90 more in canine than human right ventricular papillary muscle. Ion current measurements in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that IK1 and IKs densities were 3- and 4.5-fold larger in dogs than humans, respectively. IKr density and kinetics were similar in human versus dog. ICa and Ito were respectively ∼30% larger and ∼29% smaller in human, and Na+–Ca2+ exchange current was comparable. Cardiac mRNA levels for the main IK1 ion channel subunit Kir2.1 and the IKs accessory subunit minK were significantly lower, but mRNA expression of ERG and KvLQT1 (IKr and IKsα-subunits) were not significantly different, in human versus dog. Immunostaining suggested lower Kir2.1 and minK, and higher KvLQT1 protein expression in human versus canine cardiomyocytes. IK1 and IKs inhibition increased the APD-prolonging effect of IKr block more in dog (by 56% and 49%, respectively) than human (34 and 16%), indicating that both currents contribute to increased repolarization reserve in the dog. A mathematical model incorporating observed human–canine ion current differences confirmed the role of IK1 and IKs in repolarization reserve differences. Thus, humans show greater repolarization-delaying effects of IKr block than dogs, because of lower repolarization reserve contributions from IK1 and IKs, emphasizing species-specific determinants of repolarization and the limitations of animal models

  8. The vertebrobasilar arterial system in guinea pig as compared with dog and human.

    PubMed

    Majewska-Michalska, E

    1998-01-01

    The arterial system formed by branches of the vertebral and basilar arteries in guinea pig was compared to that of dog and human. The vertebrobasilar arterial system in particular species shows similarities and differences, considering its structure and arising branches. The differences are mainly due to the length of the basilar artery. In guinea pig the vertebrobasilar system distribute blood to the 2/3 of the brain. The same distribution is in dog. In human the carotid system predominates in the supply of the brain. PMID:9835170

  9. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible. PMID:20532563

  10. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anjuli L. A.; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A.; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces. PMID:27074009

  11. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anjuli L A; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces. PMID:27074009

  12. Seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, John; Anseeuw, Erika; Gow, Sheryl; Bryan, Heather; Salb, Amanda; Goji, Noriko; Rhodes, Carrie; La Coste, Stacey; Smits, Judit; Kutz, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western Canada. Seroprevalence of CRCoV and CPIV was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of B. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. Rural dogs were 0.421 times (P ≤ 0.0001) less likely to be positive for CRCoV than dogs admitted to the shelter. There were no statistical differences in prevalence of antibodies to B. bronchiseptica and CPIV between urban and rural populations. Dogs from Fort Resolution, NWT were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to have moderate or high antibody titers to the 3 agents than dogs in the shelter. Seroconversion to CRCoV was common in dogs in the shelter, but was not associated (P = 0.18) with respiratory disease. Antibodies to CRCoV, CPIV, or B. bronchiseptica on arrival were not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with disease-sparing after entry into the shelter. PMID:22294792

  13. The canine (dog) model of human aging and disease: dietary, environmental and immunotherapy approaches.

    PubMed

    Cotman, Carl W; Head, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    Aged dogs (beagles) develop losses in executive function, learning and memory. The severity of decline in these cognitive domains represents a spectrum that captures normal aging, mild cognitive impairment and early/mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. In parallel, dogs naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology (although not all) consistent with human brain aging and AD including cortical atrophy, neuron loss, loss of neurogenesis, amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and oxidative damage. Many of these neuropathological features correlate with the extent of cognitive decline in a brain region-dependent manner. Dogs are ideally suited for longitudinal studies, and we provide a summary of the beneficial effects of an antioxidant diet, behavioral enrichment, and Abeta immunotherapy. In addition, combinatorial treatment approaches can be a powerful strategy for improving brain function through enhancement of multiple molecular pathways. PMID:19096165

  14. Dog's genotype of Giardia duodenalis in human: first evidence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Maďar, Marián; Hinney, Barbara; Goldová, Mária; Mojžišová, Jana; Halánová, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The unicellular parasite Giardia duodenalis has been divided to eight assemblages (A-H) from which A and B have the most important zoonotic potential. All remaining genotypes have a strong commitment to various host animals. We present here the first clinical case of a human infection with the dog-specific genotype C of G. duodenalis in Slovakia. The patient, 44-year-old woman, suffered from long-term diarrhoea, abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, severe itching and dermatitis in the perianal area. The initial microscopic diagnosis was completed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which revealed the first evidence of human giardiasis caused by the dog-specific genotype of G. duodenalis on a European scale. A possible role of dogs in zoonotic transmission of giardiasis and its epidemiological and public health relevance is accentuated. PMID:26408607

  15. Management of 41 persons exposed to a rabid dog: unplanned experience with human diploid vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Dempster, G.; Stead, S.; Zbitnew, A.; Rhodes, A. J.; Zalan, E.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-six persons -- veterinarians, technicians and students at a veterinary clinic -- were unwittingly exposed to a rabid dog over a period of 21/2 days. One veterinarian received a penetrating bite, two other individuals were grabbed by the dog but the skin was not penetrated, and many were exposed to saliva or urine or both. In addition, the owner of the dog and his wife and three children, while not bitten, were exposed to saliva. The diagnosis was made post mortem when specimens of the dog's brain were examined by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. All but one of the students had been vaccinated against rabies with hamster kidney vaccine, but eight members of the veterinary college's staff had not been so vaccinated. Treatment started with duck embryo vaccine; if necessary, rabies (human) immune globulin was also given. When one student reacted severely to the first dose of duck embryo vaccine permission was sought to bring a human diploid vaccine into Canada. In five patients the human diploid vaccine was substituted for the duck embryo vaccine because of severe reactions to the latter. Twenty-five staff members and the family of five received both vaccines. Reactions to the human diploid vaccine were minor and transient. Recommendations include the early licensing of the human diploid vaccine in Canada. PMID:445300

  16. An analysis of the use of dogs in predicting human toxicology and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jarrod; Thew, Michelle; Balls, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Dogs remain the main non-rodent species in preclinical drug development. Despite the current dearth of new drug approvals and meagre pipelines, this continues, with little supportive evidence of its value or necessity. To estimate the evidential weight provided by canine data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive dataset of 2,366 drugs with both animal and human data, including tissue-level effects and Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Level 1-4 biomedical observations. The resulting LRs show that the absence of toxicity in dogs provides virtually no evidence that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) will also be absent in humans. While the LRs suggest that the presence of toxic effects in dogs can provide considerable evidential weight for a risk of potential ADRs in humans, this is highly inconsistent, varying by over two orders of magnitude for different classes of compounds and their effects. Our results therefore have important implications for the value of the dog in predicting human toxicity, and suggest that alternative methods are urgently required. PMID:24329742

  17. Leptospirosis in pigs, dogs, rodents, humans, and water in an area of the Colombian tropics.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Virginia; Máttar, Salim; Arrieta, Germán

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of global distribution and is one of the causes of hemorrhagic fevers in the tropics. We sought to determine seroprevalence in humans and animals and isolate Leptospira interrogans sensu lato in domestic animals, rodents, and water sources. The study was conducted in a tropical area of the middle Sinú in Cordoba, Colombia. In a prospective descriptive study, we collected blood and urine from pigs and dogs, sera from rural human workers, sera and kidney macerates of rodents, and water samples from environmental sources. We used microagglutination to screen for antibodies to 13 serovars. Strains were cultured on the Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris medium and confirmed by PCR amplifying lipL32 gene. Seroprevalence was 55.9% in pigs, 35.2% in dogs, and 75.8% in humans; no antibody was detected, and no Leptospira were isolated from kidney macerates of rodents. Seven L. interrogans sensu lato strains were isolated: three from pigs, two from dogs, and two from water. High seroprevalence in pigs, dogs, and humans, concomitant to isolation of strains, demonstrates that in Cordoba, transmission exists among animals, the environment, and humans, which warrants the implementation of public health intervention measures to reduce the epidemiological impact of leptospirosis in the region. PMID:24254419

  18. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan F J; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Bolio-González, Manuel E; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Rosado-Aguilar, Alberto; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6%) were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis). Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water) should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures. PMID:26770216

  19. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lina S. V.; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to measure long-term endocrine stress responses in animals. We investigated whether cortisol extracted from dog hair reflected the levels of activity and stress long-term, during weeks and months. Hair samples from in total 59 German shepherds were analysed. Samples for measuring cortisol concentrations were collected at three occasions and we complemented the data with individual scores from the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) results showed that hair cortisol varied with season and lifestyle: competition dogs had higher levels than companion, and professional working dogs, and levels were higher in January than in May and September. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and the C-BARQ score for stranger-directed aggression (r = 0.31, P = 0.036). Interestingly, the factor “playing often with the dog” (r = −0.34, P = 0.019) and “reward with a treat/toy when the dog behaves correctly” (r = −0.37, P = 0.010) correlated negatively with cortisol levels, suggesting that positive human interactions reduce stress. In conclusion, hair cortisol is a promising method for revealing the activity of the HPA-axis over a longer period of time, and human interactions influence the cortisol level in dogs. PMID:26791276

  20. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan F. J.; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Bolio-González, Manuel E.; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Rosado-Aguilar, Alberto; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6%) were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis). Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water) should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures. PMID:26770216

  1. The anticoagulant effects of the hookworm, ancylostoma ceylanicum: observations on human and dog blood in vitro and infected dogs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S M; Howse, D J; Grove, D I

    1984-04-30

    Extracts of adult Ancylostoma ceylanicum prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time with kaolin ( PPTK ) of both human and dog plasmas in vitro. Excretory/secretory (E/S) products of these worms had similar effects while larval extract prolonged the PTTK only. Thus, the anticoagulant activities of this parasite are dependent upon the stage of the worm's life cycle. Collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were inhibited by adult and larval extracts. When the peripheral blood and bleeding times of dogs with varying worm burdens were examined, the only abnormality was shortening of the PTTK in the most heavily infected animals. Homogenates of dog small bowel subjacent to adult hookworms prolonged the PT of dog plasma and electron microscopical examination of this tissue revealed aggregation of platelets in blood venules without fibrin deposition. Thus, this study provides evidence that the anticoagulant properties of hookworms may have biological significance in infected animals. PMID:6740554

  2. Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Cecília C.; de Morais, Nélio B.; Carrieri, Maria Luíza; Rolim, Benedito N.; Silva, Lucia M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Durigon, Edison L.; de Mattos, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies viruses circulating in Ceará, Brazil, were identified by molecular analysis to be related to variants maintained by dogs, bats, and other wildlife. Most of these viruses are associated with human rabies cases. We document the emergence of a rabies virus variant responsible for an independent epidemic cycle in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). PMID:17326958

  3. The use of cadaver dogs in locating scattered, scavenged human remains: preliminary field test results.

    PubMed

    Komar, D

    1999-03-01

    Specially trained air scent detection canines (Canis familiaris) are commonly used by law enforcement to detect narcotics, explosives or contraband, and by fire investigators to detect the presence of accelerants. Dogs are also used by police, military, and civilian groups to locate lost or missing persons, as well as victims of natural or mass disasters. A further subspecialty is "cadaver" searching, or the use of canines to locate buried or concealed human remains. Recent forensic investigations in central Alberta demonstrated that the use of cadaver dogs could be expanded to include locating partial, scattered human remains dispersed by repeated animal scavenging. Eight dog-and-handler teams participated in a two-month training program using human and animal remains in various stages of decay as scent sources. Ten blind field tests were then conducted which simulated actual search conditions. Recovery rates ranged between 57% and 100%, indicating that properly trained cadaver dogs can make significant contributions in the location and recovery of scattered human remains. PMID:10097372

  4. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers

    PubMed Central

    Poussin, Carine; Weisensee, Dirk; Gebel, Stephan; Hengstermann, Arnd; Sewer, Alain; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Xiang, Yang; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers' airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the air-liquid interface, and we investigated various biological endpoints [e.g., gene expression and microRNA profiles, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release] at multiple postexposure time points (0.5, 2, 4, 24, 48 h). By performing a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we observed a significant enrichment of human smokers' bronchial epithelium gene signatures derived from different public transcriptomics datasets in CS-exposed AIR-100 tissue. Comparison of in vitro microRNA profiles with microRNA data from healthy smokers highlighted various highly translatable microRNAs associated with inflammation or with cell cycle processes that are known to be perturbed by CS in lung tissue. We also found a dose-dependent increase of MMP-1 release by AIR-100 tissue 48 h after CS exposure in agreement with the known effect of CS on this collagenase expression in smokers' tissues. In conclusion, a similar biological perturbation than the one observed in vivo in smokers' airway epithelium could be induced after a single CS exposure of a human organotypic bronchial epithelium-like tissue culture. PMID:23355383

  5. Behavioural coordination of dogs in a cooperative problem-solving task with a conspecific and a human partner.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-03-01

    The process of domestication has arguably provided dogs (Canis familiaris) with decreased emotional reactivity (reduced fear and aggression) and increased socio-cognitive skills adaptive for living with humans. It has been suggested that dogs are uniquely equipped with abilities that have been identified as crucial in cooperative problem-solving, namely social tolerance and the ability to attend to other individuals' behaviour. Accordingly, dogs might be hypothesised to perform well in tasks in which they have to work together with a human partner. Recently, researchers have found that dogs successfully solved a simple cooperative task with another dog. Due to the simplicity of the task, this study was, however, unable to provide clear evidence as to whether the dogs' successful performance was based on the cognitive ability of behavioural coordination, namely the capacity to link task requirements to the necessity of adjusting one's actions to the partner's behaviour. Here, we tested dogs with the most commonly used cooperative task, appropriate to test behavioural coordination. In addition, we paired dogs with both a conspecific and a human partner. Although dogs had difficulties in inhibiting the necessary action when required to wait for their partner, they successfully attended to the two cues that predicted a successful outcome, namely their partner's behaviour and the incremental movement of rewards towards themselves. This behavioural coordination was shown with both a conspecific and a human partner, in line with the recent findings suggesting that dogs exhibit highly developed socio-cognitive skills in interactions with both humans and other dogs. PMID:23995845

  6. [Transmission dynamics and cost-effectiveness of rabies control in dogs and humans in an African city].

    PubMed

    Zinsstag, J; Dürr, S; Penny, M A; Mindekem, R; Roth, F; Menendez Gonzalez, S; Naissengar, S; Hattendorf, J

    2011-12-01

    Control of human rabies in developing countries depends on prevention in dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-saving potential for the public health sector of intervention to control rabies in animal-host reservoirs. An existing deterministic model was adapted to allow study of dog-to-human rabies transmission. Model parameters were fitted to data from routine weekly reports on the number of rabid dogs and human rabies exposures in N'Djamena, Chad. At the onset of study, the estimated effective reproductive ratio (Re) was 1.01 indicating stable low-level endemic rabies transmission. Simulations were performed to determine what effects mass vaccination and culling of dogs would have on the incidence of human rabies. Findings showed that a mass campaign allowing single parenteral vaccination of at least 70% of the canine population would be sufficient to interrupt transmission of rabies to humans for at least 6 years. The cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination was compared to that of "postexposure prophylaxis" (PEP) which would not reduce future human exposure. Results showed that a sustained 5-year PEP program together with a dog-vaccination campaign would be as cost-effective as PEP alone. Beyond a time-frame of 7 years, combining parenteral dog vaccination campaigns with human PEP appeared to be more cost-effective than human PEP alone. PMID:22393628

  7. Scent of the familiar: an fMRI study of canine brain responses to familiar and unfamiliar human and dog odors.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Brooks, Andrew M; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Understanding dogs' perceptual experience of both conspecifics and humans is important to understand how dogs evolved and the nature of their relationships with humans and other dogs. Olfaction is believed to be dogs' most powerful and perhaps important sense and an obvious place to begin for the study of social cognition of conspecifics and humans. We used fMRI in a cohort of dogs (N=12) that had been trained to remain motionless while unsedated and unrestrained in the MRI. By presenting scents from humans and conspecifics, we aimed to identify the dimensions of dogs' responses to salient biological odors - whether they are based on species (dog or human), familiarity, or a specific combination of factors. We focused our analysis on the dog's caudate nucleus because of its well-known association with positive expectations and because of its clearly defined anatomical location. We hypothesized that if dogs' primary association to reward, whether it is based on food or social bonds, is to humans, then the human scents would activate the caudate more than the conspecific scents. Conversely, if the smell of conspecifics activated the caudate more than the smell of humans, dogs' association to reward would be stronger to their fellow canines. Five scents were presented (self, familiar human, strange human, familiar dog, strange dog). While the olfactory bulb/peduncle was activated to a similar degree by all the scents, the caudate was activated maximally to the familiar human. Importantly, the scent of the familiar human was not the handler, meaning that the caudate response differentiated the scent in the absence of the person being present. The caudate activation suggested that not only did the dogs discriminate that scent from the others, they had a positive association with it. This speaks to the power of the dog's sense of smell, and it provides important clues about the importance of humans in dogs' lives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine

  8. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence. PMID:24878266

  9. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Sophie; Bregeras, Olivier; Puaux, Didier; Gervais, Rémi; Ferry, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs’ greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately. PMID:26863620

  10. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. PMID:24128326

  11. Phenotypic Features of Circulating Leukocytes from Non-human Primates Naturally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Resemble the Major Immunological Findings Observed in Human Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattoso-Barbosa, Armanda Moreira; Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Marcelo; Costa, Ronaldo Peres; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) represent a feasible model for research on Chagas disease since natural T. cruzi infection in these primates leads to clinical outcomes similar to those observed in humans. However, it is still unknown whether these clinical similarities are accompanied by equivalent immunological characteristics in the two species. We have performed a detailed immunophenotypic analysis of circulating leukocytes together with systems biology approaches from 15 cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with T. cruzi (CH) presenting the chronic phase of Chagas disease to identify biomarkers that might be useful for clinical investigations. Methods and Findings Our data established that CH displayed increased expression of CD32+ and CD56+ in monocytes and enhanced frequency of NK Granzyme A+ cells as compared to non-infected controls (NI). Moreover, higher expression of CD54 and HLA-DR by T-cells, especially within the CD8+ subset, was the hallmark of CH. A high level of expression of Granzyme A and Perforin underscored the enhanced cytotoxicity-linked pattern of CD8+ T-lymphocytes from CH. Increased frequency of B-cells with up-regulated expression of Fc-γRII was also observed in CH. Complex and imbricate biomarker networks demonstrated that CH showed a shift towards cross-talk among cells of the adaptive immune system. Systems biology analysis further established monocytes and NK-cell phenotypes and the T-cell activation status, along with the Granzyme A expression by CD8+ T-cells, as the most reliable biomarkers of potential use for clinical applications. Conclusions Altogether, these findings demonstrated that the similarities in phenotypic features of circulating leukocytes observed in cynomolgus macaques and humans infected with T. cruzi further supports the use of these monkeys in preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies applied to development and testing of new drugs for Chagas disease. PMID:26808481

  12. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Putrino, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Carolina; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it) and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it). Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3). In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments. PMID:25714915

  13. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    PubMed

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  14. Breed differences in dogs sensitivity to human points: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Nicole R; Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2009-07-01

    The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research on the behavioral and cognitive abilities of pet dogs, Canis familiaris. The most commonly used experimental paradigm is the object-choice task in which a dog is given a choice of two containers and guided to the reinforced object by human pointing gestures. We review here studies of this type and attempt a meta-analysis of the available data. In the meta-analysis breeds of dogs were grouped into the eight categories of the American Kennel Club, and into four clusters identified by Parker and Ostrander [Parker, H.G., Ostrander, E.A., 2005. Canine genomics and genetics: running with the pack. PLoS Genet. 1, 507-513] on the basis of a genetic analysis. No differences in performance between breeds categorized in either fashion were identified. Rather, all dog breeds appear to be similarly and highly successful in following human points to locate desired food. We suggest this result could be due to the paucity of data available in published studies, and the restricted range of breeds tested. PMID:19520241

  15. Genetically distinct dog-derived and human-derived Sarcoptes scabiei in scabies-endemic communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Walton, S F; Choy, J L; Bonson, A; Valle, A; McBroom, J; Taplin, D; Arlian, L; Mathews, J D; Currie, B; Kemp, D J

    1999-10-01

    Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologically, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70 known alleles. Multilocus analysis of 712 scabies mites from human and dog hosts in Ohio, Panama and Aboriginal communities in northern Australia now shows that genotypes of dog-derived and human-derived scabies cluster by host species rather than by geographic location. Because of the apparent genetic separation between human scabies and dog scabies, control programs for human scabies in endemic areas do not require resources directed against zoonotic infection from dogs. PMID:10548286

  16. Lifespan development of attentiveness in domestic dogs: drawing parallels with humans

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Lisa J.; Range, Friederike; Müller, Corsin A.; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Zsó, Virányi

    2014-01-01

    Attention is pivotal to consciousness, perception, cognition, and working memory in all mammals, and therefore changes in attention over the lifespan are likely to influence development and aging of all of these functions. Due to their evolutionary and developmental history, the dog is being recognized as an important species for modeling human healthspan, aging and associated diseases. In this study, we investigated the normal lifespan development of attentiveness of pet dogs in naturalistic situations, and compared the resulting cross-sectional developmental trajectories with data from previous studies in humans. We tested a sample of 145 Border collies (6 months to 14 years) with humans and objects or food as attention attractors, in order to assess their attentional capture, sustained and selective attention, and sensorimotor abilities. Our results reveal differences in task relevance in sustained attentional performance when watching a human or a moving object, which may be explained by life-long learning processes involving such stimuli. During task switching we found that dogs’ selective attention and sensorimotor abilities showed differences between age groups, with performance peaking at middle age. Dogs’ sensorimotor abilities showed a quadratic distribution with age and were correlated with selective attention performance. Our results support the hypothesis that the development and senescence of sensorimotor and attentional control may be fundamentally interrelated. Additionally, attentional capture, sustained attention, and sensorimotor control developmental trajectories paralleled those found in humans. Given that the development of attention is similar across humans and dogs, we propose that the same regulatory mechanisms are likely to be present in both species. Finally, this cross-sectional study provides the first description of age group changes in attention over the lifespan of pet dogs. PMID:24570668

  17. The genetic immunodeficiency disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu-Chen; Bauer, Thomas R; Ackermann, Mark R; Smith, C Wayne; Kehrli, Marcus E; Starost, Matthew F; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2004-08-01

    This review highlights the genotype-phenotype relationship of the genetic immunodeficiency disease leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) in humans, dogs, cattle, and mice, and provides assessment of the opportunities that each animal species provides in the understanding of leukocyte biology and in developing new therapeutic approaches to LAD in humans. This comparison is important since animal models of genetic diseases in humans provide the opportunity to test new therapeutic approaches in an appropriate, disease-specific model. The success of this approach is dependent on the relationship of the phenotype in the animal to the phenotype of the disease in humans. PMID:15357315

  18. The ontogeny of human point following in dogs: When younger dogs outperform older.

    PubMed

    Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila; Wynne, Clive D L

    2015-10-01

    We investigated puppies' responsiveness to hand points differing in salience. Experiment 1 compared performance of younger (8 weeks old) and older (12 weeks) shelter pups in following pointing gestures. We hypothesized that older puppies would show better performance. Both groups followed the easy and moderate but not the difficult pointing cues. Surprisingly, the younger pups outperformed the older ones in following the moderate and difficult points. Investigation of subjects' backgrounds revealed that significantly more younger pups had experience living in human homes than did the older pups. Thus, we conducted a second experiment to isolate the variable experience. We collected additional data from older pet pups living in human homes on the same three point types and compared their performance with the shelter pups from Experiment 1. The pups living in homes accurately followed all three pointing cues. When comparing both experienced groups, the older pet pups outperformed the younger shelter ones, as predicted. When comparing the two same-age groups differing in background experience, the pups living in homes outperformed the shelter pups. A significant correlation between experience with humans and success in following less salient cues was found. The importance of ontogenetic learning in puppies' responsiveness to certain human social cues is discussed. PMID:26192336

  19. Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Katzenberg, M. Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Berdnikova, Natalia E.; Savel’ev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  20. Genetics of Adiposity in Large Animal Models for Human Obesity-Studies on Pigs and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, M; Szczerbal, I; Switonski, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of domestic mammals in the development of human biomedical sciences has been widely documented. Among these model species the pig and dog are of special importance. Both are useful for studies on the etiology of human obesity. Genome sequences of both species are known and advanced genetic tools [eg, microarray SNP for genome wide association studies (GWAS), next generation sequencing (NGS), etc.] are commonly used in such studies. In the domestic pig the accumulation of adipose tissue is an important trait, which influences meat quality and fattening efficiency. Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pig fatness traits were identified, while gene polymorphisms associated with these traits were also described. The situation is different in dog population. Generally, excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is considered, similar to humans, as a complex disease. However, research on the genetic background of canine obesity is still in its infancy. Between-breed differences in terms of adipose tissue accumulation are well known in both animal species. In this review we show recent advances of studies on adipose tissue accumulation in pigs and dogs, and their potential importance for studies on human obesity. PMID:27288831

  1. Evaluation of Human Semenogelin Membrane Strip Test for Species Cross-reactivity in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Stern, A W; Lanka, S

    2016-09-01

    Semenogelins are proteins originating in the seminal vesicle and are useful markers for the presumptive identification of human semen. Detection of semenogelin can be done with a commercially available membrane test. In this study, a commercially available membrane test for human semenogelin proteins was used to assess for cross-reactivity in dog bodily fluids to allow for the potential utilization for detection of human semen in dog bodily fluids. The authors analyzed canine semen and other bodily fluids, including urine, saliva, vaginal secretions, fecal material, and blood. They also examined the distribution of human semenogelin I transcripts in the canine testis, prostate, and several bodily fluids by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. No cross-reactivity was observed in the canine bodily fluids tested except for a single rectal swab, which was negative on a second test. Further testing should be done to validate the use of this kit for screening samples from dogs suspected to have been victims of sexual abuse. PMID:26574559

  2. Evaluation of repair in duodenal perforation with human amniotic membrane: An animal model (dog)

    PubMed Central

    Ghahramani, Leila; Jahromi, Ali Bagherpour; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a growing tendency toward application of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a biologic substitute in various tissue injuries where a significant tissue loss is a matter of concern. In gastrointestinal injuries especially duodenal ones, some potential limitations in current surgical techniques contribute to not fully acceptable healing outcomes. Thus, this study was carried out to assess repair with HAM patch for duodenal defect in comparison with simple duodenoraphy in an animal model (dog). Materials and Methods: A total of 15 male German shepherd dogs weighing 23-27 kg were randomly divided into two groups. Group A with 10 dogs, which were a candidate for duodenal repair by amniotic membrane patch and Group B consisted of 5 dogs perform simple duodenorraphy. A precise control was made to match all conditions except surgical technique. Macroscopic and microscopic features of the healed duodenal lumen in both groups were recorded. Results: Gross evaluation revealed no difference in luminal diameter in both groups. Statistical analysis of duodenal diameter between both groups after operation also showed no significant difference (Pv = 0.789). Histological assessment indicated less inflammation with better wound healing in Group A. Conclusion: It seems that repairing duodenal wall defect with HAM would result in better histological outcomes compared with what is seen in simple duodenoraphy in animal models. However, there is no significant difference regarding surgical findings. PMID:24804187

  3. Following human pointing: Where do dogs (Canis familiaris) look at to find food?

    PubMed

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are notably skillful in following cues from people (e.g., pointing gestures). However, not much is known about the processing of information available during such tasks. We here focus on one of the earliest of such processes, namely attention. The goal of the present work was to describe variations in dogs' attention towards diverse targets while they solve an object choice task with human pointing. The direction of subjects' gaze was measured in the period comprising one second before and two seconds after the experimenter called the dog and simultaneously performed a static distal pointing gesture towards the correct bowl. We did two consecutive training phases: acquisition and extinction. Dogs spent more time watching the pointer than the pointing gesture itself and the correct than the incorrect bowl. Indeed, the time spent watching the correct bowl was the best predictor of correct choices across phases. We discuss the relevance of these findings for the process of local enhancement. PMID:27060225

  4. Image Quality Assessment Using Human Visual DOG Model Fused With Random Forest.

    PubMed

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Chen, Li-Heng

    2015-11-01

    Objective image quality assessment (IQA) plays an important role in the development of multimedia applications. Prediction of IQA metric should be consistent with human perception. The release of the newest IQA database (TID2013) challenges most of the widely used quality metrics (e.g., peak-to-noise-ratio and structure similarity index). We propose a new methodology to build the metric model using a regression approach. The new IQA score is set to be the nonlinear combination of features extracted from several difference of Gaussian (DOG) frequency bands, which mimics the human visual system (HVS). Experimental results show that the random forest regression model trained by the proposed DOG feature is highly correspondent to the HVS and is also robust when tested by available databases. PMID:26054064

  5. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  6. Subclinical Giardia in dogs: a veterinary conundrum relevant to human infection.

    PubMed

    Tysnes, Kristoffer Relling; Skancke, Ellen; Robertson, Lucy J

    2014-11-01

    Human infection with Giardia duodenalis tends to be associated with diarrheal disease requiring treatment - despite our awareness that often it is asymptomatic and sometimes, perhaps, even protective. We discuss here whether canine giardiasis can serve as a model to help to understand why Giardia is pathogenic. We discuss factors that should be considered when Giardia is identified in dogs, challenging the assumption that infection necessarily means disease that requires chemotherapeutic treatment. To make the best treatment decision for canine Giardia infection we need to think about zoonotic risks, transmission possibilities, and risk factors for disease development. In addition, in both humans and dogs, Giardia sometimes may be considered as a harmless passenger, or even as a beneficial friend. PMID:25246022

  7. Fibromatous epulis in dogs and peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings: two equivalent lesions.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G; Baker, D C

    1991-03-01

    This article compares the clinical and histopathologic features of the peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings and the fibromatous epulis in dogs. They are apparently equivalent lesions. Both are odontogenic tumors of limited growth potential that do not recur if adequately excised; both occur in middle and late adulthood of the species concerned. The one difference is that the peripheral odontogenic fibroma is a rare condition, whereas the canine fibromatous epulis is common. PMID:2011354

  8. Comparative metabolism of 14C-labeled apixaban in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglu; He, Kan; Raghavan, Nirmala; Wang, Lifei; Mitroka, James; Maxwell, Brad D; Knabb, Robert M; Frost, Charles; Schuster, Alan; Hao, Feng; Gu, Zheming; Humphreys, W Griffith; Grossman, Scott J

    2009-08-01

    The metabolism and disposition of [(14)C]apixaban, a potent, reversible, and direct inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa, were investigated in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and humans after a single oral administration and in incubations with hepatocytes. In plasma, the parent compound was the major circulating component in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. O-Demethyl apixaban sulfate (M1) represented approximately 25% of the parent area under the time curve in human plasma. This sulfate metabolite was present, but in lower amounts relative to the parent, in plasma from mice, rats, and dogs. Rabbits showed a plasma metabolite profile distinct from that of other species with apixaban as a minor component and M2 (O-demethyl apixaban) and M14 (O-demethyl apixaban glucuronide) as prominent components. The fecal route was a major elimination pathway, accounting for >54% of the dose in animals and >46% in humans. The urinary route accounted for <15% of the dose in animals and 25 to 28% in humans. Apixaban was the major component in feces of every species and in urine of all species except rabbit. M1 and M2 were common prominent metabolites in urine and feces of all species as well as in bile of rats and humans. In vivo metabolite profiles showed quantitative differences between species and from in vitro metabolite profiles, but all human metabolites were found in animal species. After intravenous administration of [(14)C]apixaban to bile duct-cannulated rats, the significant portion (approximately 22%) of the dose was recovered as parent drug in the feces, suggesting direct excretion of the drug from gastrointestinal tracts of rats. Overall, apixaban was effectively eliminated via multiple elimination pathways in animals and humans, including oxidative metabolism, and direct renal and intestinal excretion. PMID:19420130

  9. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions. PMID:24402716

  10. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions. PMID:24402716

  11. Resemblance and investment in children.

    PubMed

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them. PMID:22385106

  12. Isolation and identification of urinary metabolites of porfiromycin in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Lang, W; Mao, J; Doyle, T W; Almassian, B

    2000-08-01

    Porfiromycin (PM), a bioreductive alkylating agent, is currently under development for the treatment of head and neck cancers as an adjunct to radiation therapy in phase III clinical trials. After i.v. administration of a single dose of PM to patients at 40 mg/m2, urinary metabolites were isolated by HPLC and identified by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In dogs, [methyl-3H]PM was administered i.v. to three Beagle dogs at a single dose of 2 mg/kg. Urinary excretion of radioactivity and PM at different times was determined by liquid scintillation counting and by HPLC, respectively. An average of 48.0% of total radioactivity given to the dogs was cumulatively excreted in urine over a period of 7 days. Unchanged parent drug excreted in urine accounted for 10.8% of the administered dose over the same period of time. The results indicated that the majority of excreted dose in dog urine was in the form of metabolites. Three phase I and four phase II metabolites of PM were identified in human and dog urine. The phase I metabolites are 2-methylamino-7-aminomitosene, 1,2-cis and 1,2-trans-1-hydroxy-2-methylamino-7-aminomitosenes. The phase II metabolites are a pair of isomeric N-acetylcysteine S-conjugates and a pair of isomeric cysteine S-conjugates of mitosenes at the C-1 and C-10 positions. Most of the identified metabolites were confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference standards using HPLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The identification of mercapturic acids and cysteine S-conjugates in urine indicates that the metabolism of PM may be through GSH conjugation. PMID:10901698

  13. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Cuaya, Laura V.; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs’ brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  14. DNA analysis of ancient dogs of the Americas: identifying possible founding haplotypes and reconstructing population histories.

    PubMed

    Witt, Kelsey E; Judd, Kathleen; Kitchen, Andrew; Grier, Colin; Kohler, Timothy A; Ortman, Scott G; Kemp, Brian M; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-02-01

    As dogs have traveled with humans to every continent, they can potentially serve as an excellent proxy when studying human migration history. Past genetic studies into the origins of Native American dogs have used portions of the hypervariable region (HVR) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to indicate that prior to European contact the dogs of Native Americans originated in Eurasia. In this study, we summarize past DNA studies of both humans and dogs to discuss their population histories in the Americas. We then sequenced a portion of the mtDNA HVR of 42 pre-Columbian dogs from three sites located in Illinois, coastal British Columbia, and Colorado, and identify four novel dog mtDNA haplotypes. Next, we analyzed a dataset comprised of all available ancient dog sequences from the Americas to infer the pre-Columbian population history of dogs in the Americas. Interestingly, we found low levels of genetic diversity for some populations consistent with the possibility of deliberate breeding practices. Furthermore, we identified multiple putative founding haplotypes in addition to dog haplotypes that closely resemble those of wolves, suggesting admixture with North American wolves or perhaps a second domestication of canids in the Americas. Notably, initial effective population size estimates suggest at least 1000 female dogs likely existed in the Americas at the time of the first known canid burial, and that population size increased gradually over time before stabilizing roughly 1200 years before present. PMID:25532803

  15. Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs. Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. Results Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs. Conclusions In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations

  16. Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Price, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint racing. This study is the first to evaluate the energy requirements of working dogs trained in odor, explosive and human detection. This retrospective study evaluated twenty adult dogs who maintained consistent body weights over a six month period. During this time, the average energy consumption was \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$136\\pm 38~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}136±38kcal⋅BWkg0.75 or two times the calculated resting energy requirement (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{RER}=70~\\mathrm{kcal}\\cdot {\\mathrm{BW}}_{\\mathrm{kg}}^{0.75}$\\end{document}RER=70kcal⋅BWkg0.75). No statistical differences were found between breeds, age or sex, but a statistically significant association (p = 0.0033, R-square = 0.0854) was seen between the number of searches a dog performs and their energy requirement. Based on this study’s population, it appears that working dogs have maintenance energy requirements similar to the 1974 National Research Council’s (NRC) maintenance energy requirement of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt

  17. Different subcellular localization of muscarinic and serotonin (S2) receptors in human, dog, and rat brain.

    PubMed

    Luabeya, M K; Maloteaux, J M; De Roe, C; Trouet, A; Laduron, P M

    1986-02-01

    Cortex from rat, dog, and human brain was submitted to subcellular fractionation using an analytical approach consisting of a two-step procedure. First, fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation and were analyzed for their content of serotonin S2 and muscarinic receptors, serotonin uptake, and marker enzymes. Second, the cytoplasmic extracts were subfractionated by equilibration in sucrose density gradient. In human brain, serotonin and muscarinic receptors were found associated mostly with mitochondrial fractions which contain synaptosomes, whereas in rat brain they were concentrated mainly in the microsomal fractions. Density gradient centrifugation confirmed a more marked synaptosomal localization of receptors in human than in rat brain, the dog displaying an intermediate profile. In human brain, indeed, more receptor sites were found to be associated with the second peak characterized in electron microscopy by the largest number of nerve terminals. In addition, synaptosomes from human brain are denser than those from rat brain and some marker enzymes reveal different subcellular distribution in the three species. These data indicate that more receptors are of synaptosomal nature in human brain than in other species and this finding is compatible with a larger amount of synaptic contacts in human brain. PMID:2934515

  18. Passive tick surveillance, dog seropositivity, and incidence of human Lyme disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.L.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.; Whitworth, U.G., Jr.; Markowski, D.; Hyland, K.E.; Hu, R.

    2004-01-01

    Data on nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted by the public to the University of Rhode Island Tick Research Laboratory for testing from 1991 to 2000 were compared with human case data from the Rhode Island Department of Health to determine the efficacy of passive tick surveillance at assessing human risk of Lyme disease. Numbers of ticks submitted were highly correlated with human cases by county (r = 0.998, n = 5 counties) and by town (r = 0.916, n = 37 towns), as were the numbers of positive ticks submitted (r = 0.989 by county, r = 0.787 by town). Human cases were correlated with ticks submitted by town each year, and with positive ticks in all but 2 years. Thus, passive tick surveillance effectively assessed geographical risk of human Lyme disease. In contrast, tick submissions through time were not correlated with human cases from year to year. Dog seropositivity was significantly correlated with human cases by county in both years tested, but by town in only one of two years. Numbers of ticks submitted were correlated with dog seropositivity by county but not by town, apparently because of high variability among towns with small sample sizes. Our results suggest that passive tick surveillance, using ticks submitted by the public for Lyme spirochete testing, can be used to assess the geographical distribution of Lyme disease risk, but cannot reliably predict Lyme incidence from year to year.

  19. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs. PMID:26883952

  20. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs. PMID:26883952

  1. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, Marga G A; Te Wierik, Margreet J M; Broens, Els M; van der Giessen, Joke W B; de Rosa, Mauro; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Notermans, Daan W; Maassen, Kitty; Schimmer, Barbara

    2016-04-28

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 15). About sixty per cent (n = 37) of the autochthonous cases were most likely attributable to surface water contact, and 13 cases to direct contact with animals, mainly rats. A possible explanation for this increase is the preceding mild winter of 2013-2014 followed by the warmest year in three centuries, possibly enabling rodents and Leptospira spp. to survive better. A slight increase in imported leptospirosis was also observed in Dutch tourists (n = 33) most of whom acquired their infection in Thailand (n = 18). More awareness and early recognition of this mainly rodent-borne zoonosis by medical and veterinary specialists is warranted. PMID:27168584

  2. Pollen Allergies in Humans and their Dogs, Cats and Horses: Differences and Similarities.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Einhorn, Lukas; Herrmann, Ina; Thalhammer, Johann G; Panakova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients. Dogs, cats and horses may spontaneously and to different extents develop immediate type symptoms to pollen allergens. The skin, nasal and bronchial reactions, as well as chronic skin lesions due to pollen are in principle comparable to human patients. Pollen of various species most often causes allergic rhinitis in human patients, whereas in dogs it elicits predominantly eczematous lesions (canine atopic dermatitis), in horses recurrent airway obstruction or hives as well as pruritic dermatitis, and in cats bronchial asthma and so-called cutaneous reactive patterns (eosinophilic granuloma complex, head and neck pruritus, symmetric self-induced alopecia). In human allergy-specific IgE detection, skin tests or other allergen provocation tests should be completed. In contrast, in animals IgE and dermal tests are regarded as equally important and may even replace each other. However, for practical and economic reasons intradermal tests are most commonly performed in a specialized practice. As in humans, in dogs, cats and horses allergen immunotherapy leads to significant improvement of the clinical symptoms. The collected evidence suggests that canines, felines and equines, with their spontaneous allergies, are attractive model patients for translational studies. PMID:25852853

  3. Wombats acquired scabies from humans and/or dogs from outside Australia.

    PubMed

    Andriantsoanirina, V; Ariey, F; Izri, A; Bernigaud, C; Fang, F; Guillot, J; Chosidow, O; Durand, R

    2015-06-01

    According to previous studies, Sarcoptes mites of wombats were relatively recently introduced into Australia by colonizers and/or their dogs. However, that affirmation has been called into question due to apparent flaws in the design of the phylogenetic studies. With the aim of providing a definitive answer to this question, a part of the mitochondrial gene coding for 12S rRNA of S. scabiei mites from 23 humans and one dog collected in France was sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis including the sequences previously deposited in Genbank was performed. Phylogenetic analysis did not show host segregation or geographical isolation of the mites. Conversely, the present work suggested that mange in wombats is indeed due to the introduction of S. scabiei into Australia by immigrating individuals and/or their companion animals. PMID:25813454

  4. Evidence for Human Norovirus Infection of Dogs in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Emmott, Edward; El-Attar, Laila; Mitchell, Judy A.; Hollinshead, Michael; Belliot, Gael; Brownlie, Joe; Le Pendu, Jacques; Goodfellow, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with an estimated 3 million cases per year in the United Kingdom. HuNoVs have recently been isolated from pet dogs in Europe (M. Summa, C.-H. von Bonsdorff, and L. Maunula, J Clin Virol 53:244–247, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.014), raising concerns about potential zoonotic infections. With 31% of United Kingdom households owning a dog, this could prove to be an important transmission route. To examine this risk, canine tissues were studied for their ability to bind to HuNoV in vitro. In addition, canine stool samples were analyzed for the presence of viral nucleic acid, and canine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HuNoV antibodies. The results showed that seven different genotypes of HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) can bind to canine gastrointestinal tissue, suggesting that infection is at least theoretically possible. Although HuNoV RNA was not identified in stool samples from 248 dogs, serological evidence of previous exposure to HuNoV was obtained in 43/325 canine serum samples. Remarkably, canine seroprevalence for different HuNoV genotypes mirrored the seroprevalence in the human population. Though entry and replication within cells have not been demonstrated, the canine serological data indicate that dogs produce an immune response to HuNoV, implying productive infection. In conclusion, this study reveals zoonotic implications for HuNoV, and to elucidate the significance of this finding, further epidemiological and molecular investigations will be essential. PMID:25832298

  5. Evidence for human norovirus infection of dogs in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Caddy, Sarah L; de Rougemont, Alexis; Emmott, Edward; El-Attar, Laila; Mitchell, Judy A; Hollinshead, Michael; Belliot, Gael; Brownlie, Joe; Le Pendu, Jacques; Goodfellow, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with an estimated 3 million cases per year in the United Kingdom. HuNoVs have recently been isolated from pet dogs in Europe (M. Summa, C.-H. von Bonsdorff, and L. Maunula, J Clin Virol 53:244-247, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.014), raising concerns about potential zoonotic infections. With 31% of United Kingdom households owning a dog, this could prove to be an important transmission route. To examine this risk, canine tissues were studied for their ability to bind to HuNoV in vitro. In addition, canine stool samples were analyzed for the presence of viral nucleic acid, and canine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HuNoV antibodies. The results showed that seven different genotypes of HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) can bind to canine gastrointestinal tissue, suggesting that infection is at least theoretically possible. Although HuNoV RNA was not identified in stool samples from 248 dogs, serological evidence of previous exposure to HuNoV was obtained in 43/325 canine serum samples. Remarkably, canine seroprevalence for different HuNoV genotypes mirrored the seroprevalence in the human population. Though entry and replication within cells have not been demonstrated, the canine serological data indicate that dogs produce an immune response to HuNoV, implying productive infection. In conclusion, this study reveals zoonotic implications for HuNoV, and to elucidate the significance of this finding, further epidemiological and molecular investigations will be essential. PMID:25832298

  6. Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although transmission of L. tropica has been reported as anthroponotic, in Israel it was found to have a zoonotic pattern. Findings A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was presented by its owner with a large proliferative red mucocutaneous lesion on the lip between the mouth and nose. Physical examination and a biochemistry panel were normal and a complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of the presence of Leishmania organisms. Serology for Leishmania sp. by ELISA was positive and an aspirate from the lesion showed a large number of Leishmania amastigotes. ITS1-HRM-PCR of the lesion was positive and sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. tropica, which was also cultured from the lesion. Blood PCR was negative. The dog responded well to allopurinol treatment and its lesion shrunk considerably within one month of therapy and healed after two months. Conclusions Only a few cases of dog infection with L. tropica have been described to date. They were reported from Morocco and Iran and involved infection of visceral organs. This is the first report of focal mucocutaneous L. tropica infection in a dog and its response to anti-leishmanial treatment. Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic areas or merely accidental hosts. PMID:24661746

  7. Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horobin, Karen D.

    Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

  8. Comparative oncology: what dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Breen, Matthew

    2015-07-19

    Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100,000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100,000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us. PMID:26056372

  9. Comparative oncology: what dogs and other species can teach us about humans with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Joshua D.; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Over 1.66 million humans (approx. 500/100 000 population rate) and over 4.2 million dogs (approx. 5300/100 000 population rate) are diagnosed with cancer annually in the USA. The interdisciplinary field of comparative oncology offers a unique and strong opportunity to learn more about universal cancer risk and development through epidemiology, genetic and genomic investigations. Working across species, researchers from human and veterinary medicine can combine scientific findings to understand more quickly the origins of cancer and translate these findings to novel therapies to benefit both human and animals. This review begins with the genetic origins of canines and their advantage in cancer research. We next focus on recent findings in comparative oncology related to inherited, or genetic, risk for tumour development. We then detail the somatic, or genomic, changes within tumours and the similarities between species. The shared cancers between humans and dogs that we discuss include sarcoma (osteosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, hemangiosarcoma), haematological malignancies (lymphoma, leukaemia), bladder cancer, intracranial neoplasms (meningioma, glioma) and melanoma. Tumour risk in other animal species is also briefly discussed. As the field of genomics advances, we predict that comparative oncology will continue to benefit both humans and the animals that live among us. PMID:26056372

  10. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius can be misdiagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus in humans with dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, S; Gómez-Sanz, E; Ekström, K; Torres, C; Grönlund, U

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether S. pseudintermedius is misdiagnosed as S. aureus by clinical laboratories when isolated from humans with dog bite wounds. In addition, we attempted to determine whether S. pseudintermedius isolates related to dog bite wounds share phenotypic and genotypic traits. S. pseudintermedius was identified by PCR targeting the nuc gene. Isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using VetMIC GP-mo microdilution panels. The occurrence of genes encoding leukocidins, exfoliatins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens and enterotoxins was determined by PCR. The relatedness of S. pseudintermedius isolates was investigated using Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Out of 101 isolates defined as S. aureus by human clinical microbiology laboratories, 13 isolates were re-identified as S. pseudintermedius and one isolate was confirmed to carry the mecA gene, i.e. methicillin-resistant (MRSP). The MRSP isolate was also defined as multi-resistant. Two methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates were also multi-resistant and five were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the exception of three S. pseudintermedius isolates belonging to multi locus sequence type (MLST) 158, all the isolates belonged to unique STs. All isolates contained lukS/F-I, siet and se-int, and expA were identified in two isolates and expB and sec canine-sel in one isolate respectively. S. pseudintermedius is frequently misdiagnosed as S. aureus from humans with dog bite wounds showing that it can act as an opportunistic pathogen in humans. No common phenotypic and genotypic traits shared by the S. pseudintermedius isolates could be identified. PMID:25532507

  11. Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyrotropin stimulation test in euthyroid dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, F; Paradis, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) on serum total thyroxine (TT4) concentration in euthyroid dogs. Six healthy beagle dogs were used in each of the 3 phases of this study. Phase I: thyroid-stimulating hormone response tests were performed by using a total dose of 25 micrograms, 50 micrograms, and 100 micrograms of rhTSH, administered intravenously. Phases II and III: thyroid-stimulating hormone response tests were performed by using 50 micrograms of rhTSH administered by intramuscular and subcutaneous routes, respectively. In each phase and following all the administered doses of rhTSH, an increase in the serum TT4 concentration was noted, although it was not always significant. For phase I, there was a significant increase in serum TT4 concentrations. Based on this study, 50 micrograms was judged to be the optimal intravenous dose of rhTSH. For phases II and III, there was no significant increase in serum TT4 after the administration of rhTSH. Results of this study suggest that rhTSH could be a good substitute for bovine TSH, when used by the intravenous route, for the TSH stimulation test in dogs. Further studies are required to confirm its clinical usefulness. PMID:10738600

  12. Genetic variability in Microsporum canis isolated from cats, dogs and humans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fernanda V A; Farias, Marconi R; Bier, Daniele; de Andrade, Caroline P; de Castro, Luiza A; da Silva, Sérgio C; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2013-09-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical manifestations. M. canis is a zoophilic dermatophyte and the most frequent fungi isolated from dogs, cats and children in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of M. canis isolates from different animal species using two microsatellite markers, namely, McGT(13) and McGT(17), and to correlate the results with the clinical and epidemiological patient data in Brazil. The study included a global set of 102 M. canis strains, including 37 symptomatic cats, 35 asymptomatic cats, 19 human patients with tinea, 9 asymptomatic dogs and 2 symptomatic dogs. A total of 14 genotypes were identified, and 6 large populations were distinguished. There was no correlation between these multilocus genotypes and the clinical and epidemiological data, including the source, symptomatology, clinical picture, breed, age, sex, living conditions and geographic location. These results demonstrate that the use of microsatellite polymorphisms is a reliable method for the differentiation of M. canis strains. However, we were unable to demonstrate a shared clinical and epidemiological pattern among the same genotype samples. PMID:23551796

  13. A retrospective analysis of 25% human serum albumin supplementation in hypoalbuminemic dogs with septic peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Farrah B.; Read, Robyn L.; Powell, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the influence of 25% human serum albumin (HSA) supplementation on serum albumin level, total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), hospital stay, and survival in dogs with septic peritonitis. Records of 39 dogs with septic peritonitis were evaluated. In the HSA group, initial and post-transfusion TP, albumin, COP, and HSA dose were recorded. In the non-supplemented group, repeated values of TP, albumin, and COP were recorded over their hospitalization. Eighteen dogs survived (53.8% mortality). Repeat albumin values were higher in survivors (mean 23.9 g/L) and elevated repeat albumin values were associated with HSA supplementation. Repeat albumin and TP were higher in the HSA supplemented group (mean 24 g/L and 51.9 g/L, respectively) and their COP increased by 5.8 mmHg. Length of hospitalization was not affected. Twenty-five percent HSA increases albumin, TP, and COP in canine patients with septic peritonitis. Higher postoperative albumin levels are associated with survival. PMID:26028681

  14. Biotransformation of deramciclane in primary hepatocytes of rat, mouse, rabbit, dog, and human.

    PubMed

    Monostory, Katalin; Kohalmy, Krisztina; Ludányi, Krisztina; Czira, Gábor; Holly, Sándor; Vereczkey, László; Urmös, Iván; Klebovich, Imre; Kóbori, László

    2005-11-01

    The metabolic fate of deramciclane [(1R,2S,4R)-(-)-2-phenyl-2-(2'-dimethylamino-ethoxy)-1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane], a new anxiolytic drug candidate, has been determined in rat, mouse, rabbit, dog, and human hepatocytes. Rat and rabbit cells were the most active, whereas the rate of metabolism was quite slow in human hepatocytes. During biotransformation, deramciclane underwent side chain modification and oxidation at several positions of the molecule. The side chain modification led to the formation of N-desmethyl deramciclane and phenylborneol. The oxidation of deramciclane resulted in several hydroxy-, carboxy-, and N-oxide derivatives. The hydroxylation took place at primary or secondary carbons of the camphor ring as well as at the side chain; furthermore, dihydroxylated derivatives were also found. The side chain-modified metabolites were also oxidized to hydroxy- or carboxy-derivatives. Conjugation of phase I metabolites, as a route of elimination, was also observed in rat, rabbit, and dog hepatocytes. Although there were some species differences in biotransformation of deramciclane, it was concluded that phase I metabolism in human liver cells seemed to be similar to the metabolism in the hepatocytes isolated from rat. With careful approach, the rat model may be considered to be predictive for human metabolism of deramciclane. PMID:16118331

  15. Estimating human rabies mortality in the United Republic of Tanzania from dog bite injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Fèvre, Eric M.; Kaare, Magai; Coleman, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make quantitative predictions about the magnitude of underreporting of human rabies deaths in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Human rabies deaths were estimated by using a series of probability steps to calculate the likelihood of rabies developing after the bite of a suspected rabid dog, incorporating field data on the incidence of animal bite injuries, the accuracy of rabies recognition, the distribution of bite wounds, and post-exposure treatment. FINDINGS: Predicted human rabies mortality was estimated to be (a) 1499 deaths per year (95% confidence interval 891-2238), equivalent to an annual incidence of 4.9 (2.9-7.2) deaths/100,000, when active surveillance data on bite incidence were used, and (b) 193 deaths per year (32-409), corresponding to an annual incidence of 0.62 (0.1-1.32) deaths/100,000, when national bite statistics were used. The annual mean number of rabies deaths officially recorded for the same period was 10.8 (7.7-14.0). CONCLUSION: In the United Republic of Tanzania, cases of rabies in humans have been greatly underreported. Dog bite injuries are an accessible source of epidemiological data that may be used to estimate the public health burden of rabies and to monitor epidemiological trends in developing countries. PMID:12075367

  16. Voice-sensitive regions in the dog and human brain are revealed by comparative fMRI.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; Gácsi, Márta; Faragó, Tamás; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-03-01

    During the approximately 18-32 thousand years of domestication, dogs and humans have shared a similar social environment. Dog and human vocalizations are thus familiar and relevant to both species, although they belong to evolutionarily distant taxa, as their lineages split approximately 90-100 million years ago. In this first comparative neuroimaging study of a nonprimate and a primate species, we made use of this special combination of shared environment and evolutionary distance. We presented dogs and humans with the same set of vocal and nonvocal stimuli to search for functionally analogous voice-sensitive cortical regions. We demonstrate that voice areas exist in dogs and that they show a similar pattern to anterior temporal voice areas in humans. Our findings also reveal that sensitivity to vocal emotional valence cues engages similarly located nonprimary auditory regions in dogs and humans. Although parallel evolution cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that voice areas may have a more ancient evolutionary origin than previously known. PMID:24560578

  17. Predictivity of dog co-culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells for the detection of hepatotoxic drugs in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Atienzar, Franck A.; Novik, Eric I.; Gerets, Helga H.; Parekh, Amit; Delatour, Claude; Cardenas, Alvaro; MacDonald, James; Yarmush, Martin L.; Dhalluin, Stéphane

    2014-02-15

    Drug Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a major cause of attrition during early and late stage drug development. Consequently, there is a need to develop better in vitro primary hepatocyte models from different species for predicting hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans early in drug development. Dog is often chosen as the non-rodent species for toxicology studies. Unfortunately, dog in vitro models allowing long term cultures are not available. The objective of the present manuscript is to describe the development of a co-culture dog model for predicting hepatotoxic drugs in humans and to compare the predictivity of the canine model along with primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. After rigorous optimization, the dog co-culture model displayed metabolic capacities that were maintained up to 2 weeks which indicates that such model could be also used for long term metabolism studies. Most of the human hepatotoxic drugs were detected with a sensitivity of approximately 80% (n = 40) for the three cellular models. Nevertheless, the specificity was low approximately 40% for the HepG2 cells and hepatocytes compared to 72.7% for the canine model (n = 11). Furthermore, the dog co-culture model showed a higher superiority for the classification of 5 pairs of close structural analogs with different DILI concerns in comparison to both human cellular models. Finally, the reproducibility of the canine system was also satisfactory with a coefficient of correlation of 75.2% (n = 14). Overall, the present manuscript indicates that the dog co-culture model may represent a relevant tool to perform chronic hepatotoxicity and metabolism studies. - Highlights: • Importance of species differences in drug development. • Relevance of dog co-culture model for metabolism and toxicology studies. • Hepatotoxicity: higher predictivity of dog co-culture vs HepG2 and human hepatocytes.

  18. Seeing with ears: Sightless humans' perception of dog bark provides a test for structural rules in vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám

    2010-05-01

    Prerecorded family dog (Canis familiaris) barks were played back to groups of congenitally sightless, sightless with prior visual experience, and sighted people (none of whom had ever owned a dog). We found that blind people without any previous canine visual experiences can categorize accurately various dog barks recorded in different contexts, and their results are very close to those of sighted people in characterizing the emotional content of barks. These findings suggest that humans can recognize some of the most important motivational states reflecting, for example, fear or aggression in a dog's bark without any visual experience. It is very likely that this result can be generalized to other mammalian species--that is, no visual experience of another individual is needed for recognizing some of the most important motivational states of the caller. PMID:19760535

  19. Aiming for elimination of dog-mediated human rabies cases by 2030.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    A conference organised by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), in Geneva on December 10 to 11, 2015, saw delegates from nearly 100 countries meet to discuss the WHO's goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies by 2030 and work on a new framework to focus efforts towards achieving this goal. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:26795858

  20. Physiological measurements of luminal stirring in the dog and human small bowel.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, M D; Furne, J K; Strocchi, A; Anderson, B W; Levitt, D G

    1990-01-01

    The resistance to absorption resulting from poor stirring of luminal contents (RLum) is considered to be equivalent to an unstirred layer of greater than 600 microns in the human small intestine. We measured RLum in the jejunum of conscious dogs by assessing the absorption rate of two rapidly absorbed probes, glucose, and [14C]warfarin. When RLum was expressed as an unstirred layer, the maximal thickness of the unstirred layer (assuming negligible epithelial cell resistance) was only approximately 35 and 50 microns for perfusion rates of 26 and 5 ml/min, respectively. Maximal unstirred layer thickness for the human jejunum, calculated from previous studies of glucose absorption, yielded a mean value of only 40 microns (range: 23 to 65 microns). Since epithelial resistance appears to be negligible during absorption of low concentrations of glucose, the maximal unstirred layer of 40 microns should be close to the true value for glucose in the human small intestine. We conclude that the unstirred layer for rapidly absorbed compounds in dogs and man are less than one-tenth of previously reported values, but this layer still may remain the rate limiting step in absorption of rapidly transported compounds. Images PMID:2243130

  1. I saw where you have been-The topography of human demonstration affects dogs' search patterns and perseverative errors.

    PubMed

    Péter, András; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2016-04-01

    Performance in object search tasks is not only influenced by the subjects' object permanence ability. For example, ostensive cues of the human manipulating the target markedly affect dogs' choices. However, the interference between the target's location and the spatial cues of the human hiding the object is still unknown. In a five-location visible displacement task, the experimental groups differed in the hiding route of the experimenter. In the 'direct' condition he moved straight towards the actual location, hid the object and returned to the dog. In the 'indirect' conditions, he additionally walked behind each screen before returning. The two 'indirect' conditions differed from each other in that the human either visited the previously baited locations before (proactive interference) or after (retroactive interference) hiding the object. In the 'indirect' groups, dogs' performance was significantly lower than in the 'direct' group, demonstrating that for dogs, in an ostensive context, spatial cues of the hider are as important as the observed location of the target. Based on their incorrect choices, dogs were most attracted to the previously baited locations that the human visited after hiding the object in the actual trial. This underlines the importance of retroactive interference in multiple choice tasks. PMID:26869220

  2. Dogs and Humans Share a Common Susceptibility Gene SRBD1 for Glaucoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaki, Nobuyuki; Tchedre, Kissaou T.; Imayasu, Masaki; Kawarai, Shinpei; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Yoshino, Atsushi; Itoh, Norihiko; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy that is associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Primary open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma in canines, and its highest incidence among dog breeds has been reported in Shiba-Inus, followed by Shih-Tzus. These breeds are known to have an abnormal iridocorneal angle and dysplastic prectinate ligament. However, the hereditary and genetic backgrounds of these dogs have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of the glaucoma candidate genes, SRBD1, ELOVL5, and ADAMTS10, and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. We analyzed 11 polymorphisms in these three genes using direct DNA sequencing. Three SRBD1 SNPs, rs8655283, rs22018514 and rs22018513 were significantly associated with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus, while rs22018513, a synonymous SNP in exon 4, showed the strongest association (P = 0.00039, OR = 3.03). Conditional analysis revealed that rs22018513 could account for most of the association of these SNPs with glaucoma in Shiba-Inus. In Shih-Tzus, only rs9172407 in the SRBD1 intron 1 was significantly associated with glaucoma (P = 0.0014, OR = 5.25). There were no significant associations between the ELOVL5 or ADAMTS10 polymorphisms and glaucoma in Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. The results showed that SRBD1 polymorphisms play an important role in glaucoma pathology in both Shiba-Inus and Shih-Tzus. SRBD1 polymorphisms have also been associated with normal- and high-tension glaucomas in humans. Therefore, SRBD1 may be a common susceptibility gene for glaucoma in humans and dogs. We anticipate that the nucleotide sequencing data from this study can be used in genetic testing to determine for the first time, the genetic status and susceptibility of glaucoma in dogs, with high precision. Moreover, canine glaucoma resulting from SRBD1 polymorphisms could be a useful animal model to study human glaucoma. PMID:24040232

  3. Pulmonary delivery of a dopamine D-1 agonist, ABT-431, in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Marsh, K C; Bertz, R J; El-Shourbagy, T; Adjei, A L

    1999-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of intrapulmonary delivery of ABT-431, a selective D1 receptor agonist. Following intratracheal instillation of the drug solution, the lung bioavailability was found to be approximately 75% in dogs. An aerosol suspension formulation was then developed by dispersing the drug in tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a, with the aid of poloxamer 124 and vitamin E. This ABT-431 MDI aerosol formulation showed about 40% of the particles emitted from the valve and actuator system to be under 5 microm in diameter. Also, the primary package (15 mL aluminum container, DF10/ACT-150 valve, and Micron-4-actuator with the orifice 0.4 mm) was satisfactory for accurate and reproducible dosimetry. Using tracheostomized beagle dogs, the C(max) following tracheal administration of 5 mg aerosolized ABT-431 was found to be 13.3+/-0.9 ng ml(-1) and the AUC(0-24) was estimated at 33.2+/-10.6 h ng ml(-1). The lung bioavailability of the aerosolized drug was 34% compared to intravenous injection in dogs. In humans, results from a single rising dose study demonstrated that rapid absorption of ABT-431 following oral inhalation administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the area under the plasma-time curve at dosage levels between 3.3 and 13.2 mg. There is a possibility of up to 25% absorption of the drug from human lung. Thus, pulmonary bioavailability of ABT-431 is significantly greater than that of oral administration. Also, these findings suggest that small and lipophilic compounds, especially with hepatic first pass effect, may be effectively delivered systemically using oral inhalation aerosols. PMID:10564839

  4. Searching for a good model for systemic sclerosis: the molecular profile and vascular changes occurring in UCD-200 chickens strongly resemble the early phase of human systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Paola; Dietrich, Hermann; Ruscitti, Piero; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Carubbi, Francesco; Pantano, Ilenia; Berardicurti, Onorina; Sgonc, Roswitha; Giacomelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vascular injury and endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis are the earliest events in systemic sclerosis (SSc), before the onset of fibrosis, and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF-BB) represent the key molecules to study the link between vascular injury and fibrosis during SSc. The University of California at Davis line 200 (UCD-200) chickens display the same hallmarks of human SSc: vascular occlusion, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study we assessed both cytokines and growth factors involved in the early phases of the UCD-200 chickens’ skin lesions, to determine whether these animals might represent an appropriate experimental model to study the pathogenesis of SSc. Material and methods Immunofluorescence analysis was performed on human SSc skin, human healthy control (hHC) skin, UCD-200 combs and HC H.B15 chicken (cHC) combs, using anti-SDF-1, CXCR4, VEGFA, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), ET-1, ET receptor A (ETAR), ET receptor B (ETBR), PDGF-BB, and PDGF receptor (PDGFR) antibodies. The plasma concentrations of SDF-1, VEGFA, ET-1 and PDGF-BB were determined by ELISA. Results All the molecules analyzed showed higher levels in SSc patients and UCD-200 chickens than in hHC and cHC. Furthermore, the levels of the assessed molecules paralleled the severity of comb involvement. Conclusions The molecular similarities between avian and human SSc, observed in this study, suggest that the UCD-200 chickens are an interesting model for translational approaches to SSc. PMID:27478465

  5. Exposure to infectious agents in dogs in remote coastal British Columbia: Possible sentinels of diseases in wildlife and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M.; Darimont, Chris T.; Paquet, Paul C.; Ellis, John A.; Goji, Noriko; Gouix, Maëlle; Smits, Judit E.

    2011-01-01

    Ranked among the top threats to conservation worldwide, infectious disease is of particular concern for wild canids because domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) may serve as sources and reservoirs of infection. On British Columbia’s largely undeveloped but rapidly changing central and north coasts, little is known about diseases in wolves (Canis lupus) or other wildlife. However, several threats exist for transfer of diseases among unvaccinated dogs and wolves. To gain baseline data on infectious agents in this area, including those with zoonotic potential, we collected blood and stool samples from 107 dogs in 5 remote communities in May and September 2007. Serology revealed that the dogs had been exposed to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine respiratory coronavirus, and Leptospira interrogans. No dogs showed evidence of exposure to Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, or Cryptococcus gattii. Of 75 stool samples, 31 contained at least 1 parasitic infection, including Taeniid tapeworms, the nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, and the protozoans Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Sarcocystis sp. This work provides a sound baseline for future monitoring of infectious agents that could affect dogs, sympatric wild canids, other wildlife, and humans. PMID:21461190

  6. MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION OF HEMOTROPIC MYCOPLASMAS IN HUMAN BEINGS, DOGS AND HORSES IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vidotto, Odilon; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Guimaraes, Ana Márcia Sá; Santos, Andrea Pires dos; Nascimento, Naíla Cannes; Santos, Nelson Jesse Rodrigues dos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Messick, Joanne Belle

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in a rural Brazilian settlement's population of human beings, their dogs and horses, highly exposed to tick bites; to identify the tick species parasitizing dogs and horses, and analyze factors associated with their infection. Blood samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were screened using a pan-hemoplasma SYBR green real-time PCR assay followed by a species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR. A total of 59/132 (44.7%) dog samples were positive for hemoplasmas (21 Mycoplasma haemocanis alone, 12 ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' alone and 21 both). Only 1/100 (1.0%) human sample was positive by qPCR SYBR green, with no successful amplification of 16S rRNA or 23 rRNA genes despite multiple attempts. All horse samples were negative. Dogs >1 year of age were more likely to be positive for hemoplasmas ( p= 0.0014). In conclusion, although canine hemoplasma infection was highly prevalent, cross-species hemoplasma transmission was not observed, and therefore may not frequently occur despite overexposure of agents and vectors. PMID:26422162

  7. MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION OF HEMOTROPIC MYCOPLASMAS IN HUMAN BEINGS, DOGS AND HORSES IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    VIEIRA, Rafael Felipe da Costa; VIDOTTO, Odilon; VIEIRA, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; GUIMARAES, Ana Márcia Sá; dos SANTOS, Andrea Pires; NASCIMENTO, Naíla Cannes; dos SANTOS, Nelson Jesse Rodrigues; MARTINS, Thiago Fernandes; LABRUNA, Marcelo Bahia; MARCONDES, Mary; BIONDO, Alexander Welker; MESSICK, Joanne Belle

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in a rural Brazilian settlement's population of human beings, their dogs and horses, highly exposed to tick bites; to identify the tick species parasitizing dogs and horses, and analyze factors associated with their infection. Blood samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were screened using a pan-hemoplasma SYBR green real-time PCR assay followed by a species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR. A total of 59/132 (44.7%) dog samples were positive for hemoplasmas (21 Mycoplasma haemocanisalone, 12 ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' alone and 21 both). Only 1/100 (1.0%) human sample was positive by qPCR SYBR green, with no successful amplification of 16S rRNA or 23 rRNA genes despite multiple attempts. All horse samples were negative. Dogs >1 year of age were more likely to be positive for hemoplasmas ( p= 0.0014). In conclusion, although canine hemoplasma infection was highly prevalent, cross-species hemoplasma transmission was not observed, and therefore may not frequently occur despite overexposure of agents and vectors. PMID:26422162

  8. Evaluation of a human on-site urine multidrug test for emergency use with dogs.

    PubMed

    Teitler, Joan B

    2009-01-01

    A rapid, human on-site urine multidrug test was used to screen canine urine samples for the presence of five illegal drugs and drugs from three commonly abused drug classes. Each sample was sent to a toxicology laboratory for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) validation. On-site test results and GC/MS assays confirmed that the human on-site test kit did identify barbiturates, opiates, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines/methamphetamines in urine from dogs that had received these common illicit drugs/drug classes either intravenously and/or orally. However, neither the on-site test kit nor the GC/MS individual assays for marijuana or methadone, a synthetic opiate, were effective in identifying marijuana and methadone in urine from dogs with suspected or known exposure. No index of suspicion was seen for exposure to phencyclidines or cocaine during the study period, and no exposures were indicated by the on-site test results. Overall, the test is a rapid, readily available, affordable, and useful complement to the veterinarian's clinical consideration and professional judgment. PMID:19258416

  9. Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia: evidence for human and dog rabies associated with bats.

    PubMed

    Páez, Andrés; Nũñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Bóshell, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of these is occurring in the Caribbean Region (northern Colombia), while the other two occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central Region and ended in 1997. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in these three areas, 902 nt cDNA fragments encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR. These amplicons contained the G-L intergenic region and were sequenced to draw phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses in the study sample. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated in both Arauca and the Central Region. These viruses are apparently extinct in Colombia. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean Region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of viruses consists of viruses isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. According to sequence analysis, the data here indicate that the isolates in this third group are bat rabies virus variants. This finding is the first that associates bats to rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, showing an unsuspected vector threatening animal and public health. PMID:12655080

  10. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013–2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). Conclusions/Significance In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir. PMID:27486798

  11. Intercanine distance in the analysis of bite marks: a comparison of human and domestic dog dental arches.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, S V; Trigueiro, M; Oliveira, R N; Melani, R F H

    2011-07-01

    One common parameter considered helpful to identify the origin of bite wounds has been the distance between the canine teeth marks left on the victim. The reliability of this parameter to differentiate the origin of the marks (human or animal) was evaluated using a sample of: a) domestic dogs (n=50) weighting between 4.9 kg and 46 kg of undefined breed and b) human beings (n=50). Dog intercanine distances (ID) were measured directly using calipers, those from the human sample were measured from wax imprints using calipers. It was found that dog bite intercanine distance measurements were overall 2.8% wider for the upper arch and 10.4% wider for the lower arch when compared with the overall result for humans. However, it was observed that the measured values for medium sized dogs (between 9.1 kg and 23.0 kg) are similar to the overall results for humans. Therefore, for this range, the stand alone use of intercanine distance measurements from bite wounds marks are inconclusive with respect of defining if of human origin. PMID:21841266

  12. Mouse model of human RPE65 P25L hypomorph resembles wild type under normal light rearing but is fully resistant to acute light damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Shirley; Duncan, Todd; Li, Yichao; Liu, Pinghu; Gene, Erelda; Cortes-Pena, Yoel; Qian, Haohua; Dong, Lijin; Redmond, T Michael

    2015-08-01

    Human RPE65 mutations cause a spectrum of blinding retinal dystrophies from severe early-onset disease to milder manifestations. The RPE65 P25L missense mutation, though having <10% of wild-type (WT) activity, causes relatively mild retinal degeneration. To better understand these mild forms of RPE65-related retinal degeneration, and their effect on cone photoreceptor survival, we generated an Rpe65/P25L knock-in (KI/KI) mouse model. We found that, when subject to the low-light regime (∼100 lux) of regular mouse housing, homozygous Rpe65/P25L KI/KI mice are morphologically and functionally very similar to WT siblings. While mutant protein expression is decreased by over 80%, KI/KI mice retinae retain comparable 11-cis-retinal levels with WT. Consistently, the scotopic and photopic electroretinographic (ERG) responses to single-flash stimuli also show no difference between KI/KI and WT mice. However, the recovery of a-wave response following moderate visual pigment bleach is delayed in KI/KI mice. Importantly, KI/KI mice show significantly increased resistance to high-intensity (20 000 lux for 30 min) light-induced retinal damage (LIRD) as compared with WT, indicating impaired rhodopsin regeneration in KI/KI. Taken together, the Rpe65/P25L mutant produces sufficient chromophore under normal conditions to keep opsins replete and thus manifests a minimal phenotype. Only when exposed to intensive light is this hypomorphic mutation manifested physiologically, as its reduced expression and catalytic activity protects against the successive cycles of opsin regeneration underlying LIRD. These data also help define minimal requirements of chromophore for photoreceptor survival in vivo and may be useful in assessing a beneficial therapeutic dose for RPE65 gene therapy in humans. PMID:25972377

  13. Training Reduces Stress in Human-Socialised Wolves to the Same Degree as in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Angélica da Silva; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Ades, César; Scheidegger, Jördis Kristin; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment. We evaluated the effects of indoor training sessions with familiar caretakers on nine human-socialised individuals of a wild species, the wolf (Canis lupus), in comparison to nine individuals of its domesticated form, the dog (Canis lupus familiaris). All animals were raised and kept in intraspecific packs under identical conditions-in accordance with the social structure of the species-in order to control for socialisation with human beings and familiarity with training. We also collected saliva samples of trainers to measure GC and testosterone concentrations, to control for the effects of trainers' stress levels on the responses of the animals. During the training sessions, separated from pack members, the animals stayed voluntarily close to the trainers and mostly adequately performed requested behaviours, indicating concentration to the task. Similarly to dogs, the salivary cortisol level of wolves-used as an index of stress-dropped during these sessions, pointing to a similar stress-reducing effect of the training interaction in both subspecies. The responses to the requested behaviours and the reduction in salivary cortisol level of wolves and dogs varied across trainers, which indicates that the relaxing effect of training has a social component. This points to another factor affecting the welfare of animals

  14. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Aziz, Siti Hajar; Nordin, Massita; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Adam, Aishah

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0). Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL), genes affecting insulin signaling (IRS-2, AKT-1, and PCK-1), glucose transporters (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPX) on D6 and D21. GDM rats showed possible insulin resistance as evidenced by high expression of proinflammatory cytokines, PCK-1 and CRP. Furthermore, low levels of IRS-2 and AKT-1 genes and downregulation of GLUT-4 from the initial to final phases indicate possible defect of insulin signaling. GDM rats also showed an impairment of antioxidant status and a hyperlipidemic state. Additionally, GDM rats exhibited significantly higher body weight and blood glucose and lower plasma insulin level and C-peptide than control. Based on the findings outlined, the current GDM animal model closely replicates the disease state in human and can serve as a reference for future investigations. PMID:27379252

  15. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdul Aziz, Siti Hajar; John, Cini Mathew; Mohamed Yusof, Nur Intan Saidaah; Nordin, Massita; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Adam, Aishah; Mohd Fauzi, Fazlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0). Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL), genes affecting insulin signaling (IRS-2, AKT-1, and PCK-1), glucose transporters (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPX) on D6 and D21. GDM rats showed possible insulin resistance as evidenced by high expression of proinflammatory cytokines, PCK-1 and CRP. Furthermore, low levels of IRS-2 and AKT-1 genes and downregulation of GLUT-4 from the initial to final phases indicate possible defect of insulin signaling. GDM rats also showed an impairment of antioxidant status and a hyperlipidemic state. Additionally, GDM rats exhibited significantly higher body weight and blood glucose and lower plasma insulin level and C-peptide than control. Based on the findings outlined, the current GDM animal model closely replicates the disease state in human and can serve as a reference for future investigations. PMID:27379252

  16. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  17. Prioritization of capacities for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies in the Americas: building the framework.

    PubMed

    Del Rio Vilas, Victor J; Burgeño, Adamelia; Montibeller, Gilberto; Clavijo, Alfonso; Vigilato, Marco Antonio; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2013-10-01

    The region of the Americas pledged to eliminate dog-transmitted human rabies by 2015. After 30 years of sustained efforts, regional elimination appears possible as dog-mediated human rabies cases are at an all-time low, and a number of countries and territories have already eliminated the disease. In this setting, there is an opportunity to generate a framework to support countries strategies in the achievement and maintenance of rabies-free status (RFS). To this end, we describe the development of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to help the evaluation of rabies programmes and the identification of the best investment strategy for countries and territories to improve and efficiently maintain their rabies status. The model contemplates human and animal related capacities, six in each area, to comprehensively assess the wide scope of rabies programmes. An initial elicitation of expert opinion of values and weights for the MCDA model was performed via a web-based questionnaire. Even at this pilot stage, the model produces comparable capacity-scores, and overall (combined for public and animal health areas) as well as area-specific investment strategies. The model is being developed by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as part of the regional efforts towards dog-mediated human rabies elimination and will be presented to the countries for review, refinement, contextualization, and testing. The aspiration is that countries use the model to identify the best allocation of resources towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies. PMID:24392676

  18. The mitochondrial 12S gene is a suitable marker of populations of Sarcoptes scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, L F; Campbell, N J H; Murrell, A; Walton, S; Kemp, D; Barker, S C

    2002-04-01

    We sequenced part of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene of 23 specimens of Sarcoptes scabiei from eight wombats, one dog and three humans. Twelve of the 326 nucleotide positions varied among these mites and there were nine haplotypes (sequences) that differed by 1-8 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these mites were from two lineages: (1) mites from wombats from Victoria, Australia, and mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory, Australia (haplotypes 1-4, 9); and (2) mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory (haplotypes 5-8). Mites from the three different hosts (wombats, a dog and humans) had not diverged phylogenetically; rather, these mites had similar 12S sequences. Thus, we conclude that these mites from wombats, humans and a dog are closely related, and that they diverged from a common ancestor relatively recently. This conclusion is consistent with the argument that people and/or their dogs introduced to Australia the S. scabiei mites that infect wombats in Australia . So, S. scabiei, which has been blamed for the extinction of populations of wombats in Australia, may be a parasitic mite that was introduced to Australia with people and/or their dogs. These data show that the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene may be a suitable population marker of S. scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia. PMID:11999028

  19. Management of a pet dog after exposure to a human patient with Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Jessica R; Stonecipher, Shelley; McManus, Catherine; Hughes-Garza, Holly; Dow, Max; Zoran, Debra L; Bissett, Wesley; Beckham, Tammy; Alves, Derron A; Wolcott, Mark; Tostenson, Samantha; Dorman, Bill; Jones, Jody; Sidwa, Thomas J; Knust, Barbara; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2015-09-01

    In October 2014, a health-care worker who had been part of the treatment team for the first laboratory-confirmed case of Ebola virus disease imported to the United States developed symptoms of Ebola virus disease. A presumptive positive reverse transcription PCR assay result for Ebola virus RNA in a blood sample from the worker was confirmed by the CDC, making this the first documented occurrence of domestic transmission of Ebola virus in the United States. The Texas Department of State Health Services commissioner issued a control order requiring disinfection and decontamination of the health-care worker's residence. This process was delayed until the patient's pet dog (which, having been exposed to a human with Ebola virus disease, potentially posed a public health risk) was removed from the residence. This report describes the movement, quarantine, care, testing, and release of the pet dog, highlighting the interdisciplinary, one-health approach and extensive collaboration and communication across local, county, state, and federal agencies involved in the response. PMID:26295560

  20. Spontaneous regression of a cervical intraspinal cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kamishina, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Hiroya; Katayama, Masaaki; Yasuda, Jun; Sato, Reeko; Tohyama, Koujiro

    2010-03-01

    We report a cervical intraspinal cyst in a dog that was initially tetraparetic but spontaneously recovered completely. MRI revealed a well-demarcated intraspinal cyst located dorsally to a degenerated intervertebral disc. The location of the cyst and its signal features on MRI resembled those of discal cysts previously reported in humans. It has been reported in dogs that clinical signs of a intraspinal cyst are similar to those of intervertebral disc herniation and both conditions require surgical intervention. Unexpectedly, our case showed rapid spontaneous recovery and the follow-up MRI revealed complete resolution of the intraspinal cyst and spinal cord compression. Spontaneous recovery of degenerative intraspinal cyst may occur in dogs, similar to rare human cases as reported previously. PMID:19952512

  1. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog P2X7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Roman, S; Cusdin, FS; Fonfria, E; Goodwin, JA; Reeves, J; Lappin, SC; Chambers, L; Walter, DS; Clay, WC; Michel, AD

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human and rodent P2X7 receptors exhibit differences in their sensitivity to antagonists. In this study we have cloned and characterized the dog P2X7 receptor to determine if its antagonist sensitivity more closely resembles the human or rodent orthologues. Experimental approach: A cDNA encoding the dog P2X7 receptor was isolated from a dog heart cDNA library, expressed in U-2 OS cells using the BacMam viral expression system and characterized in electrophysiological, ethidium accumulation and radioligand binding studies. Native P2X7 receptors were examined by measuring ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β release in dog and human whole blood. Key results: The dog P2X7 receptor was 595 amino acids long and exhibited high homology (>70%) to the human and rodent orthologues although it contained an additional threonine at position 284 and an amino acid deletion at position 538. ATP possessed low millimolar potency at dog P2X7 receptors. 2′-&3′-O-(4benzoylbenzoyl) ATP had slightly higher potency but was a partial agonist. Dog P2X7 receptors possessed relatively high affinity for a number of selective antagonists of the human P2X7 receptor although there were some differences in potency between the species. Compound affinities in human and dog blood exhibited a similar rank order of potency as observed in studies on the recombinant receptor although absolute potency was considerably lower. Conclusions and implications: Dog recombinant and native P2X7 receptors display a number of pharmacological similarities to the human P2X7 receptor. Thus, dog may be a suitable species for assessing target-related toxicity of antagonists intended for evaluation in the clinic. PMID:19814727

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of dogs and cats: an ideal test system for human head and neck PDT protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is ideally suited for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) in humans. Developing useful PDT protocols for HNC is challenging due to the expense of Phase I and II clinical trials. Moreover, the often-poor predictive value of murine models means that photosensitizers may proceed far into development before problems are noted. Dogs and cats with spontaneous oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) share striking similarities with humans affected with oral SCC. These similarities include viral and environmental tobacco smoke as risk factors, location-dependent prognoses, and relative resistance to chemotherapy. The relatively large oral cancers encountered in veterinary patients allow for light and drug dosimetry that are directly applicable to humans. The irregular shape of oral SCC allows a rigorous evaluation of novel photodynamic therapy protocols under field conditions. Because spontaneous tumors in dogs and cats arise in an outbred animal population it is possible to observe an intact host response to PDT. The shorter lifespan of dogs and cats allows rapid accrual of endpoint data. External beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy are commonplace in veterinary medicine, making dogs and cats with spontaneous SCC a useful resource to study the interactions with PDT and other cancer treatment modalities. Our preliminary results demonstrate that PDT is well-tolerated by dogs with oral cancer, and a Phase II clinical trial of zinc-phthalocyanine-based photodynamic therapy is underway in dogs with oral SCC. The usefulness of 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester-based PDT is being investigated in cats with oral SCC.

  3. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  4. Distinct turn-over patterns of common repeats correlate with genome size differences among cattle, dog and human

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal three-way global sequence alignments for 84 cattle clones or loci (total 11 Mb of high-quality finished genomic sequence, each larger than 50 kb) were constructed using the human and dog genome assemblies. Although unique portions of genomic sequence remained relatively constant among these ...

  5. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence. PMID:26899636

  7. Molecular Investigations of Rickettsia helvetica Infection in Dogs, Foxes, Humans, and Ixodes Ticks▿

    PubMed Central

    Boretti, Felicitas S.; Perreten, Andrea; Meli, Marina L.; Cattori, Valentino; Willi, Barbara; Wengi, Nicole; Hornok, Sándor; Honegger, Hanspeter; Hegglin, Daniel; Woelfel, Roman; Reusch, Claudia E.; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsia helvetica, a tick-borne member of the spotted-fever-group rickettsiae, is a suspected pathogen in humans; however, its role in animals is unknown. The aims of this study were to establish a R. helvetica-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assay and apply it to the analysis of tick vectors (to determine potential exposure risk) and blood samples from Canidae and humans (to determine prevalence of infection). The newly designed 23S rRNA gene assay for R. helvetica was more sensitive than a published citrate synthase gene (gltA) assay for several rickettsiae. Blood samples from 884 dogs, 58 foxes, and 214 human patients and 2,073 ticks (Ixodes spp.) collected from either vegetation or animals were analyzed. Although the maximal likelihood estimate of prevalence was 12% in unfed ticks and 36% in ticks collected from animals, none of the 1,156 blood samples tested PCR positive. Ticks from cats were more frequently PCR positive than ticks from dogs. Sequencing of the 23S rRNA and/or the gltA gene of 17 tick pools confirmed the presence of R. helvetica. Additionally, Rickettsia monacensis, which has not been previously found in Switzerland, was identified. In conclusion, R. helvetica was frequently detected in the tick population but not in blood samples. Nevertheless, due to the broad host range of Ixodes ticks and the high rate of infestation with this agent (i.e., R. helvetica was 13 times more frequent in unfed ticks than the tick-borne encephalitis virus), many mammals may be exposed to R. helvetica. The PCR assay described here represents an important tool for studying this topic. PMID:19329665

  8. Molecular Investigations of Rickettsia helvetica infection in dogs, foxes, humans, and Ixodes ticks.

    PubMed

    Boretti, Felicitas S; Perreten, Andrea; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Willi, Barbara; Wengi, Nicole; Hornok, Sándor; Honegger, Hanspeter; Hegglin, Daniel; Woelfel, Roman; Reusch, Claudia E; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-05-01

    Rickettsia helvetica, a tick-borne member of the spotted-fever-group rickettsiae, is a suspected pathogen in humans; however, its role in animals is unknown. The aims of this study were to establish a R. helvetica-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assay and apply it to the analysis of tick vectors (to determine potential exposure risk) and blood samples from Canidae and humans (to determine prevalence of infection). The newly designed 23S rRNA gene assay for R. helvetica was more sensitive than a published citrate synthase gene (gltA) assay for several rickettsiae. Blood samples from 884 dogs, 58 foxes, and 214 human patients and 2,073 ticks (Ixodes spp.) collected from either vegetation or animals were analyzed. Although the maximal likelihood estimate of prevalence was 12% in unfed ticks and 36% in ticks collected from animals, none of the 1,156 blood samples tested PCR positive. Ticks from cats were more frequently PCR positive than ticks from dogs. Sequencing of the 23S rRNA and/or the gltA gene of 17 tick pools confirmed the presence of R. helvetica. Additionally, Rickettsia monacensis, which has not been previously found in Switzerland, was identified. In conclusion, R. helvetica was frequently detected in the tick population but not in blood samples. Nevertheless, due to the broad host range of Ixodes ticks and the high rate of infestation with this agent (i.e., R. helvetica was 13 times more frequent in unfed ticks than the tick-borne encephalitis virus), many mammals may be exposed to R. helvetica. The PCR assay described here represents an important tool for studying this topic. PMID:19329665

  9. In vitro drug metabolism of green tea catechins in human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy W; Qin, Geng-Yao; Zhang, Ting; Feng, Wan-Yong

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic fate of green tea catechins [(-)-epicatechin ((-)-EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) (-)- epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] in cryopreserved human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes was studied. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and isomerization pathways of (-)-EC in all five species were found. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, hydrolysis, isomerization and glucosidation pathways of ECG were found. Species differences in metabolism of (-)-EC or ECG were observed. Surprisingly, no metabolites of EGC or EGCG were detected, but chemical oxidation and polymerization were observed under these experimental conditions. It appeared that enzymatic reactions and chemical reactions were differentiated by an additional hydroxyl group on the B-ring between (-)-EC/ECG and EGC/EGCG. For (-)-EC, thirty-five metabolites including isomerized (M6. M10 and M25), glucuronidated (M3, M5 and M11), sulfated (M7, M15, M16, M18, M20, M23, M26), methylated (M2, M9, M12, M17, M19, M21, M27, M30, M32), glucuronated/methylated (M4, M8, M13, M14), sulfated/methylated (M22, M24, M28, M29, M31, M33, M34, M35) and diglucuronidate (M1), were detected and characterized. M11, M18, M19 and M23 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M10, M20, M22, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M5, M6 and M10 were major metabolites in rat hepatocytes; and M5, M6 and M13 were major metabolites in mouse hepatocytes. For ECG, twelve metabolites including isomerized (M1), hydrolyzed (M3), glucosidated (M2), glucuronidated (M4 and M6), sulfated (M9, M11 and M12), methylated (M7), sulfated/glucuronidated/methylated (M8 and M10) and diglucuronidated (M5), were detected and characterized. M4, M11 and M12 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11 and M12 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M3 and M11 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M4, M6 and

  10. Human interaction as environmental enrichment for pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Verdi, Nicolle T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-01-01

    Private nonhuman animal sanctuaries are often financially limited in their ability to implement traditional environmental enrichment strategies. One possible solution may be to provide socialized animals with human interaction sessions. However, the merit of human interaction as enrichment has received little empirical attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate whether human interaction could be enriching for socialized, pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses at a private sanctuary. Observations of each subject were conducted in a reversal design to measure species-typical affiliation, activity levels, and aberrant behaviors when caretakers were both present and absent. The results demonstrate significantly higher levels of conspecific-directed affiliation and activity levels and reduced aberrant behavior when human interaction was available. Social play also increased when caregivers were present, supporting the hypothesis that play among conspecifics may be maintained by positive changes in an animal's environment. The potential for human interaction to be established as a scientifically validated, cost-effective enrichment strategy is supported by these findings. PMID:24484310

  11. Familial resemblance for serum metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Draisma, Harmen H M; Beekman, Marian; Pool, René; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Adamski, Jerzy; Prehn, Cornelia; Vaarhorst, Anika A M; de Craen, Anton J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-10-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of familial resemblance for the concentrations in human serum of more than 100 metabolites, measured using a targeted metabolomics platform. Age- and sex-corrected monozygotic twin correlations, midparent-offspring regression coefficients, and spouse correlations in subjects from two independent cohorts (Netherlands Twin Register and Leiden Longevity Study) were estimated for each metabolite. In the Netherlands Twin Register subjects, who were largely fasting, we found significant monozygotic twin correlations for 121 out of 123 metabolites. Heritability was confirmed by midparent-offspring regression. For most detected metabolites, the correlations between spouses were considerably lower than those between twins, indicating a contribution of genetic effects to familial resemblance. Remarkably high heritability was observed for free carnitine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.66), for the amino acids serine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77) and threonine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.64), and for phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C40:3 (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77). For octenoylcarnitine, a consistent point estimate of approximately 0.50 was found for the spouse correlations in the two cohorts as well as for the monozygotic twin correlation, suggesting that familiality for this metabolite is explained by shared environment. We conclude that for the majority of metabolites targeted by the used metabolomics platform, the familial resemblance of serum concentrations is largely genetic. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the heritability of fasting serum metabolite concentrations, which is relevant for biomarker research. PMID:23985338

  12. Canine Disorder Mirrors Human Disease: Exonic Deletion in HES7 Causes Autosomal Recessive Spondylocostal Dysostosis in Miniature Schnauzer Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Willet, Cali E.; Makara, Mariano; Reppas, George; Tsoukalas, George; Malik, Richard; Haase, Bianca; Wade, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant). Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses. PMID:25659135

  13. Canine disorder mirrors human disease: exonic deletion in HES7 causes autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    PubMed

    Willet, Cali E; Makara, Mariano; Reppas, George; Tsoukalas, George; Malik, Richard; Haase, Bianca; Wade, Claire M

    2015-01-01

    Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant). Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses. PMID:25659135

  14. Calcium transport by ionophorous peptides in dog and human lymphocytes detected by quin-2 fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Deber, C M; Hsu, L C

    1986-01-29

    Synthetic peptides of structure cyclo(Glu(OBz)-Sar-Gly-(N-R)Gly)2 (I), electrogenic Ca2+-selective carriers in phospholipid vesicle membranes, are shown to mediate the uptake of Ca2+ ions into the cytoplasm of dog and human lymphocytes. Ca2+ transport by DECYL-2E (I, R = n-decyl) - monitored by measurements of the fluorescence of an intracellular dye, quin-2 - occurred at a rate comparable to that produced by electroneutral Ca2+ ionophores ionomycin and Br-A23187. Fluorescence quenching experiments using Mn2+ suggested a greater selectivity by DECYL-2E for Ca2+/Mn2+ vs. the other two ionophores. The result that Ca2+ ions can traverse biological membranes bound in a neutral cavity consisting exclusively of peptide carbonyl ligands may imply the functional significance of binding sites of similar structures in membrane transport proteins. PMID:3947349

  15. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Kijas, James W.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Pianta, Michael J.; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Miller, Brian J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies. PMID:11972042

  16. Chromosomal Aberrations in Canine Gliomas Define Candidate Genes and Common Pathways in Dogs and Humans.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Peter J; York, Dan; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A; Joshi, Nikhil; Bannasch, Danika

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous gliomas in dogs occur at a frequency similar to that in humans and may provide a translational model for therapeutic development and comparative biological investigations. Copy number alterations in 38 canine gliomas, including diffuse astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas, were defined using an Illumina 170K single nucleotide polymorphism array. Highly recurrent alterations were seen in up to 85% of some tumor types, most notably involving chromosomes 13, 22, and 38, and gliomas clustered into 2 major groups consisting of high-grade IV astrocytomas, or oligodendrogliomas and other tumors. Tumor types were characterized by specific broad and focal chromosomal events including focal loss of the INK4A/B locus in glioblastoma and loss of the RB1 gene and amplification of the PDGFRA gene in oligodendrogliomas. Genes associated with the 3 critical pathways in human high-grade gliomas (TP53, RB1, and RTK/RAS/PI3K) were frequently associated with canine aberrations. Analysis of oligodendrogliomas revealed regions of chromosomal losses syntenic to human 1p involving tumor suppressor genes, such as CDKN2C, as well as genes associated with apoptosis, autophagy, and response to chemotherapy and radiation. Analysis of high frequency chromosomal aberrations with respect to human orthologues may provide insight into both novel and common pathways in gliomagenesis and response to therapy. PMID:27251041

  17. Poisoning of dogs and cats by drugs intended for human use.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    One of the main causes of poisoning of small animals is exposure to drugs intended for human use. Poisoning may result from misuse by pet owners, off-label use of medicines or, more frequently, accidental ingestion of drugs that are improperly stored. This review focuses on classes of drugs intended for human use that are most commonly involved in the poisoning of small animals and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. To perform this review a comprehensive search of public databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar) using key search terms was conducted. Additionally, relevant textbooks and reference lists of articles pertaining to the topic were reviewed to locate additional related articles. Most published information on small animal poisoning by drugs intended for human use was from animal and human poison control centres or from single case reports. The dog was the species most frequently poisoned. The major drugs involved included analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), antihistamines (H1-antihistamines), cardiovascular drugs (calcium channel blockers), central nervous system drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, baclofen, benzodiazepines and zolpidem), gastrointestinal drugs (loperamide), nutritional supplements (vitamin D and iron salts) and respiratory drugs (β2-adrenergic receptor agonists). PMID:25475169

  18. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    PubMed Central

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2008-01-01

    Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases. PMID:19068110

  19. A field and laboratory evaluation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of Giardia coproantigens in humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, R M; Deplazes, P; Meloni, B P; Reynoldson, J A; Thompson, R C

    1993-01-01

    A capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was evaluated for its ability to detect Giardia coproantigens in the faeces of humans and dogs in the Perth metropolitan area and Aboriginal communities in Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia. Using zinc sulphate flotation and light microscopy, Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were observed in 8 of 57 (14%) human stool samples from Perth and 21 of 55 (38%) stool samples from Fitzroy Crossing, after 2 separate examinations. Analysis of diagnostic sensitivity using the ELISA revealed that coproantigens were detected in all 29 human samples (100%) in which Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also present. Coproantigens were detected in one further sample from Perth and in 3 samples from Fitzroy Crossing in which no Giardia cyst or trophozoite was observed. The specificity of the test, as defined using Fitzroy Crossing samples free from Giardia, was 91%. The assay did not cross-react with Giardia-free stool samples containing Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Chilomastix mesnili or Ancylostoma duodenale. Giardia cysts and/or trophozoites were also observed in 11 of 32 dog faecal samples (34%) in Perth and 11 of 29 dog samples (38%) in Fitzroy Crossing, after one zinc sulphate examination. The sensitivity of the ELISA for dogs was 64% and 55% for Perth and Fitzroy Crossing specimens respectively. The specificity was 95% when Fitzroy Crossing samples were used. Other parasites observed in Giardia-free faecal samples from dogs which did not produce a positive reaction with the kit were Ancylostoma caninum, Sarcocystis sp. and Isospora sp.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8465392

  20. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  1. Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze.

    PubMed

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244538

  2. Domestic dog as a human health hazard in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Azami, Davood; Marhaba, Zahra; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Mizani, Azadeh

    2016-09-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminthic parasites of domestic dogs using stool samples in north of Iran in 2013. Stool samples (n = 100) were collected from domestic dogs of different ages and genders. Different techniques including wet smear, formalin-ether sedimentation method and flotation technique in saturated zinc chloride solution were performed on collected stools to detect eggs and larval stage of helminthes parasites. The overall prevalence of helminthic parasites of examined stools of dogs was 57 %. The examined domestic dogs harbored eggs of eight species of helminthes including: Taenia spp., Diyplidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Capillaria aerophila, Mesostesphanus spp. and Trichuris volpis. T. canis and T. volpis were the most and least prevalent eggs, respectively. No significant statistical differences were observed between infection by helminthic parasites and both gender and age of the dogs (P > 0.05). Considering high level of helminthic infection in the stool of examined domestic dogs, a contiguous educational program to increase awareness of dog owners and an effective anti-parasite control programmed is highly recommended in order to reduce the danger of zoonotic diseases in north of Iran. This is the first report of C. aerophila and Mesostesphanus spp. from dog in Iran. PMID:27605812

  3. Fetal Microchimerism in Cancer Protection and Promotion: Current Understanding in Dogs and the Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2015-05-01

    Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother's body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans. PMID:25693490

  4. Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an Emerging Agent of Invasive Aspergillosis in Humans, Cats, and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barrs, Vanessa R.; van Doorn, Tineke M.; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E.; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro. PMID:23798996

  5. Risk of human toxocarosis in Poland due to Toxocara infection of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna; Marczyńska, Magdalena; Dobosz, Sabina; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the current data on the risk of toxocarosis in humans in Poland and to give an overview of the clinical and diagnostic aspects of the disease. The number of reported clinical cases of Toxocara infection in children in Poland in medical literature has increased recently. The results of field surveys aimed to evaluate the soil contamination with geohelminth eggs conducted during the last few years showed that Toxocara is the most common zoonotic agent in urban public sites and in rural settlements. The questionnaire revealed rural inhabitants' low awareness of zoonotic parasite threats to humans. In particular parents should be advised as to what proper preventive measures to undertake to eliminate the toxocarosis risk factors for children in rural environment. Prevention of initial environment contamination with Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs, which includes proper treatment regimes to eliminate patent infections in dogs and cats and preventing pets from defecating in public areas and private households is vital. To provide the public with suitably presented information as well as pet owners with uniform recommendations, a close collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals is crucial. PMID:26204025

  6. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis infection in humans linked to dry dog food in the United States and Canada, 2012.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Maho; Rotstein, David S; Reimschuessel, Renate; Schwensohn, Colin A; Woody, Dillard H; Davis, Samuel W; Hunt, April D; Arends, Katherine D; Achen, Maya; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Denny, Lynn F; Phan, Quyen N; Joseph, Lavin A; Tuite, Carla C; Tataryn, Joanne R; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2014-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION--In April 2012, Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was detected in an unopened bag of dry dog food collected during routine retail surveillance. PulseNet, a national bacterial subtyping network, identified humans with Salmonella Infantis infection with the same genetic fingerprint as the dog food sample. CLINICAL FINDINGS--An outbreak investigation identified 53 ill humans infected with the outbreak strain during January 1 to July 5, 2012, in 21 states and 2 provinces in Canada; 20 (38%) were children ≤ 2 years old, and 12 of 37 (32%) were hospitalized. Of 21 ill people who remembered the dog food brand, 12 (57%) reported a brand produced at a plant in Gaston, SC. Traceback investigations also identified that plant. The outbreak strain was isolated from bags of dry dog food and fecal specimens obtained from dogs that lived with ill people and that ate the implicated dry dog food. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME--The plant was closed temporarily for cleaning and disinfection. Sixteen brands involving > 27,000 metric tons (> 30,000 tons) of dry dog and cat food were recalled. Thirty-one ill dogs linked to recalled products were reported through the FDA consumer complaint system. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-- A one-health collaborative effort on epidemiological, laboratory, and traceback investigations linked dry dog foods produced at a plant to illnesses in dogs and humans. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among pet owners, health-care professionals, and the pet food industry on the risk of illness in pets and their owners associated with dry pet foods and treats. PMID:24548229

  7. MULTIDETECTOR-ROW COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY PATTERNS OF BRONCHOESPHAGEAL ARTERY HYPERTROPHY AND SYSTEMIC-TO-PULMONARY FISTULA IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Gianluca; Caldin, Marco; Mezzalira, Giorgia; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies involving arterial branches in the lungs are one of the causes of hemoptysis in humans and dogs. Congenital and acquired patterns of bronchoesophageal artery hypertrophy have been reported in humans based on CT characteristics. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe clinical, echocardiographic, and multidetector computed tomography features of bronchoesophageal artery hypertrophy and systemic-to-pulmonary arterial communications in a sample of 14 dogs. Two main vascular patterns were identified in dogs that resembled congenital and acquired conditions reported in humans. Pattern 1 appeared as an aberrant origin of the right bronchoesophageal artery, normal origin of the left one, and enlargement of both the bronchial and esophageal branches that formed a dense network terminating in a pulmonary artery through an orifice. Pattern 2 appeared as a normal origin of both right and left bronchoesophageal arteries, with an enlarged and tortuous course along the bronchi to the periphery of the lung, where they communicated with subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Dogs having Pattern 1 also had paraesophageal and esophageal varices, with the latter being confirmed by videoendoscopy examination. Authors conclude that dogs with Pattern 1 should be differentiated from dogs with other congenital vascular systemic-to-pulmonary connections. Dogs having Pattern 2 should be evaluated for underlying pleural or pulmonary diseases. Bronchoesophageal artery hypertrophy can be accompanied by esophageal venous engorgement and should be included in the differential diagnosis for esophageal and paraesophageal varices in dogs. PMID:25961802

  8. Face Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Human Versus Dog Face Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Muszkat, Mauro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Muñoz, Patricia de Oliveira Lima; Lucci, Tania Kiehl; David, Vinicius Frayze; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Otta, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye tracking to explore attention allocation to human and dog faces in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Significant differences were found among the three groups. TD participants looked longer at the eyes than ASD and ADHD ones, irrespective of the faces presented. In spite of this difference, groups were similar in that they looked more to the eyes than to the mouth areas of interest. The ADHD group gazed longer at the mouth region than the other groups. Furthermore, groups were also similar in that they looked more to the dog than to the human faces. The eye-tracking technology proved to be useful for behavioral investigation in different neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26557097

  9. Eyeworm infections in dogs and in a human patient in Serbia: A One Health approach is needed.

    PubMed

    Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija; Petrović, Aleksandar; Gajić, Bojan; Colella, Vito; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm has been frequently reported parasitizing humans in Asia. In Europe, the parasite is endemic in wild and domestic carnivores and only eight cases have been reported in humans so far. We describe the first case of human thelaziosis in Serbia, along with two cases in dogs from the same area. A One Health approach, based on cooperation amongst veterinarians and physicians, is strongly advised for this emerging infection in order to assess the risk for and prevent of the zoonotic infection. PMID:27012916

  10. Early transplantation of human immature dental pulp stem cells from baby teeth to golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs: Local or systemic?

    PubMed Central

    Kerkis, Irina; Ambrosio, Carlos E; Kerkis, Alexandre; Martins, Daniele S; Zucconi, Eder; Fonseca, Simone AS; Cabral, Rosa M; Maranduba, Carlos MC; Gaiad, Thais P; Morini, Adriana C; Vieira, Natassia M; Brolio, Marina P; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Miglino, Maria A; Zatz, Mayana

    2008-01-01

    Background The golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs represent the best available animal model for therapeutic trials aiming at the future treatment of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have obtained a rare litter of six GRMD dogs (3 males and 3 females) born from an affected male and a carrier female which were submitted to a therapeutic trial with adult human stem cells to investigate their capacity to engraft into dogs muscles by local as compared to systemic injection without any immunosuppression. Methods Human Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hIDPSC) were transplanted into 4 littermate dogs aged 28 to 40 days by either arterial or muscular injections. Two non-injected dogs were kept as controls. Clinical translation effects were analyzed since immune reactions by blood exams and physical scores capacity of each dog. Samples from biopsies were checked by immunohistochemistry (dystrophin markers) and FISH for human probes. Results and Discussion We analyzed the cells' ability in respect to migrate, engraftment, and myogenic potential, and the expression of human dystrophin in affected muscles. Additionally, the efficiency of single and consecutive early transplantation was compared. Chimeric muscle fibers were detected by immunofluorescence and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using human antibodies and X and Y DNA probes. No signs of immune rejection were observed and these results suggested that hIDPSC cell transplantation may be done without immunosuppression. We showed that hIDPSC presented significant engraftment in GRMD dog muscles, although human dystrophin expression was modest and limited to several muscle fibers. Better clinical condition was also observed in the dog, which received monthly arterial injections and is still clinically stable at 25 months of age. Conclusion Our data suggested that systemic multiple deliveries seemed more effective than local injections. These findings open important avenues for further

  11. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products.

    PubMed

    Giles Iii, James T

    2016-01-01

    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater. PMID:27215885

  12. Prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs and rodents and their possible role in human leptospirosis from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Patil, D; Dahake, R; Roy, S; Mukherjee, S; Chowdhary, A; Deshmukh, R

    2014-01-01

    A total of 100 blood and 18 urine samples of rodents and suspected dogs were collected from Mumbai, India during 2006-2008. In order to determine the role of animals in transmission of the disease to humans, all the samples were screened retrospectively by real-time polymerase chain reaction for leptospiral DNA and antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination test. Leptopsiral DNA was detected from two blood and five urine samples from rodents. Of a total of 71 rodent and dog samples investigated for anti-Leptospira antibodies, 14 (19.7%) were positive. Pyrogenes was the predominant serovar found in 100.0% (7/7) and 85.7% (6/7) from suspected canine cases and rodents, respectively; followed by Icterohemorrhagiae, which was found in one rodent sample 14.28% (1/7). The study proves that there is high prevalence of leptospirosis in rodents and dogs in this region, which proves possible role of these animals in transmission of leptospires to humans. Hence it is imperative to necessary control measures to prevent human leptospirosis. PMID:24399392

  13. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  14. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-12-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others' emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others' expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs. PMID:27019737

  15. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-01-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others’ emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others’ expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs. PMID:27019737

  16. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs. Progress report, April 1, 1991--October 1, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-09-01

    One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Copper-induced hepatitis: the COMMD1 deficient dog as a translational animal model for human chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Favier, R P; Spee, B; Penning, L C; Rothuizen, J

    2011-03-01

    Chronic inflammatory liver disease regardless of aetiology leads to failing regeneration and fibrosis, ending in cirrhosis. Both in man and in animals this worldwide health problem has no definitive cure. Chronic liver injury causes hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and differentiate into matrix-producing cells. New therapeutic options will be developed upon detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving liver fibrosis. This may lead to new anti-fibrotic therapies which need to be tested in suitable models before application in the veterinary and human clinic. On the other side, to restore the failing regenerative capacity of the diseased liver cells, adult progenitor cells are of interest, as an alternative to whole organ transplantation. In order to find the most suitable large animal model it is important to recognise that the typical histopathological reaction pattern of the liver can differ between mammalian species. It is therefore imperative that specialists in veterinary internal medicine and pathology, being familiar with the diseases and pathologies of the liver in different animal species, are teaming-up in finding the best models for veterinary and human liver diseases. Several large animal models have been mentioned, like pigs, sheep, and dogs. Based on the observations that man and dog share the same hepatopathies and have identical clinical, pathological and pathogenetic reaction patterns during the development of liver disease, the dog seems to be a properly suited species to test new therapeutic strategies for pets and their best friends. PMID:22029820

  18. Whole genome sequencing identifies a novel species of the genus Capnocytophaga isolated from dog and cat bite wounds in humans.

    PubMed

    Zangenah, Salah; Abbasi, Nasir; Andersson, Anders F; Bergman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    C. canimorsus and C. cynodegmi are dog and cat commensals which can be transmitted to humans via bites or scratches and can cause sepsis, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye- or wound infections. Recently an additional Capnocytophaga species was identified as part of the oral flora of healthy dogs and was given the name "C. canis". We previously identified a Capnocytophaga isolate that could not be typed with available diagnostic tests including MALDI-TOF, 16S rRNA sequencing or species-specific PCR. This strain and 21 other Capnocytophaga spp isolated in Sweden from clinical blood- or wound-cultures were subjected to whole genome sequencing using the Illumina platform. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the previously non-typable isolate belongs to the putative new species "C. canis". Since this strain was isolated from a wound it also shows that members of "C. canis" have the potential to be pathogenic. In addition, our phylogenetic analysis uncovered an additional species of Capnocytophaga, which can be transmitted from dogs and cats to humans, suggesting a speciation within the Capnocytophaga family that has not been observed before. We propose the name of "C. stomatis" for this putative novel species. PMID:26947740

  19. Whole genome sequencing identifies a novel species of the genus Capnocytophaga isolated from dog and cat bite wounds in humans

    PubMed Central

    Zangenah, Salah; Abbasi, Nasir; Andersson, Anders F.; Bergman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    C. canimorsus and C. cynodegmi are dog and cat commensals which can be transmitted to humans via bites or scratches and can cause sepsis, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye- or wound infections. Recently an additional Capnocytophaga species was identified as part of the oral flora of healthy dogs and was given the name “C. canis”. We previously identified a Capnocytophaga isolate that could not be typed with available diagnostic tests including MALDI-TOF, 16S rRNA sequencing or species-specific PCR. This strain and 21 other Capnocytophaga spp isolated in Sweden from clinical blood- or wound-cultures were subjected to whole genome sequencing using the Illumina platform. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the previously non-typable isolate belongs to the putative new species “C. canis”. Since this strain was isolated from a wound it also shows that members of “C. canis” have the potential to be pathogenic. In addition, our phylogenetic analysis uncovered an additional species of Capnocytophaga, which can be transmitted from dogs and cats to humans, suggesting a speciation within the Capnocytophaga family that has not been observed before. We propose the name of “C. stomatis” for this putative novel species. PMID:26947740

  20. Gut microbiota of humans, dogs and cats: current knowledge and future opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ping; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing techniques allow for the identification and characterisation of microbes and their genes (microbiome). Using these new techniques, microbial populations in several niches of the human body, including the oral and nasal cavities, skin, urogenital tract and gastrointestinal tract, have been described recently. Very little data on the microbiome of companion animals exist, and most of the data have been derived from the analysis of the faeces of healthy laboratory animals. High-throughput assays provide opportunities to study the complex and dense populations of the gut microbiota, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Our laboratory and others have recently described the predominant microbial taxa and genes of healthy dogs and cats and how these respond to dietary interventions. In general, faecal microbial phylogeny (e.g. predominance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) and functional capacity (e.g. major functional groups related to carbohydrate, protein, DNA and vitamin metabolism; virulence factors; and cell wall and capsule) of the canine and feline gut are similar to those of the human gut. Initial sequencing projects have provided a glimpse of the microbial super-organism that exists within the canine and feline gut, but leaves much to be explored and discovered. As DNA provides information only about potential functions, studies that focus on the microbial transcriptome, metabolite profiles, and how microbiome changes affect host physiology and health are clearly required. Future studies must determine how diet composition, antibiotics and other drug therapies, breed and disease affect or are affected by the gut microbiome and how this information may be used to improve diets, identify disease biomarkers and develop targeted disease therapies. PMID:25414978

  1. Reading Faces: Differential Lateral Gaze Bias in Processing Canine and Human Facial Expressions in Dogs and 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Racca, Anaïs; Guo, Kun; Meints, Kerstin; Mills, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to the emotions of others provides clear biological advantages. However, in the case of heterospecific relationships, such as that existing between dogs and humans, there are additional challenges since some elements of the expression of emotions are species-specific. Given that faces provide important visual cues for communicating emotional state in both humans and dogs, and that processing of emotions is subject to brain lateralisation, we investigated lateral gaze bias in adult dogs when presented with pictures of expressive human and dog faces. Our analysis revealed clear differences in laterality of eye movements in dogs towards conspecific faces according to the emotional valence of the expressions. Differences were also found towards human faces, but to a lesser extent. For comparative purpose, a similar experiment was also run with 4-year-old children and it was observed that they showed differential processing of facial expressions compared to dogs, suggesting a species-dependent engagement of the right or left hemisphere in processing emotions. PMID:22558335

  2. Pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey: perspective on the reduced capacity of dogs to excrete this organic acid relative to the rat, monkey, and human.

    PubMed

    Timchalk, C; Nolan, R J

    1997-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) were measured in the beagle dog and rhesus monkey and compared with the kinetics observed in rats and humans. In addition, studies were conducted in anesthetized dogs to better understand the mechanism by which [14C]triclopyr is eliminated in this species. Triclopyr was dissolved in distilled water, and administered as a single oral dose of 0.5, 5, or 20 mg/kg to three male dogs. A single male rhesus monkey was given an intravenous dose of 30 mg [14C]triclopyr/kg body wt on two occasions separated by 10 days. Anesthetized male dogs, were implanted with venous, arterial, and urethral catheters and given increasing amounts of triclopyr to produce plasma triclopyr levels ranging from 0.3 to 27 microg eq/mL. In the monkey, triclopyr was rapidly eliminated from the plasma (t1/2 = 6.3 hr) with >95% of the urinary 14C activity excreted within 24 hr postdosing. In the dog, orally administered triclopyr was rapidly and effectively absorbed at every dose level with virtually all of it excreted in the urine by 72 hr postdosing. However, the kinetics were slightly nonlinear, and the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine decreased with increasing dose. Several nonlinear processes may collectively contribute to the modest nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dog. Plasma protein binding of triclopyr in the dog ranged from 94 to 99%, was nonlinear, and was an important determinant in the renal clearance of triclopyr. The nonlinear plasma protein binding indicates that glomerular filtration became disproportionately more important as plasma triclopyr concentration increased. There was good evidence for a high-affinity low-capacity active-secretory process that was saturated by low plasma triclopyr concentrations. As plasma triclopyr concentrations increased, tubular reabsorption begins to exceed secretion, resulting in decreased renal clearance. The volume of distribution, normalized for body weight

  3. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells alleviate lung injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yong; Liang, Guiyou; Yu, Limei

    2016-05-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells may inhibit pathological immune processes contributing to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to assess the capacity of human amniotic MSC (hAMSCs) to ameliorate I/R injury in a dog model of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Dissociated hAMSCs were cultured ex vivo, and their immunophenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. A dog model of CPB was established by surgical blockage of the aorta for 1 h. Dogs either underwent mock surgery (Sham group), CPB (model group), or CPB, followed by femoral injection of 2 × 10(7) hAMSCs (n=6). Anti-human nuclei staining revealed hAMSCs in the lungs 3 h after surgery. Oxygen index (OI) and respiratory index (RI) of arterial blood were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Venous blood TNF-α, IL-8, MMP-9, and IL-10 concentrations were measured by ELISA. Pathological changes in the lung were assessed by light microscopy. Third-generation-cultured hAMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD44, CD49D, CD73, and CD166 levels, but low CD34 or CD45 amounts and their cytoplasm contained Vimentin. In CPB model animals, OI was elevated and RI reduced; TNF-α, IL-8, and MMP-9 levels were elevated, and IL-10 levels reduced within 3h (P<0.05), but hAMSC transplantation significantly ameliorated these changes (P<0.05). Pathological changes observed in the hAMSC group were significantly less severe than those in the CPB group. In conclusion, hAMSC transplantation can downregulate proinflammatory factors and reduce MMP-9 levels, whereas upregulating the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10, thus reducing I/R lung injury in a dog model of CPB. PMID:26927516

  4. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  5. Human exposure to selamectin from dogs treated with revolution: methodological consideration for selamectin isolation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Masthay, M B; Canerdy, T D; Acosta, T M; Provost, R J; Britton, D M; Atieh, B H; Keller, R J

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine selamectin residue in dog's blood and in gloves worn while petting dogs after Revolution application. Revolution contains the active ingredient selamectin (a semisynthetic avermectin), which controls endoparasites and ectoparasites, including adult fleas, flea eggs, ticks, heartworms, ear mites, and sarcoptic mange in dogs, for 30 days. Revolution was applied topically on a group of six adult house hold dogs (240 mg selamectin/dog). The gloves worn for 5 min while petting the dogs were collected in glass jars and the blood samples (5 mL/dog) were collected in EDTA tubes at 0 h, 24 h, and 72 h, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks post-Revolution application for selamectin residue determination. At no time during the study did the dogs show any signs of toxicity, weight loss, or change in body temperature. Extracts of the blood and the gloves were analyzed for selamectin residue using RP-HPLC coupled with a UV detector (246 nm). Selamectin standard used for peak identification and quantitation was purified from Revolution. Selamectin residue was detected in the blood (10.26 +/- 1.06 ng/mL) only at 72 h post-Revolution application, probably due to its poor dermal absorption and rapid elimination from the circulation. In the glove extracts, the highest concentration of selamectin (518.90 +/- 66.80 ppm) was detected 24 h after Revolution application. Transferable residue of selamectin in gloves from dog's coat was detected at a lesser magnitude after 1 week of Revolution application, and that was followed by a further descending trend during the second, third, and fourth weeks. No selamectin residue was detected in the glove extracts after the fifth week. In spite of selamectin's binding to the sebaceous glands of the skin, gloves contained significant transferable residue. Thus, these findings suggest that repeated exposure to selamectin can pose potential health risks, especially to veterinarians, veterinary technologists, dog

  6. The presence of a dog attenuates cortisol and heart rate in the Trier Social Stress Test compared to human friends.

    PubMed

    Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    Limited research has addressed how social support in the form of a pet can affect both sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in response to a psychological challenge. The present study examined the effects of social support on salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three different conditions (human friend, novel dog, or control). All participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided cortisol, HR, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measures. For participants paired with a dog, overall cortisol levels were attenuated throughout the experimental procedure, and HR was attenuated during the Trier Social Stress Test. For all groups, state anxiety increased after the Trier Social Stress Test, and HR during the Trier Social Stress Test was a predictor of cortisol. These results suggest that short-term exposure to a novel dog in an unfamiliar setting can be beneficial. They also suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial effect associated with affiliation with pets. PMID:24170391

  7. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type- A relieves bladder outlet obstruction in human and induces prostate apoptosis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Tu, Chieh-Hsien; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Ju; Chiang, Po-Hui; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Background With the increasing interest with botulinum toxin – A (BTX-A) application in the lower urinary tract, we investigated the BTX-A effects on the canine prostate and also in men with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Transperineal injection into the prostate using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) was performed throughout the study. Saline with or without 100 U of BTX-A was injected into mongrel dogs prostate. One or 3 months later, the prostate was harvested for morphologic and apoptotic study. In addition, eight BPH patients refractory to α-blockers were treated with ultrasound guided intraprostatic injection of 200 U of BTX-A. Results In the BTX-A treated dogs, atrophy and diffuse apoptosis was observed with H&E stain and TUNEL stain at 1 and 3 months. Clinically, the mean prostate volume, symptom score, and quality of life index were significantly reduced by 18.8%, 73.1%, and 61.5% respectively. Maximal flow rate significantly increased by 72.0%. Conclusion Intraprostatic BTX-A injection induces prostate apotosis in dogs and relieves BOO in humans. It is therefore a promising alternative treatment for refractory BOO due to BPH. PMID:16620393

  8. Metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Linan; Gu, Yuan; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-06-01

    Aildenafil, 1-{[3-(6, 7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [4, 3-d] primidin-5-yl)-4-ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl}-cis-3, 5-dimethylpiperazine, a phosphodiesterase type V enzyme inhibitor (PDE5I), is under development for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The purpose of this study was to elucidate metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes. Thirty-one phase I metabolites have been found by LTQ/Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry in rat urine, faeces, and bile after oral administration. Major biotransformation pathways of aildenafil included N-dealkylation of the piperazine ring, hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, aliphatic hydroxylation and loss of alkyl group of piperazine ring. Minor pathways involved hydroxylation on the phenyl ring, pyrazole N-demethylation, O-deethylation, loss of piperazine ring (cleavage of N-S bond) and dehydrogenation on the piperazine ring. Similar metabolic pathways of aildenafil were observed in the incubations of liver microsomes from mouse, rat, and dog as well as from human. The depletion rate of parent drug in mouse and rat liver microsomes was significantly different from that in human liver microsomes. The cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping analysis was conducted using isozyme-specific inhibitors. The results indicated that CYP3A was the main isoenzyme involved in oxidative metabolism of aildenafil. Overall, these in vitro and in vivo findings should provide valuable information on possible metabolic behaviours of aildenafil in humans. PMID:24311535

  9. Transplantation of Human Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Non-Immunosuppressed GRMD Dogs is a Safe Procedure.

    PubMed

    Pelatti, M V; Gomes, J P A; Vieira, N M S; Cangussu, E; Landini, V; Andrade, T; Sartori, M; Petrus, L; Zatz, Mayana

    2016-08-01

    The possibility to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder, through cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been widely investigated in different animal models. However, some crucial questions need to be addressed before starting human therapeutic trials, particularly regarding its use for genetic disorders. How safe is the procedure? Are there any side effects following mesenchymal stem cell transplantation? To address these questions for DMD the best model is the golden retriever muscular dystrophy dog (GRMD), which is the closest model to the human condition displaying a much longer lifespan than other models. Here we report the follow-up of 5 GRMD dogs, which were repeatedly transplanted with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hASC), derived from different donors. Xenogeneic cell transplantation, which was done without immunosuppression, was well tolerated in all animals with no apparent long-term adverse effect. In the present study, we show that repeated heterologous stem-cell injection is a safe procedure, which is fundamental before starting human clinical trials. PMID:27193781

  10. Contraceptive steroid toxicology in the Beagle dog and its relevance to human carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Owen, L N; Briggs, M H

    1976-01-01

    Problems associated with the use of the Beagle dog in chronic toxicological studies of contraceptive steroids are described. A short review is presented on the occurrence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and in bitches of various breeds. The current status of knowledge of canine reproductive hormones and endocrinology is outlined, together with effects of contraceptive steroids. The pathology and histological classification of spontaneous and induced mammary neoplasia in the dog is discussed and compared with breast cancer in women. A series of recommendations are included for future research in this field which it is hoped may resolve some of the outstanding issues and lead to a more suitable toxicological model for contraceptive steroids. PMID:64332

  11. Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy in Golden Retriever Dogs Is Caused by a Deletion in the Mitochondrial tRNATyr Gene

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Izabella; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Nennesmo, Inger; Holmqvist, Erik; Heidrich, Nadja; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Andersson, Göran; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Hedhammar, Åke; Wibom, Rolf; Andersson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0–11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNATyr had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene is the causative mutation for SAN. PMID:19492087

  12. Widespread presence of human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D in farmed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in China: first identification and zoonotic concern.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Qiao; Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Jiang, Yanxue; Li, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a well-known causative agent of microsporidial infections in a variety of mammal hosts including humans in China, whereas there were no epidemiological data on wild animals bred in captivity, and the role of the neglected hosts in transmission of zoonotic microsporidiasis remains unknown. Herein, we investigated feces from 191 farmed foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 162 farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) for the prevalence and genotypic characteristics of E. bieneusi in Harbin City, northeast China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene enabled the identification of 53 (27.7%) and 17 (10.5%) positives from fox and raccoon dog specimens, respectively. There was only minor difference in prevalence between juvenile and adult foxes. Adult raccoon dogs have an infection rate significantly higher than juveniles. The most common human-pathogenic E. bieneusi, genotype D, is widespread among foxes and raccoon dogs of various ages by sequence analysis of the ITS locus. Genotypes CHN-DC1 and mixed CHN-DC1/WildBoar3 were detected in one adult raccoon dog each. Here is the first report describing the presence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in farmed foxes and raccoon dogs. The widespread existence of genotype D in surveyed animals is of great concern for public health. PMID:26341801

  13. Comparative Inter-Species Pharmacokinetics of Phenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides and Related Organic Acids. Evidence that the Dog is Not a Relevant Species for Evaluation of Human Health Risk.

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck

    2004-07-15

    Phenoxyacetic acids including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are widely utilized organic acid herbicides that have undergone extensive toxicity and pharmacokinetic analyses. The dog is particularly susceptible to the toxicity of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids relative to other species. Active renal clearance mechanisms for organic acids are ubiquitous in mammalian species, and thus a likely mechanism responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dog to these agents is linked to a lower capacity to secrete organic acids from the kidney. Using published data describing the pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic and structurally related organic acids in a variety of species including humans, inter-species comparative pharmacokinetics were evaluated using allometic parameter scaling. For both 2,4-D and MCPA the dog plasma half-life (t1/2) and renal clearance (Clr; ml hr-1) rates did not scale as a function of body weight across species; whereas for all other species evaluated, including humans, these pharmacokinetic parameters reasonably scaled. This exceptional response in the dog is clearly illustrated by comparing the plasma t1/2 at comparable doses of 2,4-D and MCPA, across several species. At a dosage of 5 mg/kg, in dogs the plasma t1/2 for 2,4-D and MCPA were {approx}92 - 106 hr and 63 hr, respectively, which is substantially longer than in the rat ({approx}1 and 6 hr, respectively) or in humans (12 and 11 hr, respectively). This longer t1/2, and slower elimination in the dog, results in substantially higher body burdens of these organic acids, at comparable doses, relative to other species. Although these results indicate the important role of renal transport clearance mechanisms as determinants of the clearance and potential toxicity outcomes of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides across several species, other contributing mechanisms such as reabsorption from the renal tubules is highly likely. These

  14. PCR and in vitro cultivation for detection of Leishmania spp. in diagnostic samples from humans and dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    1995-01-01

    A PCR assay for the diagnosis of leishmaniosis was developed by using primers that were selected from the sequence of the small-subunit rRNA gene. The assay was optimized for routine diagnostic use. Processing of the clinical samples is rapid and simple (lysis of erythrocytes in Tris-EDTA buffer, digestion with proteinase K directly in PCR buffer, and no further purification steps). Furthermore, an internal control is included in every specimen in order to detect the presence of PCR inhibitors. The PCR was compared with diagnostic in vitro cultivation of promastigote stages for the detection of Leishmania spp. in clinical specimens from humans and dogs with a tentative diagnosis of leishmaniosis. PCR and cultivation gave identical results with all but 1 of the 95 specimens from humans. The PCR result in this case was false negative, possibly because of unequal apportionment of this sample. With 10 skin biopsies from six patients with cutaneous leishmaniosis, the sensitivity was 60%. For six human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with visceral leishmaniosis, all bone marrow biopsies and 7 of 11 whole blood samples (after isolation of leukocytes by Ficoll-Paque) were positive in both tests. PCR detected one more case with the use of 500 microliters of whole blood with direct lysis of the erythrocytes in Tris-EDTA buffer. With dog lymph node aspirates, the sensitivity was 100% (16 of 16 samples) for both methods; furthermore, PCR was positive for 5 of 13 whole blood samples from dogs with leishmaniosis. The specificity of the PCR was 100% (70 specimens from patients without leishmaniosis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7615719

  15. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  16. Human plasma concentrations of five cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in dogs and minipigs using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Shida, Satomi; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cytochrome P450 probes in humans can be extrapolated from corresponding data in cynomolgus monkeys using simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. In the current study, despite some species difference in drug clearances, this modeling methodology was adapted to estimate human plasma concentrations of P450 probes based on data from commonly used medium-sized experimental animals, namely dogs and minipigs. Using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data, the observed plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in two young dogs were scaled to human oral monitoring equivalents. Using the same approach, the previously reported pharmacokinetics of the five P450 probes in minipigs was also scaled to human monitoring equivalents. The human plasma concentration profiles of the five P450 probes estimated by the simplified human PBPK models based on observed/reported pharmacokinetics in dogs/minipigs were consistent with previously published pharmacokinetic data in humans. These results suggest that dogs and minipigs, in addition to monkeys, could be suitable models for humans during research into new drugs, especially when used in combination with simple PBPK models. PMID:26652678

  17. Determining comparative elemental profile using handheld X-ray fluorescence in humans, elephants, dogs, and dolphins: Preliminary study for species identification.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2016-06-01

    Species identification is a crucial step in forensic anthropological studies. The aim of this study was to determine elemental profiles in bones from four mammal species, to be used for species discrimination. Human, elephant, dog, and dolphin bones were scanned by X-ray fluorescence (XRF); the differences in elemental profiles between species were determined using discriminant analysis. Dogs had the greatest number of elements (23), followed by humans (22) and elephants (20). Dolphins had the lowest number of elements (16). The accuracy rate of species identification in humans, elephants, dogs, and dolphins was 98.7%, 100%, 94.9%, and 92.3%, respectively. We conclude that element profiles of bones based on XRF analyses can serve as a tool for determining species. PMID:27093230

  18. Interspecies variability in expression of hepatobiliary transporters across human, dog, monkey, and rat as determined by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Prasad, Bhagwat; Salphati, Laurent; Chu, Xiaoyan; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Evers, Raymond; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-03-01

    We quantified, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, transporter protein expression of BSEP, MATE1, MRP3, MRP4, NTCP, and OCT1 in our human liver bank (n = 55) and determined the relationship between protein expression and sex, age and genotype. These data complement our previous work in the same liver bank where we quantified the protein expression of OATPs, BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. In addition, we quantified and compared the interspecies differences in expression of the hepatobiliary transporters, corresponding to the above human transporters, in liver tissue and hepatocytes of male beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Wistar rats. In all the species, the sinusoidal OATPs/Oatps were the most abundant hepatic transporters. However, there were notable interspecies differences in the relative abundance of the remaining transporters. For example, the next most abundant transporter in humans and monkeys was OCT1/Oct1, whereas it was Mrp2 and Ntcp in dogs/Wistar rats and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In contrast, the protein expression of the efflux transporters BCRP/Bcrp, MDR1/Mdr1, MRP3/Mrp3, MRP4/Mrp4, and MATE1/Mate1 was much lower across all the species. For most transporters, the expression in the liver tissues was comparable to that in the unplated cryopreserved hepatocytes. These data on human liver transporter protein expression complete the picture of the expression of major human hepatobiliary transporters important in drug disposition and toxicity. In addition, the data on expression of the corresponding hepatobiliary transporters in preclinical species will be helpful in interpreting and extrapolating pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological results from preclinical studies to humans. PMID:25534768

  19. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  20. Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area. PMID:24416598

  1. Comparative Metabolism of Batracylin (NSC 320846) and N-acetylbatracylin (NSC 611001) Using Human, Dog, and Rat Preparations In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Joseph M; Reid, Joel M; Buhrow, Sarah A; Kuffel, Mary; Walden, Chad; Behrsing, Holger; Ames, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    Background Batracylin is a heterocyclic arylamine topoisomerase inhibitor with preclinical anticancer activity. Marked species differences in sensitivity to the toxicity of batracylin were observed and attributed to differential formation of N-acetylbatracylin by N-acetyltransferase. A Phase I trial of batracylin in cancer patients with slow acetylator genotypes identified a dose-limiting toxicity of hemorrhagic cystitis. To further explore the metabolism of batracylin and N-acetylbatracylin across species, detailed studies using human, rat, and dog liver microsomal and hepatocyte preparations were conducted. Methods Batracylin or N-acetylbatracylin was incubated with microsomes and hepatocytes from human, rat, and dog liver and with CYP-expressing human and rat microsomes. Substrates and metabolites were analyzed by HPLC with diode array, fluorescence, radiochemical, or mass spectrometric detection. Covalent binding of radiolabeled batracylin and N-acetylbatracylin to protein and DNA was measured in 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat, human, and dog liver microsomes, and with recombinant human cytochromes P450. Results In microsomal preparations, loss of batracylin was accompanied by formation of one hydroxylated metabolite in human liver microsomes and five hydroxylated metabolites in rat liver microsomes. Six mono- or di-hydroxy-N-acetylbatracylin metabolites were found in incubations of this compound with 3MC rat liver microsomes. Hydroxylation sites were identified for some of the metabolites using deuterated substrates. Incubation with recombinant cytochromes P450 identified rCYP1A1, rCYP1A2, hCYP1A1 and hCYP1B1 as the major CYP isoforms that metabolize batracylin and N-acetylbatracylin. Glucuronide conjugates of batracylin were also identified in hepatocyte incubations. NADPH-dependent covalent binding to protein and DNA was detected in all batracylin and most N-acetylbatracylin preparations evaluated. Conclusions Microsomal metabolism of batracylin and N

  2. PK/PD Modelling of the QT Interval: a Step Towards Defining the Translational Relationship Between In Vitro, Awake Beagle Dogs, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Eleonora; Van Ammel, Karel; Teisman, Ard; Gallacher, David; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; De Ridder, Filip; Boussery, Koen; Vermeulen, An

    2016-07-01

    Inhibiting the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded potassium ion channel is positively correlated with QT-interval prolongation in vivo, which is considered a risk factor for the occurrence of Torsades de Pointes (TdP). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed for four compounds that reached the clinic, to relate drug-induced QT-interval change in awake dogs and humans and to derive a translational scaling factor a 1. Overall, dogs were more sensitive than humans to QT-interval change, an a 1 of 1.5 was found, and a 10% current inhibition in vitro produced a higher percent QT-interval change in dogs as compared to humans. The QT-interval changes in dogs were predictive for humans. In vitro and in vivo information could reliably describe the effects in humans. Robust translational knowledge is likely to reduce the need for expensive thorough QT studies; therefore, expanding this work to more compounds is recommended. PMID:27116025

  3. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  4. Influenza virus reservoirs and intermediate hosts: dogs, horses, and new possibilities for influenza virus exposure of humans.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-03-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections in hosts outside the main aquatic bird reservoirs occur periodically. Although most such cross-species transmission events result in limited onward transmission in the new host, sustained influenza outbreaks have occurred in poultry and in a number of mammalian species, including humans, pigs, horses, seals, and mink. Recently, two distinct strains of IAV have emerged in domestic dogs, with each circulating widely for several years. Here, we briefly outline what is known about the role of intermediate hosts in influenza emergence, summarize our knowledge of the new canine influenza viruses (CIVs) and how they provide key new information on the process of host adaptation, and assess the risk these viruses pose to human populations. PMID:25540375

  5. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs. Annual progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by {alpha} particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

  6. Influenza Virus Reservoirs and Intermediate Hosts: Dogs, Horses, and New Possibilities for Influenza Virus Exposure of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Pablo R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections in hosts outside the main aquatic bird reservoirs occur periodically. Although most such cross-species transmission events result in limited onward transmission in the new host, sustained influenza outbreaks have occurred in poultry and in a number of mammalian species, including humans, pigs, horses, seals, and mink. Recently, two distinct strains of IAV have emerged in domestic dogs, with each circulating widely for several years. Here, we briefly outline what is known about the role of intermediate hosts in influenza emergence, summarize our knowledge of the new canine influenza viruses (CIVs) and how they provide key new information on the process of host adaptation, and assess the risk these viruses pose to human populations. PMID:25540375

  7. Induction of meniscal regeneration in dogs using a novel biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Cook, J L; Tomlinson, J L; Kreeger, J M; Cook, C R

    1999-01-01

    A unique biomaterial, porcine small intestinal submucosa, was used to construct grafts for implantation into surgically created medial meniscal defects in dogs. Five dogs received grafts and two were left untreated as controls. All dogs were evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks by means of lameness scoring, force plate analysis, and ultrasonography. Twelve weeks after implantation the dogs were sacrificed and the replacement tissue was evaluated for gross and histologic appearance, amount, glycosaminoglycan content, and type II collagen immunoreactivity. Four weeks after instrumentation, both groups had lameness scores that were significantly higher than preoperative scores, but at the 8- and 12-week evaluations, scores for the grafted dogs were not different from preoperative values. The ultrasonographic appearance of replacement tissue in grafted defects resembled normal meniscus. In the untreated defects, only unorganized tissue was present. In control dogs, replacement tissue resembled fibrous tissue and cartilage erosions were visible on the medial femoral condyles. In four of the five grafted dogs, replacement tissue was grossly indistinguishable from normal meniscus. The amount of tissue in the defect was significantly greater for the grafted dogs. Histologically, replacement tissue in control dogs was composed of vascularized connective tissue with no evidence of chondroid differentiation. Replacement tissue in grafted dogs closely resembled normal meniscal tissue with respect to chondroid differentiation, collagen content, and zonal architecture. Porcine small intestinal submucosa appeared to have beneficial effects on meniscal regeneration. PMID:10496586

  8. Implicit trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces activate brain centers involved in reward.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Krill, Austen L; Wilson, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hamilton's (Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17-52) theory of inclusive fitness, self-facial resemblance is hypothesized as a mechanism for self-referent phenotypic matching by which humans can detect kin. To understand the mechanisms underlying pro-sociality toward self-resembling faces, we investigated the neural correlates of implicit trustworthiness ratings for self-resembling faces. Here we show that idiosyncratic trustworthiness ratings of self-resembling faces predict brain activation in the ventral inferior, middle and medial frontal gyri, substrates involved in reward processing. These findings demonstrate that neural reward centers are implicated in evaluating implicit pro-social behaviors toward self-resembling faces. These findings suggest that humans have evolved to use neurocomputational architecture dedicated to face processing and reward evaluation for the differentiation of kin, which drives implicit idiosyncratic affectively regulated social interactions. PMID:18761362

  9. Pharmacokinetics of celecoxib after oral administration in dogs and humans: effect of food and site of absorption.

    PubMed

    Paulson, S K; Vaughn, M B; Jessen, S M; Lawal, Y; Gresk, C J; Yan, B; Maziasz, T J; Cook, C S; Karim, A

    2001-05-01

    Celecoxib pharmacokinetics was evaluated after single and multiple oral dosing; after dosing in a solution and as a solid; with and without food; and after administration into different sites of the GI tract using dog. After oral dosing in a solution, celecoxib was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentrations by 1 h; absorption was delayed another 1 to 2 h when administered as a solid. The absolute bioavailability of celecoxib was higher when given as a solution (64--88%) compared with capsule (22--40%). The absorption of celecoxib given in a capsule was delayed by food, although systemic exposure increased by 3- to 5-fold. The systemic availability of celecoxib given intragastrically in solution was similar to that obtained following direct instillation into the duodenum, jejunum, or colon through a chronic intestinal access port. Collectively, these data suggest that celecoxib is a highly permeable drug that can be absorbed throughout the GI tract and that dissolution may be a rate-limiting factor for absorption from solid dosage forms. Unlike dogs, celecoxib given to humans with a high fat meal exhibits only a slight increase in AUC(0--infinity) (11%) that is not clinically significant with regard to safety or efficacy. In humans, a lower dose and a longer GI residence time may promote the opportunity for absorption of a poorly soluble drug such as celecoxib that can be absorbed throughout the GI tract. This would minimize the effect of food on absorption; as such, patients with arthritis can be given celecoxib with or without food. PMID:11303053

  10. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  11. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  12. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

  13. Man’s best friend: what can pet dogs teach us about non-Hodgkin lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Kristy L.; Suter, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models are essential for understanding lymphoma biology and testing new treatments prior to human studies. Spontaneously arising lymphomas in pet dogs represent an underutilized resource that could be used to complement current mouse lymphoma models, which do not adequately represent all aspects of the human disease. Canine lymphoma resembles human lymphoma in many important ways, including characteristic translocations and molecular abnormalities and similar therapeutic responses to chemotherapy, radiation, and newer targeted therapies (e.g. ibrutinib). Given the large number of pet dogs and high incidence of lymphoma, particularly in susceptible breeds, dogs represent a largely untapped resource for advancing the understanding and treatment of human lymphoma. This review highlights similarities in molecular biology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes between human and canine lymphoma. It also describes resources that are currently available to study canine lymphoma, advantages to be gained by exploiting the genetic breed structure in dogs, and current and future challenges and opportunities to take full advantage of this resource for lymphoma studies. PMID:25510277

  14. Man's best friend: what can pet dogs teach us about non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Richards, Kristy L; Suter, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are essential for understanding lymphoma biology and testing new treatments prior to human studies. Spontaneously arising lymphomas in pet dogs represent an underutilized resource that could be used to complement current mouse lymphoma models, which do not adequately represent all aspects of the human disease. Canine lymphoma resembles human lymphoma in many important ways, including characteristic translocations and molecular abnormalities and similar therapeutic responses to chemotherapy, radiation, and newer targeted therapies (e.g. ibrutinib). Given the large number of pet dogs and high incidence of lymphoma, particularly in susceptible breeds, dogs represent a largely untapped resource for advancing the understanding and treatment of human lymphoma. This review highlights similarities in molecular biology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes between human and canine lymphoma. It also describes resources that are currently available to study canine lymphoma, advantages to be gained by exploiting the genetic breed structure in dogs, and current and future challenges and opportunities to take full advantage of this resource for lymphoma studies. PMID:25510277

  15. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear. PMID:19372010

  16. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  17. Presence of human friends and pet dogs as moderators of autonomic responses to stress in women.

    PubMed

    Allen, K M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M

    1991-10-01

    Autonomic responses were measured while 45 adult women performed a standard experimental stress task in the laboratory with only the experimenter present and 2 weeks later at home in the presence of a female friend, pet dog, or neither. Results demonstrated that autonomic reactivity was moderated by the presence of a companion, the nature of whom was critical to the size and direction of the effect. Ss in the friend condition exhibited higher physiological reactivity and poorer performance than subjects in the control and pet conditions. Ss in the pet condition showed less physiological reactivity during stressful tasks than Ss in the other conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the degree to which friends and pets are perceived as evaluative during stressful task performance. Physiological reactivity was consistent across the laboratory and field settings. PMID:1960650

  18. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells contribute to periodontal regeneration in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinbo; Ge, Shaohua; Chen, Shulan; Xu, Quanchen; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Hongmei; Yang, Pishan

    2013-01-01

    Gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (GMSCs) have been considered as a promising alternative strategy for periodontal regeneration based on their potential for multilineage differentiation in vitro and the ability to form new bone in vivo. In order to investigate the capacity of GMSCs for periodontal regeneration and the fate of GMSCs during periodontal tissue repair, enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled GMSCs were transplanted into class III furcation defects created in beagle dogs. The results showed that the transplanted GMSCs significantly enhanced the regeneration of the damaged periodontal tissue, including the alveolar bone, cementum and functional periodontal ligament (PDL). Moreover, GMSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, cementoblasts and PDL fibroblasts in vivo. These findings indicate that GMSCs represent a novel cell source for periodontal tissue reconstruction. PMID:24777155

  19. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  20. Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, H; Jensen, J; Carlsson, A; Ruth, M; Lehmann, A; Boeckxstaens, GE

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are the main mechanism underlying gastro-oesophageal reflux and are a potential pharmacological treatment target. We evaluated the effect of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on TLESRs in dogs. Based on these findings, the effect of Δ9-THC was studied in healthy volunteers. Experimental approach In dogs, manometry was used to evaluate the effect of Δ9-THC in the presence and absence of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A on TLESRs induced by gastric distension. Secondly, the effect of 10 and 20 mg Δ9-THC was studied in 18 healthy volunteers in a placebo-controlled study. Manometry was performed before and for 3 h after meal ingestion on three occasions. Key results In dogs, Δ9-THC dose-dependently inhibited TLESRs and reduced acid reflux rate. SR141716A significantly reversed the effects of Δ9-THC on TLESRs. Similarly, in healthy volunteers, Δ9-THC significantly reduced the number of TLESRs and caused a non-significant reduction of acid reflux episodes in the first postprandial hour. In addition, lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and swallowing were significantly reduced by Δ9-THC. After intake of 20 mg, half of the subjects experienced nausea and vomiting leading to premature termination of the study. Other side-effects were hypotension, tachycardia and central effects. Conclusions and implications Δ9-THC significantly inhibited the increase in meal-induced TLESRs and reduced spontaneous swallowing in both dogs and humans. In humans, Δ9-THC significantly reduced basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. These findings confirm previous observations in dogs and indicate that cannabinoid receptors are also involved in the triggering of TLESRs in humans. PMID:19068079

  1. Characterization of hospital-associated lineages of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from clinical cases in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Cindy-Love; Charlebois, Audrey; Masson, Luke; Archambault, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE) has rapidly emerged worldwide and is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. However, very few reports are available on ARE isolates from canine clinical cases. The objective of this study was to characterize ARE strains of canine clinical origin from a veterinary teaching hospital in Canada and to compare them with human strains. Ten ARE strains from dogs and humans were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm activities, presence of rep-families, CRISPR-cas and putative virulence genes. All ARE strains (n = 10) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and lincomycin. Resistances to tetracycline (n = 6), macrolides (n = 6), and to high concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (n = 5) were also observed. Canine ARE isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin whereas resistance to this antibiotic was observed in human strains. Ampicillin resistance was linked to PBP5 showing mutations at 25 amino acid positions. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to ParC, GyrA, and GyrB mutations. Data demonstrated that all canine ARE were acm (collagen binding protein)-positive and that most harbored the efaAfm gene, encoding for a cell wall adhesin. Biofilm formation was observed in two human strains but not in canine strains. Two to five rep-families were observed per strain but no CRISPR sequences were found. A total of six STs (1, 18, 65, 202, 205, and 803) were found with one belonging to a new ST (ST803). These STs were identical or closely related to human hospital-associated lineages. This report describes for the first time the characterization of canine ARE hospital-associated strains in Canada and also supports the importance of prudent antibiotic use in veterinary medicine to avoid zoonotic spread of canine ARE. PMID:23986753

  2. Characterization of hospital-associated lineages of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from clinical cases in dogs and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Cindy-Love; Charlebois, Audrey; Masson, Luke; Archambault, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE) has rapidly emerged worldwide and is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. However, very few reports are available on ARE isolates from canine clinical cases. The objective of this study was to characterize ARE strains of canine clinical origin from a veterinary teaching hospital in Canada and to compare them with human strains. Ten ARE strains from dogs and humans were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm activities, presence of rep-families, CRISPR-cas and putative virulence genes. All ARE strains (n = 10) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and lincomycin. Resistances to tetracycline (n = 6), macrolides (n = 6), and to high concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (n = 5) were also observed. Canine ARE isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin whereas resistance to this antibiotic was observed in human strains. Ampicillin resistance was linked to PBP5 showing mutations at 25 amino acid positions. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributable to ParC, GyrA, and GyrB mutations. Data demonstrated that all canine ARE were acm (collagen binding protein)-positive and that most harbored the efaAfm gene, encoding for a cell wall adhesin. Biofilm formation was observed in two human strains but not in canine strains. Two to five rep-families were observed per strain but no CRISPR sequences were found. A total of six STs (1, 18, 65, 202, 205, and 803) were found with one belonging to a new ST (ST803). These STs were identical or closely related to human hospital-associated lineages. This report describes for the first time the characterization of canine ARE hospital-associated strains in Canada and also supports the importance of prudent antibiotic use in veterinary medicine to avoid zoonotic spread of canine ARE. PMID:23986753

  3. Cross-Sectional Study of Leptospira Seroprevalence in Humans, Rats, Mice, and Dogs in a Main Tropical Sea-Port City

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Vivas, Claudia M. E.; Cuello-Pérez, Margarett; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Thiry, Dorothy; Levett, Paul N.; Falconar, Andrew K. I.

    2013-01-01

    Samples were collected from 128 symptomatic humans, 83 dogs, 49 mice, and 20 rats (Rattus rattus: 16; Rattus norvegicus: 4) in neighborhoods where human leptospirosis have been reported within the principal sea-port city of Colombia. Seroprevalences were assessed against 19 pathogenic, 1 intermediate pathogenic, and 1 saprophytic Leptospira serogroups. Pathogenic Leptospira were confirmed using conventional Leptospira-specific polymerase chain-reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was used for serovar identification. Seroprevalences of 20.4%, 12.5%, 25.0%, 22.9%, and 12.4% were obtained against one to seven different serogroups in mice, R. rattus, R. norvegicus, dogs, and humans, respectively. The DNA was confirmed to be from pathogenic Leptospira by detecting the lipL32 gene in 12.5%, 3.7%, and 0.03% of the R. rattus, dog, and human samples, respectively. The first genetically typed Colombian isolate was obtained from a rat and identified as Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae/Copenhageni. PMID:23149584

  4. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  5. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis-infected dogs as a model for human disseminated strongyloidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Aikens, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The route of migration of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae was explored in primary and autogenous infections in the dog. Larvae was radiolabeled by one of two means: (1) by culture of the free-living L3 stage in a nutrient medium, deficient in methionine, supplemented with ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine, and (2) by feeding of ({sup 75}Se)Selenomethionine-labeled bacteria to microbiverous L1 and L2 stages. Third-stage labeled larvae were then injected into 10-day-old pups either subcutaneously, to study primary migration, or into the distal ileum, to study autogenous migration. At intervals after infection pups were killed and whole body compressed organ autoradiography done on individual tissues to determine organ-specific larval transit sites. Autoradiographic recoveries were analyzed in the context of a series of mathematical models designed to test migratory route hypotheses. Postulated routes of migration for primary infections included (1) the Null Hypothesis or Scramble Route in which larvae migrate to the intestines by any available route, (2) the Classical Pulmonary Route in which larvae migrate sequentially from skin, to blood, to lungs, to the trachea, esophagus and intestines, and (3) the Head Migration Route in which larvae move from caudal to cranial sites within the skin and muscle before entering the intestines. Postulated routes for autoinfective migration reiterated 1 and 2 above. Least squares comparisons, of calculated models to observed autoradiographic distributions, led us to conclude that there was no reason to reject the simplest assumption that larvae move by any available route to the definitive site in both forms of migration. Sampling through tracheostomy sites in 14 pups for larval migrants confirmed this conclusion.

  7. Humanizing Prisons with Animals: A Closer Look at "Cell Dogs" and Horse Programs in Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    If correctional education aims to transform individuals and bring about change, we need to consider the whole person who comes with human needs, emotions and attitudes. In order to expand our approach, alternative programs should be explored. A somewhat unusual but very promising approach to address offenders' human needs is the use of animals in …

  8. Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities…

  9. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in three patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Hurissa, Zewdu; Diro, Ermias; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Kuhls, Katrin; Schönian, Gabriele; Hailu, Asrat

    2011-06-01

    We report paired strains of Leishmania parasites, one from the viscera and the other from skin lesions that were isolated from three patients with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis that were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The causative parasites were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and by a panel of multilocus microsatellite markers. We demonstrated that the causative agent was Leishmania donovani in all cases, irrespective of the phenotype of the disease. The paired strains from viscera and skin lesions of the same patients showed genetic identity across the 14 microsatellite markers investigated. These findings demonstrate that the skin lesions in these human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis were caused by dissemination of viscerotropic L. donovani parasites as a consequence of severe immunosuppression. However, in all three patients, rapid clearance of the skin lesions was observed after antimonial therapy. PMID:21633027

  10. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  11. Both Ends of the Leash — The Human Links to Good Dogs with Bad Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    For nearly 350 years, veterinary medicine and human medicine have been separate entities, with one geared toward the diagnosis and treatment in animals and the other toward parallel goals in the owners. However, that model no longer fits, since research on diseases of humans and companion animals has coalesced.1–4 The catalyst for this union has been the completion of the human genome sequence, coupled with draft sequence assemblies of genomes for companion animals.5,6 Here, we summarize the critical events in canine genetics and genomics that have led to this development, review major applications in canine health that will be of interest to human caregivers, and discuss expectations for the future. PMID:22894576

  12. Effect of trichostatin A on human T cells resembles signaling abnormalities in T cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a new mechanism for TCR zeta chain deficiency and abnormal signaling.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Warke, Vishal G; Fisher, Carolyn U; Tsokos, George C

    2002-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent reversible inhibitor of histone deacetylase, and it has been reported to have variable effects on the expression of a number of genes. In this report, we show that TSA suppresses the expression of the T cell receptor zeta chain gene, whereas, it upregulates the expression if its homologous gene Fc(epsilon) receptor I gamma chain. These effects are associated with decreased intracytoplasmic-free calcium responses and altered tyrosine phosphorylation pattern of cytosolic proteins. Along with these effects, we report that TSA suppresses the expression of the interleukin-2 gene. The effects of TSA on human T cells are predominantly immunosuppressive and reminiscent of the signaling aberrations that have been described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:11967985

  13. The family resemblance metaphor: some unfinished business of interpretive inquiry.

    PubMed

    Miller, S I; Fredericks, M

    2000-07-01

    The rapidly expanding discipline of interpretive inquiry, especially in its narrative analysis form, has not been fully cognizant of certain crucial epistemological and methodological assumptions that form the ultimate basis of its purpose. Even after abandoning traditional positivist views, the related disciplines within the human sciences that are engaged in interpretive inquiry have still not discovered the core implicit assumptions that militate against a full acceptance of this form of inquiry. This article outlines the locus of these implicit assumptions and then argues that the legitimacy of these enterprises must be grounded in a well-known but heretofore undiscovered perspective, namely, Wittgenstein's notion of a family resemblance. It is argued that this metaphoric phrase is the key to unlocking the real and unique nature of narrative analysis. PMID:11010071

  14. Bile acids as possible human carcinogens: new tricks from an old dog.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Vassiliki

    2009-01-01

    Bile first attracted man's interest long ago. The actual tumour-promoting effects of a bile acid were reported in 1939 for deoxycholic acid. Ever since, much evidence has accumulated that supports an important role for bile acids as cancer promoters in humans through DNA damage and selection for apoptosis-resistant cells, both of which can lead to increased mutation rates. The evidence reviewed here indicates that, in humans, bile acids are likely to be implicated in the aetiology of a number of different important cancers in terms of morbidity and mortality, such as cancer of the colon, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, gall bladder and cancer of the breast. PMID:19499433

  15. Expression of human. alpha. sub 1 -antitrypsin in dogs after autologous transplantation of retroviral transduced hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, M.A.; Baley, P.; Rothenberg, S.; Leland, F; Fleming, L.; Ponder, K.P.; Liu, Tajen; Finegold, M.; Darlington, G.; Pokorny, W.; Woo, S.L.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The liver represents an excellent organ for gene therapy since many genetic disorders result from the deficiency of liver-specific gene products. The authors have previously demonstrated that transgenic mouse hepatocytes can be heterologously transplanted into congenic recipients where they survived indefinitely and continued to function as hepatocytes. Here they demonstrate the autologous transplantation of retrovirally transduced canine hepatocytes. In two animals they have transplanted hepatocytes transduced with a retroviral vector containing the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin cDNA under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promotor. Both animals had significant human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin in the serum for 1 month. The results suggest that gene therapy of hepatic deficiencies may be achieved by hepatocellular transplantation after genetic reconstruction with the use of promoters of cellular genes that are active in the normal liver.

  16. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  17. Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal — A Potential Threat to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Letra Mateus, Teresa; Castro, António; Niza Ribeiro, João; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2014-01-01

    Dogs play many roles and their presence within people’s houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

  18. Identification of Three Novel Ring Expansion Metabolites of KAE609, a New Spiroindolone Agent for the Treatment of Malaria, in Rats, Dogs, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Huskey, Su-Er W; Zhu, Chun-Qi; Lin, Melissa M; Forseth, Ry R; Gu, Helen; Simon, Oliver; Eggimann, Fabian K; Kittelmann, Matthias; Luneau, Alexandre; Vargas, Alexandra; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Lai; Einolf, Heidi J; Zhang, Jin; Favara, Sarah; He, Handan; Mangold, James B

    2016-05-01

    KAE609 [(1'R,3'S)-5,7'-dichloro-6'-fluoro-3'-methyl-2',3',4',9'-tetrahydrospiro[indoline-3,1'-pyridol[3,4-b]indol]-2-one] is a potent, fast-acting, schizonticidal agent being developed for the treatment of malaria. After oral dosing of KAE609 to rats and dogs, the major radioactive component in plasma was KAE609. An oxidative metabolite, M18, was the prominent metabolite in rat and dog plasma. KAE609 was well absorbed and extensively metabolized such that low levels of parent compound (≤11% of the dose) were detected in feces. The elimination of KAE609 and metabolites was primarily mediated via biliary pathways (≥93% of the dose) in the feces of rats and dogs. M37 and M23 were the major metabolites in rat and dog feces, respectively. Among the prominent metabolites of KAE609, the isobaric chemical species, M37, was observed, suggesting the involvement of an isomerization or rearrangement during biotransformation. Subsequent structural elucidation of M37 revealed that KAE609, a spiroindolone, undergoes an unusual C-C bond cleavage, followed by a 1,2-acyl shift to form a ring expansion metabolite M37. The in vitro metabolism of KAE609 in hepatocytes was investigated to understand this novel biotransformation. The metabolism of KAE609 was qualitatively similar across the species studied; thus, further investigation was conducted using human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. The ring expansion reaction was found to be primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 yielding M37. M37 was subsequently oxidized to M18 by CYP3A4 and hydroxylated to M23 primarily by CYP1A2. Interestingly, M37 was colorless, whereas M18 and M23 showed orange yellow color. The source of the color of M18 and M23 was attributed to their extended conjugated system of double bonds in the structures. PMID:26921386

  19. Paralytic illness resembling inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy in a chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Alford, P L; Satterfield, W C

    1995-07-01

    An adult male chimpanzee housed in an outdoor corral with a group of other chimpanzees had an acute onset of ascending motor paresis that progressed to flaccid tetraplegia over 3 days. Tendon reflexes were weak, and CSF protein concentration was high. The chimpanzee regained normal mobility over several months. This chimpanzee's ascending, symmetrical, monophasic, flaccid paralytic illness, with albuminocytologic dissociation in CSF, and recovery following supportive treatment, was characteristic of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, known as Guillain-Barré syndrome in human beings. Coonhound paralysis and experimentally induced allergic neuritis are the counterparts in dogs and laboratory animals, respectively, of the syndrome. In human beings, the syndrome is apparently immunologically mediated, as it is known to develop after bacterial and viral infections, vaccinations, and surgery or injury. The chimpanzee of this report had been given a rabies vaccination and had been treated for dental abscess 12 days prior to onset of signs, and had been inoculated with material containing neuronal antigens 20 years prior to onset of signs. PMID:7601702

  20. Evaluating the effect of ambient particulate pollution on DNA methylation in Alaskan sled dogs: Potential applications for a sentinel model of human health

    PubMed Central

    Montrose, Luke; Noonan, Curtis; Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Joongwon; Harley, John; O’Hara, Todd; Cahill, Catherine; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human populations. During the winter months in Fairbanks, Alaska, severe temperature inversions lead to elevated concentrations of ambient PM smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). Sled dogs represent an easily accessible environmentally exposed population that may yield findings informative for human health risk assessment. Objectives In this pilot study, we evaluated whether ambient PM was associated with markers of global methylation in sled dogs. Methods Kennels were strategically recruited to provide a wide PM2.5 exposure gradient for the Fairbanks area. Continuous monitoring of ambient PM2.5 was conducted at each kennel during the winter of 2012/13 using a DustTrak 8530. Dogs received a physical examination and assessment of standard hematology and clinical chemistries. Global methylation was determined using the LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA) and 5-Methycytosine (5-mC) Quantification. Results Three sled dog kennels (n ~30 dogs/kennel) were evaluated and sampled. The average PM2.5 concentrations measured for kennels A, B, and C were 90 μg/m3, 48 μg/m3, 16 μg/m3 (p< 0.0001), respectively. The average (standard deviation) global methylation percentage for each kennel measured by LUMA was 76.22 (1.85), 76.52 (1.82), and 76.72 (2.26), respectively. The average (standard deviation) global methylation percentage for each kennel measured by 5-mC was 0.16 (0.04), 0.15 (0.04), and 0.15 (0.05), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the three kennels and their average global methylation percentage either by LUMA or 5-mC. Conclusions In this study we evaluated global methylation using LUMA and 5-mC and found no differences between kennels, though exposure to ambient PM2.5 was significantly different between kennels. As more information becomes available regarding immunologically-related canine genes and

  1. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  2. Canine neuroendocrine carcinoma. A tumor resembling histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, B J; Hill, J; Weiss, L M

    1985-12-01

    The clinical and light- and electron microscopic features of 20 cases of canine neuroendocrine carcinoma, initially classified as atypical histiocytomas, are reported. The locally expansile well-circumscribed dermal tumor nodules were composed of solid masses of cells with high mitotic index and multinucleation, arranged in a trabecular pattern with prominent fibrovascular connective tissue stroma rich in reticulin fibers that outlined compact cell nests. Ultrastructural studies revealed evenly dispersed chromatin, focally indented nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with perinuclear filaments, membrane-bound dense core granules, and prominent interdigitating plasma membrane projections with primitive intercellular junctions. Clinical and pathological comparisons between canine neuroendocrine carcinoma, canine histiocytomas, and human Merkel cell neoplasms are discussed. PMID:4091229

  3. Genome-wide association studies in dogs and humans identify ADAMTS20 as a risk variant for cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Zena T; Brand, Harrison A; Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Arzi, Boaz; Willet, Cali E; Cox, Timothy C; McHenry, Toby; Narayan, Nicole; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xioajing; Sliskovic, Saundra; Karmi, Nili; Safra, Noa; Sanchez, Carla; Deleyiannis, Frederic W B; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wade, Claire M; Marazita, Mary L; Bannasch, Danika L

    2015-03-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defect. We provide insight into the genetic etiology of this birth defect by performing genome-wide association studies in two species: dogs and humans. In the dog, a genome-wide association study of 7 CL/P cases and 112 controls from the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) breed identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 27 (unadjusted p=1.1 x 10(-13); adjusted p= 2.2 x 10(-3)). Further analysis in NSDTR families and additional full sibling cases identified a 1.44 Mb homozygous haplotype (chromosome 27: 9.29 - 10.73 Mb) segregating with a more complex phenotype of cleft lip, cleft palate, and syndactyly (CLPS) in 13 cases. Whole-genome sequencing of 3 CLPS cases and 4 controls at 15X coverage led to the discovery of a frameshift mutation within ADAMTS20 (c.1360_1361delAA (p.Lys453Ilefs*3)), which segregated concordant with the phenotype. In a parallel study in humans, a family-based association analysis (DFAM) of 125 CL/P cases, 420 unaffected relatives, and 392 controls from a Guatemalan cohort, identified a suggestive association (rs10785430; p =2.67 x 10-6) with the same gene, ADAMTS20. Sequencing of cases from the Guatemalan cohort was unable to identify a causative mutation within the coding region of ADAMTS20, but four coding variants were found in additional cases of CL/P. In summary, this study provides genetic evidence for a role of ADAMTS20 in CL/P development in dogs and as a candidate gene for CL/P development in humans. PMID:25798845

  4. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  5. Genome-Wide Association Studies in Dogs and Humans Identify ADAMTS20 as a Risk Variant for Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Arzi, Boaz; Willet, Cali E.; Cox, Timothy C.; McHenry, Toby; Narayan, Nicole; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xioajing; Sliskovic, Saundra; Karmi, Nili; Safra, Noa; Sanchez, Carla; Deleyiannis, Frederic W. B.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wade, Claire M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Bannasch, Danika L.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is the most commonly occurring craniofacial birth defect. We provide insight into the genetic etiology of this birth defect by performing genome-wide association studies in two species: dogs and humans. In the dog, a genome-wide association study of 7 CL/P cases and 112 controls from the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR) breed identified a significantly associated region on canine chromosome 27 (unadjusted p=1.1 x 10-13; adjusted p= 2.2 x 10-3). Further analysis in NSDTR families and additional full sibling cases identified a 1.44 Mb homozygous haplotype (chromosome 27: 9.29 – 10.73 Mb) segregating with a more complex phenotype of cleft lip, cleft palate, and syndactyly (CLPS) in 13 cases. Whole-genome sequencing of 3 CLPS cases and 4 controls at 15X coverage led to the discovery of a frameshift mutation within ADAMTS20 (c.1360_1361delAA (p.Lys453Ilefs*3)), which segregated concordant with the phenotype. In a parallel study in humans, a family-based association analysis (DFAM) of 125 CL/P cases, 420 unaffected relatives, and 392 controls from a Guatemalan cohort, identified a suggestive association (rs10785430; p =2.67 x 10-6) with the same gene, ADAMTS20. Sequencing of cases from the Guatemalan cohort was unable to identify a causative mutation within the coding region of ADAMTS20, but four coding variants were found in additional cases of CL/P. In summary, this study provides genetic evidence for a role of ADAMTS20 in CL/P development in dogs and as a candidate gene for CL/P development in humans. PMID:25798845

  6. Determination of the prevalence of Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2 (HHLO-2) infection in humans and dogs using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Dong; Lee, Young-Sun; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter spp. may have multiple routes of transmission. It is unclear, however, whether the agent is zoonotic and therefore transmitted from an animal reservoir, including dogs. The aim of this population-based study was to assess the relationship between pet ownership or frequent exposure to dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection, especially focusing on HHLO-2 (Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms type 2) in saliva and feces samples in Korea, using non-invasive genus/species-specific PCR. One hundred twenty-four eligible human subjects and 39 dogs participated in this study. Relativity of contact with dogs and Helicobacter spp. infection diagnosed by genus-specific PCR showed a statistically significant result (P<0.01), but in the relativity analyses between contact with dogs and H. pylori, H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections diagnosed using species-specific PCR, only Helicobacter felis showed a statistically significant result. Although H. pylori infection showed a statistically significant relativity, no statistically significant association was found between veterinarian subjects and Helicobacter. spp., H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections. On performing risk factor analyses of HHLO-2 infection by transmission, using matching species, between HHLO-2-positive dog owners and HHLO-2-positive dogs, Helicobacter felis infection showed an extremely significant relativity (P<0.0001), and Helicobacter bizzozeronii may also be a possible significant risk factor (P<0.01). These results suggest that HHLO-2 infection might be a zoonotic infection, because continuous contact with dogs was proved to be correlated with human H. felis and H. bizzozeronii infections in this study. PMID:24065079

  7. Dog bites.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Although our canine companions can provide us with many hours of unyielding love and faithfulness, it is important to remember that these same loving creatures inflict 500,000 to one million bites per year, accounting for one percent of all emergency room visits nationwide. Ten percent of these injuries require suturing, one to two percent require hospitalization, and approximately one-third of dog bite injuries cause lost time from work or school. The United States Postal Service spends more than $250,000 annually just for prevention and treatment of dog bite injuries involving letter carriers! Still think that adorable pooch is harmless? Read on. PMID:1857330

  8. Islet1 deletion causes kidney agenesis and hydroureter resembling CAKUT.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yusuke; Ohmori, Tomoko; Kudo, Kuniko; Fujimura, Sayoko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Evans, Sylvia M; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    Islet1 (Isl1) is a transcription factor transiently expressed in a subset of heart and limb progenitors. During studies of limb development, conditional Isl1 deletion produced unexpected kidney abnormalities. Here, we studied the renal expression of Isl1 and whether it has a role in kidney development. In situ hybridization revealed Isl1 expression in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the base of the ureteric bud in mice. Conditional deletion of Isl1 caused kidney agenesis or hypoplasia and hydroureter, a phenotype resembling human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). The absence of Isl1 led to ectopic branching of the ureteric bud out from the nephric duct or to the formation of accessory buds, both of which could lead to obstruction of the ureter-bladder junction and consequent hydroureter. The abnormal elongation and poor branching of the ureteric buds were the likely causes of the kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. Furthermore, the lack of Isl1 reduced the expression of Bmp4, a gene implicated in the CAKUT-like phenotype, in the metanephric region before ureteric budding. In conclusion, Isl1 is essential for proper development of the kidney and ureter by repressing the aberrant formation of the ureteric bud. These observations call for further studies to investigate whether Isl1 may be a causative gene for human CAKUT. PMID:23641053

  9. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium). PMID:26350317

  10. In Vitro Metabolism of 20(R)-25-Methoxyl-Dammarane-3, 12, 20-Triol from Panax notoginseng in Human, Monkey, Dog, Rat, and Mouse Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoshan; Guo, Zhenghong; Shi, Caihong; Zhao, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    The present study characterized in vitro metabolites of 20(R)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD) in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human liver microsomes. 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH. The reaction mixtures and the metabolites were identified on the basis of their mass profiles using LC-Q/TOF and were quantified using triple quadrupole instrument by multiple reaction monitoring. A total of 7 metabolites (M1–M7) of the phase I metabolites were detected in all species. 25(R)-OCH3-PPD was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and O-demethylation. Enzyme kinetic of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD metabolism was evaluated in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Incubations studies with selective chemical inhibitors demonstrated that the metabolism of 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was primarily mediated by CYP3A4. We conclude that 20(R)-25-OCH3-PPD was metabolized extensively in mammalian species of mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. CYP3A4-catalyzed oxygenation metabolism played an important role in the disposition of 25(R)-OCH3-PPD, especially at the C-20 hydroxyl group. PMID:24736630

  11. Collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy with fibronectin deposition in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kamiie, J; Yasuno, K; Ogihara, K; Nakamura, A; Tamahara, S; Fujino, Y; Ono, K; Shirota, K

    2009-07-01

    We report herein a case of collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy in a 3-year-old Shiba Inu with severe proteinuria. Histologically, renal glomeruli were enlarged with massive deposition of a homogeneous eosinophilic substance within the mesangium and capillary walls. The deposits reacted weakly with periodic acid-Schiff, stained deep blue with Masson's trichrome, and were positive by immunofluorescence for type III collagen and fibronectin. Ultrastructurally, the deposits consisted of fibrils and amorphous material in the mesangial matrix and beneath the glomerular capillary endothelium. The fibrils had transverse bands analogous to those of collagen fibrils. Electron microscopy also revealed focal detachment of podocytes and foot process effacement in glomerular tufts, which suggested that podocyte injury had contributed to the development of proteinuria in this dog. The current case resembles collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy (CFGN) in humans in histopathologic, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic findings. This is the first report of CFGN in a nonhuman species with glomerular deposition of fibronectin and type III collagen. PMID:19276051

  12. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  13. Ancient DNA evidence for Old World origin of New World dogs.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K; Wheeler, Jane; Valadez, Raúl; Guillén, Sonia; Vilà, Carles

    2002-11-22

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences isolated from ancient dog remains from Latin America and Alaska showed that native American dogs originated from multiple Old World lineages of dogs that accompanied late Pleistocene humans across the Bering Strait. One clade of dog sequences was unique to the New World, which is consistent with a period of geographic isolation. This unique clade was absent from a large sample of modern dogs, which implies that European colonists systematically discouraged the breeding of native American dogs. PMID:12446908

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Dogs Enables Identification of the Homeobox Gene, NKX2-8, as a Genetic Component of Neural Tube Defects in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Safra, Noa; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Ferguson, Polly J.; Aguilar, Miriam; Coulson, Rochelle L.; Thomas, Nicholas; Hitchens, Peta L.; Dickinson, Peter J.; Vernau, Karen M.; Wolf, Zena T.; Bannasch, Danika L.

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) is a general term for central nervous system malformations secondary to a failure of closure or development of the neural tube. The resulting pathologies may involve the brain, spinal cord and/or vertebral column, in addition to associated structures such as soft tissue or skin. The condition is reported among the more common birth defects in humans, leading to significant infant morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains poorly understood but genetic, nutritional, environmental factors, or a combination of these, are known to play a role in the development of NTDs. The variable conditions associated with NTDs occur naturally in dogs, and have been previously reported in the Weimaraner breed. Taking advantage of the strong linkage-disequilibrium within dog breeds we performed genome-wide association analysis and mapped a genomic region for spinal dysraphism, a presumed NTD, using 4 affected and 96 unaffected Weimaraners. The associated region on canine chromosome 8 (pgenome = 3.0×10−5), after 100,000 permutations, encodes 18 genes, including NKX2-8, a homeobox gene which is expressed in the developing neural tube. Sequencing NKX2-8 in affected Weimaraners revealed a G to AA frameshift mutation within exon 2 of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon that is predicted to produce a truncated protein. The exons of NKX2-8 were sequenced in human patients with spina bifida and rare variants (rs61755040 and rs10135525) were found to be significantly over-represented (p = 0.036). This is the first documentation of a potential role for NKX2-8 in the etiology of NTDs, made possible by investigating the molecular basis of naturally occurring mutations in dogs. PMID:23874236

  15. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  16. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  17. A retrospective evaluation of species-specific sensitivity for neurological signs in toxicological studies: Is the dog more sensitive than the non-human primate?

    PubMed

    Backes, Kathrin; Lorenz, Helga; Laplanche, Loic; Hudzik, Thomas J; Potschka, Heidrun; Hempel, Katja

    2016-01-22

    Selection of the appropriate non-rodent species in preclinical programs is crucial for good translatability and human safety. There is no data available in the literature which provides exact comparison of dog and non-human primate (NHP) sensitivity regarding neurological signs in toxicological studies. We performed a retrospective analysis of 174 toxicity studies with 15 neuroscience substances. Neurological signs in dogs and NHPs were evaluated in correlation to exposure data. Overall incidence of substance induced convulsions was similar in both species and no gender differences were observed. The reported liability of beagles to spontaneous convulsions was not confirmed in our studies. The symptom tremor showed the best inter-species translatability. The current toxicological study design does not include exposure assessment at the time-point of neurological signs, therefore, we propose to include additional toxicokinetic samples. Our analysis revealed factors including housing, handling, and behavior, which prevents direct species comparison. In addition only one non-rodent species is routinely tested in development programs, therefore data for both species is rare. We however, had sufficient data which enabled comparison for one compound. In the spirit of 3Rs further examples should be evaluated. PMID:26732424

  18. Stereospecific determination of an HIV aspartyl protease inhibitor, PNU-103017, in rat, dog and human plasma using a Pirkle-concept high-performance liquid chromatographic column.

    PubMed

    Williams, M G; Zhong, W Z

    1997-06-20

    A sensitive stereospecific high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of the enantiomers of 4-cyano-N-(3-(cyclopropyl-(5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H- cycloocta(b)pyran-3-yl)methyl)phenyl)benzenesulfonamide (PNU-103017) (I), an HIV protease inhibitor, in plasma of rat, dog and human was developed. The procedure involved an acetonitrile-aided protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) of I from plasma into ethanol. Stereospecific separation was accomplished on a Pirkle-concept chiral column (Regis S,S-Whelk-01, 250x4.6 mm I.D.) with a mobile phase of absolute ethanol-0.1% acetic acid in hexane (30:70, v/v). The eluate was monitored by UV absorbance (295 nm). Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.2 to 500 microM, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1-0.2 microM for both enantiomers in either rat, dog or human plasma. Intra- and inter-assay precision and assay accuracy were demonstrated to be acceptable for the stereoselective pharmacokinetic analysis of I in plasma. PMID:9234860

  19. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  20. Black-tailed prairie dogs, cattle, and the conservation of North America's arid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; Davidson, Ana; Fredrickson, Ed L; Luna-Soria, Hugo; Suzan-Azpiri, Humberto; Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands. PMID:25760377

  1. Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs, Cattle, and the Conservation of North America’s Arid Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Sierra–Corona, Rodrigo; Davidson, Ana; Fredrickson, Ed L.; Luna-Soria, Hugo; Suzan-Azpiri, Humberto; Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands. PMID:25760377

  2. Profile of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats and genetic relationships with isolates from cattle, meat and humans.

    PubMed

    Bentancor, A; Rumi, M V; Carbonari, C; Gerhardt, E; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Pistone-Creydt, V; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2012-05-01

    Pets can be reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The aim of this study was to examine nine strains belonging to several serotypes (O91:H21, O91:H16, O178:H19, O8:H19, O22:H8, O22:HNT, ONT:H8), previously recovered from cats or dogs. To this end, we assessed a set of additional virulence genes (stx(2) subtype, subAB, ehxA, eae and saa), cytotoxic activity, and genetic relationships with strains isolated from cattle, meat and humans using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most of the isolates carried the stx(2) and/or stx(2vh-b) sequences, while only the O91:H21 isolate presented the mucus-activatable stx(2d) variant, as confirmed by sequencing the genes of subunits A and B. All the strains showed cytotoxic activity in cultured cells. One of the two O178:H19, selected for its high level of cytotoxicity in Vero cells, showed the ability to cause functional alterations in the human colon mucosa in vitro. None of the strains possessed the subAB, eae or saa genes and only the strains belonging to serotype O8:H19 carried the ehxA gene. The isolates shared 90-100% similarity by PFGE to epidemiologically unrelated strains of the corresponding serotypes recovered from cattle, meat or humans. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats may have a role in the infection of humans by STEC, probably serving as a vehicle for bovine strains in the cycle of human infection, and thus emphasize the health risks for owners and their families. PMID:22119188

  3. Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Brooks, Andrew M.; Spivak, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward. PMID:22606363

  4. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  5. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  6. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  7. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  8. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  9. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  10. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  11. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance.

    PubMed

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  12. Effect of Partnership Status on Preferences for Facial Self-Resemblance

    PubMed Central

    Lindová, Jitka; Little, Anthony C.; Havlíček, Jan; Roberts, S. Craig; Rubešová, Anna; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs. coupled individuals. Raters assessed facial attractiveness of other-sex and same-sex photographs according to both short-term and long-term relationship contexts. We found a preference for dissimilarity of other-sex and same-sex faces in single individuals, but no effect of self-resemblance in coupled raters. No effect of sex of participant or short-term vs. long-term attractiveness rating was observed. The results support the evolutionary interpretation that dissimilarity of other-sex faces is preferred by uncoupled individuals as an adaptive mechanism to avoid inbreeding. In contrast, lower dissimilarity preference of other-sex faces in coupled individuals may reflect suppressed attention to attractiveness cues in potential alternative partners as a relationship maintenance mechanism, and its substitution by attention to cues of kinship and psychological similarity connected with greater likelihood of prosocial behavior acquisition from such persons. PMID:27378970

  13. Systemic exposure to and disposition of catechols derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza roots (Danshen) after intravenous dosing DanHong injection in human subjects, rats, and dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Meijuan; Wang, Fengqing; Huang, Yühong; Du, Feifei; Zhong, Chenchun; Olaleye, Olajide E; Jia, Weiwei; Li, Yanfen; Xu, Fang; Dong, Jiajia; Li, Jian; Lim, Justin B R; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Li, Li; Li, Chuan

    2015-05-01

    DanHong injection is a Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza roots)-based injectable solution for treatment of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke. Danshen catechols are believed to be responsible for the injection's therapeutic effects. This study aimed to characterize systemic exposure to and elimination of Danshen catechols in human subjects, rats, and dogs receiving intravenous DanHong injection. A total of 28 catechols were detected, with content levels of 0.002-7.066 mM in the injection, and the major compounds included tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acids A and D, and lithospermic acid with their daily doses ≥10 μmol/subject. After dosing, tanshinol, salvianolic acid D, and lithospermic acid exhibited considerable exposure in human subjects and rats. However, only tanshinol had considerable exposure in dogs. The considerable exposure to tanshinol was due to its having the highest dose, whereas that to salvianolic acid D and lithospermic acid was due to their relatively long elimination half-lives in the human subjects and rats. Protocatechuic aldehyde and rosmarinic acid circulated in the bloodstream predominantly as metabolites; salvianolic acids A and B exhibited low plasma levels with their human plasma metabolites little or not detected. Tanshinol and salvianolic acid D were eliminated mainly via renal excretion. Elimination of other catechols involved hepatobiliary and/or renal excretion of their metabolites. Methylation was found to be the primary metabolism for most Danshen catechols and showed intercompound and interspecies differences in rate and degree in vitro. The information gained here is relevant to pharmacological and toxicological research on DanHong injection. PMID:25670806

  14. A frameshift mutation in golden retriever dogs with progressive retinal atrophy endorses SLC4A3 as a candidate gene for human retinal degenerations.

    PubMed

    Downs, Louise M; Wallin-Håkansson, Berit; Boursnell, Mike; Marklund, Stefan; Hedhammar, Åke; Truvé, Katarina; Hübinette, Louise; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Bergström, Tomas; Mellersh, Cathryn S

    2011-01-01

    Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in dogs, the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans, is characterised by vision loss due to degeneration of the photoreceptor cells in the retina, eventually leading to complete blindness. It affects more than 100 dog breeds, and is caused by numerous mutations. RP affects 1 in 4000 people in the Western world and 70% of causal mutations remain unknown. Canine diseases are natural models for the study of human diseases and are becoming increasingly useful for the development of therapies in humans. One variant, prcd-PRA, only accounts for a small proportion of PRA cases in the Golden Retriever (GR) breed. Using genome-wide association with 27 cases and 19 controls we identified a novel PRA locus on CFA37 (p(raw) = 1.94×10(-10), p(genome) = 1.0×10(-5)), where a 644 kb region was homozygous within cases. A frameshift mutation was identified in a solute carrier anion exchanger gene (SLC4A3) located within this region. This variant was present in 56% of PRA cases and 87% of obligate carriers, and displayed a recessive mode of inheritance with full penetrance within those lineages in which it segregated. Allele frequencies are approximately 4% in the UK, 6% in Sweden and 2% in France, but the variant has not been found in GRs from the US. A large proportion of cases (approximately 44%) remain unexplained, indicating that PRA in this breed is genetically heterogeneous and caused by at least three mutations. SLC4A3 is important for retinal function and has not previously been associated with spontaneously occurring retinal degenerations in any other species, including humans. PMID:21738669

  15. Cutaneous mastocytosis with a mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in a young laboratory beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yuki; Kashiwagi, Emi; Masuno, Koichi; Fujisawa, Kae; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Torii, Mikinori; Takasu, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis, which resembles a subset of urticaria pigmentosa in humans, is rare in dogs. We herein report unrepresentative neoplastic proliferation of mast cells in ventral skin removed routinely from a nine-month-old female laboratory beagle dog at necropsy. A histological examination revealed diffuse extensive cellular infiltration from the superficial to deep dermis in most parts of the skin around the fourth and fifth mammary papilla without nodule formation. Tumor cells were fairly monomorphic, well-differentiated mast cells with round nuclei of small distinct nucleoli and moderate to abundant, slightly eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. A perivascular arrangement of mast cells was noted at the margin of the lesions. Infiltration of eosinophils and degeneration of collagen were not observed in the dermis. Cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed based on these features. A sequence analysis of lesions revealed the deletion of Gln555 to Ile570 within the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit (exon 11). PMID:26989302

  16. Cutaneous mastocytosis with a mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in a young laboratory beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuki; Kashiwagi, Emi; Masuno, Koichi; Fujisawa, Kae; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Torii, Mikinori; Takasu, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis, which resembles a subset of urticaria pigmentosa in humans, is rare in dogs. We herein report unrepresentative neoplastic proliferation of mast cells in ventral skin removed routinely from a nine-month-old female laboratory beagle dog at necropsy. A histological examination revealed diffuse extensive cellular infiltration from the superficial to deep dermis in most parts of the skin around the fourth and fifth mammary papilla without nodule formation. Tumor cells were fairly monomorphic, well-differentiated mast cells with round nuclei of small distinct nucleoli and moderate to abundant, slightly eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. A perivascular arrangement of mast cells was noted at the margin of the lesions. Infiltration of eosinophils and degeneration of collagen were not observed in the dermis. Cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed based on these features. A sequence analysis of lesions revealed the deletion of Gln555 to Ile570 within the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit (exon 11). PMID:26989302

  17. Guanfu base A, an antiarrhythmic alkaloid of Aconitum coreanum, Is a CYP2D6 inhibitor of human, monkey, and dog isoforms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zhong, Yunxi; Xiao, Yanan; Zhang, Fengyi; Qi, Huanhuan; Shang, Lili; Zhu, Jianping; Sun, Yue; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jinghan; A, Jiye; Ho, Rodney J Y; Wang, Guangji

    2015-05-01

    Guanfu base A (GFA) is a novel heterocyclic antiarrhythmic drug isolated from Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) rapaics and is currently in a phase IV clinical trial in China. However, no study has investigated the influence of GFA on cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolism. We characterized the potency and specificity of GFA CYP2D inhibition based on dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a CYP2D6 probe substrate of activity in human, mouse, rat, dog, and monkey liver microsomes. In addition, (+)-bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was used as a CYP2D6 probe for the recombinant form (rCYP2D6), 2D1 (rCYP2D1), and 2D2 (rCYP2D2) activities. Results show that GFA is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, with inhibition constant Ki = 1.20 ± 0.33 μM in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Ki = 0.37 ± 0.16 μM for the human recombinant form (rCYP2D6). GFA is also a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2D in monkey (Ki = 0.38 ± 0.12 μM) and dog (Ki = 2.4 ± 1.3 μM) microsomes. However, GFA has no inhibitory activity on mouse or rat CYP2Ds. GFA did not exhibit any inhibition activity on human recombinant CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C19, 3A4, or 3A5, but showed slight inhibition of 2B6 and 2E1. Preincubation of HLMs and rCYP2D6 resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme, which was attenuated by GFA or quinidine. Beagle dogs treated intravenously with dextromethorphan (2 mg/ml) after pretreatment with GFA injection showed reduced CYP2D metabolic activity, with the Cmax of dextrorphan being one-third that of the saline-treated group and area under the plasma concentration-time curve half that of the saline-treated group. This study suggests that GFA is a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor that might play a role in CYP2D6 medicated drug-drug interaction. PMID:25681130

  18. Bone apposition to titanium implants biocoated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). A pilot study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Axel; Schwarz, Frank; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria; Rothamel, Daniel; Lekovic, Vojislav; Jennissen, Herbert Peter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate bone formation to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-biocoated and rhBMP-2-nonbiocoated titanium implants after implantation in dogs. Implantation of sand-blasted and acid-etched (C), chromosulfuric acid surface-enhanced (CSA), and rhBMP-2-biocoated CSA [BMP-A: noncovalently immobilized rhBMP-2 (596 ng/cm2), BMP-B: covalently immobilized rhBMP-2 (819 ng/cm2)] implants was performed in both the mandible and tibia of dogs. After 4 weeks of healing, the percentage of direct bone to implant contact (BIC) and the induced bone density (BD) at a distance of less than and greater than 1 mm adjacent to each implant was assessed. Histomorphometric analysis of implants inserted in the mandible and tibia revealed that BIC values appeared to be highest in the BMP-B group, followed by BMP-A, CSA, and C. BD as measured at a distance of <1 mm revealed obvious differences between groups: BMP-B>BMP-A>CSA>C. However, no differences between groups were observed at a distance of >1 mm. Within the limits of the present study, it may be concluded that rhBMP-2 immobilized by covalent and noncovalent methods on CSA-treated implant surfaces seemed to be stable and promoted direct bone apposition in a concentration-dependant manner. PMID:16683108

  19. Blood cell oxidative stress precedes hemolysis in whole blood-liver slice co-cultures of rat, dog, and human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Sinclair, John R.; Fisher, Robyn L.; Morris, Stephen R.; Way, William

    2010-05-01

    A novel in vitro model to investigate time-dependent and concentration-dependent responses in blood cells and hemolytic events is studied for rat, dog, and human tissues. Whole blood is co-cultured with a precision-cut liver slice. Methimazole (MMI) was selected as a reference compound, since metabolism of its imidazole thione moiety is linked with hematologic disorders and hepatotoxicity. An oxidative stress response occurred in all three species, marked by a decline in blood GSH levels by 24 h that progressed, and preceded hemolysis, which occurred at high MMI concentrations in the presence of a liver slice with rat (>= 1000 muM at 48 h) and human tissues (>= 1000 muM at 48 h, >= 750 muM at 72 h) but not dog. Human blood-only cultures exhibited a decline of GSH levels but minimal to no hemolysis. The up-regulation of liver genes for heme degradation (Hmox1 and Prdx1), iron cellular transport (Slc40a1), and GSH synthesis and utilization (mGST1 and Gclc) were early markers of the oxidative stress response. The up-regulation of the Kupffer cell lectin Lgals3 gene expression indicated a response to damaged red blood cells, and Hp (haptoglobin) up-regulation is indicative of increased hemoglobin uptake. Up-regulation of liver IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression suggested an activation of an inflammatory response by liver endothelial cells. In summary, MMI exposure led to an oxidative stress response in blood cells, and an up-regulation of liver genes involved with oxidative stress and heme homeostasis, which was clearly separate and preceded frank hemolysis.

  20. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  1. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  2. Preference for copying unambiguous demonstrations in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám; Timár-Geng, Katalin; Csányi, Vilmos

    2003-09-01

    In an earlier study (P. Pongracz et al., 2001), it was shown that human demonstration significantly enhances the detouring ability of dogs (Canis familiaris) around a V-shaped fence. The authors investigated the effect of the direction of the demonstrated detour and the dogs' detouring experience. They found that dogs' trial-and-error experience influences strongly the direction of the dogs' detours later, even if the demonstrator showed detours along the opposite side of the fence. However, dogs' preferences based on their own experiences were changed when the dogs observed demonstrations only on 1 side of the fence. Dogs with no trial-and-error experience followed the direction of 1-sided demonstrations. The change from dogs' own directions to the demonstrated directions seems not to be due to simple facilitative effects of social experience; the similarity with the demonstrated action depends on complex interactions between individual experience and socially provided information. PMID:14498810

  3. Who are the real bird brains? Qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility between dogs (Canis familiaris) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In contrast, rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans show near-optimal reversal learning on this task. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of mammals, in the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination mid-session reversal. Overall, dogs performed the task more poorly than pigeons. Interestingly, both pigeons and dogs employed what resembled a timing strategy. However, dogs showed greater perseverative errors, suggesting that they may have relatively poorer working memory and inhibitory control with this task. The greater efficiency shown by pigeons with this task suggests they are better able to time and use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice, highlighting what may be a qualitative difference between the species. PMID:26364290

  4. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  5. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  6. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between “free of charge” and “owner charged” vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the

  7. A CNGB1 Frameshift Mutation in Papillon and Phalène Dogs with Progressive Retinal Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Saija J.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Progressive retinal degenerations are the most common causes of complete blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) or degeneration resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by a loss of cone function. The primary clinical signs are detected as vision impairment in a dim light. Although several genes have been associated with PRAs, there are still PRAs of unknown genetic cause in many breeds, including Papillons and Phalènes. We have performed a genome wide association and linkage studies in cohort of 6 affected Papillons and Phalènes and 14 healthy control dogs to map a novel PRA locus on canine chromosome 2, with a 1.9 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. Parallel exome sequencing of a trio identified an indel mutation, including a 1-bp deletion, followed by a 6-bp insertion in the CNGB1 gene. This mutation causes a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to probable nonsense mediated decay (NMD) of the CNGB1 mRNA. The mutation segregated with the disease and was confirmed in a larger cohort of 145 Papillons and Phalènes (PFisher = 1.4×10−8) with a carrier frequency of 17.2 %. This breed specific mutation was not present in 334 healthy dogs from 10 other breeds or 121 PRA affected dogs from 44 other breeds. CNGB1 is important for the photoreceptor cell function its defects have been previously associated with retinal degeneration in both human and mouse. Our study indicates that a frameshift mutation in CNGB1 is a cause of PRA in Papillons and Phalènes and establishes the breed as a large functional animal model for further characterization of retinal CNGB1 biology and possible retinal gene therapy trials. This study enables also the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes. PMID:24015210

  8. A CNGB1 frameshift mutation in Papillon and Phalène dogs with progressive retinal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Saija J; Arumilli, Meharji; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Progressive retinal degenerations are the most common causes of complete blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) or degeneration resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by a loss of cone function. The primary clinical signs are detected as vision impairment in a dim light. Although several genes have been associated with PRAs, there are still PRAs of unknown genetic cause in many breeds, including Papillons and Phalènes. We have performed a genome wide association and linkage studies in cohort of 6 affected Papillons and Phalènes and 14 healthy control dogs to map a novel PRA locus on canine chromosome 2, with a 1.9 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. Parallel exome sequencing of a trio identified an indel mutation, including a 1-bp deletion, followed by a 6-bp insertion in the CNGB1 gene. This mutation causes a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to probable nonsense mediated decay (NMD) of the CNGB1 mRNA. The mutation segregated with the disease and was confirmed in a larger cohort of 145 Papillons and Phalènes (PFisher = 1.4×10(-8)) with a carrier frequency of 17.2 %. This breed specific mutation was not present in 334 healthy dogs from 10 other breeds or 121 PRA affected dogs from 44 other breeds. CNGB1 is important for the photoreceptor cell function its defects have been previously associated with retinal degeneration in both human and mouse. Our study indicates that a frameshift mutation in CNGB1 is a cause of PRA in Papillons and Phalènes and establishes the breed as a large functional animal model for further characterization of retinal CNGB1 biology and possible retinal gene therapy trials. This study enables also the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes. PMID:24015210

  9. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  10. Use of human remains detection dogs for wide area search after wildfire: a new experience for TexasTask Force 1 Search and Rescue resources.

    PubMed

    Migala, Alexandre F; Brown, Susann E

    2012-12-01

    In September 2011, wildfires in Bastrop County, TX, were the most destructive in the state's history, consuming more than 34000 acres (13759 hectares) and more than 1600 homes in the process. The wildfires began by consuming more than 30 homes across 2 miles (3.2 km) in 17 minutes, raising the fear that local residents may not have had sufficient time to escape the conflagration. Texas Task Force 1 deployed for a new mission, the search and recovery of human remains. Although there have been other larger and more widespread fires in the past, it was the speed at which this fire spread that created the environment requiring such a search. The mission was focused primarily on human detection, searching an area almost 72 square miles (186 km(2)) between September 7 and 11, 2011. To our knowledge, never before have human remains detection dogs been tasked with such an undertaking. Lessons learned from this event will educate all levels of government agencies, emergency medical services, fire departments, law enforcement, utilities, veterinary services, and search and rescue/recovery activities in the future. The utilization of human remains detection canines integrated with search teams trained in larger scale events is one such area that will benefit from this experience, with a final area searched of 15 598 acres (6312 hectares). PMID:23062321

  11. Hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in humans, dogs, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using microsomal fractions.

    PubMed

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Kinashi, Yu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and has endocrine-disrupting effects. MEHP is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of MEHP in humans, dogs, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of MEHP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and dogs, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m and V max values of human liver microsomes were 110 µM and 5.8 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes followed the biphasic model for humans, dogs, and mice, and the Michaelis-Menten model for rats. The K m and V max values of human intestinal microsomes were 5.6 µM and 0.40 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the high-affinity phase, and 430 µM and 0.70 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the low-affinity phase. The relative levels of V max estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were dogs (2.0) > mice (1.4) > rats (1.0) ≈ humans (1.0) for liver microsomes, and mice (8.5) > dogs (4.1) > rats (3.1) > humans (1.0) for intestinal microsomes. The percentages of the V max values of intestinal microsomes to liver microsomes were mice (120 %) > rats (57 %) > dogs (39 %) > humans (19 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward MEHP markedly differed among species, and imply that these species differences are strongly associated with the toxicity of DEHP. PMID:26514348

  12. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K.P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  13. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-03-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  14. Inhibition of bile salt transport by drugs associated with liver injury in primary hepatocytes from human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; He, Kan; Cai, Lining; Chen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yifan; Shi, Qin; Woolf, Thomas F; Ge, Weigong; Guo, Lei; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2016-08-01

    Interference of bile salt transport is one of the underlying mechanisms for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We developed a novel bile salt transport activity assay involving in situ biosynthesis of bile salts from their precursors in primary human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in suspension as well as LC-MS/MS determination of extracellular bile salts transported out of hepatocytes. Glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were rapidly formed in hepatocytes and effectively transported into the extracellular medium. The bile salt formation and transport activities were time‒ and bile-acid-concentration‒dependent in primary human hepatocytes. The transport activity was inhibited by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibitors ketoconazole, saquinavir, cyclosporine, and troglitazone. The assay was used to test 86 drugs for their potential to inhibit bile salt transport activity in human hepatocytes, which included 35 drugs associated with severe DILI (sDILI) and 51 with non-severe DILI (non-sDILI). Approximately 60% of the sDILI drugs showed potent inhibition (with IC50 values <50 μM), but only about 20% of the non-sDILI drugs showed this strength of inhibition in primary human hepatocytes and these drugs are associated only with cholestatic and mixed hepatocellular cholestatic (mixed) injuries. The sDILI drugs, which did not show substantial inhibition of bile salt transport activity, are likely to be associated with immune-mediated liver injury. Twenty-four drugs were also tested in monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes. Species differences in potency were observed with mouse being less sensitive than other species to inhibition of bile salt transport. In summary, a novel assay has been developed using hepatocytes in suspension from human and animal species that can be used to assess the potential for drugs and/or drug-derived metabolites to inhibit bile salt transport and/or formation activity. Drugs causing sDILI, except those by immune

  15. Absorption, elimination and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of nimodipine in healthy beagle dogs receiving human intravenous and oral formulation.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2016-06-01

    Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel blocker and is used to treat vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its putative mechanism of action is relaxation of smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteries. In addition, nimodipine may have pleiotropic effects against vasospasm. Systemic hypotension is an adverse effect when patients are treated with oral or intravenous nimodipine. Intracranial administration of nimodipine formulations may produce higher concentration of nimodipine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than is possible to achieve orally or intravenously, while resulting in lower incidence of systemic hypotension. The aim of this study was to provide information on plasma and CSF levels of nimodipine in beagle dogs as a comparative data for development of experimental intracranial treatment modalities. Plasma levels of nimodipine were measured after current 30 and 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 30 mg tablets), a single intravenous bolus 0.72 mg/dog of nimodipine (Nimotop(®) 0.2 mg/ml infusion solution) and CSF levels after 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine. CSF/Plasma concentration ratio of nimodipine after oral administration of 60 mg at 1 h was 0.013 ± 0.0005. The mean terminal elimination half-life of nimodipine after i.v. bolus dose 0.72 mg was 1.8 h and mean plasma clearance was 40.3 and 3.4 l/h/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 22 %. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration until the last measurable plasma concentration increased in a dose-proportional manner comparing the exposure parameters at oral doses of 30 and 60 mg. Individual variation in the kinetic profile of nimodipine was measured. PMID:25652785

  16. Nasca classification of hemivertebra in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Besalti, Omer; Ozak, Ahmet; Pekcan, Zeynep; Eminaga, Salih

    2005-01-01

    : Five dogs, four small mixed breed and a Doberman Pinscher, presented in our clinic with hemivertebra. Complete physical, radiological and neurological examinations were done and the spinal deformities were characterized in accord with the Nasca classification used in human medicine. Two dogs had multiple hemivertebrae (round, oval or wedge-shaped: Type 3) in the thoracic region; one dog had an individual surplus half vertebral body (Type 1) plus a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2b) in the lumbar region; one dog had multiple hemivertebrae which were fused on one side (Type 4a) in the thoracic region; and one dog had a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2a) in the cervical region. PMID:21851666

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  18. ASL Nominal Constructions Involving Signs That Resemble Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Vivion Smith

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines six different types of noun phrases that commonly occur in American Sign Language. These noun phrases all include at least a head noun and one of four signs resembling a pronoun. Videos of natural ASL discourses are gathered, multiple instances of the six types of noun phrases are identified, and their meanings are…

  19. Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease: A Newly Recognized Cause of Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Williams, K; Andrie, K; Cartoceti, A; French, S; Goldsmith, D; Jennings, S; Priestnall, S L; Wilson, D; Jutkowitz, A

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well-known though poorly characterized disease in veterinary medicine. In humans, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of severe pulmonary hypertension with a mean survival time of 2 years without lung transplantation. Eleven adult dogs (5 males, 6 females; median age 10.5 years, representing various breeds) were examined following the development of severe respiratory signs. Lungs of affected animals were evaluated morphologically and with immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD31, CD3, CD20, and CD204. All dogs had pulmonary lesions consistent with PVOD, consisting of occlusive remodeling of small- to medium-sized pulmonary veins, foci of pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH), and accumulation of hemosiderophages; 6 of 11 dogs had substantial pulmonary arterial medial and intimal thickening. Ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemistry showed that smooth muscle cells contributed to the venous occlusion. Increased expression of CD31 was evident in regions of PCH indicating increased numbers of endothelial cells in these foci. Spindle cells strongly expressing alpha smooth muscle actin and desmin co-localized with foci of PCH; similar cells were present but less intensely labeled elsewhere in non-PCH alveoli. B cells and macrophages, detected by immunohistochemistry, were not co-localized with the venous lesions of canine PVOD; small numbers of CD3-positive T cells were occasionally in and around the wall of remodeled veins. These findings indicate a condition in dogs with clinically severe respiratory disease and pathologic features resembling human PVOD, including foci of pulmonary venous remodeling and PCH. PMID:26926086

  20. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

  1. Metabolic Disposition of Osimertinib in Rats, Dogs, and Humans: Insights into a Drug Designed to Bind Covalently to a Cysteine Residue of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Paul A; Cantarini, Mireille V; Collier, Jo; Frewer, Paul; Martin, Scott; Pickup, Kathryn; Ballard, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies were conducted to determine the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of osimertinib and key metabolites AZ5104 and AZ7550. Osimertinib was designed to covalently bind to epidermal growth factor receptors, allowing it to achieve nanomolar cellular potency (Finlay et al., 2014). Covalent binding was observed in incubations of radiolabeled osimertinib with human and rat hepatocytes, human and rat plasma, and human serum albumin. Osimertinib, AZ5104, and AZ7550 were predominantly metabolized by CYP3A. Seven metabolites were detected in human hepatocytes, also observed in rat or dog hepatocytes at similar or higher levels. After oral administration of radiolabeled osimertinib to rats, drug-related material was widely distributed, with the highest radioactivity concentrations measured at 6 hours postdose in most tissues; radioactivity was detectable in 42% of tissues 60 days postdose. Concentrations of [(14)C]-radioactivity in blood were lower than in most tissues. After the administration of a single oral dose of 20 mg of radiolabeled osimertinib to healthy male volunteers, ∼19% of the dose was recovered by 3 days postdose. At 84 days postdose, mean total radioactivity recovery was 14.2% and 67.8% of the dose in urine and feces. The most abundant metabolite identified in feces was AZ5104 (∼6% of dose). Osimertinib accounted for ∼1% of total radioactivity in the plasma of non-small cell lung cancer patients after 22 days of 80-mg osimertinib once-daily treatment; the most abundant circulatory metabolites were AZ7550 and AZ5104 (<10% of total osimertinib-related material). Osimertinib is extensively distributed and metabolized in humans and is eliminated primarily via the fecal route. PMID:27226351

  2. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  3. Borreliosis in dogs from southern Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Kaufmann, A F; Lieberman, L L; Whitney, G D

    1985-05-01

    Blood samples were obtained from dogs in tick-infested regions of southern Connecticut to assess canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in human beings. An indirect fluorescent antibody test detected immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies at titers of 1:64 to 1:512 in 22 of 84 serum samples previously shown to be positive with a polyvalent rabbit anti-dog total Ig conjugate. Analyses of paired serum samples from 20 seropositive dogs revealed temporal differences in titers; changes occurred during brief (1 month) or extended (greater than 4 years) sampling periods. Clinical records for 52 seropositive dogs indicated a history of intermittent lameness in 19 of these. Limb/joint disorders typically developed in dogs without IgM antibodies, suggesting manifestation during later phases of illness. A microscopic-agglutination test was used to assess cross reactivity between B burgdorferi and 20 serovars of Leptospira interrogans and biflexa. Analyses of 63 dog serum specimens with antibodies to B burgdorferi and a series of reference rabbit sera revealed minor antigenic relatedness. There was geographic clustering of dogs with antibodies to B burgdorferi in areas of south-central and southeastern Connecticut, where human Lyme disease also occurs. PMID:3997647

  4. Transmission cycles of Giardia duodenalis in dogs and humans in Temple communities in Bangkok--a critical evaluation of its prevalence using three diagnostic tests in the field in the absence of a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Inpankaew, Tawin; Reid, Simon A; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Robertson, Ian D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia duodenalis in canine and human populations in Temple communities of Bangkok, Thailand were determined by evaluating three common diagnostic methods utilised to detect Giardia, namely zinc sulphate flotation and microscopy, an immunofluoresence antibody test and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the SSU-rDNA gene. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity together with the negative and positive predictive values of each test were evaluated in the absence of a gold standard using a Bayesian approach. The median estimates of the prevalence of infection with G. duodenalis in dogs and humans in Thailand were 56.8% (95% PCI, 30.4%, 77.7%) and 20.3% (95% PCI, 7.3%, 46.3%) respectively. PCR and immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) were the most accurate tests overall with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.4% (95% PCI, 88.5%, 99.9%) and 56.2% (95% PCI, 40.4%, 82.9%) for the PCR and 61.8% (95% PCI, 40.8%, 99.1%) and 94.7% (95% PCI, 87.4%, 99.1%) for IFAT respectively Three cycles, anthroponotic, zoonotic and dog-specific cycles of G. duodenalis were shown to be operating among the human and canine populations in these Temple communities in Bangkok, supporting the role of the dog as a potential reservoir for Giardia infections in humans. PMID:19524080

  5. A novel matrix for the short-term storage of cells: utility in drug metabolism and drug transporter studies with rat, dog and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, Anna-Pia; Fihn, Britt-Marie; Bird, James; Courtney, Paul; Grime, Ken

    2013-06-01

    1. The SureTran matrix is a novel method facilitating short-term maintenance of fresh primary hepatocyte cellular function and offers the potential use of primary cells "as fresh" for several days post isolation. In the study presented, the maintenance of several key phase I and II drug metabolizing enzyme and drug transporter activities is demonstrated with rat and dog hepatocytes preserved for up to 7 days after cell isolation. 2. Intrinsic clearance values were determined for 60 new chemical entities using rat hepatocytes freshly isolated at AstraZeneca and rat hepatocytes prepared at the facilities of Abcellute Ltd (SureTran purveyors), stored and incubated 24 hours after isolation. A very good correspondence in the intrinsic clearance values underlines the utility of the cell maintenance matrix. 3. For human hepatocytes many of the enzyme activities assayed were well maintained for 7 days of storage but some declined to below 50% of initial values between day 4 and 7 of storage. Human OATP1B1 activity was only determined with one batch and declined to 51% of the initial test value by day 4 and further down to 35% by day 7. PMID:23137276

  6. Reclaiming identity through service to dogs in need.

    PubMed

    Alers, Elvin V; Simpson, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Dog Tags is an animal-assisted therapy offered by the Washington Humane Society (WHS) in partnership with the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC). The program is open to all ranks of enlisted service members using WRNMMC services. Dog Tags is a 3-tiered certificate program allowing Soldiers, recovering at WRNMMC, to learn and apply progressively complex and challenging elements of canine positive reinforcement training to dogs awaiting adoption at the WHS. Although each tier is a self-contained and complete curriculum, subsequent tiers build on the skills and knowledge acquired in the previous one(s). Dog Tags Warrior/trainers work with fully-screened (health and temperament) shelter dogs to provide these dogs with mental stimulation, environmental enrichment, and socialization that are vital to their successful adoption and integration into new homes. The Soldiers also benefit because they develop new skills, build positive bonds with the dogs, and continue to serve their community. PMID:22388686

  7. Production of Histamine-like and Prostaglandin-Like Substances from Serum Incubated with Rat, Dog, Mouse or Human Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Apps, M. C. P.; Cater, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    When diluted serum was incubated at 37° with finely minced tumour tissue (from rat, dog, mouse or man) there was a fall of haemolytic complement titre (0-30 minutes), the production of a “histamine-like” material (30-90 minutes) and a prostaglandin-like “active lipid” (90-150 minutes). This latter was extracted with ethyl acetate at pH 3 and produced contraction of a rat stomach-fundus-strip preparation. Production of both types of activity was approximately proportional to the quantity of serum in the incubation mixture and to the fall in the haemolytic complement titre. With a constant amount of serum there was an optimum quantity of tumour, above which no further increase of active material was obtained. Aspirin or indomethacin added to the serum abolished the production of the “active lipid” but did not affect the “histamine-like” material. Inhibition of C′1 activity had a similar effect, but inhibition of C′3 abolished the production of both “histamine-like” and “prostaglandin-like” activity. When tumour was incubated with Tyrode's solution, both active fractions were present but their amount did not increase with time. When serum was incubated with liver or muscle from rat or guinea-pig, there was no “production” of either “histamine-like” or “prostaglandin-like” material. PMID:4349540

  8. Carbonaceous objects resembling nannobacteria in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, Robert L.; Lynch, F. Leo

    1998-07-01

    The carbon in Allende consists of balls ranging form 30 to 150 nm in diameter.Most are spheres, but some ovoid to worm- like forms occur. Grape-like clumps and rosary-like chains are the most dramatic mimics of terrestrial bacterial colonies. We propose that the carbon balls in Allende represent roasted corpses of nanobacteria because of their resemblance to nanobacteria on earth.

  9. First isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from tissues of dogs from Vietnam.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people and in certain parts of the world dog meat is consumed by humans. The prevalence of T. gondii in 42 unwanted dogs from Vietnam was determined. Antibodies to T...

  10. Steroid Dermatitis Resembling Rosacea: A Clinical Evaluation of 75 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Ammar F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of topical steroids on the skin of the face should be carefully evaluated by the dermatologist; however, its misuse still occurs producing dermatological problem resembling rosacea. Objectives. To report the different clinical manifestations of steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea and to discover causes behind abusing topical steroids on the face. Methods. In this prospective observational study, 75 patients with steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea who had history of topical steroid use on their faces for at least 1–3 months were evaluated at the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospital, between August 2010 and December 2012. Results. The majority of patients were young women who used a combinations of potent and very potent topical steroid for average period of 0.25–10 years. Facial redness and hotness, telangiectasia, and rebound phenomenon with papulopustular eruption were the main clinical presentations. The most common causes of using topical steroid on the face were pigmentary problems and acne through recommendations from nonmedical personnel. Conclusion. Topical steroid should not be used on the face unless it is under strict dermatological supervision. PMID:23691345

  11. Pharmacokinetics of oral dichloroacetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Shroads, Albert L; Zhong, Guo; Daigle, Adam D; Abdelmalak, Monica M; Samper, Ivan Sosa; Mincey, Brandy D; James, Margaret O; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2013-12-01

    We characterized the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of dichloroacetate (DCA), an investigational drug for mitochondrial diseases, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cancer. Adult Beagle dogs were orally administered 6.25 mg/kg q12h DCA for 4 weeks. Plasma kinetics was determined after 1, 14, and 28 days. The activity and expression of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), which biotransforms DCA to glyoxylate, were determined from liver biopsies at baseline and after 27 days. Dogs demonstrate much slower clearance and greater inhibition of DCA metabolism and GSTZ1 activity and expression than rodents and most humans. Indeed, the plasma kinetics of DCA in dogs is similar to humans with GSTZ1 polymorphisms that confer exceptionally slow plasma clearance. Dogs may be a useful model to further investigate the toxicokinetics and therapeutic potential of DCA. PMID:24038869

  12. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  13. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  14. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lorraine A; Dumais, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is considered rare in the dog with little known about the clinicopathologic features. There are few reports in the veterinary literature concerning this benign, reactive lesion, formerly known as giant cell epulis. In humans, the four most commonly described reactive epulides are focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a dog. PMID:26415387

  15. [Ankyloglossia in an Anatolian Shepherd dog].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, S; Hofmann, A

    2006-08-01

    Ankyloglossia, commonknown as tongue-tie, is a rare congenital oral anomaly in dogs. A complete attachment of the lingual frenulum to the floor of the oral cavity leads to limited mobility of the tongue including problems during eating and swallowing. In humans ankyloglossia is a common anomaly in newborn infants. In our report a 5-month old Anatolian Shepherd dog was surgically treated and full function of the tongue could be achieved with a horizontal-to-vertical frenuloplasty. PMID:16933707

  16. Metabolic profile of FYX-051 (4-(5-pyridin-4-yl-1h-[1,2,4]triazol-3-yl)pyridine-2-carbonitrile) in the rat, dog, monkey, and human: identification of N-glucuronides and N-glucosides.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Miyata, Kengo; Omura, Koichi; Iwanaga, Takashi; Nagata, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    FYX-051, 4-(5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-yl)pyridine-2-carbonitrile, is a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor that can be used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. We examined the metabolism of FYX-051 in rats, dogs, monkeys, and human volunteers after the p.o. administration of this inhibitor. The main metabolites in urine were pyridine N-oxide in rats, triazole N-glucoside in dogs, and triazole N-glucuronide in monkeys and humans, respectively. Furthermore, N-glucuronidation and N-glucosidation were characterized by two types of conjugation: triazole N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation and N(1)- and N(2)-glucosidation, respectively. N(1)- and N(2)-glucuronidation was observed in each species, whereas N(1)- and N(2)-glucosidation was mainly observed in dogs. With regard to the position of conjugation, N(1)-conjugation was predominant; this resulted in a considerably higher amount of N(1)-conjugate in each species than N(2)-conjugate. The present results indicate that the conjugation reaction observed in FYX-051 metabolism is unique, i.e., N-glucuronidation and N-glucosidation occur at the same position of the triazole ring, resulting in the generation of four different conjugates in mammals. In addition, a urinary profile of FYX-051 metabolites in monkeys and humans was relatively similar; triazole N-glucuronides were mainly excreted in urine. PMID:16914512

  17. In vitro metabolism of l-corydalmine, a potent analgesic drug, in human, cynomolgus monkey, beagle dog, rat and mouse liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiange; Di, Xinyu; Zhong, Zeyu; Xie, Qiushi; Chen, Yang; Wang, Fan; Ling, Zhaoli; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Kaijing; Wang, Zhongjian; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    l-Corydalmine (l-CDL) was under development as an oral analgesic agent, exhibiting potent analgesic activity in preclinical models. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic profiles of l-CDL in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, monkey, dog and human. Six metabolites (M1-M6) were identified using LC-Q/TOF in liver microsomes from the five species. The metabolism of l-CDL included O-demethylation (M1-3) and hydroxylation (M4-6). The desmethyl metabolites were the major ones among the five species, which accounted for more than 84%. Data from chemical inhibition in human liver microsomes (HLM) and human recombinant CYP450s demonstrated that CYP2D6 exhibited strong catalytic activity towards M1 and M2 formations, while CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 also catalyzed M2 formation. Formations of M3 and hydroxyl metabolites (M4 and M5) were mainly catalyzed by CYP3A4. Further studies showed that M1 and M2 were main metabolites in HLM. The kinetics of M1 and M2 formations in HLM and recombinant CYP450s were also investigated. The results showed that M1 and M2 formations in HLM and recombinant CYP2D6 characterized biphasic kinetics, whereas sigmoid Vmax model was better used to fit M2 formation by recombinant CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. The contributions of CYP2D6 to M1 and M2 formations in HLM were estimated to be 75.3% and 50.7%, respectively. However, the contributions of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to M2 formation were only 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. All these data indicated that M1 and M2 were main metabolites in HLM, and CYP2D6 was the primary enzyme responsible for their formations. PMID:27239758

  18. The Companion Dog as a Model for the Longevity Dividend.

    PubMed

    Creevy, Kate E; Austad, Steven N; Hoffman, Jessica M; O'Neill, Dan G; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-01-01

    The companion dog is the most phenotypically diverse species on the planet. This enormous variability between breeds extends not only to morphology and behavior but also to longevity and the disorders that affect dogs. There are remarkable overlaps and similarities between the human and canine species. Dogs closely share our human environment, including its many risk factors, and the veterinary infrastructure to manage health in dogs is second only to the medical infrastructure for humans. Distinct breed-based health profiles, along with their well-developed health record system and high overlap with the human environment, make the companion dog an exceptional model to improve understanding of the physiological, social, and economic impacts of the longevity dividend (LD). In this review, we describe what is already known about age-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality in companion dogs, and then explore whether this existing evidence supports the LD. We also discuss some potential limitations to using dogs as models of aging, including the fact that many dogs are euthanized before they have lived out their natural life span. Overall, we conclude that the companion dog offers high potential as a model system that will enable deeper research into the LD than is otherwise possible. PMID:26729759

  19. Genome-wide association analysis reveals a SOD1 mutation in canine degenerative myelopathy that resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Awano, Tomoyuki; Johnson, Gary S; Wade, Claire M; Katz, Martin L; Johnson, Gayle C; Taylor, Jeremy F; Perloski, Michele; Biagi, Tara; Baranowska, Izabella; Long, Sam; March, Philip A; Olby, Natasha J; Shelton, G Diane; Khan, Shahnawaz; O'Brien, Dennis P; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Coates, Joan R

    2009-02-24

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease prevalent in several dog breeds. Typically, the initial progressive upper motor neuron spastic and general proprioceptive ataxia in the pelvic limbs occurs at 8 years of age or older. If euthanasia is delayed, the clinical signs will ascend, causing flaccid tetraparesis and other lower motor neuron signs. DNA samples from 38 DM-affected Pembroke Welsh corgi cases and 17 related clinically normal controls were used for genome-wide association mapping, which produced the strongest associations with markers on CFA31 in a region containing the canine SOD1 gene. SOD1 was considered a regional candidate gene because mutations in human SOD1 can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset fatal paralytic neurodegenerative disease with both upper and lower motor neuron involvement. The resequencing of SOD1 in normal and affected dogs revealed a G to A transition, resulting in an E40K missense mutation. Homozygosity for the A allele was associated with DM in 5 dog breeds: Pembroke Welsh corgi, Boxer, Rhodesian ridgeback, German Shepherd dog, and Chesapeake Bay retriever. Microscopic examination of spinal cords from affected dogs revealed myelin and axon loss affecting the lateral white matter and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions that bind anti-superoxide dismutase 1 antibodies. These inclusions are similar to those seen in spinal cord sections from ALS patients with SOD1 mutations. Our findings identify canine DM to be the first recognized spontaneously occurring animal model for ALS. PMID:19188595

  20. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle; and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  1. Genetic homogeneity within Leishmania (L.) infantum isolated from human and dogs: the relationship with the sandfly fauna distribution in endemic areas of Nueva Esparta State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, N M; De Guglielmo, Z; Barrios, M A; Barrios, R M; Zerpa, O; Feliciangeli, M D

    2005-06-01

    Leishmania infantum has been described as a highly polymorphic group of parasites, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this paper we report the life-cycle of L. (L.) infantum in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela, by using molecular diagnosis and characterization of parasites isolated from dogs, humans with visceral leishmaniasis and sand flies. The molecular characterization was carried out by use of kDNA restriction analysis, dot-blot hybridization with species-specific probes and RFLP of the PCR products. The results demonstrated that L. (L.) infantum is the parasite responsible for VL in the island. The parasites were revealed to be genetically homogeneous with no intra-specific differences between isolates from different individuals. The highest homology of the isolates was with L. (L.) infantum from the Old World rather than with L. (L.) chagasi from the New World. Additionally, we report the geographical distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis, and the relationship with the transmission of L. (L.) infantum in the studied area. PMID:15977897

  2. Carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gunchan; Parshotam, Gautam L; Garg, Rajneesh

    2016-01-01

    Soma (Carisoprodol) is N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; a commonly prescribed, centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of antipsychotic agents. Although diagnostic criteria for NMS have been established, it should be recognized that atypical presentations occur and more flexible diagnostic criteria than currently mandated, may be warranted. We wish to report a postoperative case of bilateral knee replacement who presented with carisoprodol (Soma) withdrawal resembling NMS that was a diagnostic dilemma. Subsequently, it was successfully treated with oral baclofen in absence of sodium dantrolene.

  3. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified λ phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  4. Influence of owners' attachment style and personality on their dogs' (Canis familiaris) separation-related disorder.

    PubMed

    Konok, Veronika; Kosztolányi, András; Rainer, Wohlfarth; Mutschler, Bettina; Halsband, Ulrike; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that owners' attitude to their family dogs may contribute to a variety of behaviour problems in the dog, and authors assume that dogs with separation-related disorder (SRD) attach differently to the owner than typical dogs do. Our previous research suggested that these dogs may have an insecure attachment style. In the present study we have investigated whether owners' attachment style, personality traits and the personality of the dog influence the occurrence of SRD in the dog. In an internet-based survey 1508 (1185 German and 323 Hungarian) dog-owners filled in five questionnaires: Demographic questions, Separation Behaviour Questionnaire (to determine SRD), Human and Dog Big Five Inventory and Adult Attachment Scale. We found that with owners' higher score on attachment avoidance the occurrence of SRD in the dog increases. Dogs scoring higher on the neuroticism scale were more prone to develop SRD. Our results suggest that owners' attachment avoidance may facilitate the development of SRD in dogs. We assume that avoidant owners are less responsive to the dog's needs and do not provide a secure base for the dog when needed. As a result dogs form an insecure attachment and may develop SRD. However, there may be alternative explanations of our findings that we also discuss. PMID:25706147

  5. Determination of immune complexes in sera from dogs with various diseases by mastocytoma cell assay.

    PubMed

    Targowski, S

    1982-01-01

    Canine immunoglobulin G complexed with particulate or soluble antigen can bind to the Fc receptors on the mastocytoma cells. Attachment of immune complexes composed of immunoglobulin G and soluble antigen (ovalbumin) to mastocytoma cells was detected by an inhibition of rosette formation with indicator cells (sensitized sheep erythrocytes). Therefore, canine circulating immune complexes may also attach to mastocytoma cells and inhibit rosette formation (mastocytoma cell assay). Sera from 326 dogs with various diseases and from 50 clinically normal dogs were assayed for immune complexes. The incidence of immune complexes in sera from normal dogs was 6% as compared with 25% in dogs with various diseases. The immune complexes were demonstrated in 37% of sera from dogs with various neoplastic diseases, 40% of sera from dogs with diabetes, 24% of sera from dogs with hypothyroidism, 50% of sera from dogs with mycotic disease, 75% of sera from dogs with arthritis, 38% of sera from dogs with kidney disorders, 40% of sera from dogs with neurological diseases, 45% of sera from dogs with various parasitic diseases, and 27% of sera from dogs with liver disorders. Only 19% of sera from dogs admitted to the hospital for various surgeries gave positive results. The incidence of the positive sera from dogs with various diseases is discussed in regard to their counterparts of human diseases. PMID:6226676

  6. Evaluation of the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) in pet dogs

    PubMed Central

    Swimmer, Rebecca A.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used in human medicine to objectively assess the degree of impairment, and to provide objective evidence of disease progression or response to therapy. Hypothesis/Objectives The 6MWT will be easy to perform and well-tolerated in pet dogs. Dogs with pulmonary disease will walk shorter distances than healthy dogs. Animals 69 healthy dogs were recruited from the hospital community. Six dogs with mild to moderate pulmonary disease were recruited from animals presented for evaluation at the teaching hospital. Methods Prospective study. Dogs walked for 6 minutes in a hallway and the distance covered was measured. Pulse oximetry and heart rate were recorded before and after walking. Physical characteristics of the dogs, including age, leg length, body condition score and weight were recorded. Healthy dogs were compared with affected dogs using a Student’s t test (P <0.05). Correlations were calculated between the age, physical characteristics and distances walked in the healthy dogs. Results Healthy dogs walked 522.7± 52.4 meters, while sick dogs (n=6) walked 384.8± 41.0 meters (P < 0.001). There was low(r=0.13) to moderate (r=0.27) correlation in the healthy dogs between physical characteristics and distances walked. Conclusions and clinical importance The 6MWT was easy to perform and discriminated between healthy dogs and dogs with pulmonary disease. PMID:21352372

  7. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog.

    PubMed

    Panciera, David L; Troy, Gregory C; Purswell, Beverly J

    2014-10-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  8. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, David L.; Troy, Gregory C.; Purswell, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  9. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs. PMID:16529880

  10. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lisa G

    2007-07-01

    The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible. PMID:17619010

  11. A model of human sleep-related growth hormone secretion in dogs: effects of 3, 6, and 12 hours of forced wakefulness on plasma growth hormone, cortisol, and sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Ebihara, S; Nakamura, Y; Takahashi, K

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-four canine GH (cGH) and cortisol secretion patterns associated with sleep stages were studied in 10 male adult dogs. Plasma samples were obtained at 30- or 15-min intervals via an indwelling catheter. Under baseline conditions, all dogs showed irregular polyphasic sleep, and the episodic cGH secretion had no apparent relationship with sleep or the light-dark cycle. Five dogs were subjected to regular sleep-wake cycles; 3, 6, and 12 h of forced wakefulness (FW) were repeated at 3-, 6-, and 12-h intervals (recovery sleep periods), respectively. Peak cGH secretion (mean +/- SD, 6.4 ng/ml +/- 2.4) occurred soon after recovery sleep onset in 25 of 40 total recovery periods. The incidence of sleep-onset cGH peaks and cGH secretion during the first hour of recovery sleep significantly increased with the length of the preceding FW, but were not affected by the time of day. Delta wave sleep increased during this hour, suggesting a possible correlation with the sleep-onset cGH peak. During the first 3 h of recovery after 6 and 12 h of FW, cGH secretion was significantly enhanced, but cortisol was not. Considering the characteristics of human sleep-related GH secretion, we suggest that this peak cGH secretion represents a model of human GH secretion. Possibly, a close association of cGH secretion with sleep is concealed under the baseline condition and uncovered by inducing longer sleep-wake cycles in dogs. No circadian cortisol variation was detected under the baseline or the experimental conditions. PMID:7238408

  12. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  13. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum

  14. Well-Being and Human-Animal Interactions in Schools: The Case of "Dog Daycare Co-Op"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…

  15. Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Alim, Asiah N.M.; Bunning, Michel L.; Lee, Ong Bee; Wagoner, Kent D.; Amman, Brian R.; Stockton, Patrick C.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus. PMID:19523300

  16. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  17. Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribáñez, M A; Lucientes, J

    2008-02-14

    In addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. Flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. Knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and in evaluation of flea-borne disease risk in dogs and humans. In this survey we used data from 744 domestic dogs from 79 localities in Spain to explore the associations between the abundance of flea species, host-dependent factors (sex and age), and host habitat factors including abode (farm, house with garden, apartment), location (urban or rural), the presence of other pets, and dog activity (measured as the frequency with which dogs left their abode). We also considered environmental factors including the time of year and mean annual temperature and rainfall. Variations in flea community structure at infracommunity and component community levels were also explored. Four flea species were found parasitizing dogs. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant (88.02% of fleas identified), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (10.38%), Pulex irritans (1.47%) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (0.13%). Overall flea abundance was higher on dogs living on farms than in apartments, as was the abundance of Ct. felis, Ct. canis and P. irritans. Ct. felis was more abundant on dogs living in houses than in apartments, but the reverse was found for P. irritans. Overall flea abundance and Ct. canis abundance were highest in rural areas, whereas the presence of other pets sharing the abode was associated with higher overall flea abundance and Ct. felis abundance. Only P. irritans abundance was positively related to the activity of dogs. Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances were higher during the

  18. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  19. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  20. Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  1. Do Domestic Dogs Learn Words Based on Humans’ Referential Behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Tempelmann, Sebastian; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some domestic dogs learn to comprehend human words, although the nature and basis of this learning is unknown. In the studies presented here we investigated whether dogs learn words through an understanding of referential actions by humans rather than simple association. In three studies, each modelled on a study conducted with human infants, we confronted four word-experienced dogs with situations involving no spatial-temporal contiguity between the word and the referent; the only available cues were referential actions displaced in time from exposure to their referents. We found that no dogs were able to reliably link an object with a label based on social-pragmatic cues alone in all the tests. However, one dog did show skills in some tests, possibly indicating an ability to learn based on social-pragmatic cues. PMID:24646732

  2. Possible transmission of Cryptosporidium canis among children and a dog in a household.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Cabrera, Lilia; Ortega, Ynes; Pearson, Julie; Gilman, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    In a longitudinal cohort diarrhea study, a girl living in Lima, Peru, and her brother and dog were diagnosed with Cryptosporidium canis infections during the same period. Both children had transient diarrhea, but the dog was asymptomatic. This is the first report of possible transmission of cryptosporidiosis between humans and dogs. PMID:17442794

  3. Social Interaction with an "Unidentified Moving Object" Elicits A-Not-B Error in Domestic Dogs.

    PubMed

    Gergely, Anna; Compton, Anna B; Newberry, Ruth C; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical "unidentified moving objects" (UMO's) are useful for controlled investigations into features of social interaction that generate cooperativeness and positive social affiliation in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). We hypothesized that, if a UMO interacted socially with a dog, the UMO would become associated with certain social cues and would subsequently affect dog behaviour. We assigned dogs to a Human, Social UMO or Non-Social UMO partner. In the Human and Social UMO conditions, the partner interacted with the dog cooperatively whereas the Non-Social UMO partner was unresponsive to the dog's actions. We then tested dogs with their partner in a Piagetian A-not-B error paradigm, predicting that the Human and Social UMO partners would be more likely to elicit A-not-B errors in dogs than the Non-Social UMO partner. Five trials were conducted in which the dog watched its partner hide a ball behind one of two screens (A or B). As predicted, dogs in the Human and Social UMO conditions were more likely to search for the ball behind the A screen during B trials than dogs in the Non-Social UMO condition. These results reveal that the unfamiliar partner's social responsiveness leads rapidly to accepting information communicated by the partner. This study has generated a better understanding of crucial features of agents that promote dog social behaviour, which will facilitate the programming of robots for various cooperative tasks. PMID:27073867

  4. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-05-22

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  5. A partial gene deletion of SLC45A2 causes oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman pinscher dogs.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Paige A; Gornik, Kara R; Ramsey, David T; Dubielzig, Richard R; Venta, Patrick J; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Bartoe, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4∶77,062,968-77,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model. PMID:24647637

  6. A Partial Gene Deletion of SLC45A2 Causes Oculocutaneous Albinism in Doberman Pinscher Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Paige A.; Gornik, Kara R.; Ramsey, David T.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Venta, Patrick J.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.; Bartoe, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4∶77,062,968–77,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model. PMID:24647637

  7. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  8. Bartonella Species as a Potential Cause of Epistaxis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Maggi, Ricardo; Hawkins, Eleanor; Dyer, Page

    2005-01-01

    Infection with a Bartonella species was implicated in three cases of epistaxis in dogs, based upon isolation, serology, or PCR amplification. These cases, in conjunction with previously published reports, support a potential role for Bartonella spp. as a cause of epistaxis in dogs and potentially in other animals, including humans. PMID:15872304

  9. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  10. Lyme disease risk in dogs in New Brunswick.

    PubMed

    Bjurman, Natalie K; Bradet, Gina; Lloyd, Vett K

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in New Brunswick dogs. Testing of 699 serum samples from dogs across the province revealed a 6% province-wide seropositivity, more than 6 times higher than that found in 2008. The rapid increase in seropositivity indicates increased Lyme disease risk to both canine and human health. PMID:27587892

  11. The domestic dog: man's best friend in the genomic era

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The domestic dog genome - shaped by domestication, adaptation to human-dominated environments and artificial selection - encodes tremendous phenotypic diversity. Recent developments have improved our understanding of the genetics underlying this diversity, unleashing the dog as an important model organism for complex-trait analysis. PMID:21338479

  12. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action. PMID:26382070

  13. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  14. Metabolism of a 14C/3H-labeled GABAA receptor partial agonist in rat, dog and human liver microsomes: evaluation of a dual-radiolabel strategy.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Christopher L; Langer, Connie S

    2007-03-12

    The metabolism of 2-{[2-(3-fluoropyrid-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl]methyl}-1-propyl-5-cyano-1H-benzimidazole (1), a potent subtype-selective GABA(A) receptor partial agonist, was investigated in rat, dog and human liver microsomes. Due to its significant metabolic cleavage at C(8) observed in preliminary biotransformation studies with non-radiolabeled 1, both [(14)C]1 and [(3)H]1 were synthesized with respective radioisotopes placed on either side of C(8) to determine if all microsomal metabolites formed after C(8)N-dealkylation of 1 (or its core-intact metabolites) could be detected and quantified adequately. Both radiolabeled forms of 1, used separately in mono-radiolabel studies in cross-species microsomes and concomitantly in dual-radiolabel studies in rat microsomes, permitted the detection and quantification of all metabolites of 1, and a combination of radioactive and mass spectral data allowed structural elucidation of its Phase I metabolites. As expected, the sum of (14)C-only metabolites equaled that of (3)H-only metabolites in all incubations. In-line radiometric analysis worked extremely well (and was very reproducible) for quantifying either (14)C- or (3)H-compounds within separate incubations when using mono-radiolabeled 1. However, although the in-line radiodetector provided a comprehensive qualitative metabolic profile using dual-radiolabled 1, its inability to exclude completely (14)C- from (3)H-generated counts caused a degree of ambiguity pertaining to metabolite quantification. Thus, off-line liquid scintillation counting of collected dual-radiolabeled incubation LC-fractions was employed to quantify both (14)C- and (3)H-metabolites simultaneously, while in-line radiodetection was only used for qualitative analyses accompanying MS and MS/MS experiments. These studies demonstrated the analytical feasibility of using a dual-radiolabel approach for subsequent in vivo ADME studies with 1. PMID:17150324

  15. Degenerative myelopathy in 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    PubMed

    March, P A; Coates, J R; Abyad, R J; Williams, D A; O'Brien, D P; Olby, N J; Keating, J H; Oglesbee, M

    2009-03-01

    Postmortem examination was performed on 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs (mean age 12.7 years) with clinical signs and antemortem diagnostic tests compatible with a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. Tissue sections from specific spinal cord and brain regions were systematically evaluated in all dogs. Axonal degeneration and loss were graded according to severity and subsequently compared across different spinal cord segments and funiculi. White matter lesions were identified in defined regions of the dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi. The dorsolateral portion of the lateral funiculus was the most severely affected region in all cord segments. Spinal cord segment T12 exhibited the most severe axonal loss. Spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and brain sections were within normal limits, with the exception of areas of mild astrogliosis in gray matter of the caudal medulla. Dogs with more severe lesions showed significant progression of axonal degeneration and loss at T12 and at cord segments cranial and caudal to T12. Severity of axonal loss in individual dogs positively correlated with the duration of clinical signs. The distribution of axonal degeneration resembled that reported in German Shepherd Dog degenerative myelopathy but differed with respect to the transverse and longitudinal extent of the lesions within more clearly defined funicular areas. Although these lesion differences might reflect disease longevity, they could also indicate a form of degenerative myelopathy unique to the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog. PMID:19261635

  16. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  17. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date. PMID

  18. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, “it would not happen to me.” We also identified an attitude that bites were “just one of those things,” which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of

  19. Review of the Risks of Some Canine Zoonoses from Free-Roaming Dogs in the Post-Disaster Setting of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Garde, Elena; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-roaming dogs are seldom considered an important public health risk following natural disasters in developing regions. With the high number of recognized canine zoonoses and evidence of increased transmission of some significant diseases this is a risk that may be being overlooked. Communities with free-roaming dogs and endemic canine zoonoses of importance should be developing appropriate community preparedness and response plans to mitigate the occurrence of increased transmission following disasters. Abstract In the absence of humane and sustainable control strategies for free-roaming dogs (FRD) and the lack of effective disaster preparedness planning in developing regions of the world, the occurrence of canine zoonoses is a potentially important yet unrecognized issue. The existence of large populations of FRDs in Latin America predisposes communities to a host of public health problems that are all potentially exacerbated following disasters due to social and environmental disturbances. There are hundreds of recognized canine zoonoses but a paucity of recommendations for the mitigation of the risk of emergence following disasters. Although some of the symptoms of diseases most commonly reported in human populations following disasters resemble a host of canine zoonoses, there is little mention in key public health documents of FRDs posing any significant risk. We highlight five neglected canine zoonoses of importance in Latin America, and offer recommendations for pre- and post-disaster preparedness and planning to assist in mitigation of the transmission of canine zoonoses arising from FRDs following disasters.

  20. The potent BACE1 inhibitor LY2886721 elicits robust central Aβ pharmacodynamic responses in mice, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    May, Patrick C; Willis, Brian A; Lowe, Stephen L; Dean, Robert A; Monk, Scott A; Cocke, Patrick J; Audia, James E; Boggs, Leonard N; Borders, Anthony R; Brier, Richard A; Calligaro, David O; Day, Theresa A; Ereshefsky, Larry; Erickson, Jon A; Gevorkyan, Hykop; Gonzales, Celedon R; James, Douglas E; Jhee, Stanford S; Komjathy, Steven F; Li, Linglin; Lindstrom, Terry D; Mathes, Brian M; Martényi, Ferenc; Sheehan, Scott M; Stout, Stephanie L; Timm, David E; Vaught, Grant M; Watson, Brian M; Winneroski, Leonard L; Yang, Zhixiang; Mergott, Dustin J

    2015-01-21

    BACE1 is a key protease controlling the formation of amyloid β, a peptide hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the development of potent and selective inhibitors of BACE1 has been a focus of many drug discovery efforts in academia and industry. Herein, we report the nonclinical and early clinical development of LY2886721, a BACE1 active site inhibitor that reached phase 2 clinical trials in AD. LY2886721 has high selectivity against key off-target proteases, which efficiently translates in vitro activity into robust in vivo amyloid β lowering in nonclinical animal models. Similar potent and persistent amyloid β lowering was observed in plasma and lumbar CSF when single and multiple doses of LY2886721 were administered to healthy human subjects. Collectively, these data add support for BACE1 inhibition as an effective means of amyloid lowering and as an attractive target for potential disease modification therapy in AD. PMID:25609634

  1. Training for eye contact modulates gaze following in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Lisa J.; Range, Friederike; Müller, Corsin A.; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    Following human gaze in dogs and human infants can be considered a socially facilitated orientation response, which in object choice tasks is modulated by human-given ostensive cues. Despite their similarities to human infants, and extensive skills in reading human cues in foraging contexts, no evidence that dogs follow gaze into distant space has been found. We re-examined this question, and additionally whether dogs' propensity to follow gaze was affected by age and/or training to pay attention to humans. We tested a cross-sectional sample of 145 border collies aged 6 months to 14 years with different amounts of training over their lives. The dogs' gaze-following response in test and control conditions before and after training for initiating eye contact with the experimenter was compared with that of a second group of 13 border collies trained to touch a ball with their paw. Our results provide the first evidence that dogs can follow human gaze into distant space. Although we found no age effect on gaze following, the youngest and oldest age groups were more distractible, which resulted in a higher number of looks in the test and control conditions. Extensive lifelong formal training as well as short-term training for eye contact decreased dogs' tendency to follow gaze and increased their duration of gaze to the face. The reduction in gaze following after training for eye contact cannot be explained by fatigue or short-term habituation, as in the second group gaze following increased after a different training of the same length. Training for eye contact created a competing tendency to fixate the face, which prevented the dogs from following the directional cues. We conclude that following human gaze into distant space in dogs is modulated by training, which may explain why dogs perform poorly in comparison to other species in this task. PMID:26257403

  2. High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

  3. Wolves Are Better Imitators of Conspecifics than Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is thought to have influenced the cognitive abilities of dogs underlying their communication with humans, but little is known about its effect on their interactions with conspecifics. Since domestication hypotheses offer limited predictions in regard to wolf-wolf compared to dog-dog interactions, we extend the cooperative breeding hypothesis suggesting that the dependency of wolves on close cooperation with conspecifics, including breeding but also territory defense and hunting, has created selection pressures on motivational and cognitive processes enhancing their propensity to pay close attention to conspecifics’ actions. During domestication, dogs’ dependency on conspecifics has been relaxed, leading to reduced motivational and cognitive abilities to interact with conspecifics. Here we show that 6-month-old wolves outperform same aged dogs in a two-action-imitation task following a conspecific demonstration. While the wolves readily opened the apparatus after a demonstration, the dogs failed to solve the problem. This difference could not be explained by differential motivation, better physical insight of wolves, differential developmental pathways of wolves and dogs or a higher dependency of dogs from humans. Our results are best explained by the hypothesis that higher cooperativeness may come together with a higher propensity to pay close attention to detailed actions of others and offer an alternative perspective to domestication by emphasizing the cooperativeness of wolves as a potential source of dog-human cooperation. PMID:24489744

  4. Musculoskeletal Hydatid Cysts Resembling Tumors: A Report of Five Cases.

    PubMed

    Toğral, Güray; Arıkan, Şefik M; Ekiz, Timur; Kekeç, Ahmet F; Ekşioğlu, Mehmet F

    2016-05-01

    Although challenges in treatment of musculoskeletal hydatid cysts (HC) lesions have been documented, data regarding the musculoskeletal HC lesions resembling tumor is scarce. This paper presented 5 patients (3 males, 2 females) with a mean age of 41.6 years with tumor-like lesions of HC. Three of them had left ilium and acetabulum involvement, one involved left femur, and one involved left thigh muscle compartments. Pain was the main symptom and was seen in all patients. Clinical examination, radiologic evaluation, and histologic analysis were performed for diagnosis. Patients were treated through different surgical options, including simple debridement, bone cement filling with or without internal fixation, hip arthrodesis, reconstruction using hemipelvic replantation with femoral prosthesis and distal femur endoprosthetic replacement. After surgery, the operation region was washed by 20% hypertonic saline, and debridement was performed carefully without contamination. All patients received albendazole treatment. Cases were followed up 1 to 9 years for the recurrence. Walking difficulty and pain were the main symptoms during the follow-up. One patient was symptom-free. A reoccurrence in the perioperative soft tissue was detected in only one patient and control visits with antihelmintic treatment were recommended. We would like to emphasize that HC should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of the cystic or tumoral lesions of the musculoskeletal system, particularly in the endemic regions. Prompt diagnosis is of paramount importance for preventing destruction and complications. PMID:27384735

  5. A neural network dynamics that resembles protein evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrán, Edgardo A.; Ferrara, Pascual

    1992-06-01

    We use neutral networks to classify proteins according to their sequence similarities. A network composed by 7 × 7 neurons, was trained with the Kohonen unsupervised learning algorithm using, as inputs, matrix patterns derived from the bipeptide composition of cytochrome c proteins belonging to 76 different species. As a result of the training, the network self-organized the activation of its neurons into topologically ordered maps, wherein phylogenetically related sequences were positioned close to each other. The evolution of the topological map during learning, in a representative computational experiment, roughly resembles the way in which one species evolves into several others. For instance, sequences corresponding to vertebrates, initially grouped together into one neuron, were placed in a contiguous zone of the final neural map, with sequences of fishes, amphibia, reptiles, birds and mammals associated to different neurons. Some apparent wrong classifications are due to the fact that some proteins have a greater degree of sequence identity than the one expected by phylogenetics. In the final neural map, each synaptic vector may be considered as the pattern corresponding to the ancestor of all the proteins that are attached to that neuron. Although it may be also tempting to link real time with learning epochs and to use this relationship to calibrate the molecular evolutionary clock, this is not correct because the evolutionary time schedule obtained with the neural network depends highly on the discrete way in which the winner neighborhood is decreased during learning.

  6. Effective antiviral treatment of systemic orthopoxvirus disease: ST-246 treatment of prairie dogs infected with monkeypox virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott K; Self, Josh; Weiss, Sonja; Carroll, Darin; Braden, Zach; Regnery, Russell L; Davidson, Whitni; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E; Damon, Inger K

    2011-09-01

    Smallpox preparedness research has led to development of antiviral therapies for treatment of serious orthopoxvirus infections. Monkeypox virus is an emerging, zoonotic orthopoxvirus which can cause severe and transmissible disease in humans, generating concerns for public health. Monkeypox virus infection results in a systemic, febrile-rash illness closely resembling smallpox. Currently, there are no small-molecule antiviral therapeutics approved to treat orthopoxvirus infections of humans. The prairie dog, using monkeypox virus as a challenge virus, has provided a valuable nonhuman animal model in which monkeypox virus infection closely resembles human systemic orthopoxvirus illness. Here, we assess the efficacy of the antiorthopoxvirus compound ST-246 in prairie dogs against a monkeypox virus challenge of 65 times the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)). Animals were infected intranasally and administered ST-246 for 14 days, beginning on days 0, 3, or after rash onset. Swab and blood samples were collected every 2 days and analyzed for presence of viral DNA by real-time PCR and for viable virus by tissue culture. Seventy-five percent of infected animals that received vehicle alone succumbed to infection. One hundred percent of animals that received ST-246 survived challenge, and animals that received treatment before symptom onset remained largely asymptomatic. Viable virus and viral DNA were undetected or at greatly reduced levels in animals that began treatment on 0 or 3 days postinfection, compared to control animals or animals treated post-rash onset. Animals treated after rash onset manifested illness, but all recovered. Our results indicate that ST-246 can be used therapeutically, following onset of rash illness, to treat systemic orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:21697474

  7. Dog ownership, abundance and potential for bat-borne rabies spillover in Chile.

    PubMed

    Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (∼48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of

  8. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  9. Eye Contact Is Crucial for Referential Communication in Pet Dogs.

    PubMed

    Savalli, Carine; Resende, Briseida; Gaunet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Dogs discriminate human direction of attention cues, such as body, gaze, head and eye orientation, in several circumstances. Eye contact particularly seems to provide information on human readiness to communicate; when there is such an ostensive cue, dogs tend to follow human communicative gestures more often. However, little is known about how such cues influence the production of communicative signals (e.g. gaze alternation and sustained gaze) in dogs. In the current study, in order to get an unreachable food, dogs needed to communicate with their owners in several conditions that differ according to the direction of owners' visual cues, namely gaze, head, eyes, and availability to make eye contact. Results provided evidence that pet dogs did not rely on details of owners' direction of visual attention. Instead, they relied on the whole combination of visual cues and especially on the owners' availability to make eye contact. Dogs increased visual communicative behaviors when they established eye contact with their owners, a different strategy compared to apes and baboons, that intensify vocalizations and gestures when human is not visually attending. The difference in strategy is possibly due to distinct status: domesticated vs wild. Results are discussed taking into account the ecological relevance of the task since pet dogs live in human environment and face similar situations on a daily basis during their lives. PMID:27626933

  10. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal. PMID:22546547

  11. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  12. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  13. Associations between Domestic-Dog Morphology and Behaviour Scores in the Dog Mentality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Holly R.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Starling, Melissa J.; Forkman, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking) become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45) and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length), bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), which involves trained observers scoring a dog’s reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045), and to a dummy (p = 0.008). Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p = <0.001, respectively). Taller dogs were also more cooperative (p = <0.001), and playful (p = 0.001) with humans than shorter dogs. Heavier dogs were more inquisitive toward a dummy (p = 0.011), to the source of a metallic noise (p = 0.010) and to an assistant (p = 0.003). Heavier dogs were also more attentive to the ghosts (p = 0.013). In comparison, lighter dogs were cautious of a dummy (p = <0.001) and fearful of the sound of a gunshot (p = <0.001). Lighter dogs were also cautious of, and demonstrated prolonged fearfulness toward, the source of metallic noise (p = <0.001, p = <0.034, respectively). With a far larger sample and the advantage of third-party reporting (which overcomes potential owner bias), the current findings build

  14. Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

  15. Four-legged friend or foe? Dog walking displaces native birds from natural areas.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter B; Bryant, Jessica V

    2007-12-22

    Dog walking is among the world's most popular recreational activities, attracting millions of people to natural areas each year with diverse benefits to human and canine health. But conservation managers often ban dog walking from natural areas fearing that wildlife will see dogs as potential predators and abandon their natural habitats, resulting in outcry at the restricted access to public land. Arguments are passionate on both sides and debate has remained subjective and unresolved because experimental evidence of the ecological impacts of dog walking has been lacking. Here we show that dog walking in woodland leads to a 35% reduction in bird diversity and 41% reduction in abundance, both in areas where dog walking is common and where dogs are prohibited. These results argue against access by dog walkers to sensitive conservation areas. PMID:17785262

  16. The effect of feeding enrichment upon reported working ability and behavior of kenneled working dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Samantha A; Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2008-11-01

    It is widely recommended that kenneled dogs are provided with environmental enrichment such as toys or feeding devices. However, the adoption of enrichment for military working dogs is impeded by a widespread belief that it reduces their motivation to work. Handlers of 22 working German Shepherd dogs were asked to rate their dogs on 11 attributes pertaining to working ability, related behavioral traits, and health. Eight of the dogs were then provided with daily feeding enrichment for 4 months, while the remainder were given equivalent human attention. The same 11 traits were scored again following the enrichment period: 10 changed little over the period while handlers' reports of their dogs' Ability to learn from being rewarded increased significantly. Changes for all attributes were virtually identical in enriched and control dogs. We conclude that if correctly managed, feeding enrichment can be introduced to kenneled working dogs without any reported detrimental effects upon working ability, health, or behavior. PMID:18808374

  17. Craniomandibular Trauma and Tooth Loss in Northern Dogs and Wolves: Implications for the Archaeological Study of Dog Husbandry and Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma. PMID:24941003

  18. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606

  19. Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

  20. Though not Reservoirs, Dogs might Transmit Leptospira in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Noellie; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Goarant, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira has been a major public health concern in New Caledonia for decades. However, few multidisciplinary studies addressing the zoonotic pattern of this disease were conducted so far. Here, pig, deer and dog samples were collected. Analyses were performed using molecular detection and genotyping. Serological analyses were also performed for dogs. Our results suggest that deer are a reservoir of L. borgpetersenii Hardjobovis and pigs a reservoir of L. interrogans Pomona. Interestingly, 4.4% of dogs were renal carriers of Leptospira. In dog populations, MAT results confirmed the circulation of the same Leptospira serogroups involved in human cases. Even if not reservoirs, dogs might be of significance in human contamination by making an epidemiological link between wild or feral reservoirs and humans. Dogs could bring pathogens back home, shedding Leptospira via their urine and in turn increasing the risk of human contamination. We propose to consider dog as a vector, particularly in rural areas where seroprevalence is significantly higher than urban areas. Our results highlight the importance of animal health in improving leptospirosis prevention in a One Health approach. PMID:24747539

  1. Though not reservoirs, dogs might transmit Leptospira in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Gay, Noellie; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Goarant, Cyrille

    2014-04-01

    Leptospira has been a major public health concern in New Caledonia for decades. However, few multidisciplinary studies addressing the zoonotic pattern of this disease were conducted so far. Here, pig, deer and dog samples were collected. Analyses were performed using molecular detection and genotyping. Serological analyses were also performed for dogs. Our results suggest that deer are a reservoir of L. borgpetersenii Hardjobovis and pigs a reservoir of L. interrogans Pomona. Interestingly, 4.4% of dogs were renal carriers of Leptospira. In dog populations, MAT results confirmed the circulation of the same Leptospira serogroups involved in human cases. Even if not reservoirs, dogs might be of significance in human contamination by making an epidemiological link between wild or feral reservoirs and humans. Dogs could bring pathogens back home, shedding Leptospira via their urine and in turn increasing the risk of human contamination. We propose to consider dog as a vector, particularly in rural areas where seroprevalence is significantly higher than urban areas. Our results highlight the importance of animal health in improving leptospirosis prevention in a One Health approach. PMID:24747539

  2. Urticaria pigmentosa-like disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Marlene S; Gram, Dunbar W

    2015-03-01

    Urticaria pigmentosa is a rare dermatologic syndrome in humans, cats, and dogs. This report documents a case of canine urticaria pigmentosa-like disease with unusual features and no C-kit mutation. PMID:25750443

  3. Urticaria pigmentosa-like disease in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Pariser, Marlene S.; Gram, Dunbar W.

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria pigmentosa is a rare dermatologic syndrome in humans, cats, and dogs. This report documents a case of canine urticaria pigmentosa-like disease with unusual features and no C-kit mutation. PMID:25750443

  4. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. PMID:26460093

  5. Word generalization by a dog (Canis familiaris): is shape important?

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  6. Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  7. Dogs and intestinal parasites: a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K.; Hucal, G.; Law, C.

    1975-01-01

    The stools of 239 stray dogs were examined for intestinal parasites. Of the helminths found, Toxocara canis (43.5%), tapeworms (25.5%), Ascaris species (21.3%) and hookworms (12.5%) were the commonest. Of the protozoans found, Isospora species and Entamoeba coli were the most prevalent. An unusual feature of the present study was the finding of Ascaris species. The importance of the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs, the close contact of humans with dogs' excreta and the possible role of this environmental pollution in the spread of human disease are discussed. PMID:1125888

  8. The fibrous epulis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, A M; O'Brien, F V

    1975-09-01

    The pathology of the fibrous epulis in the dog is described and found to be comparable to that seen in humans. Emphasis is placed on the apparent relationship between the hyperplasia of the covering epithelium and calcification of the connective tissue component, and a theory to explain this relationship is proposed. PMID:809554

  9. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog–human affectional bond can be characterized as an “attachment”. The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's “strange situation”. The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations. PMID:24205235

  10. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  11. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. PMID:20085393

  12. Orbital chondroma rodens in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pletcher, J M; Koch, S A; Stedham, M A

    1979-07-15

    A chondroma rodens involving the superficial medial aspect of the right orbit was diagnosed in a 9-year-old dog referred because of chronic unilateral epiphora. Examination revealed several ophthalmic abnormalities attributable to a space-occupying mass in the superficial medial aspect of the orbit. The mass was excised; however, regrowths at the primary site necessitated additional surgical interventions. The dog was given radiation therapy, which provided encouraging results. Subtle histologic differences as well as differing epidemiologic features suggest that chondroma rodens is not analogous to the human entity of juvenile aponeurotic fibroma, to which it has been compared in the past. PMID:500440

  13. Cardiac changes in experimental hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, A; Page, A; Brown, L; Atwell, R B

    1991-11-01

    Injection of triiodothyronine (T3) (1 mg/kg per day subcutaneously for 14 days) to 10 healthy dogs produced a hyperthyroid state characterised by high serum T3 concentrations, hypokalaemia, hyperactivity, loss of weight, diarrhoea and thirst. Electrocardiographic measurements showed that these dogs had an increase in heart rate of 63 +/- 11 beats/min with a significantly increased T wave amplitude without changes in R wave amplitude. Echocardiographic measurements showed no changes in fractional shortening and no evidence of ventricular hypertrophy, in contrast to reports in humans, cats and rats. However, the smooth muscle of the coronary arteries was markedly hypertrophied, which may cause a decrease in myocardial perfusion. PMID:1776932

  14. [Fatal dog bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Pollak, S; Mortinger, H

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of her parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs. PMID:2818522

  15. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  16. Anastellin, an FN3 Fragment with Fibronectin Polymerization Activity, Resembles Amyloid Fibril Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Briknarova, Klara; Akermann, Maria; Hoyt, David W. ); Ruoslahti, Erkki; Ely, Kathryn R.

    2003-08-01

    Anastellin is a carboxy-terminal fragment of the 1st FN3 domain from human fibronectin. It is capable of polymerizing fibronectin in vitro, and it displays anti-tumor, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic properties in vivo. We have determined the structure of anastellin using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and identified residues critical for its activity. Anastellin exhibits dynamic fluctuations and conformational exchange in solution. Its overall topology is very similar to the corresponding region of full-length FN3 domains. However, its hydrophobic core becomes solvent accessible and some of its -strands lose their protection against hydrogen bonding to -strands from other molecules. These features seem to be relevant for the fibronectin polymerization activity of anastellin and resemble the characteristics of amyloid fibril precursors. We suggest that this analogy is not random and may reflect similarities between fibronectin and amyloid fibril formation.

  17. Visual kin recognition and family resemblance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Vokey, John R; Rendall, Drew; Tangen, Jason M; Parr, Lisa A; de Waal, Frans B M

    2004-06-01

    The male-offspring biased visual kin recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) reported by L. A. Parr and F. B. M. de Waal (1999) was replicated with human (Homo sapiens) participants and a principal components analysis (PCA) of pixel maps of the chimpanzee face photos. With the same original materials and methods, both humans<